Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONALITY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONALITY
Subject Code: N01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N01NATION: NATIONALITY0
N01aaNationality career2
N01aa01Earlier nationality (nation of origin)18
N01aa02Change of nationality2
N01aa03Later nationality0
N01abCurrent nation of residence23
N01ab01Comparison of non-representative nation-samples4
N01ab02Comparison of specific social categories in nations5
N01acForeign nationality16
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NATION: NATIONALITY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Nationality career
Subject code: N01aa

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelYears in Canada
Page in Source 323
Our classificationNationality career, code N01aa
Operationalization
Self report

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.12 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.07 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.10 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-personal income
-country of birth
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children
-see children as often as want


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nationality career
Subject code: N01aa

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's label?30 years in US
Page in Source 172-173
Our classificationNationality career, code N01aa
Operationalization
1: Living in the US for 30 years or longer
0: Living in the US less than 30 years
Observed distributionM = 30,1 SD 16, 8. N = 1: 34, 0: 28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic Origin
Page in Source 136
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
What is your ethnic origin?
a: Ethnic-Born in Australia
b: Ethnic-Not Born in Australia
Observed distributionN = a: 1073, b: 906

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,14; SD = 1,85
b Mt = 7,67; SD = 1,72
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
a Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,51
b Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,66
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,40
b Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 85
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
What is your ethnic origin?
1: Non-English Speaking Countries
2: Australian
3: Mainly English Speaking Countries
Observed distributionN = 1 : 369, 2 : 500, 3 : 500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .744
1: Mt =76.10, SD =15.39
2: Mt =76.45, SD =18.50
3: Mt =77.00, SD =17.93
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study AU 1984
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2208

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bDMt=
General population   Mt = 7.9
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.4
 - Germany           Mt = 7.7
 - Ireland           Mt = 8.0
 - Italy             Mt = 7.7
 - Netherlands       Mt = 7.8
 - UK                Mt = 8.0
 - Yugoslavia        Mt = 7.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study AU 1981
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16 + aged, general public, Australia, 1981
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =246

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aDMt=+
General population   Mt = 7.6
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.6
 - Italy             Mt = 7.9
 - UK                Mt = 8.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyChow (2012): study CA Calgary, Alberta 2007
TitleHealth Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 347 - 358
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9810-0
Public65+aged Chinese migrants, Calgary, Canada, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 352-353
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
1: Mainland China
2: Hong Kong
3: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.14 ns
Hong Kong
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
Mainland China

Beta's controled for:
- Socio-economic status
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - financial need
- migration history
  - length of residence in Canada
- Health
  - physical mobility
  - medication use
  - perceived needs for services
- Social network
- quality of neighbouhood
- Psychological well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of birth
Page in Source 323-325
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0: Canada
1: Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.24 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.02 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.07 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-personal income
-years in Canada
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children
-see children as often as want


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1984
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1569

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs county of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0 general population
1 immigrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMt=
General population   Mt = 7.4
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.1
 - Italy             Mt = 7.6
 - Spain             Mt = 8.2
 - Turkey            Mt = 6.9
 - Yugoslavia        Mt = 7.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 26
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0 Nationals(reference group)
1 Non-nationals
  a EU foreigners
  b Non-EU foreigners

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 p < .01
a: EU foreigners happier than nationals
When trait-happiness is also controled B= +.13
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
b: Non-EU foreigners less happpy than Nationals
When trait-happiness is also controled B=+.05

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study XZ Germany West 1982
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicImmigrants, West Germany, 1982
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =770

Correlate
Author's labelCounty of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant
Remarks
Average general population taken from German Welfare 
Survey (Wohlfahrtsurvey 2), 1980

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
General population   M = 7.7
Migrants from
 - Greece            M = 7.2
 - Italy             M = 6.9
 - Spain             M = 7.1
 - Turkey            M = 6.2
 - Yugoslavia        M = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21079

Correlate
Author's labelImmigration background
Page in Source 1009
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
All participants who have either migrated themselves 
(year of migration is reported) or their nationality is 
reported as non-German or another country of origin 
other than Germany was reported are classified as 
immigrants. The group of non-immigrants includes 
persons who reported Germany as the country of origin 
and have not migrated themselves and have had German 
citizenship since birth and indicated their parents as 
non-immigrants.

1: Immigration background
0: No immigration background
Observed distribution1: 14.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Immigrants:   Ma=6.84 SD=0.04
Natives:      Ma=6.98 SD=0.02
- difference:   0.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=001
Ma and eta squared are adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- immigration background*gender
- immigration background*age group
- immigration background*gender*age group

Only significant interaction is with age group, 
suggesting that immigrants with lower age are 
relatively happy compared to young natives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyBöhnke (2002): study DE 1998
TitleLebensbedingungen und ihre Bewertung. (Living Conditions and its Valuation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Daten Report 2002", Bonn, Germany, 464 - 473
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1998,1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in the old or in the new federal country
Page in Source 471
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
a. West Germany
b. East Germany (former communist 'Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik')

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bD%=
% mostly happy
a= 73%
b= 57%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelForeign born
Page in Source 24
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
Observed distributionM = 20,77
Remarks
Result is for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.04 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelForeigner-born
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
1 immigrant
0 not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.74  Beta=-.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.02  Beta=-.10

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelContinent of origin
Page in Source 96, 99
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
a: Asia
b: Africa
c: East Europe
d: America
e: FSU after 1989
f: Western Europe (reference)
Observed distributionN = a: 156, b: 213, c: 279, d: 34, e: 175, f: 74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gDM= +/-
Asia           M: 2.9
Africa         M: 2.9
East Europe    M: 3.0
West Europe    M. 3.0
America:       M: 2.9
FSU after 1989 M: 2.9
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gAoV=2.1 p < .10
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=-.13 p < .05
Origin ASIA            (vs from western Europe)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.09 p < .10
Beta controled for immigration history
- year since migration
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.01 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=-.06 ns
Origin AFRICA        (vs from Western Europe)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controled for immigration history
- year since migration
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=-.01 ns
Origin EASTERN EUROPE (vs from Western Europe)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=.01 ns
Beta controled for immigration history
- year since migration
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=.06 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=-.02 ns
Origin AMERICA        (vs from Western Europe)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controled for immigration history
- year since migration
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=.00 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.05 ns
Origin FSU after 1989 (vs from Western Europe)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controled for immigration history
- year since migration
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.07 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyBaltatescu (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleCentral and Eastern Europeans Migrants' Subjective Quality ofLlife. A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Identity and Migration Studies, 2007, Vol. 1, 67 - 80
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, Europe, 2002-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =88029

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 75
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
In which country are you born?
1: Not in country of residence
   a) Born in East-Europe
   b) Not born in East-Europe
0: In counrty of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            East-EU    
            migrants   Natives     difference     
Living in:
Denmark     8.1 (1.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -.4  
Finland     7.7 (1.9)  8.0 (1.6)   -.3
Sweden      7.5 (1.9)  7.9 (1.7)   -.4  
Norway      7.3 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.4
Netherlands 7.2 (2.0)  7.7 (1.6)   -.5 
Austria     7.1 (2.4)  7.6 (2.0)   -.5
Ireland     7.3 (1.9)  7.6 (1.9)   -.3  
Belgium     7.1 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   -.4
UK          6.9 (2.1)  7.1 (2.0)   -.2  
Spain       7.0 (2.1)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     7.0 (2.1)  6.9 (2.3)   +.1  
France      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1
Greece      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1 
Portugal    5.7 (2.1)  5.8 (2.1)   -.1
In total    7.0 (2.2)  7.3 (2.1)   -.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            Other    
            migrants   Natives     difference
Living in:
Denmark     7.0 (2.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -1.5  
Finland     7.5 (2.4)  8.0 (1.6)   -.5
Sweden      7.2 (2.3)  7.9 (1.7)   -.7
Norway      7.6 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.1
Netherlands 7.1 (1.8)  7.7 (1.6)   -.6
Austria     7.0 (2.3)  7.6 (2.0)   -.6
Ireland     6.5 (1.1)  7.6 (1.9)   -1.1
Belgium     7.8 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   +.3
UK          7.2 (2.0)  7.1 (2.0)   +.1
Spain       7.0 (2.2)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     6.4 (2.4)  6.9 (2.3)   -.5
France      6.6 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   +.2
Greece      5.9 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   -.5
Portugal    5.4 (2.4)  5.8 (2.1)   -.4
In total    6.6 (2.3)  7.3 (2.1)   -.7

Standard errors in parantheses


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 174
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
1- Others
2- Swiss
Observed distribution1: 27,1%, 2: 72,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .001
% happy (all or most of the time)
1: 55,3
2: 65,8
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=+
                          OR     CI 95
Swiss (vs. Other)         1,8    1,3-2,5

Odds Ratio controlled for:
-mental health
-physical health
-self-esteem
-intimacy (love and affection)
-sex (women vs. men)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of birth
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
Born in the UK.
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 89%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .05
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.03 p < .24
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier nationality (nation of origin)
Subject code: N01aa01

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of origin of immigrants
Page in Source 82
Our classificationEarlier nationality (nation of origin), code N01aa01
Operationalization
Western vs Eastern/Southern Europe.
Asserted by the open question: "Aside from being 
American, what nationality do you think of your family 
being mainly?".
- Western Europeans: British, German, Scandinavian, 
Austrian, Swiss, French,
etc.
- Eastern/Southern Europeans: Polish,  
Czechoslovakian, Russian, Greek, Italian, Spanish, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aDM=
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=2.95        M=2.98        DM=+.03
second     M=3.24        M=3.08        DM=-.16
third      M=3.27        M=3.17        DM=-.10 
          
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=6.74        M=6.22        DM=-.52
second     M=6.90        M=6.72        DM=-.18
third      M=6.88        M=6.85        DM=-.03 
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change of nationality
Subject code: N01aa02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelGerman citizenship
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationChange of nationality, code N01aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your citizenship?
1: German
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution25% has German citizenship

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.90 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in citizenship

B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Years since migration
- Identity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+4.0 p < .001
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT citizenship

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- German speaking ability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change of nationality
Subject code: N01aa02

StudyBaltatescu (2005): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleSubjective Well-Being of Immigrants in Europe and Their Evaluation of Societal Conditions. An Exploratory Study.
SourcePop, L.; Matiuta, C.; Eds.: "European Identity and Free Movement of Persons in Europe", 2005, University of Oradea Publishing House, Oradea, Romania, 128 - 143
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/baltatescu_sm_2005.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 13 nations in Europe, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28320

Correlate
Author's labelNatives and non-natives in 13 european nations
Page in Source 9
Our classificationChange of nationality, code N01aa02
Operationalization
Average response to question:
"Are you born in this country?"
1: Yes
2: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
               Born in country
               Yes          No    Difference
Austria        7.7         7.5    -0.2
Belgium        7.8         7.5    -0.3
Germany        7.3         7.0    -0.3
Denmark        8.4         7.7    -0.7
Spain          7.5         7.2    -0.3
France         7.5         7.3    -0.2
UK             7.7         7.1    -0.6
Greece         6.6         6.4    -0.2
Ireland        7.9         7.6    -0.3
Netherlands    7.9         7.5    -0.4
Norway         7.9         7.6    -0.3
Portugal       7.0         6.9    -0.1
Sweden         7.9         7.7    -0.2

Average        7.6         7.3    -0.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=-
               Born in country
               Yes          No    Difference
Austria        7.7         7.3    -0.4
Belgium        7.5         7.2    -0.3
Germany        7.0         6.7    -0.3
Denmark        8.5         7.7    -0.8
Spain          7.1         6.8    -0.3
France         6.4         6.2    -0.2
UK             7.1         6.8    -0.3
Greece         6.3         6.2    -0.1
Ireland        7.5         7.0    -0.5
Netherlands    7.7         7.0    -0.7
Norway         7.8         7.5    -0.3
Portugal       5.9         5.8    -0.1
Sweden         7.8         7.6    -0.2

Average        7.3         6.9    -0.4
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdr=-.43
All respondents in all countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelGerman citizen
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
German citizenship:
a) 1 German citizen
b) 0 other
Observed distributionM=0,97; SD=0,18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
b controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- household income
- number of persons in household
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- educational career
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyGoldwurm et al. (2003): study IT 2001
TitleImproving Subjective Well-Being for the Promotion of Health: The Milan Project.
SourceHomeostasis, 2003, Vol. 42, 157 - 162
PublicParticipants in a happiness training, Italy, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness Measures
Page in Source 160
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
A: Italian students of psycho-therapy
B: US psychology students (data Fordyce 1985)
Observed distributionA: N =112

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abD%a= ns
                Italy             USA
              Mean   SD         Mean   SD
% Happy       51.33  19.38      54.13  21.52
% Neutral     30.70  18.89      25.43  16.52
% Unhappy     17.98  12.79      20.44  14.69
None of these difference is significant(05) in two 
sample test


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelCountry
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
A: Switzerland
B: Portugal
C: Greece
D: Brazil
E: italy
F: Other countries (Europe)
G: Other countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=+-
Average happiness, by country.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelCountries
Page in Source 19, 20
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
Remarks
Adjusted mean (Ma) computed by WDH team by adding 
regression coefficient to constant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=6.03
Austria
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5.76
Belgium
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5.20
Czech Republic
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=6.40
Switzerland
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5,80
Spain
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5,88
Germany
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5,32
Greece
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=6,34
Denmark
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5,60
Italy
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=6,09
Netherlands
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=5,22
Poland
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eMa=6,13
Sweden

Ma adjusted for:
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelCountry
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
a: Austria (reference)
b: Germany
c: Belgium
d: Sweden
e: Netherlands
f: Denmark
g: Spain
h: Italy
i: Greece
j: France

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.89 ns
GERMANY (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.00 ns
BELGIUM (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=2.43 p < .01
SWEDEN (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.06 ns
Sweden (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=2.38 p < .01
NETHERLANDS (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=3.89 p < .01
DENMARK (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.40 p < .01
SPAIN (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.98 ns
Spain (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.46 p < .01
ITALY (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.34 p < .01
GREECE (vs Austria)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.93 ns
Greece (vs Austria)
not satisfied and satisfied vs very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.47 p < .01
FRANCE (vs Austria)

OR controlled for: 
-gender
-age
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelCountries
Page in Source 212
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
Dummy variables. Sweden is the reference category

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.49 p < .01
Finland (INDIVIDUAL happiness by nation of 
residence)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
Netherlands
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.35 p < .05
Germany
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.26 p < .05
United Kingdom
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-2.0 p < .01
Portugal
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.60 ns
Spain
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-2.8 p < .05
Hungary
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-4.8 p < .01
Bulgaria 

All B's controlled for 
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
- GDP per capita 
- job satisfaction
- work-home interference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyOswald et al. (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleRelationships Between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age.
SourceThe Gerontologist, Vol. 47, No. 1, 96 - 107
Public75-89 aged, living alone in urban districts, five European nations 2002-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1918

Correlate
Author's labelNations
Page in Source 101
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
a: Sweden
b: Germany
c: UK
d: Hungary
e: Latvia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-aDM=+/- p < .001
Sweden    M=8.5, SD=1.7
Germany   M=8.5, SD=1.8
UK        M=8.2, SD=1.8 
Hungary   M=6.6, SD=2.4
Latvia    M=5.5, SD=2.0
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fDM=+/- p < .001
Sweden    M=1.1
Germany   M=1.4
UK        M=1.4
Hungary   M=1.3 
Latvia    M=0.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of residence
Page in Source 33, 50
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
1: Country of residence
   a) natives
   b) first generation immigrants
   c) second generation immigrants
   d) Persons with 1 non-native parent (2.5  
      generation)
0: Grand mean of all 13 countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
BELGIUM:        B= +.07 (.001)
SWITZERLAND:    B= +.18 (.001)
GERMANY:        B= -.43 (.001)
DENMARK:        B= +.57 (.001)
SPAIN:          B= +.08 (.001)
FINLAND:        B= +.42 (.001)
FRANCE:         B= -.23 (.001)
GREAT-BRITAIN:  B= -.28 (.001)
NETHERLANDS:    B= +.09 (.001)
NORWAY:         B= +.10 (.001)
PORTUGAL:       B= -.59 (.001)
SWEDEN:         B= +.20 (.001)
SLOVENIA:       B= -.19 (.001)

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Survey year
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
HAPPINESS BY GROUP

BELGIUM:
 a) natives     B= +.08 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.08 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.29 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.04 (.001)
SWITZERLAND:    
 a) natives     B= +.24 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.24 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.33 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.10 (.001)
GERMANY:        
 a) natives     B= -.39 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.05 (.01)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.16 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
DENMARK:        
 a) natives     B= +.58 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.07 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.18 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.19 (.001)
SPAIN:          
 a) natives     B= +.08 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.00 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.51 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
FINLAND:        
 a) natives     B= +.40 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.07 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.44 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.06 (.001)
FRANCE:         
 a) natives     B= -.26 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.20 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.11 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.21 (.001)
GREAT-BRITAIN:  
 a) natives     B= -.24 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.03 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.51 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.01 (ns)
NETHERLANDS:   
 a) natives     B= +.07 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.14 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.02 (ns)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.04 (.001)
NORWAY:         
 a) natives     B= +.12 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.09 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.11 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
PORTUGAL:       
 a) natives     B= -.66 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.15 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.09 (ns)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.46 (.001)
SWEDEN:         
 a) natives     B= +.23 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.12 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.09 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.14 (.001)
SLOVENIA:       
 a) natives     B= -.25 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.04 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.55 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.19 (.001)

B additionally controlled for:
- Region of origin


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyBaltatescu (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleCentral and Eastern Europeans Migrants' Subjective Quality ofLlife. A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Identity and Migration Studies, 2007, Vol. 1, 67 - 80
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, Europe, 2002-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =88029

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 75
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
In which country are you born?
1: Not in country of residence
   a) Born in East-Europe
   b) Not born in East-Europe
0: In counrty of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            East-EU    
            migrants   Natives     difference     
Living in:
Denmark     8.1 (1.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -.4  
Finland     7.7 (1.9)  8.0 (1.6)   -.3
Sweden      7.5 (1.9)  7.9 (1.7)   -.4  
Norway      7.3 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.4
Netherlands 7.2 (2.0)  7.7 (1.6)   -.5 
Austria     7.1 (2.4)  7.6 (2.0)   -.5
Ireland     7.3 (1.9)  7.6 (1.9)   -.3  
Belgium     7.1 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   -.4
UK          6.9 (2.1)  7.1 (2.0)   -.2  
Spain       7.0 (2.1)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     7.0 (2.1)  6.9 (2.3)   +.1  
France      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1
Greece      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1 
Portugal    5.7 (2.1)  5.8 (2.1)   -.1
In total    7.0 (2.2)  7.3 (2.1)   -.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            Other    
            migrants   Natives     difference
Living in:
Denmark     7.0 (2.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -1.5  
Finland     7.5 (2.4)  8.0 (1.6)   -.5
Sweden      7.2 (2.3)  7.9 (1.7)   -.7
Norway      7.6 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.1
Netherlands 7.1 (1.8)  7.7 (1.6)   -.6
Austria     7.0 (2.3)  7.6 (2.0)   -.6
Ireland     6.5 (1.1)  7.6 (1.9)   -1.1
Belgium     7.8 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   +.3
UK          7.2 (2.0)  7.1 (2.0)   +.1
Spain       7.0 (2.2)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     6.4 (2.4)  6.9 (2.3)   -.5
France      6.6 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   +.2
Greece      5.9 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   -.5
Portugal    5.4 (2.4)  5.8 (2.1)   -.4
In total    6.6 (2.3)  7.3 (2.1)   -.7

Standard errors in parantheses


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =65371

Correlate
Author's labelFrance
Page in Source 51, 53
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
1: Living in France
0: Grand mean happiness of 13 other EU countries:
    a)  Belgium
    b)  Switzerland
    c)  Germany
    d)  Denmark
    e)  Spain
    f)  Finland
    g)  France
    h)  Great-Britain
    i)  Netherlands
    j)  Norway
    k)  Portugal
    l)  Sweden
    m)  Slovenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.27 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Immigrants status
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Country of residence
- Survey year
- Immigrant status*France

Unaffected by additional controls:
- GDP growth per year
- Unemployment rate
- Inflation
- GDP (per capita)
- Hours worked
- Life expectancy at birth

Interactions suggest that people in France 
relatively get happier than in the other 12 
countries of having above average income, of being 
young, and of being male.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
1: Country of residence
0: Grand mean happiness of the 13 countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=.00
ALL

Belgium:       B: -.03 (.05)
Switzerland:   B: +.06 (.05)
Germany:       B: -.41 (.001)
Denmark:       B: +.56 (.001)
Spain:         B: +.03 (ns)
Finland:       B: +.42 (.001)
France:        B: -.04 (ns)
Great-Britain: B: -.18 (.001)
Netherlands:   B: +.16 (.001)
Norway:        B: -.03 (ns)
Portugal:      B: -.45 (.001)
Sweden:        B: +.07 (.001)
Slovenia:      B: -.16 (.001)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=.00
<30 YEARS OLDS

Belgium:       B: -.16 (.001)
Switzerland:   B: +.29 (.001)
Germany:       B: -.27 (.001)
Denmark:       B: +.20 (.001)
Spain:         B: +.11 (.05)
Finland:       B: +.46 (.001)
France:        B: +.11 (.01)
Great-Britain: B: -.66 (.001)
Netherlands:   B: -.04 (ns)
Norway:        B: +.16 (.001)
Portugal:      B: -.24 (.001)
Sweden:        B: +.12 (.001)
Slovenia:      B: -.09 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Migration at young age
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelcultural membership
Page in Source 580, 582
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
0 Singapore
1 USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aDM=+ p < .01
US          M = 5.07
Singapore   M = 4.29
difference     -0.78
M-AO---mq-*-124-ar=+.26 p < .01
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.25 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- Gender
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
Beta additionaly controlled for
- Competence need (self rated satisfaction)
- Neuroticism
- Goal progress (Selfreport on sucess at most 
important personal goals)
- Self-esteem
- Social support (Selfreport on satisfaction with 
overall social support)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelSexe
Page in Source 195, 289
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
1: Female,
2: Male

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aDM=
Country       Males   Females   Total
France    M=   4.6      4.6       4.6
Italy     M=   4.8      5.0       4.9
Denmark   M=   5.3      5.5       5.4
Ireland   M=   4.9      5.2       5.1
All     M=   4.9      5.1       5.0
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aF=4,5 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of residence
Page in Source 368
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany-East, 
Germany-West, Iceland, Netherlands, Sweden

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Netherlands: M = 3,42,  SD = 0,57
Denmark:     M = 3,40,  SD = 0,58 
Iceland:     M = 3,32 , SD = 0,61
Belgium      M = 3,34,  SD = 0,65  
Sweden       M = 3,29,  SD = 0,61
Austria      M = 3,26,  SD = 0,65
Finland      M = 3,14,  SD = 0,59
West-Germany M = 3,05,  SD = 0,59
East-Germany M = 2,95,  SD = 0,70
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=+.40
Gs controlled for:
- perceived control over life
- living in a stable realtion or not
- life satisfaction (see below)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aGs=+.22
Gs controlled for:
- perceived control over life
- living in a stable relationship or not
- happiness (see above)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyTucker et al. (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 1999
TitleTesting for Measurement Invariance in the Satisfaction with Life Scale: A Comparison of Russians and North Americans.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 78, 341 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-1037-5
PublicStudents and community members, US and Russia, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =277

Correlate
Author's labelNationality Americans (vs Russians)
Page in Source 347
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
a: Russians, students or community members
b: Americans, students or community members
Observed distributiona. 129 b. 148

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
             Students    Community   All
             Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean  SD
Russians     4,08  1,53  3,16  1,29  3,63  1,49
Americans    4,61  1,38  4,71  1,52  4,65  1,44
Difference  +0,53       +1,55       +1,02
O-SLC-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
             Students   Community   All
            Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean  SD
Russians    4,20  1,55  3,08  1,34  3,65  1,55
Americans   4,81  1,33  4,79  1,46  4,80  1,38
Difference +0,61       +1,71       +1,15
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
            Students    Community   All
            Mean  SD    Mean  SD    Mean  SD
Russians    5,11  1,43  3,86  1,29  4,50  1,50
Americans   5,36  1,08  4,94  1,64  5,18  1,36
Difference +0,25       +1,08       +0,68
C-RA-h-sq-v-7-aDM=+
             Students  Community   All
             Mean SD   Mean  SD    Mean  SD
Russians     4,26 1,60 3,30  1,24  3,79  1,51
Americans    5,17 1,42 4,94  1,63  5,07  1,51
Difference  +0,91     +1,64       +1,28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyGrant et al. (2009a): study ZZ 1999
TitleThe relationship between life satisfaction and health behavior: a cross-cultural analysis of young adults
SourceInternational journal of behavioral medicine, 2009,16, 259-268
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19319695
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s12529-009-9032-x.
Public17-30 aged students, 21 countries, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response17246
Respondents N =19647

Correlate
Author's labelGender
Page in Source 262
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
1 males
0 females
Observed distribution1: 43$, 0: 57%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=0
ALL WORLD REGIONS
- males   M = 2,92
- fmales  M = 2,92
difference    0
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
WESTERN-Europe and USA
- males   M = 3,05
- fmales  M = 3,04
difference   +0,01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=0
CENTRAL and EASTERN EUROPE
- males   M = 2,92
- fmales  M = 2,92
difference    0
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eDM=+
PACIFIC ASIA
- males   M = 2,48
- fmales  M = 2,16
difference   +0,32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelCountry effect
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
17 Latin American countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.75 p < .01
ARGENTINA     (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.01 ns
BOLIVIA       (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.65 p < .01
BRAZIL        (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.88 p < .01
CHILE         (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.22 ns
COLOMBIA      (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.02 ns
COSTA RICA    (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.44 p < .01
ECUADOR       (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.56 ns
GUATEMALA     (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.86 p < .05
HONDURAS      (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.49 p < .01
MEXICO        (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.89 ns
NICARAGUA     (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.20 p < .05
PANAMA        (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.57 p < .01
PERU          (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.24 ns
PARAGUAY      (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.13 ns
EL SALVADOR   (vs Venezuela)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.60 p < .01
URUGUAY       (vs Venezuela)

OLRCs controlled for:
- GDP per capita
- size of city
- year
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - gender
  - education
  - age
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness across countries
Page in Source 208, 210
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
A Czech Republic
B Slovakia
C Slovenia
D Hungary
E Poland
F Romania
G Bulgaria

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bDM=
A Czech Republic    M=2.54
B Slovakia          M=2.44
C Slovenia          M=2.32
D Hungary           M=2.12
E Poland            M=2.06
F Romania           M=2.02
G Bulgaria          M=1.91
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC= p < .01
                   Coefficient      Std. Error
1 Czech Republic= reference case
2 Slovakia           -0.48            0.15
3 Slovenia           -0.91            0.11
4 Hungary            -1.47            0.11
5 Poland             -1.82            0.12
6 Romania            -1.90            0.17
7 Bulgaria           -2.21            0.16

lgt controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- type of employment
- income
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyOvaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleEconomic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison.
SourceJournal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 308 - 325
DOIDOI:10,1016/j.socec.2005,11,054
Public18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelAsian
Page in Source 7,17
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
The world was divided in 5 regions.
1: Asian nations
0: All other nations
Remarks
Source: The CIA World Factbook.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.09 ns
Average happiness by Asian nations in 68 nations.

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.09 ns
B additionally controlled for:(step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.03 ns
B addionally controlled for: (step 3)
-GDP per capita neigbor-nations
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.56 p < .05
Average life-satisfaction by Asian nations in 68 
nations.

B controlled for:(step 1)
-GDP per capita
-Economic freedom
-Political freedom
-Life expectancy
-GDP growth
-Government size
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.51 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:(step 2)
-Educational attainment
-Female labor participation
-Unemployment rate
-Inflation rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.02 ns
B addionally controlled for: (step 3)
-GDP per capita neigbor-nations
-Export
-Import
-Christianity (dummy)
-Islam (dummy)
-Population aging


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudySuh (1994): study ZZ East-West pairs 1989
TitlePsychocultural Factors of Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association Convention, 1994, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/suh_em_1994.pdf
PublicCollege students, Korea, China, and USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
a  Korea
b  China
c  USA
Observed distributionN= a: 96, b:59 ,c:53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-aDM=
Korea: M = +0.76
China: M = +2.06
USA  : M = +2.47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2009a): study ZZ 1986
TitleSociability predicts Happiness: World-wide Evidence from Time Series.
SourcePaper no. 579, University of Siena, Department of Economics, 2009, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/usi/wpaper/579.html
Public18+ aged, general public, 19 countries, 1986-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelCountry/region
Page in Source 10, 11
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
Remarks
Wave1: 1981-1084     Wave2: 1989-1993
Wave3: 1994-1999     Wave4: 1999-2004
Wave5: 2005-2007

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
COUNTRY       Wave1  Wave2  Wave3  Wave4  Wave5

Argentina      2.94   3.07   3.1    3.12   3.17
Belgium        3.26   3.32          3.31
Canada         3.32   3.05          3.41   3.41
Chile                 3.03   3.07   3.16   3.13
China                 2.95   3.05   2.87   2.94
Denmark        3.26   3.36          3.4   
Finland        3.1    3.09   3.15   3.14   3.2
France         3.11   3.16          3.24   3.24
Germany               3.01   2.97   2.97   2.97
Ireland        3.36   3.36          3.38
Italy          2.88   2.99          2.95   3.07
Japan          3.0    3.00   3.23   3.17   3.18
South Korea           2.86   3.0    2.96   3.01
Mexico         3.14   2.95   2.92   3.49   3.49
Netherlands    3.31   3.39          3.40   3.35
Spain          3.0    3.05   3.05   3.06   3.05
Sweden         3.24   3.36   3.34   3.29   3.38
Great Britain  3.33   3.25   3.21          3.43
United States  3.22   3.28   3.4    3.33   3.28
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=
COUNTRY       Wave1  Wave2  Wave3  Wave4  Wave5

Argentina      6.77   7.25   6.93   7.3    7.70
Belgium        7.38   7.6           7.43   
Canada         7.82   7.89          7.85   7.75
Chile                 7.55   6.92   7.12   7.24
China                 7.29   6.83   6.53   6.76
Denmark        8.22   8.16          8.24   
Finland        7.91   7.68   7.78   7.87   7.84
France         6.71   6.78          7.01   6.86
Germany               7.03   6.93   7.42   6.92
Ireland        7.82   7.88          8.20   
Italy          6.65   7.30          7.17   6.89
Japan          6.58   6.53   6.61   6.48   6.99
South Korea    5.34   6.69          6.21   6.39
Mexico         7.97   7.41   7.54   8.14   8.23
Netherlands    7.73   7.77          7.85   7.72
Spain          6.59   7.15   6.61   7.03   7.31
Sweden         8.01   7.97   7.77   7.64   7.72
Great Britain  7.56   7.49   7.58   7.4    7.55
United States  7.66   7.73   7.67   7.66   7.26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyMonk et al. (1976): study ZZ Scandinavia 1976
TitlePersonal and Social Value Concerns of Scandinavian Elderly: A Multivariate Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1976, Vol. 7, 221 - 230
Public50+ aged, Denmark, Norway, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200

Correlate
Author's labelPresent life condtions
Page in Source 224
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
a. Denmark
b. Norway

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
a: M      = 7,50
b: M      = 7,52
difference +0,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nation of residence
Subject code: N01ab

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study ZZ Developed nations 1948
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicAdults, general public, 9 developed nations, 1948-1981
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9

Correlate
Author's labelRelative temperal stability of average happiness in nations
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent nation of residence, code N01ab
Operationalization
Similarity in rank order of average happiness in 
nations in 1948
and in 1981
Remarks
Meta-analysis of data drawn from this World database of 
happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW---sq-t-11-ars=+.73 p < .01
Country        rank order of happiness
               1948               1981

Australia         2                 2/3
Britain (Great)   9                  7
France           7/8                 5
Germany (West)    4                  1
Italy            7/8                 8
Netherlands       5                  6
Norway            1                 2/3
Mexico            6                  9
USA               3                  4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of non-representative nation-samples
Subject code: N01ab01

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelCity of residence
Page in Source 49
Our classificationComparison of non-representative nation-samples, code N01ab01
Operationalization
City of residence:
a) Birmigham, UK (natives only)
b) Delhi, India (natives only)
Observed distributiona) N=51, b) N=50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
Residents of the UK:     M=5.16
Residents of India:      M=4.16
- difference:               1.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of non-representative nation-samples
Subject code: N01ab01

StudyCzapinski & Peeters (1989): study ZZ Various nation sets 1985
TitleLife Satisfaction and Well-Being among Poles and Belgians: A Preliminary Verification of "Onion" Theory of Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the 2nd Regional Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1989, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/czapinski_j_1989.pdf
Public25+ aged, Belgium and Poland, 198?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =344

Correlate
Author's labelBelgian nationality
Page in Source 11
Our classificationComparison of non-representative nation-samples, code N01ab01
Operationalization
0: Belgians (N=104)
1: Poles    (N=204)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
Belgians: Mt = 7.1
Poles:    Mt = 6.4
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Belgians: Mt = 7.1
Poles:    Mt = 5.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of non-representative nation-samples
Subject code: N01ab01

StudyCaudill & Weinstein (1969): study ZZ East-West pairs 1961
TitleMaternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.
SourcePsychiatry, 1969, Vol. 32, 12 - 43
DOIdoi: 10.1177/0022002186017003001
PublicInfants and first born in intact middle class families, Japan and USA, 1961-64
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 218
Our classificationComparison of non-representative nation-samples, code N01ab01
Operationalization
0 Japanese
1 American

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-0-arpc=+ s
Hedonic level assessed by time sampling of happy 
and unhappy vocal utterances.

-Happy vocal    rpc=+.51 (001)
-Unhappy vocal  rpc=-.33 (05)

Rpc controlled for father's occupation (salaried 
or independent) and sex.

American baby's are more active and happily vocal 
while Japanese baby's are passive with occasional 
unhappy vocalization. This different style of 
infant's behavior coincides with a different style 
of mother's care; The American mother does more 
looking at and chatting to her baby while the 
Japanese mother does more lulling, caring and 
rocking her baby.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of non-representative nation-samples
Subject code: N01ab01

StudyChang & Dodder (1984): study US 1980
TitleActivity and Affect among the Aged.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1984, Vol. 125, 127 - 128
PublicRetired teachers, Oklahoma, USA and Taipei, Taiwan, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =379

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 128
Our classificationComparison of non-representative nation-samples, code N01ab01
Operationalization
0 Americans                            1 Taiwanese

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSNR=- p < .05
Americans happier


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N01ab02

StudySumnall & Bellis (2010): study ZZ 2010
TitleA Choise between fun for Health? Relationships between Nightlife Substance Use, Happiness, and Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Substance Use, 2010, Vol. 15, 89 - 104
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14659890903131190
DOIdoi: 10.3109/14659890903131190
Public16-35 aged night scene public, 9 European cities, 2008
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1363

Correlate
Author's labelCountry
Page in Source 94-98
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N01ab02
Operationalization
a Austria (reference)
b Czech Republic
c Germany
d Greece
e Italy
f Portugal
g Slovenia
h Spain 
i UK

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bD%= p < .001
% happy:
a: Austria        90% 
b: Czech Republic 78% 
c: Germany        86% 
d: Greece         75% 
e: Italy          73% 
f: Portugal       90% 
g: Slovenia       84% 
h: Spain          81% 
:I UK             74%
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bR²=.27 p < .01
Difference with Austria (reference)

b: Czech Republic B=2.37 (.05)
c: Germany        B=1.38 (ns.)
d: Greece         B=2.60 (.05)
e: Italy          B=3.22 (.01)
f: Portugal       B=1.58 (ns.)
g: Slovenia       B=0.8  (ns.)
h: Spain          B=0.87 (ns.)
i: UK             B=3.37 (.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N01ab02

StudyBiswas-Diener & Diener (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2005
TitleThe Subjective-Well-Being of the Homeless, and Lessons for Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 185 - 205
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-8671-9
PublicHomeless people, Calcutta (India), Fresno & Portland (USA), 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response19
Respondents N =186

Correlate
Author's labelTemporary
Page in Source 197
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N01ab02
Operationalization
Homeless people living in:
a: USA: Fresno, clients of service for homeless
b: USA Portland, self governing tent camp named 
'Dignity Village
c: India: Calcutta pavement dwellers
Observed distributionN = a: 78, b; 41, c: 67

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-cDM=
USA:  a: M = -0,24
      b: M = +0,67
India c: M = +0,46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N01ab02

StudyCargan et al. (1989): study ZZ East-West pairs 1987
TitleLeisure Time and Happiness: A Crosscultural Comparison of East and West.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Wright State University, 1989, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/cargan_l_1989A.pdf
Public21+ aged, married, Japan and USA, 1987
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N01ab02
Operationalization
0 Japanese
1 American

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-aG=+.24 p < .01
Japanese  81% happy
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-atau=+.06 p < .05
Americans 88% happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N01ab02

StudyThomas & Chambers (1989): study ZZ East-West pairs 1984
TitlePhenomenology of Life Satisfaction among Elderly Men: Quantitative and Qualitative Views.
SourcePsychology and Aging, 1989, Vol. 4, 284 - 289
Public70+ aged, highly educated men, New Delhi, India & London, England, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response5-24%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelNation of Residence
Page in Source 287
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N01ab02
Operationalization
a: New  Delhi, India
b: London, England
Observed distributionN= a: 50, b: 50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM= ns
New Delhi   M = 7,65
London      M = 7,20
- difference    0,45 t = 1.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-mDM= ns
New Delhi   M = 3,26
London      M = 3,31
- difference    0,05 t = 0.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Comparison of specific social categories in nations
Subject code: N01ab02

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study ZZ East-West pairs 1958 /1
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicStudents, USA and India, 1958
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1160

Correlate
Author's labelIndian vs American students
Page in Source 170
Our classificationComparison of specific social categories in nations, code N01ab02
Operationalization
a. Indian
b. United States
Observed distributionN= a:160, b:1000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=
Indian M = 5,4
U.S.   M = 6,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelCitizenship
Page in Source 135
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Single question:
What is your citizenship?  
a: Australian
b: Non-Australian
Observed distributionN = a:1830, b: 149,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,70
b Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,63
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
a Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,47
b Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,71
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,47
b Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelCitizenship
Page in Source 99
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
1: Australian
2: Other country
Observed distributionN = 1: 1859; 2: 116

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .032
1 Mt=7,84; SD=1,64 
2 Mt=7,43; SD=1,98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelGerman nationality
Page in Source 20
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
1: German born
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.21
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-Marital Status
-Region in Germany (East/West)
-Univeristy graduate
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21079

Correlate
Author's labelImmigration background
Page in Source 1009
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
All participants who have either migrated themselves 
(year of migration is reported) or their nationality is 
reported as non-German or another country of origin 
other than Germany was reported are classified as 
immigrants. The group of non-immigrants includes 
persons who reported Germany as the country of origin 
and have not migrated themselves and have had German 
citizenship since birth and indicated their parents as 
non-immigrants.

1: Immigration background
0: No immigration background
Observed distribution1: 14.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Immigrants:   Ma=6.84 SD=0.04
Natives:      Ma=6.98 SD=0.02
- difference:   0.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=001
Ma and eta squared are adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- immigration background*gender
- immigration background*age group
- immigration background*gender*age group

Only significant interaction is with age group, 
suggesting that immigrants with lower age are 
relatively happy compared to young natives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged migrants, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2971

Correlate
Author's labelPossession of German citizenship
Page in Source 1008, 1011
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Possession of German citizenship:
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution1: 52.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
German citizen:     Ma=6.94 SD=0.05
Non-German citizen: Ma=6.70 SD=0.05
- difference:         0.24
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=.005
Ma and eta squared controlled for:
- age
- gender
- gender*German citizenship (not significant)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelNationality: Not German
Page in Source 508
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Self-report ons single question:
Is your nationality German?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.70 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) gender
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 29
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
0 German
1 Foreign nationality

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.31 ns
B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelGerman nationality
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Having the German nationality or not
Observed distributionM =0,904 (90%), SD = 0,293

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
probit result=-0,389
CI95=[ -0,69  -0,08]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
-type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
-good student
-repeat a grade
-education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
-log number of books in the household
probit result= -0,351
CI95=[ -0,67 - 0,04]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelNationality
Page in Source 37
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
0: German (reference)
1: Foreigner
Error Estimates1: M = 0,15 SD = 0,357

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
Foreigner  (vs native)

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged general public, Germany, followed 7 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27249

Correlate
Author's labelNationality: not German
Page in Source 510
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Self-report ons single question:
Is your nationality German?
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic, which was reunited in 1990 with West-Germany.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.6 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a)rate of people moving out the neighbourhood
  b)status of neighbourhood
- status relative to others in neighbourhood

- age and age squared
- income
- education
- marital status
- having children
- health
- city size
- survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelCitizen
Page in Source 8
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you a citizen of [country]?
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.03 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- migration generation
- perceived discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.07 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *migration generation
- ethnic minority *perceived discrimination
- ethnic minority *citizen (+.09, ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelimmigration
Page in Source 7
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
0 native
1 immigrants
  a first generation
  b immigrants citizen
  c immigrant non citizen
Observed distributionN = 0: ? 1: ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.22 p < .01
First generation migrants (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.18 p < .01
immigrant citizen (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
immigrant noncitizen (compared to native)

B' s controlled for 
- country
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelCitizen in country
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
0 Non citizen
1 Citizen of country of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.09 p < .05
	b(0.0898) controlled for 
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.11 p < .01
	b(0.106) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyLalive & Stutzer (2010): study CH 2000
TitleApproval of Equal Rights and Gender Differences in Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Popululation Economics, 2010, Vol. 23, 933 - 962
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-009-0257-4
PublicSalaried workers, Switzerland, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6203

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a foreigner
Page in Source 27
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
0: National (reference group)
1: Foreigner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.37
Foreigner (vs national)
B's controlled for:
- Age 
- Education
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Household income 
- Household size

B = -.37 means that being a foreigner corresponds 
with -.37 point difference in happiness on the 
0-10 scale.

Ordered Probit analysis (OPRC) yields similar 
results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelNative
Page in Source 794-797
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
1 Native
0 Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.35 p < .05
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.38 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes
- Chinese mainland vs. Taiwan


Correlational finding on Happiness and Foreign nationality
Subject code: N01ac

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelMainland
Page in Source 794-797
Our classificationForeign nationality, code N01ac
Operationalization
1 Born in Chinese mainland
0 Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.27 p < .05
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.03 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes
- native


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-cSelfreport of momentary mood on 6 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C angerous
D sad
E worried
F guilty

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B)/2 - (C+D+E+F)/4

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-aSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions

'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt in the past month'
A LOVE
Aa Affection
Ab love
Ac caring
Ab fondness
B JOY
Ba joy
Bb happiness
Bc contentment
Bd pride
C FEAR
Ca fear
Cb worry
Cc anxiety
Cd nervous
D ANGER
Da anger
Db irritation
Dc disgust
Dd rage
E SHAME
Ea shame
Eb guilt
Ec regret
Ed embarrassment
F SADNES
Fa sadness
Fb loneliness
Fc unhappiness
Fd depression

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 very slight
3 somewhat
4 moderate amount
5 much
6 very much
7 extremely much
Options presented horizontally

Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-fSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past year?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past year' version)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-0-aTime sampling of happy behaviors:

Researchers observed the baby's in the home.
One observation of one second was made every fifteenth second. Any positively voiced sound as observed by the researcher counted as a happy vocal and any negatively voiced sound counted as a unhappy vocal.
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-RA-h-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Sofar, I have achieved the most important things I want in life.
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How content do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely discontented
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely content
M-AO---mq-*-124-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing
Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS

Computation: A+B
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are.....?"
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy

B "How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life.....?"
1 rarely
2 now and than
3 fairly often
4 all the time

Summation: factor score
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question

Do you usually feel unhappy or depressed?
1 yes
2 no

part of 8 item inventory of stress symptoms
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single questions:

"Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?"
I was happy
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week...?
I enjoyed life...
0 rarely or none of the time
1 some or a little of the time
2 occasionally or a moderate amount of time
3 most of the time

Item in CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression) Scale. Score reversed.
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you most of the time.....?"
3 happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 unhappy
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question:

Would you say at the thresent time that you are..?
4 very happy
3 somewhat happy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question

.. Satisfaction with life.. (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question

.. life .. (text not reported)
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLC-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

The conditions of my life are excellent
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not very satisfied
3 very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are presently with your life?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life.
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
O-SLW---sq-t-11-aSelf report on single question:

Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole.

Scores transformed to scale 0-10
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

… satisfied with overall life.. (full text not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Please look at this satisfaction scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 Dissatisfied

Numbers were presented in different order (1 satisfied… 10 dissatisfied).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

Are you satisfied with your life as a whole?
1 yes
0 no
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

Considering the whole situation: how satisfied are you about your daily life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 neither unsatisfied, nor satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original (very unsatisfied '5', very satisfied '1')
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bSelfreport in 2 questions:

A. "How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 not at all satisfied

B. "Where would you place your life as a whole?"
Rated on a thermometer scale.
100 perfect, as good as you can imagine it being
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 terrible, as bad as you can imagine it being

Summation: factor loading
O-V-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In most ways my life is close to ideal
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree, nor disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree

Item in Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
D%aDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED PERCENTAGES, See also D%
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
MaMEAN , ADJUSTED
Type: descriptive statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
If one correlate is of the nominal level of measurement (subgroups) and (at least0 one other correlate is of the metric level, the happiness means of all the subgroups can be 'adjusted' by shifting the group mean values along the regression line of that subgroup towards the grand average value of the metric correlate, resulting in 'adjusted' means for that subgroup. In that way, effects of differences between mean values of the metric correlate for the different subgroups are eliminated.
Reference: Neter, J. & Wasserman, W. Applied Linear statistical models, R.D. Erwin Inc., Homewood Ill. USA, 1974, p. 712
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N01aaNationality careerM08aaMigration career
N01aa01Earlier nationality (nation of origin)M08aa07Recent migration
N01aa02Change of nationalityM08abCurrent involvement in migration
N01aa03Later nationalityM08ac01Likelihood to migrate
N01acForeign nationalityM08aa01Ever migrated or not

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings