Findings on Happiness and MOTIVATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MOTIVATION
Subject Code: M14

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M14MOTIVATION0
M14aaMotivation career2
M14aa01Earlier motivantion0
M14aa02Change in motivation0
M14aa03Later motivation1
M14abCurrent motivation13
M14acAttitudes to ones motivation2
M14ab01Intrinsic motivation2
M14ab02Extrinsic motivation1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MOTIVATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M14
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Motivation career
Subject code: M14aa

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 491
Our classificationMotivation career, code M14aa
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at".

Reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 
statements:
- "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
- "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this rason) to 9 (completely 
because of this reason)

To form an composite value external and introjected 
ratings were averaged and subtracted from the summed 
averages of intrinsic and identified ratings
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=4.22
Error Estimates? = .72
Remarks
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 selfconcordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester goal attainment
- interaction between self-concordance and goal 
attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T11: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Motivation career
Subject code: M14aa

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 486, 487
Our classificationMotivation career, code M14aa
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving 
on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely 
for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=3.47
Error Estimates?=.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.19 p < .05
T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in 
happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and 
self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Positive when going together with goal attainment


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later motivation
Subject code: M14aa03

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelGoal emphasis
Page in Source 214
Our classificationLater motivation, code M14aa03
Operationalization
Rating of performance over last 6 months by manager 
using the question: 'To what extent does this employee 
develop and maintain high performance goals?'
Answer rated on a 5 point scale ranging from never to 
always.
Observed distributionM= 3,5 SD = 0,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.38 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 work performance(2 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 work performance(1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.40 p < .01
T1+T2 happiness by T3 work performance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelPredominant motive disposition
Page in Source 502-503
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, two 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 
kinds of imagery in running text:
- power 
- achievement
- affiliation intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words

DERIVED MOTIVATION SCORES
A need for agency = achievement + power
B need for communion = afilliation intimacy
C predominant motive disposition = A - B, converted to 
z-scores

Assessed at T1 and T2, scores were averaged
Observed distributionPredominant motive disposition: M(SD) = 0.00 (1.59), Power: M(SD) = 4.65 (2.41), Achievement = 1.94 ( 0.41), Affiliation intimacy = 5.43 (2.52) Need for agency: M(SD)= 6.58 (3.06), Need for communication= 5.43 (2.52)
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 90% for achievement, 94% for power, and 96% for affiliation-intimacy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.05 ns
T1+2 motivation by T1+2 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.02 ns
T1+2 motivation by T3+4 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bb=+.01 ns
Initial motivation by subsequent CHANGE in 
happiness: T1+2 motivation by T3+4 happiness, 
controling T1+2 happiness

B also controled for:
- commitment to agentic goals
- commitment to communal goals
- perceived attainability of agentic goals
- perceived attainability of communal goals

Variables in the above elaboration: At T1+2 Ss had 
mentioned two agentic goals and two communal goals 
they planned to pursue in this semester and next 
rated their commitment to these goals and their 
attainability.

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelAgentic need
Page in Source 502-503
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, two 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 
kinds of imagery in running text:
- power 
- achivement
- affiliation intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words

DERIVED MOTIVATION SCORES
need for agency = achievement + power
Observed distributionM= 12.51, SD=5.43
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 90% for achievement, 94% for power

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.01 ns
T1+2 need by T1+2 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.09
T1+2 need by T3+4 happiness

No gender diiference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelCommunal need
Page in Source 502
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, two 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 
kinds of imagery in running text:
- power 
- achivement
- affiliation intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words

DERIVED MOTIVATION SCORES
communal need = affiliation intimacy
Observed distributionM= 10.30, SD=4.39
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 96% for affiliation-intimacy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.07 ns
T1+2 need by T1+2 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.04 ns
T1+2 need by T3+4 happiness



No gender diiference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelPredominant motive disposition: agentic over communal
Page in Source 498
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, tow 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 
kinds of imagery in running text:
- power 
- achivement
- affiliation-intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words

DERIVED MOTIVATION SCORES
A need for agency = achievement + power
B need for communion = afilliation-intimacy
C predominant motive disposition = A - B, converted to 
z-scores
Observed distributionM=0,00, SD= 1.57
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 94% for achievement, 92% for power, and 95% for affiliation-intimacy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=-.07 ns
Correlation with initial mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ar=-.05 ns
Correlation with 2 weeks average daily mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ab=
Correlation with CHANGE in mood: 2 weeks daily 
mood, controling initial mood
- Positive among Ss reporting agentic goal
  progress B = +.31 (01)
- Negative among Ss reporting communal goal
  progress B =-.21 (01)

Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on progress in agentic goals (1 SD above 
or below mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel better
- low-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel worse
- little difference in mood among Ss low in
  agentic motivation, irrespective of progress
  in agentic goals

Unaffected by
- gender
- personality (extraversion, neuroticism)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelAgentic need
Page in Source 498
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: 
Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, tow 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: 
Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 kinds of 
motive imagery in running text:
- power 
- achivement
- affiliation-intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words

DERIVED SCORE: 
need for agency = achievement + power
Observed distributionM= 12.12, SD=5.47
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 94% for achievement, 92% for power

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=+.02 ns
Correlation with initial mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ar=-.02 ns
Correlation with 2 weeks average daily mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ab=
Correlation with CHANGE in mood: daily mood 
controling initial mood
- positive among Ss reporting progress in
  agentic goals: B = +.18 (07)
- negative among Ss reporting progress in
  communal goals: B = -.10 (10)
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aDM=
Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on need for agency (1 SD above or below 
mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-need Ss who report high progress in
  agentic goals feel better
- high-need Ss who report low progress in 
  agentic goals feel worse
- low-need Ss differ little in mood,
  irrespective of progress in agentic goals,
  yet their mood does vary with progress in 
  communal goals

Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on progress in agentic goals (1 SD above 
or below mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel better
- low-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel worse
- little difference in mood among Ss low in
  agentic motivation, irrespective of progress
  in agentic goals

All results similar for males and females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelCommunal need
Page in Source 498
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
TEST: 
Picture-story exercise: Ss were asked to write 
imaginative stories to each of six picture cues. In a 
relaxed atmosphere, they were allowed 5 min to write 
each story. The pictures depicted, in order 
administrated, a man sitting at an office desk, tow 
female scientists working in a laboratory, a ship's 
captain talking with another man, two people sitting on 
a park bench, a man and a woman on a trapeze, and a 
man, a woman, an a guitar player in a nightclub. 

CODING: 
Ss verbal protocols were content coded for 3 kinds of 
motive imagery in running text:
- power 
- achivement
- affiliation-intimacy
Expressed in mentioning per 1000 words 

DERIVED SCORE: 
Communal need = afilliation-intimacy
Observed distributionM=11.80, SD=5.08
Error EstimatesProtocols were scored by two independent coders. Category agreement was 95% for affiliation-intimacy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=+.15 ns
Corelation with initial mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ar=+.07 ns
Correlation with 2 weeks average daily mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ab=
Correlation with CHANGE in mood: 2 weeks average 
daily mood controling initial mood
- negative among Ss reporting progress in
  agentic goals:  B = -.21 (05)
- positive among Ss reporting progress in 
  communal goals: B = +.17 (05)
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aDM=
Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on need for communion (1 SD above or below 
mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-need Ss who report high progress in
  communal goals feel better
- high-need Ss who report low progress in 
  communal goals feel worse
- low-need Ss differ little in mood,
  irrespective of progress in communal goals

Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on progress in agentic goals (1 SD above 
or below mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel better
- low-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel worse
- little difference in mood among Ss low in
  agentic motivation, irrespective of progress
  in agentic goals

All results similar for males and females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy need satisfaction
Page in Source 574, 581, 582
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about their feeling of 
autonomy in general, f.e.
- I feel free to express my ideas and opinions
- that my choices were based on my true interests and 
values
- free to do things my own way
- that my choices expressed my "true self"

Aggregate measures were computed by standardizing and 
averaging the two measures
Observed distributionM = 3.68, SD = .58
Error Estimates?=.73
Remarks
the Basic Psychological Needs scale (BPNS; Deci et al., 
2001) with 7 items
te need-satisfaction scale (Sheldon et al., 2001) with 
3 items

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- competence need satisfaction
- relatedness need satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySmucker Barnwell et al. (2006): study ZZ Anglo-America 2001
TitleCannabis, Motivation, and Life Satisfaction in an Internet Sample.
SourceSubstance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 2006, Vol.1, 1 - 9
DOIDOI:10.1186/1747-597X-1-2
Public18+ aged, cannabis users and non-users, USA and Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =487

Correlate
Author's labelMotivation
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
Self report on 12 questions about motivation.

-I get things done during the day
-I approach life with intensity
-Getting things done on my own is important to me
-I have motivation
-I don't follow through on my plans (reverse coded)
-I'm pretty productive most of the time
-Getting things done during the day is imporant to me
-Seeing a job through to the end is important to me
-I have initiative
-I set goals for myself
-I have some interesting projects I'm working on
-I am interested in things
Remarks
Marin (1996) Apathy Motivation Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-ar=+.40 p < .001
all
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-ar=+.35 p < .001
daily users of canabis
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .01
non-users of canabis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelself-concordance
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
Rated agreement with 4 reasons why they strive for a 
goal
- external (because I have to or my situation demands 
it)
- introjected (because I feel guilty, anxious, or 
ashamed if I didn't)
- identified (because I identify with it, even when its 
not fun and anjoyable)
- intrinsic (because it is intrinsically interesting or 
challenging)

Ratings were based on either a single or four important 
self-generated personal goal, in last case the ratings 
were averaged

A single self-concordance measure is computed by 
summing the intrinsic and identified ratings and 
subtracting the externeal and introjected ratings
Observed distributionM = 2.65, SD = 2.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- goal progress (selfrated succes at this goal(s))


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 491
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at".

Reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 
statements:
- "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
- "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this rason) to 9 (completely 
because of this reason)

To form an composite value external and introjected 
ratings were averaged and subtracted from the summed 
averages of intrinsic and identified ratings
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=4.22
Error Estimates? = .72
Remarks
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 selfconcordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester goal attainment
- interaction between self-concordance and goal 
attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T11: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSemester effort
Page in Source 490,491
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at"

8 times during semester participants answered for all 3 
goals the question "How hard are you trying in pursuing 
this striving?"

Rated 1 (not at all hard) to 7 (very hard)

semester effort variable was formed by averaging the 12 
ratings
Observed distributionM=4.32, SD=.96
Error Estimates? = .75
Remarks
T2-T5 + T7-T10: Assessed 8 times during 3 month 
semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.25 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated effort
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.42 p < .05
T6 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated effort


Happiness assessed at T1: at beginning of 
semester, T6: 6 weeks later, T11: another 6 weeks 
later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 486, 487
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving 
on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely 
for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=3.47
Error Estimates?=.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.19 p < .05
T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in 
happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and 
self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Positive when going together with goal attainment


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current motivation
Subject code: M14ab

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSemester effort
Page in Source 486,487
Our classificationCurrent motivation, code M14ab
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

3 times during semester participants answered for all 
10 goals the question "How hard are you trying in 
pursuing this striving?"

Rated 1 (not at all hard) to 9 (very hard)

Semester effort variable was formed by averaging the 30 
ratings
Observed distributionM=5.72, SD=1.33
Error Estimates?=.93
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.34 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T4 effort
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.40 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 effort

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intrinsic motivation
Subject code: M14ab01

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1
TitleCompetive Societies are Happy if the Women are Less Compitive than the Men.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2002, Vol. 36, 321 - 337
DOIDOI:10.1177/106939702237305
PublicGeneral public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelOverall competitiveness
Page in Source 326, 331
Our classificationIntrinsic motivation, code M14ab01
Operationalization
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male 
responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other 
people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to 
a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition 
with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I 
do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= 
strongly agree
Observed distributionAll: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M = 11,76 SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Error Estimatesr=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Remarks
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ar=-.55 p < .001
Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by 
average compititiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=-.31 p < .10
B controlled for societal development as measured 
with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.28 p < .10
B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained 
after societal development and and overall 
competitiveness)
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-ab=+.26 p < .10
Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are 
competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and 
women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)

PICTURE INVOEGEN
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Intrinsic motivation
Subject code: M14ab01

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-referenced performance motives (intrinsic motives)
Page in Source 385-388
Our classificationIntrinsic motivation, code M14ab01
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. If I am not good at something, I would rather keep 
struggling to master it than move on to something I may 
be good at.
B. I would rather do something at which I feel 
confident and relaxed than something which is 
challenging and difficult (reversed scoring).
C. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can 
do than tasks I believe I can do.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=19,25; SD=4,23 Females: M: 18,79; SD=4,16
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=+.26 ns
Average happines by average intrinsic motivation

Stronger in developed countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extrinsic motivation
Subject code: M14ab02

StudyVandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
Title''Better Than'' Performances Motives as Roots of Satisfaction across More and Less Developed Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, Vol. 33, 380 - 397
DOIdoi:10.1177/00222102033004002
PublicStudents, 42 countries, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelOther-referenced performance motives (extrinsic motives)
Our classificationExtrinsic motivation, code M14ab02
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. I try harder when I'm in competition with other 
people.
B. It is important to me to perform better than others 
on a task.
C. I feel that winning is important in both work and 
games.

Average scores of students were used to estimate 
self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 
nations.
Observed distributionMales: M=12,44; SD= 1,69 Females: M= 11,76; SD=1,85
Remarks
Average ambition in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-ar=-.55 p < .05
Average happiness by average extrinsic motivation

Negative in developed countries
Slightly positive in developing nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to ones motivation
Subject code: M14ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to ones motivation, code M14ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,51 SD: 1,52, Non-exercisers: M: 7,19 SD: 2,06
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.30 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to ones motivation
Subject code: M14ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to ones motivation, code M14ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 5,74 SD: 2,41
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.07 p < .31


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bSelfreport on 12 questions:

..how frequent one experienced moods in the past week..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E pleasant
F elated
G frustrated
H sad
I depressed
J dissatisfied
K gloomy
L dejected

Rated 1: scarcely 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D+ E+ F) - (G+H+I+J+K+L)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aSelfreport on 8 questions repeated every second day during 2 weeks:

..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eSelfreport on 8 questions:

Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?
A On top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F Depressed or very unhappy
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Reponse options:
0 never
1 sometimes
3 often

Scoring:
PA = A+C+D (range 0-9)
NA = B+E+F+G+H (range 0-15)
ABS = PA-NA (range 1-7)

Name: Index of Psychological Wellbeing
M-AO---mq-*-124-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing
Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS

Computation: A+B
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on mood on 20 questions
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answered: 1 not at all 7 very frequently
(Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS)

Summation: First computation of z-scores of A (life-satisfaction), Ba-k (negative affect) and Bl-t (positive affect). Next zA + zBl-t -zBa-k

Answer options:
a 1 very slightly or not at all
b 2 a little
c 3 moderately
d 4 quite a bit
e 5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-aSelf report on single question:

Equivalent questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on various scales. The items differ slightly in wording and number of the response options.

Scores are transformed to a common range 0 - 10 by means of expert weighting of response options (Thurstone's method).
O-Sum---sq-vt-11-aSelfreport on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M14MOTIVATIONL07LIFE GOALS
M14aa01Earlier motivantionL07aa01Earlier life-goals
M14aa01Earlier motivantionP01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
M14aa02Change in motivationL07aa02Change in life-goals
M14aa02Change in motivationP02PERSONALITY: CHANGE
M14aa03Later motivationL07aa03Later life-goals
M14aa03Later motivationP05PERSONALITY: LATER
M14abCurrent motivationP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
M14abCurrent motivationL07abCurrent life-goals
M14ab01Intrinsic motivationP04bdGenuine
M14ab01Intrinsic motivationP04blIndependent
M14ab01Intrinsic motivationP04boInner locus of control
M14ab02Extrinsic motivationP04ahApproval seeking
M14ab02Extrinsic motivationP04blIndependent
M14ab02Extrinsic motivationP04boInner locus of control
M14acAttitudes to ones motivationS02ad03Evaluation of aspects of self

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings