Findings on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject Code: N02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)22
N02aaHappiness in era10
N02aa01Average happiness in era1
N02aa01aTrend average happiness in era6
N02aa01aaTrend in general public41
N02aa01abTrend in special publics15
N02abInequality of happiness in era0
N02ab01Trend inequality of happiness in era4
N02adMajor events in era1
N02acHappy life years in era0
N02ac01Trend happy life years1
N02aa01acTrend happiness in age groups4
N02aa01adTrend happiness in males /females1
N02aa01afTrend happiness in housewives0
N02aa01ahTrend happiness in unemployed1
N02aa01aiTrend happiness in retired0
N02aa01aeTrend happiness in educational groups2
N02aa01agTrend happiness in parents0
N02aeHistory of the nation0
N02ae01History of war1
N02ae02Post communist4
N02ae03Post colonial0
N02aa01ajTrend happiness marrital categories1
N02aa01akTrend happiness in urban/rural population2
N02aa01alTrend happiness in income groups4
N02aa01amTrend average happiness in cities0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey Number
Page in Source A19+B2+B6
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a: S1  April 2001
b: S2  September 2001
c: S3  March 2002
d: S4  August 2002
e: S5  November 2002
f: S6  March 2003
g: S7  June 2003
h: S8  August 2003
i: S9  Novenber 2003
j: S10 February 2004
k: S11 May 2004
l: S12 August 2004
Observed distributionN = a: 1975, b: 1976, c: 2026, d: 1986, e: 1966, f: 1977, g: 1965, h: 1980,i: 1897, j: 1977, k: 1989, i: 1974

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,95
b Mt = 7,70; SD = 1.93
c Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,77
d Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,72
e Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,73
f Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,64
g Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,68
h Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,70
i Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,69
j Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,70
k Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,68
l Mt = 7,91; SD = 1,64
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
.000  c>a
.002  e>a
.000  f>a
.000  g>a
.002  h>a
.017  i>a
.001  j>a
.000  k>a
.013  k>b
.015  k>d


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey Number
Page in Source A20+B+2+3+5
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a: S1  April 2001
b: S2  September 2001
c: S3  March 2002
d: S4  August 2002
e: S5  November 2002
f: S6  March 2003
g: S7  June 2003
h: S8  August 2003
i: S9  Novenber 2003
j: S10 February 2004
k: S11 May 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,52
b Mt = 7,70
c Mt = 7,82
d Mt = 7,72
e Mt = 7,77
f Mt = 7,82
g Mt = 7,82
h Mt = 7,80
i Mt = 7,77
J Mt = 7,74
k Mt = 7,75
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
c>a  p<.000
e>a  p<.002
f>a  p<.000
g>a  p<.000
h>a  p<.000
i>a  p<.001
j>a  p<.014
k>a  p<.001
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=-
h Mt = 7,86; SD = 1,49
j Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,42
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
k Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,81
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
 k>h  p<.000
 k>j  p<.000
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
h Mt = 7,68; SD= 1,53


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life in Australia
Page in Source 9+69
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Single question:
How satisfied are you with life as a whole?
a : Survey 1, April 2001
b : Survey 2, September 2001
c : Survey 3, March 2002
d : Survey 4, August 2002
e : Survey 5, November 2002
f : Survey 6, March 2003
Observed distributionN = a :1974; b :1973; c :2030; d; 1986; e :1966; f : 1979

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a : Mt =7,52;SD =1,96
b : Mt =7,70;SD =1,93
c : Mt =7,81;SD =1,79
d : Mt =7,72;SD =1,72
e : Mt =7,77;SD =1,73
f : Mt =7,82;SD =1,66
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=.000
a> b,c,d,e


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with life as a whole
Page in Source 82+10
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
1: Survey 1 April 2001
2: Survey 2 September 2001
3: Survey 3 March 2002
4: Survey 4 Augustus 2002
5: Survey 5 November 2002
6: Survey 6 March 2003
7: Survey 7 June 2003
Observed distributionN = 1: 1974, 2: 1973, 3: 2030, 4: 1986, 5: 1966, 6: 1979, 7: 1965

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
1: Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,96
2: Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,93
3: Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,79
4: Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,72
5: Mt = 7,77; SD = 1.73
6: Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,67
7: Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,68
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
3>1, p<.000
4>1, p<.015
5>1, p<.000
6>1, p<.000
7>1, p<.000


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey number
Page in Source 83+85+88
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a: Survey 1, April 2001
b: Survey 2, September 2001
c: Survey 3, March 2002
d: Survey 4, Augustus 2002
e: Survey 5, November 2002
f: Survey 6, March 2003
g: Survey 7, June 2003
h: Survey 8, Augustus 2003
Observed distributionN = a: 1974, b: 1973, c: 2030, d: 1986, e: 1966, f: 1979, g: 1965, h: 1980

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .000
a    Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,96
b    Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,93
c    Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,79
d    Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,72
e    Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,73
f    Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,67
g    Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,68
h    Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,70
all  Mt = 7,71; SD = 0,10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
c>a, p<.000
d>a, p<.020
e>a, p<.000
f>a, p<.000
g>a, p<.000
h>a, p<.000
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
h Mt = 7,86; SD = 1,49
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
h Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,53


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey Number
Page in Source 92+94+95
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a: Survey 1 April 2001
b: Survey 2 September 2001
c: Survey 3 March 2002
d: Survey 4 August 2002
e: Survey 5 November 2002
f: Survey 6 March2003
g: Survey 7 June 2003
h: Survey 8 August 2003
i: Survey 9 November 2003
Observed distributionN = a: 1973, b: 1971, c: 2026, d: 1986, e: 1966, f: 1977, g: 1965, h: 1980, i: 1897
Remarks
Normative Ranges calculated from Survey Mean 
Scores(N=i)
all   Mt = 7,75; SD = .10
-2 SD Mt = 7,56
+2 SD Mt = 7,94

Normative Ranges calculated from Aggregated Individual 
Data(N=i)
all   Mt =  7,75; SD = 1,76; 
-2 SD Mt =  4,23
+2 SD Mt = 11,27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=
a Mt = 7,52; SD = 1,95
b Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,93
c Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,77
d Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,72
e Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,73
f Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,64
g Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,68
h Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,70
i Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,69
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cAoV=
c>a, p< .000
d>a, p< .032
e>a, p< .001
f>a, p< .000
g>a, p< .000
h>a, p< .000
i>a, p< .007


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =1999

Correlate
Author's labelsurvey number
Page in Source 96
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a :Survey 1, April 2001
b :Survey 2, September 2001
c :Survey 3, March 2002
d :Survey 4, August 2002
e :Survey 5, November 2002
Observed distributionN = a :1974 ; b :1973; c :2030 ; d :1986 ; e :1966

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a Mt =7,51  SD =1,96
b Mt =7,70  SD =1,93
c Mt =7,81  SD =1,79
d Mt =7,72  SD =1,72
e Mt =7.79  SD =1,73
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .000
c,d,e>a


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey number
Page in Source 70+73
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
a: survey 1
b: survey 2
c: survey 3
d: survey 4
Observed distributionN = a : 1974, b : 1973, c : 2030, d : 1986

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .000
a: Mt =75.17, SD =19.59
b: Mt =77.00, SD =19.32
c: Mt =78.14, SD =17.86
d: Mt =77.14, SD =17.15
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a, p<.010
c>a, p<.000
d>a, p<.004


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCummins et al. (2001): study AU 2001 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 2, Report 1.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelComparison with Survey 1
Page in Source 15
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
1: Survey 1: April- May 2001
2: Survey 2: December 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,97
2 Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,94
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
1 Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,88
2 Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,88


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyHeadey et al. (1995): study DE East Germany 1990
TitlePolitical Legitimicy versus Economic Imperatives in System Transformation: Hungary and East Germany 1990 - 93.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 247 - 273
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078816
Public16+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 30%
Respondents N =4453

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Life-as-a-whole
Page in Source 267
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about 'satisfaction with 
life-as-a-whole' rated 
0 entirely dissatisfied
to
10 entirely satisfied
Remarks
Assessed in 1990, 1991 and 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
1990    M = 6.6     SD = 1.4

1991    M = 6.0     SD = 2.0       

1992    M = 6.1     SD = 1.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyHeadey & Headey (2003): study DE 1990
TitleGerman Reunification: Welfare Gains and Losses East and West.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 107 - 138
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024780114892
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 40%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in Source 111, 116/7
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question asking about 
'satisfaction with life'on a 0-10 scale ranging from 
0 entirely dissatisfied
to
10 entirely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
               1990      1992        1997

East            6.9       6.1         6.3
West            7.3       7.3         6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyHeadey et al. (1995): study HU 1992
TitlePolitical Legitimicy versus Economic Imperatives in System Transformation: Hungary and East Germany 1990 - 93.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 247 - 273
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078816
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4266

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Life-as-a-whole
Page in Source 267
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about 'satisfaction with 
life-as-a-whole' rated 
0 entirely dissatisfied
to
10 entirely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Mean    6.6
SD      2.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelYear effect
Page in Source 8
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Year of survey wave:
2000 (reference)
.
.
2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.77 p < .01
YEAR 2001 (vs 2000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+1.0 p < .01
YEAR 2003 (vs 2000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.70 p < .01
YEAR 2004 (vs 2000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.77 p < .01
YEAR 2005 (vs 2000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.80 p < .01
YEAR 2006 (vs 2000)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.68 p < .01
YEAR 2007 (vs 2000)

OLRCs controlled for:
- GDP per capita
- size of city
- country
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - gender
  - education
  - age
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyVeenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995
TitleVeiligheid en Geluk. (Safety and Happiness).
SourceMuller, E.R.; Ed.: "Veiligheid Studies over Inhoud, Organisatie en Maatregelen", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 153 - 185
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8678
PublicAdults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =90000

Correlate
Author's labelCrisis
Page in Source 177
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Critical incidents in the nation such as natural 
disasters; economic recession or terrorist attacks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by crisis in the Netherlands 
from 1974 to 2002
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by crisis in Belgium from 1974 
to 2002
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by crisis in England from 1974 
to 2002
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
AVERAGE happiness by crisis in West-Germany from 
1974 to 2002
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study ZZ Developed nations 1948
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicAdults, general public, 9 developed nations, 1948-1981
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9

Correlate
Author's labelRelative temperal stability of average happiness in nations
Page in Source 134
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Similarity in rank order of average happiness in 
nations in 1948
and in 1981
Remarks
Meta-analysis of data drawn from this World database of 
happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ars=+.73 p < .01
Country        rank order of happiness
               1948               1981

Australia         2                 2/3
Britain (Great)   9                  7
France           7/8                 5
Germany (West)    4                  1
Italy            7/8                 8
Netherlands       5                  6
Norway            1                 2/3
Mexico            6                  9
USA               3                  4


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyTammes (2007): study NL 1979
TitleKomt Geluk met de Jaren? ( Does Happiness Rise with Age?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 81 - 88
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21929

Correlate
Author's labelAge cohorts
Page in Source 85
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
1= 16-29, born between 1950-1963
2= 30-44, born between 1935-1949
3= 45-59, born between 1920-1934
4= 60-74, born between 1905-1919

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=
% (very) happy in the Netherlands, 1979-2004.
Age-cohorts show comparable developments but 
younger people show more outspoken ups and downs.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyAdams (1997): study US 1980
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006806601848
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
Respondents N =623

Correlate
Author's labelChange over time
Page in Source 215
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1980
T2: 1987/1988
T3: 1989
T4: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bDMt=+
T1: M=3.08  SD=0.77
T2: M=3.20  SD=0.73
T3: M=3.24  SD=0.73
T4: M=3.21  SD=0.77
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bF=8.95 p < .00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+4.5 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=-1.9 p < .06
quadratic trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aDMt=-
T1: M=2.19  SD=0.62
T2: M=2.07  SD=0.64
T3: M=2.09  SD=0.61
T4: M=2.07  SD=0.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aF=7.47 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=-4.1 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=+1.5 p < .12
quadratic trend in means

The divergence in trend of happiness 
general-satisfaction-item cannot be explained by 
response bias or other methodological issues


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyCosta et al. (1987a): study US 1971 /1
TitleLongitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55
Public25-74 aged, USA, samples in 1971-75 and 1981-84
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11899

Correlate
Author's labelPeriod (time sequentional analysis)
Page in Source 52
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at two points in time
in different samples
- 1971-74
- 1981-84
Observed distribution1971: N = 6913, 1984 N = 4986

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM=
Average happiness at different times in 
independent samples (not the same people)

          1971-74   1981-84   Difference
Females   1,62      1,73      +,11   (ns)
25-34     -         -                     
35-44     0,41      1,31      +0,90  (05)
45-54     1,60      1,82      +0,22  (ns)  
55-64     2,15      2,21      +0,06  (ns)
65-74     2,95      2,50      -0,45  (ns)

Males     5,05      4,38      -0,67  (05)
25-34     -         - 
35-44     4,71      3,93      -0,78  (05)
45-54     4,64      4,19      -0,45  (05)
55-64     4,58      4,03      -0,55  (05)
65-74     7,25      5,98      -1,27  (05)

Affect Balance (M) computed by WDH-staff, 
subtracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect 
score
Females     1,98      1,31      -0,23
age 25-34   -         -                 
age 35-44   0,41      1,31      +0,90


Affect Balance (M) computed by WDH-staff, 
subtracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect 
score


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelSocial trauma: Kennedy's assassination
Page in Source 216
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed before and after assassination in 
november 1963.

Before:
T1: January 1963
T2: June    1963
T3: Oktober 1963

After: 
T3b: November 1963 (subsample N=366)
T4:  January 1964

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%= ns
Shortterm change in some specific affects, but not 
in (summed) Affect Balance.


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in a period of national crisis
Page in Source 82-85
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Re-interview during Cuban missile crisis in October 
1962 (T2).
This crisis involved a political con- frontation 
between the USA and the USSR and might have resulted in 
a (nuclear) war. 
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.13 p < . 05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness.
Most Ss got slightly happier.
Unaffected by worrying about the crisis.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= -
Index of Positive Affects only: G' = -.23 (01)
Stronger among Ss who were worrying about the 
crisis.
No relationship with the Index of Negative 
Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyEasterlin (1974): study US 1946 /1
TitleDoes Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceDavid, P.A.;Melvin, W.R.;Eds.: "Nations and Households in Economic Growth", Academic Press, 1974, New York, USA, 89 - 125.
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1970
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29143

Correlate
Author's labelNORC Polls Time Series
Page in Source 109
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Self report on songle question:
Taking all things together, how would you say things 
are these days? Would you say you are...?
3   very happy
2   pretty happy 
1   not too happy

Asked in 3 surveys between 1957-1965
Observed distributionMean: on original scale: 2,18, transformed to range 0-10: 5,89
Remarks
NORC Polls in: Spring '57: 2460, Dec. '63: 1501, June 
'65: 1469

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=
Time       Mean happiness  N

spr.57       6,20         2460
dec.63       5,80         1501
jun 65       5,65         1469


Correlational finding on Happiness and NATION: ERA (temporal period)
Subject code: N02

StudyEasterlin (1974): study US 1946 /1
TitleDoes Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceDavid, P.A.;Melvin, W.R.;Eds.: "Nations and Households in Economic Growth", Academic Press, 1974, New York, USA, 89 - 125.
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1970
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29143

Correlate
Author's labelAIPO Polls Time Series
Page in Source 109
Our classificationNATION: ERA (temporal period), code N02
Operationalization
Self report on songle question:
Taking all things together, how would you say things 
are these days? Would you say you are...?
3   very happy
2   fairly happy 
1   not very happy

Asked in 10 surveys between 1946-1965
Observed distributionMean: on original scale: 2,40, transformed to range 0-10: 6,99
Remarks
AIPO Polls in: Apr. '46: 3151, Dec. '47: 1434, Aug. 
'48: 1596, Nov. '52: 3003, Sep. '56: 4186, Mar. '57: 
1627, July '63: 3368, Oct. '66: 3531, Dec. '70: 1517

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-aDMt=
Time       Mean happiness  N       

apr.46       6,45         3151       
dec.47       6,60         1434
aug.48       6,65         1596
nov.52       6,95         3003
sep.56       7,40         4186
mar.57       7,55         1627
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-IDMt=
Time       Mean happiness  N

jul. 63      7,10         3668
oct. 66      7,30         3531
dec. 70      6,90         1517


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 130-131
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other 
   a general public
   b all women
   c working people
   d retired
Observed distributionN=1:313; 0a=945; 0b=386; 0c=386;0d=27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
General public    M=2.02 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.11 p < .49
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
All women         M=1.98 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.05 p < ..89
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Working people    M=2.06 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.17 p < ..27
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+.07
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Retired           M=1.88 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.10 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 p < .01
1                             M'=1.95  Mt'=4.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.14 p < .01
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
Public18+ aged general public, China, 1990-2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness
Page in Source 2329
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
Average happiness of Chinese in:
a) 1990
b) 1995
c) 2000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+/-
           1990       1995      2000
1990       M=2.87
1995         +.16     M=3.03
2000         -.01       -.17    M=2.86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 156-157
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:85 0a=3371; 0b=1766; 0c=2976; 0d=305

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.54
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .77
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
All women         M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.11 p < .67
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Working people    M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.12 p < .15
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Retired           M=1.41 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.22 p < .26
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.01 ns
1                             M'=1.53  Mt'=2.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 147-148
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1000; 0b=476;0c=632; 0d=53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
General public    M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .79
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
All women         M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.05 p < .92
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Working people    M=1.38 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.09 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Retired           M=1.12 SD=0.33
-difference       +0.21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.04 ns
1                             M'=1.33  Mt'=1.7
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.43 p < .07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
         e02ab


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study DE 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in happiness
Page in Source 4
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
Average happiness by year from 1990-2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=+/-
Year  Mean happiness
1990     6.57
1991     6.06
1992     6.10
1993     6.21
1994     6.28
1995     6.41
1996     6.42
1997     6.35
1998     6.50
1999     6.55
2000     6.48
2001     6.48
2002     6.28
2003     6.33
2004     6.13
2005     6.34
2006     6.26
2007     6.39
2008     6.54
2009     6.47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 175-176
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:294; 0a=1078; 0b=520; 0c=499; 0d=156

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.05 p < .73
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
All women         M=1.60 SD=0.59
-difference       0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=0 p < .1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Working people    M=1.53 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Retired           M=1.61 SD=0.59
-difference       -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.01 p < .99
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.02 ns
1                             M'=1.60  Mt'=3.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.06 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 188-189
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN = 1: 457 0a=1752; 0b=1000; 0c=1178; 0d=61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
General public  M = 1.59  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .39
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
All women       M = 1.60  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+05 p < .65
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
working people  M = 1.58  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.81
Retired people  M = 1.59  SD = 0,74
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 p < .05
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.09 p < .05
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NO 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Norway, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 205-206
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1030;0b=533; 0c=673;0d=40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
General public  M = 2.11  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
All women       M = 2.16  SD = 0.55
-difference        -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.02 p < .74
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Working people  M = 2.09  SD = 0.56
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives       M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Retired          M = 2.10  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.09 p < .91
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 ns
1                             M'=2.15  Mt'=5.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study GB 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1195

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 137-138
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:277; 0a=1195; 0b=590;0c=727; 0d=109

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
General public    M=1.78 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.09
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.13 p < .25
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
All women         M=1.76 SD=0.62
-difference       -0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.10 p < .32
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
Working people    M=1.80 SD=0.66
-difference       -0.10
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.16 p < .21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.70 SD=0.63
Retired           M=1.72 SD=0.58
-difference       -0.02
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.03 p < .70
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.06 p < .05
1                             M'=1.69  Mt'=3.5
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.13 p < .05
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study US 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 213-214
Our classificationHappiness in era, code N02aa
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a general public
   b all women
   c working people
   d retired
Observed distributionN=1: 337; 0a=1015; 0b=498; 0c=491;0d=71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
General public    M=1.89 SD=0.64
-difference       -0.02
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.03 p < .81
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
All women         M=1.84 SD=0.62
-difference       +0.03
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.05 p < .80
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
Working people    M=1.92 SD=0.64
-difference       -0.05
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.08 p < .60
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Housewives        M=1.87 SD=0.62
Retired           M=1.86 SD=0.64
-difference       +0.01
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.02 p < .95
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.02 ns
1                             M'=1.87  Mt'=4.4
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.04 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01

StudyBjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997
TitleThe Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction around the World.
SourcePublic Choice, 2007, Vol. 130, 267 - 292
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11127-006-9081-5
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelPost-communist
Page in Source 11
Our classificationAverage happiness in era, code N02aa01
Operationalization
Postcommunist nation 
1 no
2 yes
Remarks
"Postcommunist" nations had a totalitarian communist 
regime between 1950-2000.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.16 p < .01
% very happy citizens by a (recent) communist 
history

B controlled for
-social trust
-openness
-investment price
-log GDP per capita
-government consumption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 1111
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
T0: 1994
:
T16: 2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dX=


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE East Germany 1991
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, East Germany, followed 1- 14 years, Germany, 1991-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48688

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 438, 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
T0: happiness in East-Germany in 1990
T1: happiness in East-Germany in 1991
T2: happiness in East-Germany in 1999
T3: happiness in East-Germany in 2004
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR), which was reunited in 
1990 with the BRD (former West-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Happiness T0: M=6.59
Happiness T2: M=6.51
- difference:   0.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.48
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.79
CHANGE in happiness over 13 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 13 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /1
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, followed 1-21 years, Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205410

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
T1: Happiness in West-Germany in 1984
T2: Happiness in West-Germant in 2004
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.47
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.2
CHANGE in happiness over 21 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 21 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, European immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24930

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
T1: Happiness of immigrants in West-Germany  in 1984
T2: Happiness of immigrants in West-Germany  in 2004
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.66
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.4
CHANGE in happiness over 21 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 21 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /2
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, Turkish immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15520

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
T1: happiness Turks in West-Germany in 1984
T2: happiness Turks in West-Germany in 2004
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.58
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0
CHANGE in happiness over 21 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 21 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend average happiness in era
Subject code: N02aa01a

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 1981
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =988

Correlate
Author's labelYear
Page in Source 163
Our classificationTrend average happiness in era, code N02aa01a
Operationalization
Responses to similar question on happiness in 1999 and 
in 2002
Observed distributionN = 1999: 988, 2002: 1185
Remarks
2002 data taken from National Economic and Socail Forum 
(NESF) survey using question type O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-eb

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aD%=+/-
                 1999    2002  difference
1 (dissatisfied)  1       0     +1
2                 0       0      0
3                 2       1     +1
4                 2       2      0
5                 4       7      3
6                 6       7     +1
7                 15      19    +4
8                 22      31    +9
9                 17      19    +2
10 (satisfied)    31      14   -17

Mean              8.15    7.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in Australia
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Trend in Australia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Slight decrease in average happiness in spite of 
rising average income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study BY 1984
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public,Belarus, 1984-1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change: before and after the fall of socialism in 1990
Page in Source 5,20
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism   1984
1 Capitalism  1990-1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
             Mean LS
1984           7,20
1990           5,52
1996           4,35
1999           4,81
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study CN 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 1997-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change
Page in Source 20, Table1.A2,5,fig1.2
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism
1 Capitalism
Remarks
This period involved a consolidation of the change from 
communist plan economy to state directed capitalism

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-IDM=+/-
Happiness trend is U-shaped, see picture.
               LS (1-5)
1997            3.69
1998            3.48
1999            3.44
2000            3.27
2001            3.28
2002            3.33
2003            3.26
2004            3.38
2005            3.28
2006            3.52
2007            3.35
2008            3.51
2009            3.47
2010            3.41
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study CN 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 1990-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change
Page in Source 20
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0  1990
1  1995
2  2001
3  2007
Remarks
In this period communist plan economy changed into 
state conducted capitalism:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
Happpiness trend is U-shaped, see picture.
                 M
1990            7.29
1995            6.83
2001            6.53
2007            6.76
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEhrhardt et al. (2000): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleStability of Life-Satisfaction over Time. Analysis of Change in Ranks in National Population.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2000, Vol. 1, 177 - 205
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8851
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1010084410679
Public18+ aged general public West-Germany, followed 10 years, 1984-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5483

Correlate
Author's labelOvertime correlations of life-satisfaction total sample
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Mean and standard deviation. Happiness assessed at
T1 = 1984
T2 = 1985
T3 = 1986
T4 = 1987
T5 = 1988
T6 = 1989
T7 = 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=7.54
interval T1-T2 Mean  = 7.54 SD = 2.06
interval T2-T3 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 2.01
interval T3-T4 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 1.90
interval T4-T5 Mean  = 7.18 SD = 1.89
interval T5-T6 Mean  = 7.11 SD = 1.89
interval T6-T7 Mean  = 7.10 SD = 1.90
T7             Mean  = 7.24 SD = 1.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelYear
Page in Source 29
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
1 2002
2 2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.23 p < .00
2003 (vs 2002)

B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment rate
Page in Source 9
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Unemployment
Remarks
Data unemployment rate: German Federal Labor office
Unemployment rate 2005 is adjusted for one-off 
statistical effects associated with merging different 
welfare programs

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Average happiness in nation by unemployment over 
the years

Life satisfaction and the unemployment rate 
generally move in opposite directions
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study DE 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change: before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source 4
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism
1 Capitalism

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=-
                          1990  2004   DM

Overall life satisfaction 6,57  6,55   -.02

After 2004 life satisfaction shows an upward trend 
to 2008, followed by a decline from 2008-2009. See 
figure.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness for East and West Germans
Page in Source 655
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study DE West Germany 1985
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8649

Correlate
Author's labelnational income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Real Annual Income measured in 1995 Deutschmarks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
AVERAGE HAPPINESS and AVERAGE INCOME over 15 
years.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income in nation
Page in Source Figure 3
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Average real income in nation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study HU 1982
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1982-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change: before and after the fall of socialism in 1990
Page in Source 5,21
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism  1982-1990
1 Capitalism 1998-2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
         Mean happiness
1982      6,93
1990      6,03
1998      5,78
2005      6,30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyKusago (2007): study JP 1978
TitleRethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post - WW 2 Japan - A Fresh Approach
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 79 - 102
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0016-9
PublicGeneral public, Japan, 3 annual 1978-2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =18

Correlate
Author's labelPercentage of happiness
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
1978: 55.7%
1981: 55.7%
1984: 64.2%
1987: 49.9%
1990: 54.1%
1993: 51.2%
1996: 47.7%
1999: 44.3%
2002: 41.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-e
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2005c): study JP 1958
TitleDiminishing Marginal Utility of Income? A Caveat.
SourceSocial Indicators Research; 70: 243-255
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/27522165
Public18+ aged general public, Japan, 1958-1987
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelReal GDP/capita
Page in Source 249
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Real gdp/capita

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-7-ab=+.07 ns
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/pc in Japan

The figure below contrasts the cross-national 
pattern of wealth/happiness observed in the 1980's 
with the change in average happiness over time in 
Japan (which experiuende much economic growth over 
these years)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study JP 1958
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, Japan, 1958-2007
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelChange GDP/capita
Page in Source 23
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
% yearly change in GDP/capita (log) at purchasing power 
parity (in 2000 international dollars)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.24 p < .05
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE GDP/capita

b controlled for:
- unemployment rate
- dummies for each different question
Set Image size:   

O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

Study~Gallup (2015a): study ZZ World samples 2006 /1
Title2015 Global Emotions.
SourceReport Gallup, 2015, New York, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/services/184850/gallup-2015-emotions-report.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 153 nations, 2006-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal emotions compared
Page in Source 1,2,6
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Positive experiences:
- Did you feel well yesterday?
- Were you treated with respect all day yesterday?
- Did you smile or laugh a lot yesterday?
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about enjoyment?
Negative experiences:
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about physical pain?
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about worry?
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about sadness?
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about stress?
- Did you experience the following feelings during a 
lot of the day? How about anger ?
The negative experiences score was subtracted from the 
positive experience score to compute the global emotion 
score (ABS).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mbD%=
Year PA NA ABS
2006 68 24 44
2007 68 23 45
2008 69 24 45
2009 70 24 46
2010 70 24 46
2011 69 24 45
2012 69 26 43
2013 71 27 44
2014 71 25 46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelLS GINI
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Gini coefficient of life satisfaciton distribution in 
nations.
Observed distributionM=20.26, Range from 35.03 (Domincian Republic) to 8.2 (Netherlands)
Remarks
A Gini coefficient of 0 indicates complete equality 
within a nation and a Gini 1.0 means that a single 
individual possesses all of that resource and all other 
people are at zero. Findings are trend to happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.71 p < .01
Gini LS GINI by AVERAGE happiness of 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study ZZ Developing nations 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, developing nations, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income distribution
Page in Source 22, Table A5
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
During and after the fall of socialism in 1990:
0  During transition
1 15 years after
Remarks
Nations: China, Russia and East Germany.
Years of measurement: 1990 and 2006 (China 2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
Mean happiness in:  1990   2006/7      change
- China             6,83    5,70       -1,13
- Russia            3,17    4,70       +1,53
- East Germany      5,93    5,87       -0,06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
CHINA
Upper incomes                           -1,3
Middle incomes                          -1,4
Lower incomes                           -2,3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
RUSSIA
Upper                                   +2,4
Middle                                  +1,4
Lower                                   +0,6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
EAST GERMANY
Upper incomes                           -1,5
Middle incomes                          -0,2
Lower incomes                           -1,7

Unweighed averages computed by the WDH-team on the 
basis of Table 1.A.5
The average  of 7,3 for China in 1990 reported in 
table A2 does not fit the split-up by income 
reported in table A5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleApparent Quality-of-Life in Nations: How Long and Happy People Live.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 61 - 86
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7200
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8014-2
PublicAdults, general public, 67 nations, 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in happy life years 1948-1998
Page in Source 71
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a
Happy life years in the USA 1948-1988
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyInglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981
TitleDevelopment, Freedom, and Rising Happiness.
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, Vol. 3, 264 - 285
Public18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72000

Correlate
Author's labelChange average happiness
Page in Source 271, 272, 274
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Average happiness in a nation assessed at:
T1: first survey
T2: last survey, at least 10 years later
Observed distributionNot reported.
Remarks
Data: World Values Surveys. 52 nations involved in at 
least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 
YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first and 
last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year 
time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of 
countries with a 10-year series. 
T1 = first survey
T2 = last survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.75 p < .001
T1 AVERAGE happiness by T2 AVERAGE happiness in 41 
nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.50 p < .001
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=+.63 p < .001
B's controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally 
controlled for T1 national pride and T1-sense of 
free choice.

B's are positive: higher initial level at T1 
(first survey) predicts higher level at T2 (last 
survey).
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.16 p < .001
T2-T1 CHANGE in average happiness by T1 AVERAGE 
happiness in 59 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.14 p < .05
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=-.11 p < .05
B's controlled for T1-T2 CHANGE in sense of free 
choice in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.29 p < .001
B additionally controlled for T2-T1 CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.12 ns
O-Sum---mq-*-14-ab=-.16 ns

Negative B's mean that higher average happiness at 
T1 (first survey) predicts lower increase in 
average happiness between T2 (last survey) and T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven (2005c): study ZZ 1973
TitleIs Life getting Better? How Long and Happily Do People live in Modern Society?
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 330 - 343
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7199
PublicAdults, general public, EU 8 member states, USA and Japan, 1973-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend average happiness
Page in Source 338
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HV---sq-vt-11-a
Nation      Yearly increase  
               B     CI95
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.01
Luxemburg   +.009  [+.002;+.017]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.02
Denmark     +.016  [+.010;+.022]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.01
France      +.010  [-.003;+.016]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=-.00
Germany W   +.001  [-.006;+.009]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.00
USA         +.003  [-.005;+.012]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.00
UK          +.002  [-.003;+.008]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.00
Netherlands +.003  [-.002;+.009]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=+.03
Italy       +.032  [+.026;+.039]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=-.02
Japan       -.016  [-.025;-.008]
O-HV---sq-vt-11-ab=-.03
Belgium     -.026  [-.039;+.013]

B is average yearly change in points on scale 0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven (2005c): study ZZ 1973
TitleIs Life getting Better? How Long and Happily Do People live in Modern Society?
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 330 - 343
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7199
PublicAdults, general public, EU 8 member states, USA and Japan, 1973-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend Happy Life Years (HLY)
Page in Source 337
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.20
Trend in happy life years in some modern nations 
1973 - 2002
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven & Hagerty (2006): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleRising Happiness in Nations 1946 - 2004: A Reply to Easterlin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 421 - 436
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16435
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-5074-x
Public15+ aged, general public, 8 EU member states, 1973 - 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend average happiness
Page in Source 430
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
The same question on happiness repeated twice every 
year in surveys in all 8 nations.
Mean scores per year.
Remarks
Data: World Database of happiness, Collection Happiness 
in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 p < .05
b=+.008
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyStevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ Europe 1973
TitleEconomic Growth and Subjective Well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox.
SourceBrooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w14282.pdf?new_window=1
Public18+ aged general public, Europe, 1973-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1210000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend lifesatisfaction in EU
Page in Source figure 17
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Trend average life satisfaction 1972-2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+
Country ans wave fixed effects included
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ Developed nations 1973 /1
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7204
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8857-5
PublicAdults, general public, 8 European nations and USA, 1973-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =12000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend 1973-2004
Page in Source 438
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index of 
mean and standard deviation of life-satisfaction in 
nations.
Nation scores compared over time 1973-2004
Observed distributionPossible range 0-100, actual range: 74-20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Change Inequality Adjusted Happiness 1973- 2004 on 
0-100 scale
Set Image size:   

O-SLW---sq-t-11-a
Top line    = USA
Bottom line = EU
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Italy      10.57
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Denmark     5.12
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
USA         3.35
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Luxembourg  3.32
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
France      3.22
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Ireland     2.05
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Britain     1.36
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Netherlands 0.90
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=+
Germany     0.59
(West)
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=-
Japan       3.50
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aDM=-
Belgium     6.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyHagerty & Veenhoven (2003): study ZZ World samples 1972
TitleWealth and Happiness Revisited. Growing National Income Does Go with Greater Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 1 - 27
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8672
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1024790530822
PublicAdutl general population in 21 nations, 1972-1996
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =9300000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage happiness and GDP/capita
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Economic affluence: Mean GDP/capita per year

Happiness: Average per year
Remarks
Data: World Database of happiness, Collection Happiness 
in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
ALL countries: beta= + 0.08

country fixed effects included
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
low gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.010
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=+.01
medium gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.006
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=+.00
high gdp/capita countries: beta= + 0.004


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven (2005d): study ZZ EU 14 1970
TitleReturn of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction across Time and Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 457 - 487
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7202
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-4
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 14 member states, 1973-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =374000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in dispersion of life-satisfaction
Page in Source 474-477
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you 
lead?
4  very satisfied
3  fairly satisfied
2  not very satisfied
1  not at all satisfied
-  Don't know
Observed distributionAverage standard deviation about 0,7
Remarks
Inequality in happiness measured using the standard 
deviation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 p < .05
B = -.00176 CI95 [ -0,001 to -0,003]
This means a yearly drop in inequality of 0,18%. 
If this trend continues lineriarly, it will take 
about 50 years to reduce the standard-deviation 
from about 0,7 to 0,6 and another 300 years would 
be required to reduce it to zero
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
Decline of inequality of happiness stronger in 
South than North European countries
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b
The decline of standard deviations is only partly 
due to rise of the mean level of happiness
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven (2005d): study ZZ EU 14 1970
TitleReturn of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction across Time and Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 457 - 487
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7202
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-4
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 14 member states, 1973-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =374000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in life-satisfaction
Page in Source 476
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you 
lead?
4  very satisfied
3  fairly satisfied
2  not very satisfied
1  not at all satisfied
-  Don't know
Remarks
Level of happiness measured using the average. 
Inequality of happiness measured using the standard 
deviation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
Northern EU nations: stable level, slight decline 
of dispersion in happiness

Southern EU countries: rising level, strong 
decline of dispersion in happiness
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven & Vergunst (2014): study ZZ World samples 1946
TitleThe Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with Greater Happiness.
SourceInt. Journal Happiness and Development, 2014, Vol. 1, 311 - 343
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub2010s/EasterlinIllusion11c.pdf
PublicAdult general population 67 nations followed 10 to 40 years 1946 to 2011
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000000

Correlate
Author's labelChange average happiness
Page in Source table 2
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Difference in responses to equivalent questions on 
happiness in the same country over the years.
Time series with at least 2 observations of at least 10 
years difference.
Remarks
199 time series

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-aOR=2,02
Ratio of rise/decline in all 199 series
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.02
All 199 time series: b = +.016
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.02
114 10-20 yea time series only: b = +.017
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-ab=+.01
67 20-40 year time series only: b = +,013
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-a
18 > 40 year time series only: b = +.020


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudySchmeets (2001): study NL 1997
TitleJong en Gelukkig. (Young and Happy).
SourceIndex, 2001, April nr. 4, 8 - 9
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/schmeets_h_2001A.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997-1999
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in Satisfaction
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How satisfied are you 
with the life you currently lead?
1: not so satisfied
2: fairly satisfied
3: satisfied
4: very satisfied
5: extraordinary satisfied
Remarks
Satisfaction assessed at 1997,1998, 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
          M      SD      Difference with year
                         before
a:1997  3,31    0,89
b:1998  3,41    0,90       +0,10
c:1999  3,34    0,85       -0,07
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBMCT= p < .05
a,c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness 1995-2000
Page in Source 331
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1995
T2: 2000
Observed distributionT1 (1995) M = 2,21 SD = 1,06 T2 (2000) M = 2,36 SD = 1,08
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naDM=+
T1 (1995) M = 2,21  SD = 1,06
T2 (2000) M = 2,36  SD = 1,08
difference   +0,15
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=
Positive among:
- people who's income increased   (B =+.19)

Negative among:
- school leavers                  (B = -.84)
- people who got divorced         (B = -.57)

No significant change in happiness across
- age
- gender
- minority status
- change in marital status other than divorce
- change in employment
- change in smoking


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study RU 1988
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia,1988-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change: before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source 5,20
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism   1988
1 Capitalism  1990-2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
           Mean happiness
1988          6.46
1990          5.37
1993          5.05
1995          4.45
1998          4.74
2005          6.09
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study SI 1999
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1992-1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical change: before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source 6
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
0 Socialism
1 Capitalism

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelTrend happiness in Turkey
Page in Source 540, 541, 546-552
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Happiness assessed in:
- 1990
- 1996
- 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=-
1990: M = 3,08 CI95 [3,03-3,18] SD = 0,75
1996: M = 3,37 CI95 [3,34-3,40] SD = 0,73
2001: M = 3,01 CI95 [2,98-3,04] SD = 0,91
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.13 p < .10
1990 (compared to 2001)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.75 p < .01
1996 (compared to 2001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Life satisfaction assessed in :
1990 M= 6,389 SD=2,468
1996 M= 6,193 SD=2,527
2001 M= 5,799 SD=2,689
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.42 p < .01
1990 (compared to 2001)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.10 p < .10
1996 (compared to 2001)

OLRC's are controled for:
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that individuals 
were the most happy in 1996 and the least happy in 
2001. Comparison is only possible across 
associations with the same happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyBjornskov (2008a): study US 1993
TitleSocial Capital and Happiness in the United States.
SourceApplied Research Quality of Life, 2008, Vol. 3, 43 - 62
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-008-9046-6
Public18+aged, general public, 9 regions, USA, 1983-1998
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60200

Correlate
Author's labelTrends in life-satisfaction 1983-1998
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: I am very satisfied 
with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6  definitively agree
Remarks
Assessed in 1983 and 1998; 
happiness-measure type O-SLP/c/sq/v/6/a

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=
Average happiness in 1983 by average happiness in 
1998
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.68 p < .01
Pacific
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.58 p < .01
Mid Atlantic
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.55 p < .01
New England
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.50 p < .01
South Atlantic
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.40 p < .01
East North Central
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.28 p < .05
West South Central
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.03 ns
East South Central
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=.00 ns
West North Central
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=+.07 ns
Mountain
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-atb=-.53 p < .05
All USA


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study US 1975
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per Capita
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Real GDP per Capita measured in 1990 U.S. Dollars

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=0 ns
AVERAGE HAPPINESS and AVERAGE INCOME over 20 
years.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2005a): study US 1972
TitleFeeding the Illusion of Growth and Happiness: A Reply to Hagerty and Veenhoven.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 429 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-6170-z
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1972-2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend happiness and GDP/capita
Page in Source 431
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Economic affluence: Yearly GDP/capita

Happiness: same question asked over the years in 30 
surveys
Remarks
Data on average happiness: World Database of happiness, 
Collection Happiness in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=-.00 ns
AVERAGE happiness by GDP/pc over the years
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyEasterlin (2005c): study US 1972
TitleDiminishing Marginal Utility of Income? A Caveat.
SourceSocial Indicators Research; 70: 243-255
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/27522165
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1972-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =46000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP/capita
Page in Source 251
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Real GDP/capita (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.01 ns
AVERAGE happiness by Real GDP/pc in USA

The picture below contrasts the change in 
happiness expected on the basis of 
income/happiness correlational with the observed 
change in happiness over time
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness over time
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with income
Page in Source p6 + Figure 5
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Would you say you are 
pretty well satisfied with your financial situation 
(3), more or less satisfied (2) or not satisfied at 
all?(1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in general public
Subject code: N02aa01aa

StudyVeenhoven & Hagerty (2006): study US 1946
TitleRising Happiness in Nations 1946 - 2004: A Reply to Easterlin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 421 - 436
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16435
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-5074-x
PublicAdult, general public, United States 1946-2004
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend
Page in Source 428
Our classificationTrend in general public, code N02aa01aa
Operationalization
Mean GDP/capita
Remarks
Data: World Database of happiness, Collection Happiness 
in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-v*-4-ab=+.00 ns
b=+.002
Set Image size:   

O-HL---sq-vt-3-ab=+.00 ns
b=+0.002
Set Image size:   

C-BW---sq-nt-11-ab=+.01 p < .05
b=+0.008
Set Image size:   

O-SLP-c-sq-v-2-ab=+.02 p < .05
b=+0.016
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyLuechinger et al. (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy does Unemployment Hurt the Unemployed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and Privat Sector.
SourceWWZ Working Paper 03/008, Center of Business and Economics (WWZ), 2008, University of Basel, Switzerland
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3385.pdf
PublicEmployees, private and public sector. West-Germany, 1984-2004.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20764

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in regional unemployment
Page in Source 10, 28
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Mean adjusted annual unemployment rate in 
Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland 1984-2004 (weighted by 
their populations)
Observed distributionRange in unemployment rate: 6-11%
Remarks
Source: GSOEP 1984-2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Figure 1: more unemployment, lower average 
happiness in private and public sector.
(Germany, Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland).
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
Average happiness of employees in year by 
unemployment rate in region in year.

B controlled for:
-actual working hours
-individual and household income
-persons in household
-having children 
-head of household
-age squared/100
-years of education
-working full-time/part-time
-partner employed/unemployed
-marital status
-state and year (dummies)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelLabour market status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Registration in the official unemployment register:

A Employed (including fulltime & parttime employment 
and excuding self-employment)
B Out of labour force
C Unemployed
D Employed with unemployment experience: unemployed in 
at least one of the other years.
Observed distributionN= 1984 A;3530 B:445 C:208 D:248 1985 A:3043 B:382 C:233 D:206 1986 A:2856 B:385 C:175 D:226 1987 A:2858 B:370 C:182 D:218 1988 A:2661 B:347 C:189 D:200 1989 A:2563 B:392 C:125 D:207

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
All
Year   N      Mean  CI95
1984   4183   7,4   [7,37 7,50]
1985   3658   7,2   [7,17 7,30]
1986   3416   7,3   [7,22 7,35]
1987   3410   7,2   [7,12 7,25]
1988   3197   7,1   [7,02 7,15]
1989   3080   7,1   [7,06 7,19]

Employed
Year   N      Mean  CI95
1984   3530   7,6   [7,58 7,70]
1985   3043   7,4   [7,36 7,48]
1986   2856   7,5   [7,39 7,52]
1987   2858   7,3   [7,25 7,38]
1988   2661   7,2   [7,16 7,29]
1989   2563   7,3   [7,19 7,32]

Out of Labour Force
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   445   6,7   [6,45  6,92]
1985   382   6,9   [6,67  7,11]
1986   385   6,8   [6,62  7,06]
1987   370   6,9   [6,66  7,09]
1988   347   6,7   [6,44  6,89]
1989   392   6,7   [6,50  6,94]

Unemployed
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   208   5,6   [5,20  5,98]
1985   233   5,3   [4,96  5,64]
1986   175   5,4   [5,06  5,75]
1987   182   5,7   [5,36  6,09]
1988   189   5,9   [5,57  5,90]
1989   125   5,8   [5,34  6,25]

Employed with unemployment experience
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   248   7,3   [7,00  7,57]
1985   206   7,1   [6,83  7,39]
1986   226   6,9   [6,63  7,17]
1987   218   6,9   [6,66  7,20]
1988   200   7,0   [6,71  7,26]
1989   207   6,9   [6,67  7,19]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984 /2
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public25+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial security expenditure
Page in Source 11,31
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Social security expenditures

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bD%=+
Trend happiness concurs with trend social security 
expenditures over the years 1975-1990, but not 
after 1990
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984 /1
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public25+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial security expenditures
Page in Source 11,32
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
Trends happiness and social security diverge 
before 1992 and converge after
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyBörsch-Supan & Jürgens (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleEarly Retirement, Social Security and Well-Being in Germany.
SourceNational Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper 12303., 2006, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w12303
Public50-65 aged, West-Germany, followed 18 years, 1984-2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial security expenditures
Page in Source 11,32
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
% very satisfied; decreases more or less 
continuously.

Trends happiness and social security expenditures 
converge over the years 1984-1992, but not after.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 9, 11
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
0: Full-time employed (basegroup)
1: Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
DM's measure change in life satisfaction to 
reference group "not unemployed" individuals
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.52 p < .01
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.62 p < .01
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.42 p < .01
Women only

OPRC's controlled for:
- long-term unemployment, longer than one year
- transitory income (truncated model)
- family status
- age, age squared
- number of children
- years of education
- house ownership
- health indicators

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size

Relative values denote that unemployment 
corresponds to 1,5 lower happiness in men compared 
to women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984 /2
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, Turkish immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15520

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
T1: happiness Turks in West-Germany in 1984
T2: happiness Turks in West-Germany in 2004
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.58
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0
CHANGE in happiness over 21 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 21 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16+ aged, European immigrants, West Germany, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24930

Correlate
Author's labelTrend in era
Page in Source 39 (appendix)
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
T1: Happiness of immigrants in West-Germany  in 1984
T2: Happiness of immigrants in West-Germany  in 2004
Remarks
West-Germany entails the area of the former Bundes 
Republik Deutschland (BRD), which was reunited in 1990 
with the DDR (former East-Germany).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.66
AVERAGE T2 happiness by AVERAGE T1 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.4
CHANGE in happiness over 21 year period ONLY for 
persons who were followed 21 years.

B's not controlled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicUnemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelAverage change in well-being of the unemployed 1980-1990
Page in Source 179
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
A Low welfare state levels and increase social 
security:
 a Canada
 b Italy
 c Japan
 d Mexico
 e Spain

B Low welfare state levels and decrease social 
security:
 a Great Britain
 b USA
 c Norway (happiness)
 d Argentina (life satisfaction)

C High welfare state levels and increase social 
security:
 a Denmark
 b Finland
 c France
 d Netherlands
 e Sweden
 f Norway (life satisfaction)

D High welfare state levels and increase social 
security:
 a West Germany
 b Ireland
Remarks
state welfare level at the starting point in 1980 and 
change in social security expenditures 1980-1990

dividing point level welfare state spending in low and 
high is 17.4 % of GDP for happiness and 17.8 % for life 
satisfaction

happiness scores werre converted from a 4-point to a 
10-point scale to enable comparison with change in life 
satisfacttion

data social security: ILO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-.73
Canada
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.13
Italy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-.78
Japan
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.13
Mexico
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.88
Spain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-.13
Great Britain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.15
USA
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.38
Denmark
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.43
Finland
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.03
France
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-.05
Netherlands
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+.00
Sweden
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-2.5
West Germany
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=-2.8
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.26
Canada
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-1.5
Finland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.95
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-.48
Japan
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-.42
Mexico
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+1.3
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.24
Argentina
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-.55
Great Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-.16
USA
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.20
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.26
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-.13
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.54
Norway
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.06
Sweden
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=-1.5
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDMt=+.37
Ireland

DMt is increase/decrease on scale 1-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyVeenhoven & VanSchoonhoven (1991): study ZZ EU 11 1975
TitleLevensvoldoening van Alleenstaanden; Achterstand op Samenwoners in 11 EG landen 1974-1986. (Life Satisfaction of Singles; Arrearage on Cohabitants in 11 EC countries 1974-1986).
SourceGezin, 1991, Vol.3, 15 - 25
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16152
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 11 member states, 1975-1986
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelliving together (vs single)
Page in Source 21
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
0 single
  - never married
  - separated
  - widowed
1 together
  - married
  - unmarried co-habiting
Remarks
Possibly some of the married Ss live alone and some of 
the singles may in fact live together

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.13
AVERAGE correlation in all nations and years
Co-habitors tend to be happier than singles

Average correlation is similar across separate 
countries and varies between +.10 and +.16, with 
the exception of France (+.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.08
CHANGE in correlation over the years
Cohabitors have become happier relative to singles

Trend correlations differ across separate nations. 
Cohabitors became less happy relatively in 
Denmark, France and Ireland, but happier in 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands 
and the UK, while no change occured in Belgiun and 
Northern Ireland.

The overall trend in differs slightly across sex 
and age categories:
             Males      Females
all 18 aged  r = +.08   r = +.01
25-39 aged   r = +.07   r = +.08
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyWildeboer Schut (2009): study NL 1977
TitleBijt de Vrouwenemancipatie zich in de eigen Staart? (Back-Kick of Womanemancipation?).
SourceSchnabel,P. (Ed).: "M/V", Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP), 2009, The Haque, Netherlands, 185 - 190
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response+/- 50 %
Respondents N =57902

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 188,189
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
% Very happy
Set Image size:   

O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- p < .01
Female trend in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.88)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- ns
Male trend in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.30)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- p < .01
Trend in difference in happiness between females 
and Males in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.21)

OPRC's controlled for :
- income
- education
- age
- employment status
- housework as main activity or not
- parental status
- being in a single houshold or not
- marital status
- church membership

OPRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences, eg 
greater negative trend among females than among 
males.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness 1995-2000
Page in Source 331
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1995
T2: 2000
Observed distributionT1 (1995) M = 2,21 SD = 1,06 T2 (2000) M = 2,36 SD = 1,08
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naDM=+
T1 (1995) M = 2,21  SD = 1,06
T2 (2000) M = 2,36  SD = 1,08
difference   +0,15
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=
Positive among:
- people who's income increased   (B =+.19)

Negative among:
- school leavers                  (B = -.84)
- people who got divorced         (B = -.57)

No significant change in happiness across
- age
- gender
- minority status
- change in marital status other than divorce
- change in employment
- change in smoking


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelTrend happiness in males and females
Page in Source 540, 541
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Happiness assessed in:
- 1990
- 1996
- 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=-
1990 males:   M= 2,96 CI95 [2,89-3,02] SD=0,76
1990 females: M= 3,20 CI95 [3,14-3,27] SD=0,73

1996 males:   M= 3,29 CI95 [3,24-3,33] SD=0,76
1996 females: M= 3,45 CI95 [3,41-3,49] SD=0,76

2001 males:   M= 2,92 CI95 [2,87-2,96] SD=0,94
2001 females: M= 3,11 CI95 [3,07-3,15] SD=0,87
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Males
1990 M=4,90 CI95 [4,05-5,74] SD=4,14
1996 M=5,33 CI95 [4,77-5,89] SD=4,02
2001 M=4'98 CI95 [4,59-5,28] SD=4,17
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Females

1990: M=5,19 CI95 [4,22-6,15] SD:4,14
1996: M=4,84 CI95 [4,20-5,48] SD:4,19
2001: M=4,79 CI95 [4,37-5,22] SD:4,24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyArora (2003): study US 2000
TitleHappiness and the Jobless Recovery.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 17 June 2003, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/http://www.gallup.com/poll/8644/happiness-jobless-recovery.aspx
Public18+aged, employed, USA, 2000-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 1
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
Unemployment rate in %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-g-sq-v-2-bD%=- p < .05
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend in special publics
Subject code: N02aa01ab

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971 /1
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicFemale, United States of America, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelTrend female happiness
Page in Source 1067
Our classificationTrend in special publics, code N02aa01ab
Operationalization
1 Housewives: Women not in labor force
0 Employed:     Women in labor force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+/-
% very happy in 6 studies:
Study     N    Employed Housewives Difference
1971 QAL  252  45,8 %   34,9 %     -10,9 %   
1972 NORC 205  32,1 %   34,2 %      +2,1 %  
1973 NORC 234  39,8 %   43   %      +3,2 %
1974 NORC 224  50   %   45,4 %      -4,6 %
1975 NORC 238  45,8 %   40   %      -5,8 %
1976 NORC 243  47,6 %   34,8 %     -12,8 % 
Sum       1396
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-atau=+/-
Tau in 6 studies:
Study         Tau
1971 QAL  252  +.11   
1972 NORC 205  -.02 
1973 NORC 234  -.03
1974 NORC 224  -.05
1975 NORC 238  +.02
1976 NORC 243  +.11
Sum       1396


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in age groups
Subject code: N02aa01ac

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study DE 1984
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56240

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Our classificationTrend happiness in age groups, code N02aa01ac
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in age groups
Subject code: N02aa01ac

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 1981
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981-2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =988

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 161
Our classificationTrend happiness in age groups, code N02aa01ac
Operationalization
1: 18-29
2: 30-39
3: 40-49
4: 50-64
5: 65+
Observed distribution1981: N = 1493 1999 : N = 1481 not reported 2002: N = 988: 1: 330, 2: 187, 3: 217, 4: 268, 5: 183

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aD%=+/-
% very happy (8-10)
       1981   1990   1999
18-29:  60     65     65
30-39:  70     61     74
40-49:  74     70     71
50-64:  70     70     72
65+:    61     64     69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in age groups
Subject code: N02aa01ac

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 18,24
Our classificationTrend happiness in age groups, code N02aa01ac
Operationalization
1 = male
0 = female
Observed distributionM = 0.36 SD = 0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.31 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- married (married =1)
- work (is employed)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in age groups
Subject code: N02aa01ac

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelage
Page in Source 313
Our classificationTrend happiness in age groups, code N02aa01ac
Operationalization
Age at T1
46-50
51-55
56-60
61-65
66-70
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM= ns
Females: Mean happiness at:  Difference  N
         T1    T2    T3       T1-T3
46-50    7.1   7.2   6.9      -.2       37
51-55    7.2   7.5   7.1      -.1       30  
56-60    7.5   7.3   7.3      -.2       35
61-65    6.7   6.9   6.8      +.1       36
66-70    6.8   7.2   7.0      +.1       43
Total    7.0   7.2   7.0       .0      181
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM=0 ns
Males:  Mean happiness at:   Difference  N
        T1    T2    T3       T1-T3
46-50   7.1   7.6   7.3      +.2         36
51-55   6.9   6.8   7.1      +.2         35
56-60   7.2   7.3   7.2       .0         49
61-65   7.3   7.2   6.9      -.4         38 
66-70   7.2   7.3   7.1      -.2         39
Total   7.2   7.3   7.1      -.1        197


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in males /females
Subject code: N02aa01ad

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelMeans
Page in Source 731
Our classificationTrend happiness in males /females, code N02aa01ad
Operationalization
1: males
0: females

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                1991  2001  difference
Males:     M =  6.00  6.42  +0.42
Females:   M =  5.93  6.51  +0.58
- difference   +0.07 -0.09  -0.02
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in educational groups
Subject code: N02aa01ae

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 19,24
Our classificationTrend happiness in educational groups, code N02aa01ae
Operationalization
1 primary school
2 high school
3 university
Observed distribution1. M = 0.35 SD = 0.48 2. M = 0.50 SD = 0.50 3. M= 0.15 SD = 0.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.06 ns
High scholl (vs primary only)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.14 p < .10
University (vs primary only)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-a
OLRC controled for:
- age
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in educational groups
Subject code: N02aa01ae

StudyEasterlin (2001): study US 1994
TitleIncome and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 2001, Vol. 111, 465 - 484
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2667943
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2627

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of Education
Page in Source 475
Our classificationTrend happiness in educational groups, code N02aa01ae
Operationalization
a at least highschool education
b not finished highschool

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=ns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in unemployed
Subject code: N02aa01ah

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 18,24
Our classificationTrend happiness in unemployed, code N02aa01ah
Operationalization
1: employed
0: unemployed
Observed distributionM = 0.61 SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.22 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness marrital categories
Subject code: N02aa01aj

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 17,24
Our classificationTrend happiness marrital categories, code N02aa01aj
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
Observed distributionM = 0,69 SD = 0,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+/0
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.35 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- work (is employed)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in urban/rural population
Subject code: N02aa01ak

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelResidence
Page in Source 18,24
Our classificationTrend happiness in urban/rural population, code N02aa01ak
Operationalization
1 = urban
0 = rural

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.14 p < .05
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in urban/rural population
Subject code: N02aa01ak

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelCalorie consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationTrend happiness in urban/rural population, code N02aa01ak
Operationalization
Calories (total calories consumed per day) in 
logarithm.
Observed distributionM = 7.54 SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.09 p < .05
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in income groups
Subject code: N02aa01al

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study DE 1990 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelTrends in income before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source Table 1.A5
Our classificationTrend happiness in income groups, code N02aa01al
Operationalization
Before and after the fall of socialism:
0 Before (1990)
1 After      (2006)
Income distribution in thirds:
A Lower
B Middle
C Upper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=
Happiness by income thirds:
             1990  2006  difference
Upper         6,6   7,1    +0,5
Middle        6,0   6,2    +0,2
Lower         5,3   4,3    -1,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in income groups
Subject code: N02aa01al

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study ZZ Developing nations 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, developing nations, 1990-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income distribution
Page in Source 22, Table A5
Our classificationTrend happiness in income groups, code N02aa01al
Operationalization
During and after the fall of socialism in 1990:
0  During transition
1 15 years after
Remarks
Nations: China, Russia and East Germany.
Years of measurement: 1990 and 2006 (China 2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+/-
Mean happiness in:  1990   2006/7      change
- China             6,83    5,70       -1,13
- Russia            3,17    4,70       +1,53
- East Germany      5,93    5,87       -0,06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
CHINA
Upper incomes                           -1,3
Middle incomes                          -1,4
Lower incomes                           -2,3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
RUSSIA
Upper                                   +2,4
Middle                                  +1,4
Lower                                   +0,6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
EAST GERMANY
Upper incomes                           -1,5
Middle incomes                          -0,2
Lower incomes                           -1,7

Unweighed averages computed by the WDH-team on the 
basis of Table 1.A.5
The average  of 7,3 for China in 1990 reported in 
table A2 does not fit the split-up by income 
reported in table A5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in income groups
Subject code: N02aa01al

StudyEasterlin (2014a): study RU 1988
TitleLife Satisfaction in the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism.
SourceClark, A.E.;Ed.:" Happiness and Economic Growth: Lessons from Developing Countries", Oxford Scholarship Online: 2015, 1 - 24
DOIdoi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723653.003.0002
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia,1988-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelTrends in income before and after the fall of socialism
Page in Source 22
Our classificationTrend happiness in income groups, code N02aa01al
Operationalization
0 1990: year of fall of socialism
1 2006: 16 years after, under capitalism

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Happiness by income thirds:
             1990  2006  difference
Upper         7,1   3,4    -3,7
Middle        5,8   3,2    -2,6
Lower         4,2   2,9    -1,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in income groups
Subject code: N02aa01al

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationTrend happiness in income groups, code N02aa01al
Operationalization
Observed distributionQuantitiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend inequality of happiness in era
Subject code: N02ab01

StudyEhrhardt et al. (2000): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleStability of Life-Satisfaction over Time. Analysis of Change in Ranks in National Population.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2000, Vol. 1, 177 - 205
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8851
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1010084410679
Public18+ aged general public West-Germany, followed 10 years, 1984-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5483

Correlate
Author's labelOvertime correlations of life-satisfaction total sample
Our classificationTrend inequality of happiness in era, code N02ab01
Operationalization
Mean and standard deviation. Happiness assessed at
T1 = 1984
T2 = 1985
T3 = 1986
T4 = 1987
T5 = 1988
T6 = 1989
T7 = 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=7.54
interval T1-T2 Mean  = 7.54 SD = 2.06
interval T2-T3 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 2.01
interval T3-T4 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 1.90
interval T4-T5 Mean  = 7.18 SD = 1.89
interval T5-T6 Mean  = 7.11 SD = 1.89
interval T6-T7 Mean  = 7.10 SD = 1.90
T7             Mean  = 7.24 SD = 1.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend inequality of happiness in era
Subject code: N02ab01

StudyDiener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being and Human Welfare Around the World as Reflected in the Gallup World Poll.
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 2015, Vol. 50, 135 - 149
DOIDOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136
Public15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1229431

Correlate
Author's labelLS GINI
Page in Source 137+140
Our classificationTrend inequality of happiness in era, code N02ab01
Operationalization
Gini coefficient of life satisfaciton distribution in 
nations.
Observed distributionM=20.26, Range from 35.03 (Domincian Republic) to 8.2 (Netherlands)
Remarks
A Gini coefficient of 0 indicates complete equality 
within a nation and a Gini 1.0 means that a single 
individual possesses all of that resource and all other 
people are at zero. Findings are trend to happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.71 p < .01
Gini LS GINI by AVERAGE happiness of 164 nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend inequality of happiness in era
Subject code: N02ab01

StudyVeenhoven (2002a): study ZZ EU 12 1973
TitleDie Rückkehr der Ungleichheit in die moderne Gesellschaft? Die Verteillung der Lebenszufriedenheit in den EU-Ländern von 1973 bis 1996. ( Return of Inequlaity in Modern Society? Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction in EU-Nations 1973 -1996).
SourceGlatzer, W.;Habich, R.;Mayer, K.U.;Eds.: "Sozialer Wandel und gesellschaftliche Dauerbeobachtung", Leske & Budrich, 2002, Opladen, Germany, 273 - 293
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8751
PublicAdults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1973-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend inequality in happiness 1973-1996
Page in Source 293
Our classificationTrend inequality of happiness in era, code N02ab01
Operationalization
Standard deviation of responses to single  question: On 
the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4  very satisfied
3  fairly satisfied
2  not very satisfied
1  not at all satisfied
-  Don't know

Asked bi-annually 1973 to 1996
Remarks
Trend assessed in 4 North European nations (Denmark, 
Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands) and 4 South 
European nations (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain)
From 1980 on in Ireland, from 1985 on in Portugal and 
Spain

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=-.67 p < .000
Average standard deviation of life satisfaction by 
year in 12 EU nations 1973-1996. 
Inequality in happiness declined in all nations 
except France
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-brpc=-.59 p < .003
Trend standard deviation of happiness controlled 
for trend in average happiness.

Inequality in happiness declined irrespective of 
rising level of happiness in these nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend inequality of happiness in era
Subject code: N02ab01

StudyWildeboer Schut (2009): study NL 1977
TitleBijt de Vrouwenemancipatie zich in de eigen Staart? (Back-Kick of Womanemancipation?).
SourceSchnabel,P. (Ed).: "M/V", Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP), 2009, The Haque, Netherlands, 185 - 190
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response+/- 50 %
Respondents N =57902

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 188,189
Our classificationTrend inequality of happiness in era, code N02ab01
Operationalization
0 Females
1 Males

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
% Very happy
Set Image size:   

O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- p < .01
Female trend in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.88)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- ns
Male trend in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.30)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOPRC=- p < .01
Trend in difference in happiness between females 
and Males in Happiness 1977-2006 (-.21)

OPRC's controlled for :
- income
- education
- age
- employment status
- housework as main activity or not
- parental status
- being in a single houshold or not
- marital status
- church membership

OPRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences, eg 
greater negative trend among females than among 
males.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happy life years
Subject code: N02ac01

StudyVeenhoven (2005c): study ZZ 1973
TitleIs Life getting Better? How Long and Happily Do People live in Modern Society?
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 330 - 343
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/7199
PublicAdults, general public, EU 8 member states, USA and Japan, 1973-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =300000

Correlate
Author's labelTrend Happy Life Years 1973-2002
Page in Source 338
Our classificationTrend happy life years, code N02ac01
Operationalization
Yearly change 1973-2002
Remarks
Data: World Database of Happiness, Collection Happiness 
in Nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a
Nation        Yearly increase  30 year gain HLY
               B     CI95
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.26 p < .05
Luxemburg   +.261  [+.203;+.318]     7.70
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.26 p < .05
Denmark     +.260  [+.165 +.328]     7.54
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.20 p < .05
France      +.197  [+.145;+.248]     7.70
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.15 p < .05
Germany(W)  +.153  [+.077;+.229]     7.70
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.15 p < .05
USA         +.1.46  [+.078;+.218]    4.23
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.14 p < .05
UK          +.140  [+.104;+.177]     4.06
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.13 p < .05
Netherlands +.130  [+.079;+.181]     3.89
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.13 p < .05
Italy       +.130  [+.079;+.181]     3.77
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=+.05 p < .05
Japan       +.053  [-.028;+.134]     1.54
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ab=-.04 p < .05
Belgium     -.036  [-.120;+.058]     3.77

B is average yearly change in happy life years 
years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Major events in era
Subject code: N02ad

StudyVeenhoven (2005a): study ZZ 1990
TitleHappiness is Hardship.
SourceBruni, L.;Porta, P.L.:"Economics and Happiness", Oxford University Press, 2005, UK, 243 - 266
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8649
PublicAdults, general public, 55 nations, 1990s
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSudden Crisis
Page in Source 251
Our classificationMajor events in era, code N02ad
Operationalization
Critical incidents in the nation such as natural 
disasters; economic recession or terrorist attacks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=
Average Happiness by sudden crisis in Italy and 
England from 1974 to 2002
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and History of war
Subject code: N02ae01

StudyKemmerling (2014): study ZZ 2005
TitleWar's Long Shadow on Happiness.
SourcePaper, 2014, Budapest, Hungary
URLhttps://achimkemmerling.wordpress.com/?s=wars+long+shadow
Public18+ aged, general public, 54 nations, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelhistory of warfare
Page in Source 2
Our classificationHistory of war, code N02ae01
Operationalization
a: number of wars involved over the last 200 years.
B: number of battle deaths over the last 200 years (in 
% of the population)
Remarks
Data source:Correlates of war project: 
http://wwwcorrelatesofwar.org

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar= ns
AVERAGE happiness in nation by number of wars 
involved in over the last 200 years.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-2.2 ns
AVERAGE happiness in nation by number of battle 
deaths over the last 200 years.
B controled for 
- GDP per capita
- post communist (or not)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Post communist
Subject code: N02ae02

StudyKim & Kim (2012): study ZZ 2000
TitleDoes Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2012, Vol. 13, 875 - 899
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-011-9296-0
Public15+ aged, general public, 131 nations, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelPost communist
Page in Source 898
Our classificationPost communist, code N02ae02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ab=-.36 ns
AVERAGE happiness by openness of economy
B controlled for:
-Social trust
-Economy
  -investment price
  -log GDP
  -openness
-Government
  -quantity of government
  -quality of government (Government 
Effectiveness; similar results when controlled for 
Regulatory Quality or Control of corruption)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Post communist
Subject code: N02ae02

StudyBjornskov (2005): study ZZ World samples 1997
TitleLife Satisfaction: Is There a Role for Policy?
SourcePolicy Paper No. VI/2005, European Enterprise Insitute, 2005, Brussels, Belgium
Public18+ aged, general public, 73 nations, 1997-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelCommunist past
Page in Source 10
Our classificationPost communist, code N02ae02
Operationalization
Have been part of the Eastern bloc and governed by the 
model of the Soviet Union: one dominant political 
party, with marxist-leninist ideology.
1: Yes
2: No
Remarks
The Eastern/soviet bloc existed in Europe between 
1945-1991

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-100-ab=-17
AVERAGE happiness, by having a communist past or 
not in 73 nations

B controlled for:
- social trust
- openness of the economy
- investment price level
- government share of GDP
- log GDP per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Post communist
Subject code: N02ae02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ EU 27 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public15+ aged, 29 EU nations, 2007-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150000

Correlate
Author's labelPostcommunist
Page in Source 174
Our classificationPost communist, code N02ae02
Operationalization
Country is postcommunist:
yes =1
no   = 0
Remarks
Up to 1989 most countries in Eastern European including 
Russia had centrally controlled political and economic 
policies. Since then most countries have a market 
economy. Notable exceptions are Cuba and North Korea 
(2015).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.05 p < .01
CHANGE average happiness by postcommunist in 29 
nations 2007-2010.

B controled for:
- GDP growth rate
- legal quality
- social trust
- openness
- government size
- investment price
- recession
- interaction growth x recession

Random effect analysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Post communist
Subject code: N02ae02

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelPostcommunist
Page in Source 174
Our classificationPost communist, code N02ae02
Operationalization
Have been a part of The Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics (1922-1991) vs Not
Observed distributionM = 0,219 SD = 0,414

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.04 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by communist past of 
nation.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Random effects model
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.05 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mbSelfreport on 10 questions:

A Did you feel well-rested yesterday?
B Were you treated with respect yesterday?
C Did you smile and laugh a lot yesterday
D Did you learn or do something interesting yesterday?

Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT of the day yesterday?
E How about enjoyment?
F How about physical pain?
G How about worry?
H How about sadness?
I How about stress?
J How about anger?

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation:
- Average % positive affect = (A+B+C+D+E)/5
- Average % negative affect = (F+G+H+I+J)/5
- Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect

These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in agregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.

Transformation to 0-10 scale: (percent abs)*0.05 + 5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aSelf report on 8 questions

A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month?
B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month?
C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month?
D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month?
E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month?
F How have you been feeling in general during the past month?
G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month?
H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month?

Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options

Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E)

Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
C-BW---sq-nt-11-aEquivalent questions type C-BW, differing slightly in time frame, wording or scale range. Scores transformed to the same 0-10 numerical scale
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How content do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely discontented
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely content
M-CO---sq-nvt-11-aSelfreports on various single questions combined

Questions type
- O-HL 3-step
4-step verbal
5-step verbal
- O-SL 2-step verbal
3-step verbal
4 step verbal
5-step verbal
7-step numeral
10-step numeral
11-step numeral
- C-BW 11-step numeral

All average responses transformed to a common 0-10 scale
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL---sq-v*-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Scores on slightly different questions type O-HL transformed to a common four step scale
O-HL---sq-vt-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Scores on slightly different questions type O-HL transformed to a common three step scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you these days?

Response options not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are ?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-ISelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are ?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-HV---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Equivalent questions on overall happiness. (Slightly different items used in the various nations)

Scores transformed to common range 0 - 10 by means of Thurstone procedure (response options weighted by experts)

Weights for responses:
9.3 - very happy
6.7 - pretty happy
6.5 - fairly happy
4.1 - not too happy
3.7 - not very happy
2.7 - not happy
1.0 - not at all happy
0.6 - very unhappy
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now..."
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abSelf report on single question

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, are you satisfied with the way things are going in your personal life at this time?
2 satisfied
1 dissatisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitively agree
O-SLP-g-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in your own personal life?
1 dissatisfied
2 satisfied
O-SLS-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the way you are getting on now?
3 very satisfied
2 all right
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
5 satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question

Various questions on satisfaction with life as-a-whole, rated on 10 or 11 step numeral scales. 10 step variants stretched to range 0-10
O-SLW---sq-nt-7-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole rated on numeral scales.
Scores transformed lineairly to scale 0-10 and next retransformed to range 1-7 e
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

'Taking all tings together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

Combined with score on the same question rated on scale 1-10
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ISelfreport on single question:

Are you, in general, satisfied with your present life?
1 very unsatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-g-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

in general …taking all together (full text not reported)
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-Sum---mq-*-100-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
.
.
10 satisfied

B Taking all tohether, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy

Computation: Summed score, rescaled to range 0-100 with average 50
O-Sum---mq-*-14-aSelfreport on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
XUNCLASSIFIED STATISTIC
Will be coded later


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N02aa01Average happiness in eraN01NATION: NATIONALITY
N02aa01aTrend average happiness in eraH07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES
N02aa01abTrend in special publicsA04acTime trend of happiness in age categories
N02aa01abTrend in special publicsE01acTime trend of happiness in educational cagories
N02aa01abTrend in special publicsG01aa01Time trend of happiness in males and females
N02aa01abTrend in special publicsM02afTime trend current marital status and happiness
N02aa01acTrend happiness in age groupsA04abCurrent age (in years)
N02aa01adTrend happiness in males /femalesG01aaSexe (male vs female)
N02aa01aeTrend happiness in educational groupsE01ab02Level of school-education
N02aa01afTrend happiness in housewivesE02ab01Full-time home maker
N02aa01afTrend happiness in housewivesO01ab02Kind of occupation (profession)
N02aa01afTrend happiness in housewivesR04aa02Change in roles
N02aa01agTrend happiness in parentsC03abCurrent parental status
N02aa01ahTrend happiness in unemployedE02abCurrent employment status
N02aa01aiTrend happiness in retiredR03abCurrent status: retired or not
N02aa01ajTrend happiness marrital categoriesM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
N02aa01akTrend happiness in urban/rural populationL10ab01bRural vs urban dwelling
N02aa01alTrend happiness in income groupsS09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
N02aa01amTrend average happiness in citiesN09aa02hRegion in Netherlands
N02adMajor events in eraW01WAR
N02adMajor events in eraN04af03Civil war
N02adMajor events in eraN04ac04Unemployment
N02adMajor events in eraN04ac02Economic growth/decline
N02aeHistory of the nationN04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION
N02aeHistory of the nationN05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION
N02ae01History of warW01aa01Earlier involvement with war
N02ae02Post communistN04afPolitical conditions in the nation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings