Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
Subject Code: N03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)3
N03aeModal ambitiousness2
N03afModal anxiety1
N03alModal control belief: internal/external1
N03akModal individualism/collectivism4
N03anModal intelligence0
N03aqModal neuroticism6
N03asModal optimism1
N03awModal tolerance7
N03axModal trust 2
N03ax01Trust in fellow-man18
N03ax02Trust in institutions5
N03amModal interest in life1
N03auModal psychoticism4
N03ahModal extraversion4
N03apModal honesty5
N03ajModal hedonism2
N03aiModal extremety1
N03atModal psychoticism0
N03arModal openness1
N03adModal agreeing, yea-saying0
N03agModal conscientiousness1
N03abModal agression, anger0
N03ayModal psychological freedom1
N03avModal self confidence1
TMP6577Agreableness0
N03acModal agreableness1
N03aoModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
Subject code: N03

StudyBond et al. (0): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleReligion and the Life Satisfaction of Young Persons around the World: Personal Values and Societal Context
SourceTrommsdorff, G., Xinyin, C.: "Values. Religion, and Culture in Adolescent Development", Cambridge, 2011, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 5
Public15-24 aged, 43 nations, 2005-2008
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =9618

Correlate
Author's labelSecularism
Our classificationNATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality), code N03
Operationalization
Index of: 
a: 'It is important for a child to learn independence 
and determination than obedience and religious faith'
b: 'God is not important in respondent's life'
c: 'Respondent favors less respect for authority'
d: 'Respondent has weak sense of national pride' 
e: 'Respondent gives no priority to self-expression and 
quality-of-life over economic and psychical security'.
Remarks
A person high in secularism endorsed the importance of 
God, national pride and respect of authority less, but 
endorsed the post-materialistic values of 
self-expression and independence, as well as autonomy, 
more. The opposite would be true for a person high in 
traditionalism.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.26 ns
Macrolevel: AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE 
secularism in 43 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-
Microlevel:INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL 
secularism
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Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
Subject code: N03

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelEPQ
Page in Source 776
Our classificationNATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality), code N03
Operationalization
Items Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Average scores 
on:
-Neuroticism
-Extraversion
-Psychotism
-Lie Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aRa²=.63 p < .01
Average Affect in nations explained by average 
scores on Eysenck Personality Questionnaire;
only Neuroticsm and the Lie Scale (self-deception) 
contribute to unique variance 
(p< 0.05).
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aRa²=.56 p < .01
Average Overall SWB in nations explained by 
average scores for neuroticism and the Lie Scale 
(self-deception) on Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire; both scores contribute to unique 
variance (p< 0.01).


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)
Subject code: N03

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNEO-PI-R
Page in Source 776
Our classificationNATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality), code N03
Operationalization
Items of NEO-PI-R Questionnaire, average score on:
-Neuroticism
-Extraversion

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aRa²=.79 p < .01
Average Affect in nations explained by average 
scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion on 
NEO-PI-R Questionnaire, only Extraversion 
contributes to unique variance (p<0,01).
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aRa²=,64 p < .05
Average Overall SWB in nations explained by
Neuroticism and Extraversion on NEO-PI-R 
Questionnaire; only Neuroticism contributes to 
unique variance (p< 0,05).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal agreableness
Subject code: N03ac

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelAgreeableness
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal agreableness, code N03ac
Operationalization
Agreeableness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=51,11 SD=3,05
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.09 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.08 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.14 ns
AVERAGE Agreeableness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal ambitiousness
Subject code: N03ae

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationModal ambitiousness, code N03ae
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal ambitiousness
Subject code: N03ae

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelGender gap in competitiveness
Page in Source 327,331
Our classificationModal ambitiousness, code N03ae
Operationalization
Difference in attitude of female and male university 
students.
Competitiveness was assessed with responses to the 
following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 0.68, SD = 0.80 8 countries with a negative gender gap (women more competitive then men): range -1.36 to .01 7 ns, Iraq= p<05 Positive gender gap in 34 countries. Range 0.12 to 2.30; 14 countries ns, 20 countries p<05
Remarks
Data: international student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.35 p < .05
Greater happiness in nations were women are less 
competitive
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .05
B ontrolled for:
- societal development (HDI
- overall competitiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aR²=.05 p < .10
5% additional variance explained when entered 
after societal development and overall 
competitiveness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal anxiety
Subject code: N03af

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Developed nations 1970
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 17 developed nations 1970-1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety behaviours (30-67)
Page in Source 44
Our classificationModal anxiety, code N03af
Operationalization
The 'Anxiety Score is based on behavioral manifestation 
of mental distress, involving consumption of 
stressrelated stimulants, risky behavior, mental 
disorganization, deviant behavior and despair behavior
Remarks
Data 1970. Distress score : Lynn (1982:239, data 1970)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=-.76
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal conscientiousness
Subject code: N03ag

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelConscientiousness
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal conscientiousness, code N03ag
Operationalization
Conscientiousness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=49,54 SD=2,85
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.05 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.21 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Life Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.33 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.14 ns
AVERAGE Conscientiousness by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal extraversion
Subject code: N03ah

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion vs introversion
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationModal extraversion, code N03ah
Operationalization
Extraversion scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=18.63
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.82
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.29 ns
Average happiness by average Extraversion in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal extraversion
Subject code: N03ah

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal extraversion, code N03ah
Operationalization
Extraversion scale of Eysenk Personal 
questionnaire(1975)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.26 ns
Average happiness by average extraversion in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal extraversion
Subject code: N03ah

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal extraversion, code N03ah
Operationalization
Extraversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=18,40 SD=2,04
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.39 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 23 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.06 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 30 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.01 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 31 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.08 ns
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 32 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal extraversion
Subject code: N03ah

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal extraversion, code N03ah
Operationalization
Extraversion as measured by the 
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=45,11 SD=3,62
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.70 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=+.44 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.47 p < .05
AVERAGE Extraversion by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal extremety
Subject code: N03ai

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelNorm for expressing extreme opinions
Page in Source 383
Our classificationModal extremety, code N03ai
Operationalization
Percentage of the sample scoring 10 on 1-10 step 
questions about life-satisfaction and job-satisfaction
- low
- high
Remarks
Cut-off point between low and high not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% very happy in nations where:
- few people score 10:  31%
- many people score 10: 37%
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=+.09
Gs controlled for:
- participation rate in voluntary organizations
- percentage scoring 10 on both life satisfaction 
and job-satisfaction
- support for the view that singles are less happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal hedonism
Subject code: N03aj

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of happiness
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal hedonism, code N03aj
Operationalization
Self-report on questions on importance of bring:
a. Contended
b. Enthusiastic
b. Jolly
c. Moody
d. Pleasure seeking
Factorscore, explaining 50,9% of variance.
Remarks
From Williams et al(1998), participants from 20 
countries rating the importance of 300 different 
psychological traits.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.41 p < .05
Average happiness by importance of happiness in 11 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal hedonism
Subject code: N03aj

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973 /1
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 6 EU nations, 1973-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =190

Correlate
Author's labelPositive/negative valence of words used in books in nations
Page in Source 3-5,8,14,17
Our classificationModal hedonism, code N03aj
Operationalization
Positive and negative valence scores of 1003 words in 6 
different languages.

A Valence of words:  Individuals in each 
nation/language were asked to rate a list of words on 
how those words make them feel. Next these words were 
rated on a 1-9 valence scale from negative to positive. 
Around 1000 words per language were rated this way.

B Use of these words  in books 1800-2009.
In Google Books, texts in books from 1800-2009 were 
analyzed on the frequency of words and their valance in 
each language, using the words list and the ratings.
Observed distributionRange average valence in nations: 5,302 to 6.07, M : 5,72, SD: 0,114
Remarks
Examples of rated valence of words in English: Ability: 
7.0, Abide: 5.52, Abort: 3.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.47 p < .01
Time series analysis up to 2000
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O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.38 p < .01
OR controled for log GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.39 p < .01
Time series analysis extended to 2009 instead of 
2000.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=2.18 p < .01
Without Spain and France


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal individualism/collectivism
Subject code: N03ak

StudySchyns (1998): study ZZ 1990
TitleCrossnational Differences in Happiness: Economic and Cultural Factors Explored.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 43, 3 - 26
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006814424293
Public18+ aged, general public, 40 nations, early 1990s
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism
Page in Source 15-16
Our classificationModal individualism/collectivism, code N03ak
Operationalization
Expert rating of countries on a 1 to 10 scale.
1 is the most collectivistic and 10 the most 
individualistic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.51 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=-.01 ns
rpc controlled for Real GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal individualism/collectivism
Subject code: N03ak

StudyVeenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Western Europe 1980 /5
TitleHappiness in Nations.
SourceStudies in Socio-Cultural Transformation, nr. 2, RISBO, 1993, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_nat/nat_fp.htm
PublicAdults, general public, 10 European nations, circa 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelValue-individualism
Page in Source 62
Our classificationModal individualism/collectivism, code N03ak
Operationalization
Responses to survey questions about:
a) Permissiveness in moral and religious matters
b) Permissive vs. Traditional orientation in mariage 
and family 
c) Comfort dimensions in work ethics

Summed average scores in nations
Remarks
Data taken from Halman, L.,Traditie, Secularisatie en 
Individualisering, 1987, p. 159/178

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.27 ns
Average happiness by average value orientation in 
nation
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal individualism/collectivism
Subject code: N03ak

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism (Hofstede)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal individualism/collectivism, code N03ak
Operationalization
Self-report of work-values by employees.
Questions not reported.
Remarks
From Hofstede's(1980, 2001)work related values.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.78 p < .01
Average happiness by individualism in 22 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal individualism/collectivism
Subject code: N03ak

StudyDiener (1995a): study ZZ 1946
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
SourceGrad, H.;et al;Eds.: "Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology", Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995, Netherlands
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, 1946-1992
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelIndividualism
Page in Source 10
Our classificationModal individualism/collectivism, code N03ak
Operationalization
Expert rating of degree of individualism versus 
collectivism of the society
Remarks
A score assigned to the nations by Harry Triandis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-ar=+.58 p < .001
O-HL---sq-nt-11-br=+.40 p < .05
O-SLW---sq-*-11-ar=+.59 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal control belief: internal/external
Subject code: N03al

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleWhy are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
SourceCamevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"
URLhttp://repup.eur.nl/pub/38195
PublicAdults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived fate control (life)
Page in Source 14
Our classificationModal control belief: internal/external, code N03al
Operationalization
Freedom in life is based on a question from the World 
Values Survey that asks, "Some people feel they have 
completely free choice and control over their lives, 
while other people feel that what they do has no real 
effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale 
where 1 means 'none at all' and 10 means 'a great deal' 
to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you 
feel you have over the way your life turns out."
Observed distributionNorth Europe M=6,9 Latin Europe M=6,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+.74
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perceived fate 
control in 40 European countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal interest in life
Subject code: N03am

StudyLeepin (1978): study ZZ 1974
TitleLe Monde Entier Interviewé. (The Entire World Interviewed).
SourceLa Baloise, Groupe des Assurances, 1978, Bâle, Switzerland
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 parts of the world, 1974-1976.
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8433

Correlate
Author's labelBelief that life is interesting
Page in Source 26
Our classificationModal interest in life, code N03am
Operationalization
Percentage of people per country who think life is 
interesting. (As assessed by single direct survey 
question)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-br=+.98 p < .001
Average scores per region:
                     % life            % happy
                     interesting       
Western-Europe       77                80
North America        92                91
Australia            92                94
South America        66                70
Africa               74                68
Asia                 49                48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation
Subject code: N03ao

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-referenced performance motives (intrinsic motives)
Page in Source 385-388
Our classificationModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation, code N03ao
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. If I am not good at something, I would rather keep 
struggling to master it than move on to something I may 
be good at.
B. I would rather do something at which I feel 
confident and relaxed than something which is 
challenging and difficult (reversed scoring).
C. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can 
do than tasks I believe I can do.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=19,25; SD=4,23 Females: M: 18,79; SD=4,16
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.26 ns
Average happines by average intrinsic motivation

Stronger in developed countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation
Subject code: N03ao

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelOther-referenced performance motives (extrinsic motives)
Our classificationModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation, code N03ao
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. I try harder when I'm in competition with other 
people.
B. It is important to me to perform better than others 
on a task.
C. I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=12,44; SD= 1,69 Females: M= 11,76; SD=1,85
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.55 p < .05
Average happiness by average extrinsic motivation

Negative in developed countries
Slightly positive in developing nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation
Subject code: N03ao

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivation, code N03ao
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal honesty
Subject code: N03ap

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelHonesty
Page in Source 8
Our classificationModal honesty, code N03ap
Operationalization
The honesty indicator is based on answers to the 
question 'is it justifiable to cheat on taxes?', on a 
1-10 scale (1= always justifiable, 10= never 
justifiable)
Observed distributionRange 1-10, M= 8.58 SD= 2.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.27 p < .05
B controlled for: 
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra honesty goes with 0.03 point 
greater happiness on scale 1-10 (0.27 on scale 
10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal honesty
Subject code: N03ap

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/average norms
Page in Source 25,31
Our classificationModal honesty, code N03ap
Operationalization
Response to survey questions about acceptability of:
-claiming government benefits to which one is not 
entitled,
-avoiding fares on public transport,
-cheating on taxes,
-accepting bribes in the course of ones duties.
Answers are coded from 1 (never justify) to 10 (always 
justify). 

Average of scores in nation
Observed distributionN = 78 M = 2,33 Range: 1,15 to 5,49 SD: = 0,81
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.49 p < .10
% happy by average acceptance of social norms in 
80 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.05 ns
N=33 B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-associational activity in nation
-social trust in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal honesty
Subject code: N03ap

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelLie
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationModal honesty, code N03ap
Operationalization
Lie scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire (1975 
version) Measure of tendency to fake good and answer in 
a social desirable way
Observed distributionM= 13,23
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpha= .78
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.57 p < .01
Average happiness by average tendency to Lie in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal honesty
Subject code: N03ap

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal honesty, code N03ap
Operationalization
Lie scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire (1975 
version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.70 p < .01
Average happiness by average scores on lie-scale 
in 19 countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal honesty
Subject code: N03ap

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-deception
Page in Source 771-772
Our classificationModal honesty, code N03ap
Operationalization
Self-deception as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=15,34 SD=3,30
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.35 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Affect) in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.37 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.38 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 32 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.36 p < .05
AVERAGE Self-deception by AVERAGE happiness 
(Overall Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelneuroticism
Page in Source 9, 20
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Self report on personality questionnaire (Eysenck 
N-score)
Remarks
Data: Lynn (1995) based on survey among university 
students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.29
Average happiness by neuroticism in 31 countries
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=14.34
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.83
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.23 ns
Average happiness by average Neuroticism in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale of Eysenk Personal questionnaire(1975 
version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.14 ns
Average happiness by average neuroticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=14,38 SD=2,13
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.59 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 31 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.45 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Neuroticism as measured by the 
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=52,00 SD=2,66
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.54 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.59 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction) in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.48 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.58 p < .05
AVERAGE Neuroticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal neuroticism
Subject code: N03aq

StudyTyssen et al. (2009): study NO 1993
TitleLower Life Satisfaction in Physicians Compared with a General Population Sample: A 10-year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study of Course and Predictors.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2009, Vol. 44, 47 - 54
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00127-008-0403-4
PublicPhysicians followed 9 years after graduating, Norway, 1993-2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-ResponseResp. 17% , 38% at 1 year, 33% at 4 years, 38 % at 9 years.
Respondents N =631

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism trait
Page in Source 48,49,51
Our classificationModal neuroticism, code N03aq
Operationalization
Basic Character Inventory (BCI). The vulnarability 
dimension from the BCI is based on 9 dichotomous 
questions(agree/disagree), which closely resembles the 
classic neuroticism scale.
.
Observed distributionTotal scores range from 0 (low) to 9 (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cBeta=-.06 p < .05
CI95[-.11 to -.01]

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- neuroticism
- extraversion
- conscientiousness
- married/cohabitant at T4
- perceived social support at T4
- work stress at T4
- negative life events at T4
- frequency of physical training at T4
- frequency of religious meetings at T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal openness
Subject code: N03ar

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelOpenness to Experience
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal openness, code N03ar
Operationalization
Openness as measured by the
NEO-PI-R five factor model
Observed distributionM=50,87 SD=2,35
Remarks
Assessed in the years 1992-2000 in various subgroups 
(e.g. college students) most of them not representative 
for the general population.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=+.29 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Affect)
in 13 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.23 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Life 
Satisfaction)in 16 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=+.14 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Happiness 
in Life) in 15 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=+.22 ns
AVERAGE Openness by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 16 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal optimism
Subject code: N03as

StudyHills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp9195.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelValence of words used in books
Page in Source 4,5,14,17
Our classificationModal optimism, code N03as
Operationalization
2 step rating of positiveness of words used in books in 
a language in a year:

Step1:
Rating of Intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of 
words. Respondents were asked to value of common words, 
such as 'abandon'. 'abbey', 'ability'... etc.. The 
number of words valued varied per nation from 1003 
words in German to 1034 words in the UK and Spain. Each 
word was rated by 20 participants per nation on the 
following scale:
   -3:: Most negative association
   -2
   -1
    0
  +1
  +2
  +3: most positive association
Ratings were recoded afterwards to range 1-9 and a mean 
per nation was computed

Step 2:
Assesment of average valence of words used in books in 
the national language using Google Book database
Observed distributionM = 5,72, SD = 0,114
Error Estimates0.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1.5 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness in nation by average valence of 
words used in books in 119 nation/year 
combinations 1973-2000
b controlled for:
- country fixed effects
- year fixed effects
- number of words covered
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b additionally controled for GDP
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+1,4 p < .01
b when years extended from 1973-2009
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.90
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+2.2 p < .01
b without Spain and France (N nation/year 78).
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bR²=.95
(


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal psychoticism
Subject code: N03au

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelPsychotism
Page in Source 8
Our classificationModal psychoticism, code N03au
Operationalization
Self report on pesronality questionnaire (Eysenck 
P-score)
Remarks
Data: Lynn (1995) based on survey among university 
students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.18
Average happiness by average psychotism in 31 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal psychoticism
Subject code: N03au

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002): study ZZ 1977
TitleStructural and Functional Equivalence of the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire Within and Between Countries.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2002, Vol. 33, 1229 - 1249
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00007-7
PublicNormal adults, general public, 30 countries, 1977-1997
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =333

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism
Page in Source 28, 35
Our classificationModal psychoticism, code N03au
Operationalization
Psychoticism scale of Eysenk Personal Questionnaire 
(1975 version)
Observed distributionM=4.96
Error EstimatesCrombach's alpa=.66
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.41 p < .05
Average happiness by average Psychotism in 38 
nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal psychoticism
Subject code: N03au

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism (Eysenck)
Page in Source 65
Our classificationModal psychoticism, code N03au
Operationalization
Psychoticism scale of Eysenk Personal 
Questionnaire(1975 version)
Remarks
Meta analysis of 333 samples in 38 countries with 
68,374 respondants. Units are nation averages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.57 p < .01
Average happiness by average psychoticism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal psychoticism
Subject code: N03au

StudySteel & Ones (2002): study ZZ 1972
TitlePersonality and Happiness: A National Level Analysis.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol. 83, 767 - 781
PublicAdult general public, 39 nations, 1972-1998
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychoticism
Page in Source 775
Our classificationModal psychoticism, code N03au
Operationalization
Psychoticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire
Observed distributionM=4,73 SD=1,61
Remarks
Assessed in various subgroups assumed to be 
representative for the general population over the 
years 1975-1998.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB---mq-nt-11-ar=-.35 p < .05
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness (Affect) 
in 24 nations
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=-.16 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness
(Life Satisfaction) in 31 nations
O-HL---sq-nt-11-ar=-.13 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness 
(Happiness in Life) in 32 nations
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.17 ns
AVERAGE Psychoticism by AVERAGE happiness (Overall 
Appraisal) in 33 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal self confidence
Subject code: N03av

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2015a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2015, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological freedom
Page in Source 242
Our classificationModal self confidence, code N03av
Operationalization
Psychological freedom is about the capability to choose 
and denotes an absence of inner restrictions. It is 
measured using the Rosenberg (1965) Self Esteem Scale, 
which is a 10 item questionnaire:
a: I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an 
equal plane with others
b: I feel that I have a number of good qualities
c: All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a 
failure
d: I am able to do things as well as most other people
e: I feel I do not have much to be proud of
f: I take a positive attitude toward myself
g: On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
h: I wish I could have more respect for myself
i: I certainly feel useless at times
j: At times I think I am no good at all

The second measure used to measure psychological 
freedom is Acquiscence, which is obtained from the 
revised NEO personality inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.59
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations. rpc controls for 
participatory teaching.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=.32
Path analysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance
Page in Source 220
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Average number of categories not wanted as neighbours.
"On this list are various groups of people. Could you 
please sort out any that you would not like to have as 
neighbors?"People with a criminal record; People of 
different race; Political extremists; Heavy drinkers; 
Emotionally unstable people; Muslims, Jews, Members of 
religious movements or People with different religion; 
Blacks, Muslims; Whites, Christians; Coloureds; 
Indians; Immigrants/Foreign workers; People who have 
AIDS; Drugaddicts; Homosexuals
Remarks
WVS3 items 51-60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.52
Average happiness by tolerance in 76 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.40
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 220
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Public opinion. "I want to ask you how much you trust 
various groups of people: Using the responses on this 
card, could you tell me how much you trust...b) The 
[e.g. British] in general? Answer categories were: 
1-Trust them, 2-Trust them little, 3-Neither trust nor 
distrust them, 4-Do not trust them very much, 5-Do not 
trust them at all, 9-DK.
Remarks
WVS2 item 341

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.39
Average happiness by trust in compatriots in 79 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven (2007f): study ZZ 1990
TitleQuality of Life in Nations. As Measured by How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceStam, J; Veenhoven, R.;Ed.:"Quality of Life & Happiness of People in Japan and The Netherlands", KIT Publishers, 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16 - 31
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/12758
PublicAdults, general public, 96 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance in the country
Page in Source 8
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Average number of categories not wanted as neighbours.
"On this list are various groups of people. Could you 
please sort out any that you would not like to have as 
neighbors?"People with a criminal record; People of 
different race; Political extremists; Heavy drinkers; 
Emotionally unstable people; Muslims, Jews, Members of 
religious movements or People with different religion; 
Blacks, Muslims; Whites, Christians; Coloureds; 
Indians; Immigrants/Foreign workers; People who have 
AIDS; Drugaddicts; Homosexuals

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-ar=+.50
Average happiness by average tolerance in the 
country in 48 nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Response to survey questions about the kind of people 
one would like to have as a neighbour.
Remarks
Source; World Value Surveys 1990-1995, items 51-60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.50
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 nations
Level of happiness measured using average score in 
the country
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=-.33
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 nations
Inequality of happiness measured using the 
standard-deviation of happiness
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.50
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by Tolerance in 79 
nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index 
of mean and standard deviation as proposed by 
Kalmijn & Veenhoven 2005
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=+.43
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven (2002): study ZZ 1990
TitleBevrijde Sexualiteit. (Liberated Sexuality).
SourceDe Psycholoog, Juli/Augustus 2002, Vol. 42, 377 - 382
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8749
PublicAdults, general public, 42 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelSexual freedom
Page in Source 380, 382
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Public acceptance of homosexuality indicated by 
response to survey question:
Please ell me for each of the following statements 
whether you think it can always be justified, never be 
justified, or something in between. "Homosexuality"
1 never justifiable … 10 always justifiable.
Remarks
Data: WVS (World Value Surveys Cumulative file 6160, 
ICPRS, Ann Arbor Michagan)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.72
Happy Life Years by Acceptatance of homosexuality 
in 42 nations
Set Image size:   

Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.38
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelPrejudice
Page in Source 46
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Average response to question in survey:
Could you please sort out, from this list of 14 groups 
of people, those you would not like to have as 
neighbours?
Each response is coded:
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, items 69-72, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.67
Happy Life Years by Prejudice in 38 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.43
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal tolerance
Subject code: N03aw

StudyInglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981
TitleDevelopment, Freedom, and Rising Happiness.
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, Vol. 3, 264 - 285
Public18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72000

Correlate
Author's label(Change in) Tolerance of outgroups
Page in Source 267, 271
Our classificationModal tolerance, code N03aw
Operationalization
Respondents designated groups of people that they would 
not like to have as neighbors, using a list that 
included drug addicts, people of a different race, 
people with AIDS, immigrants/foreign workers, 
homosexuals, people of a different religion, and heavy 
drinkers. Respondents also indicated to what extent 
they felt that homosexuality can be justified, using a 
scale that ranged from 1 (never) to 10 (always).
Observed distributionNot reported
Remarks
Data: World Values Surveys. 52 nations involved in at 
least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 
YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first and 
last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year 
time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of 
countries with a 10-year series. 
T1 = first survey
T2 = last survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 tolerance in 41 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.23 p < .05
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.29 p < .05
Change in happiness measured controling T2 by T1
B's  further controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally 
controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1 
sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .05
T2-T1-CHANGE in average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE 
in tolerance of outgroups in 42 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.15 p < .05
Change in happiness and tolerence measured 
controling T2 by T1
B's additionally controlled for T1T2  CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- sense of free choice


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal trust
Subject code: N03ax

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 10
Our classificationModal trust , code N03ax
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = 27,85, SD = 14,17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=+.26
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE social trust in 73 
nations

B controlled for:
- government share of GDP
- openness of the economy
- investment price level
- communist past
- log GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal trust
Subject code: N03ax

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2006): study ZZ 1981
TitleHow's your Government? International Evidence linking Good Government and Well-Being.
SourceWorking Paper 11988, 2006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, USA
URLHTTP://www.nber.org/papers/w11988
Public15+ aged, general public, 72 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =163000

Correlate
Author's labeltrustnat: General Trust
Page in Source 27
Our classificationModal trust , code N03ax
Operationalization
National average response to "Generally speaking, would 
you say that most people can be trusted or that you 
cant be too careful in dealing with people?"
1
:
10
Remarks
WVS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.6 p < .01
All nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .05
POOR nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.89 ns
RICH nations

B's controlled for:
- govdo: average of:
  - government effectiveness
  - regulatory qualitiy
  - rule of law
  - control of corruption
- govdem: average of:
  - voice & accountability
  - political stability
- Income p/c
- Importance of god

Rich: < half of US national income in 1995
Poor: > half of US national income in 1995


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelTrusting others
Page in Source 216
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.20 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.03 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.12 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBergheim (2007): study ZZ OECD member states 2005
TitleThe Happy Variety of Capitalism.
SourceDeutsche Bank Research, 2007, 25 april, 1 - 22
Public14+ aged general public, 22 rich countries, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =33000

Correlate
Author's labeltrust neighbours
Page in Source 7,8
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
One can trust most people or not?
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness, by AVERAGE trust in fellow-man.
Correlation coefficient not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal trust
Page in Source 6, 16
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Generally speaking, would you say that most people can 
be trusted or that you need to be very careful in 
dealing with people?

A. Most people can be trusted 
B. You can never be too careful when   dealing with 
others.

TRUST INDEX = 100 + (% Most people can be trusted) - (% 
Can´t be too careful).
Possible range: 0-100.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: World Values Surveys (1996-2008)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE interpersonal trust 
in nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.17
All nations (N=90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.56
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.17
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.33
All nations (N=90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.58
OECD-nations (N=30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.00
Non-OECD-nations (N=60)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelsocial trust
Page in Source 11
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
% of the population answering "yes" to the question: 
"In general, do you think that most people can be 
trusted?"
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 1997-2001.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .05
% very happy citizens by % trusting citizens in 74 
nations. 

B controlled for
-openness
-investment price
-log GDP per capita
-postcommunist
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVeenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995
TitleComparability of Happiness accross Nations.
SourceSchool of Sociology and Social Work Journal no.104, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2008, Kobe, Japan.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/14883
PublicAdults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 220
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Public opinion. "I want to ask you how much you trust 
various groups of people: Using the responses on this 
card, could you tell me how much you trust...b) The 
[e.g. British] in general? Answer categories were: 
1-Trust them, 2-Trust them little, 3-Neither trust nor 
distrust them, 4-Do not trust them very much, 5-Do not 
trust them at all, 9-DK.
Remarks
WVS2 item 341

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.39
Average happiness by trust in compatriots in 79 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyRode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleDo Good Institutions Make Citizens Happy, or Do Happy Citizens Build Better Institutions?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2013, vol. 14, 1479 - 1505
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9391-x
Public18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =180000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 1488
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Percentage of people in a country who think that most 
people can be trusted.
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Can't be too careful
Observed distributionM=0,26 SD=0,15
Remarks
Self-report on a single question: "In general, do you 
think most people can be trusted?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.6 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE social trust
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.5 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of 
economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.7 p < .01
b controls for: 
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.9 p < .01
b controls for: 
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .01
b controls for: 
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.1 p < .01
In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than 
$20,000)


Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, legal system and property rights, 
sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are 
controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .05
In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than 
$10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of 
government, sound money, freedom to trade and 
regulation are controlled for INSTEAD of economic 
freedom. When legal system and property rights are 
controlled for instead of economic freedom, social 
trust is not significant.

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom 
is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks 
English as a mother tongue

In sum: Social trust is positively associated with 
average life satisfaction in nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 12,14,15,37
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Self perceived trust in people:
1: Most people can be trusted
0: Need to be very careful
Remarks
Operationalization recoded by WDH

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.14 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE trust
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.27 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.38 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE trust in nation

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - education
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - unemployment (ind.)
     - unemployment rate
     - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVeenhoven (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleApparent Quality-of-Life in Nations: How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 61 - 86
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7200
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8014-2
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in compatriots
Page in Source 73
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Responses to survey question
Remarks
Source: World value surveys 1990-1995, item 41
See also VEENH1996 in this database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.20
Happy Life Years by Trust in compatriots in 37 
nations in the 1990s.
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.20
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in people
Page in Source 432+436
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Response to survey question
Remarks
Source; World Value Surveys 1990-1995, item 165

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.37
LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by Trust in people in 79 
nations
Level of happiness measured using average score in 
the country
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=-.50
INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by Trust in people in 79 
nations
Inequality of happiness measured using the 
standard-deviation of happiness
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ar=+.54
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by Trust in people 
in 79 nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index 
of mean and standard deviation as proposed by 
Kalmijn & Veenhoven 2005
O-SLW---sq-t-11-arpc=+.16
rpc controlled for purchasing power per head


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in family members
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Could you tell me how much you trust your family?
1: Do not trust at all
2: Do not trust very much
3: Trust nor distrust
4: A little
5: Completely
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 340, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.27
Happy Life Years by Trust in family members in 42 
nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.32
rpc controlled fo buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in (fellow) countrymen
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Could tou tell me how much you trust your fellow 
countrymen?
1: Do not trust at all
2: Do not trust very much
3: Trust nor distrust
4: A little
5: Completely
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 341, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.11
Happy Life Years by Trust in (fellow) countrymen 
in 42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.25
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/generalised trust
Page in Source 24,31
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Response to survey question:
In general, do you think that most people can be 
trusted, or can't you be too careful?
1 yes
0 no

% in nation answering 'yes'
Observed distributionN = 83 M = 27,5 Range: 2,8 to 66,5 SD: 15,64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.25 ns
% happy by social or generalised trust in 80 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.28 p < .05
N=33 B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-social norms in nation
-associational activity in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2010.03.001
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =135000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 11, 29, 30, 32
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Percentage of respondents answering 'yes' to the 
question: "Do you think most people can be trusted?"
Observed distributionM=0,326 SD=0,144

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by average social trust in 
nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 p < .01
All nations (N=55)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.3 p < .01
Rich nations (GDP per capita => 8000 USD, N=34)

B's controlled for
-average membership of voluntary organizations
-belief in god
-divorce rate
-unemployment rate
-honest and efficient government
-post-communism
-openness to trade
-investment price level
-regional and period dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source 174,176
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionM = 30,707 SD = 14,247

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by social trust in 
nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Random effects model
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.36 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.33 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Social trust*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by interaction variable 
social trust*crisis in nation.

B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Social trust
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Fixed effects model. Random effects: B = +.166 
(.05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyVanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020601806080
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =44098

Correlate
Author's labelCynicism
Page in Source 65
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Mistrust in others, self-report on single 
question:Using the responses on this card, could you 
tell me how much you trust (Nationally) people in 
general?
1-Trust completely
2-Trust a little
3-Neither trust or distrust
4-Not trust very much
5-Not trust at all
Average score per country.

(%...)
Remarks
Veenhoven (1984), scores on an item measuring mistrust 
in others were taken from the World Values Survey.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.43 ns
Average happiness by average cynicism in 20 
countries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelTrust
Page in Source 12
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Self report on single question whether other people can 
be trusted
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 36%, 2: 64%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=+
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of trust in other 
people 

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif. 
Answered       50           14           +36%
yes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyKeyes (1998): study US Wisconsin 1994
TitleSocial Well-Being.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 61, 121 - 140
Public18+ aged, general public, Dane County, Wisconsin USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Acceptance
Page in Source 138
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Respondents indicated (dis)agreement with the following 
statements: You think/believe/feel
a) Other people are unreliable (-)
b) People are kind (+)
c) People are selfcentered (-)
d) People are not trustworthy (-)
e) People only live for themselves (-)
f) People are more and more dishonest (-)
g) People care about each-other's problems (+)
Items with (-) are reverse scored on scale ranging from 
1.strongly  2.moderately 3.slightly disagree 4.slightly 
5.moderately 6.strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 28.3 SD = 6.4
Error EstimatesMetric Loading ranging from 0.62 to 1.1 Validity Coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.68 Alpha Reliability 0.77

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.21 p < .01
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in fellow-man
Subject code: N03ax01

StudyBjornskov (2008a): study US 1993
TitleSocial Capital and Happiness in the United States.
SourceApplied Research Quality of Life, 2008, Vol. 3, 43 - 62
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-008-9046-6
Public18+aged, general public, 9 regions, USA, 1983-1998
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60200

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trust
Page in Source Table 1, 3, and 7
Our classificationTrust in fellow-man, code N03ax01
Operationalization
Response to statement:
"Most people are honest".
1 generally agree
2
3
4
5
6  definitively agree
Observed distributionMean: 31,367; Min. 24,692 (North Carolina); Max.37,969 (New Hampshire). Mean, minimum and maximum seem to be obtained by some transformation of the original results on the 1-6-scale.
Remarks
Average response per state, assessed in 1983 and 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.89
Level of average happiness by level of social 
trust in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 1983-1998 
(cross-esectional).
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.33 p < .01
CHANGE in average happiness by CHANGE in average 
social trust in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 
1983-1998.
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ar=+.59 p < .01
If two outlier observations are excluded.
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aBeta=+.01 p < .01
Beta (+0,008) controlled for
-regional fixed effects, such that only changes in 
the variables are captured while longer-run 
effects and the potential influence of stable 
stocks of social capital are not considered.
-formal sociability
-informal sociability
-log Gross State Product (GSP) per capita
-GSP relative to USA-GDP
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aBeta=+.01 p < .05
Beta unchanged (+0.008) if additionally controlled 
for changes at individual level by analyzing the 
residuals of individual-level analysis.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: N03ax02

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in institutions
Page in Source 39
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code N03ax02
Operationalization
Self reported on single question
A:  Trust in national government
B: Trust in local government
C: Trust for assemblies
D: Trust for judicial system
E: Trust for media
F: Trust for corporations

Verbal answers coded as:
1: Cannot be trusted at all
2: Cannot be trusted
3: Neither can nor cannot be trusted
4: Can be trusted somewhat
5: Can be trusted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.15 p < .01
Trust in national government
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.18 p < .01
Trust in local government
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.14 p < .01
Trust in assemblies
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.20 p < .01
Trust in judicial system
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.12 p < .01
Trust in media
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.20 p < .01
Trust in corporations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: N03ax02

StudySamanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999
TitleQuality of Government Makes People Happy.
SourceQoG Working Paper Serie 2010:1, The Quality of Government Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Göteborg, 2010, Sweden
Public18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence in Parliament
Page in Source 6, 16
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code N03ax02
Operationalization
The proportion of respondents who indicate either “a 
great deal” or “quite a lot” of confidence in 
parliament, as a percentage of all respondents.
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Source: World Values Surveys (1996-2006)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE confidence in 
parliament in nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.22
All nations (90)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.44
OECD-nations (30)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.22
Non-OECD-nations (60)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.10
All nations (90)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.50
OECD-nations (30)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.17
Non-OECD-nations (60)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: N03ax02

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelTrust in social institutions
Page in Source 46
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code N03ax02
Operationalization
Average reponse to survey question:
Please tell me for each institution listed how much 
confidence you have in them: church, armed forces, 
education stystem, legal system, press, trade unions, 
police, parliament, civil service, major companies, 
social security system, European Community (Western 
Europe and China) / TV (other countries), NATO, 
American political system,
1: none at all
2: not very much 
3: quite a lot
4: a great deal
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2, item 272-285, 1990-92, Ann 
Arbor, Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.05
Happy Life Years by Trust in social institutions 
in 30 countries
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.14
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: N03ax02

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence in parliament
Page in Source 92, 89
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code N03ax02
Operationalization
Self reported question on trust in parliament:
a. not at all
b. not so much
c. quite a lot
d. very much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
a. 83%
b. 88%
c. 91%
d. 94%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
a. 80%
b. 87%
c. 90%
d. 90%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.11
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.15
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: N03ax02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelDegree of trust in institutions
Page in Source questions 55 - 67
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code N03ax02
Operationalization
To what degree the following institutions are 
trustworthy?
a Deputies Convention
b the Supreme Council
c the President of Russia
d the governemnt of Russia
e the Supreme Court 
f regional (republic) authorities
g local (city, district) authorities
h the army
i State Security Committee (KGB) 
j policy, court, prosecution authorities 
k trade unions
l the Orthodox church 
m mass media


Scale:
1 not at all trustworthy
2 rather untrustworthy 
3 rather trustworthy
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = a: 1: 54,8% 2: 16,6% 3: 4,3% DK/NA: 24,4% b: 1: 49,3% 2: 19,3% 3: 4,5% DK/NA: 26,9% c: 1: 21,9% 2: 33,4% 3: 26,6% DK/NA: 18,1% d: 1: 21,9% 2: 35,1% 3: 17,6% DK/NA: 25,4% e: 1: 31,8% 2: 25,5% 3: 11,2% DK/NA: 31,5% f: 1: 28,6% 2: 28,5% 3: 9,1% DK/NA: 33,7% g: 1: 31,2% 2: 28,5% 3: 11,3% DK/NA: 28,9% h: 1: 10,4% 2: 26,3% 3: 38,3% DK/NA: 25,1% i: 1: 17,8% 2: 29,2% 3: 19,6% DK/NA: 33,4% j: 1: 30,1% 2: 33,3% 3: 12,6% DK/NA: 24% k: 1: 35,4% 2: 23,1% 3: 9,9% DK/NA: 31,6% l: 1: 6,4% 2: 14,6% 3: 44,4% DK/NA: 34,6% m: 1: 17,8% 2: 40,6% 3: 22,9% DK/NA: 18,6%
Remarks
Degree of trust in institutions is computed as a sum of 
scores (from 1 to 3) given by an individual to each 
institution (a - m).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.16 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modal psychological freedom
Subject code: N03ay

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2015a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2015, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological freedom
Page in Source 242
Our classificationModal psychological freedom, code N03ay
Operationalization
Psychological freedom is about the capability to choose 
and denotes an absence of inner restrictions. It is 
measured using the Rosenberg (1965) Self Esteem Scale, 
which is a 10 item questionnaire:
a: I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an 
equal plane with others
b: I feel that I have a number of good qualities
c: All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a 
failure
d: I am able to do things as well as most other people
e: I feel I do not have much to be proud of
f: I take a positive attitude toward myself
g: On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
h: I wish I could have more respect for myself
i: I certainly feel useless at times
j: At times I think I am no good at all

The second measure used to measure psychological 
freedom is Acquiscence, which is obtained from the 
revised NEO personality inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ar=+.59
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=+.17
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE psychological freedom 
teaching in 27 developed nations. rpc controls for 
participatory teaching.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=.32
Path analysis


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB---mq-nt-11-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Equivalent questionaires about experienced positive and negative affect, such as Bradburn's ABS and Watson's PANAS. The number and wording of the questions varies somewhat across studies and languages.

Scores are transformed linearly to range 0-10
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
O-HL---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-HL---sq-nt-11-bSelf report on single question

Various items using the term happiness

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale

Scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing

Scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

To what extent do you think of yourself as a happy person?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-Mix---sq-*-11-aSelf report on different single questions

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitively agree
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life at the moment, would you say that you are by and large satisfied with life or are you mostly dissatisfied
7 very much satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 so-so
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 very much dissatisfied
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to pretend for a moment that their life would end next week end then indicate how happy they felt about the life they been able to live. (Full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLV---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-SLW---sq-*-11-aSelf report on single question

Various items using the term 'satisfaction with life'

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question

Various questions on satisfaction with life as-a-whole, rated on 10 or 11 step numeral scales. 10 step variants stretched to range 0-10
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

'….satisfied with global life right now….'
(full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-Sum---mq-*-100-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
.
.
10 satisfied

B Taking all tohether, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy

Computation: Summed score, rescaled to range 0-100 with average 50
O-Sum---mq-*-14-aSelfreport on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ra²ADJUSTED COEFFICIENT OF MULTIPLE CORRELATION
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0 ; 1]

Meaning:
Ra = 0 « not any association
Ra = 1 « strongest possible association
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)P05PERSONALITY: LATER
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)
N03abModal agression, angerP04aaAggressive, angry
N03acModal agreablenessN03awModal tolerance
N03acModal agreablenessP04adAgreeable
N03adModal agreeing, yea-sayingP04aeAgreeing, yea-saying
N03aeModal ambitiousnessP04abAmbitious
N03afModal anxietyM13ac10Feeling secure (vs threatened)
N03afModal anxietyP01ab03Earlier anxiety
N03afModal anxietyP04afAnxious
N03agModal conscientiousnessP04aoConscientious
N03ahModal extraversionP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
N03ahModal extraversionP04ayExtraverted
N03aiModal extremetyP04azExtreme
N03ajModal hedonismH03acValuation of happiness
N03ajModal hedonismP04bgHedonistic
N03akModal individualism/collectivismP04blIndependent
N03akModal individualism/collectivismP01ab14Earlier independence
N03akModal individualism/collectivismM12MODERNITY
N03alModal control belief: internal/externalP01ab16Earlier inner-control
N03alModal control belief: internal/externalP04boInner locus of control
N03alModal control belief: internal/externalP05ab03Later locus of control
N03amModal interest in lifeI04INTERESTS
N03amModal interest in lifeL04ac01jInteresting (vs boring)
N03amModal interest in lifeP04bpInterested
N03anModal intelligenceP04amClever
N03anModal intelligenceP01ab06Earlier cleverness
N03anModal intelligenceI03INTELLIGENCE
N03aoModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivationM14ab01Intrinsic motivation
N03aoModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivationM14ab02Extrinsic motivation
N03aoModal intrinsec/extrinsic motivationP04bqIntrinsically motivated
N03apModal honestyP04biHonest
N03aqModal neuroticismM07ac05cNeurotic (f48)
N03aqModal neuroticismN07ab01bPrevalence of mental illness
N03aqModal neuroticismP04caNeurotic
N03arModal opennessP04cbOpen
N03asModal optimismH15adAttitudes to housing
N03asModal optimismP01ab19Earlier optimism
N03asModal optimismP04ccOptimistic
N03atModal psychoticismP04chPsychotic
N03auModal psychoticismN07ab01bPrevalence of mental illness
N03auModal psychoticismP04chPsychotic
N03avModal self confidenceP04csSelf-confidant
N03avModal self confidenceN03ayModal psychological freedom
N03awModal toleranceP01ab29Earlier tolerance
N03awModal toleranceP04deTolerant
N03awModal toleranceP05ab10Later tolerance
N03axModal trust T05TRUST
N03ax01Trust in fellow-manP05ab11Later trusting
N03ax01Trust in fellow-manP04dgTrusting
N03ax01Trust in fellow-manP01ab30Earlier trusting
N03ax02Trust in institutionsA06ANOMY
N03ayModal psychological freedomF05ab01Ability to choose (psychological freedom)
N03ayModal psychological freedomN03akModal individualism/collectivism
N03ayModal psychological freedomN03avModal self confidence
N03ayModal psychological freedomN04aoFreedom in nations
TMP6577AgreablenessP04adAgreeable
TMP6577AgreablenessP04cwSociable

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings