Findings on Happiness and MODERNITY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MODERNITY
Subject Code: M12

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M12MODERNITY0
M12aaModernity career0
M12aa01Earlier modernity0
M12aa02Change in modernity0
M12aa03Later modernity0
M12abCurrent modernity2
M12ab01Modern attitudes3
M12ab02Modern behavior0
M12acAttitudes to modernity0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MODERNITY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M12
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current modernity
Subject code: M12ab

StudyLerner (1958): study ZZ Middle East 1950
TitleThe Passing of Traditional Society Modernizing the Middle East.
SourceThe Free Press, 1958, New York, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 6 nations Middle East, 1950
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1600

Correlate
Author's labelModernity
Page in Source 102
Our classificationCurrent modernity, code M12ab
Operationalization
Index based on:
a. Literacy
b. Urban living
c. SES
d. Media attendance 
e. Empathy (projective questionaire)

Three types were derived:
1. Traditional
2. Transitional
3. Modern

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
Turkey        29           17           14
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% unhappy  Traditional  Transitional  Modern
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
Lebanon       43           18           18
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
Egypt         40           41           19
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
Syria         41           40           13
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=0
Jordan        52           42           54
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
Iran          52           33           42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current modernity
Subject code: M12ab

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study ZA 1958
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicTribal people, South Africa, 1958
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelPrimitives
Page in Source 170
Our classificationCurrent modernity, code M12ab
Operationalization
1 Tribal People South Africa
0 African Americans
Remarks
"Primitive"  Bantu people in Kalaua Rwal Reserve, 
Eastern Cape Province. Living the same remote and 
isolated lives as their tribal ancestors

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-
Tribal People South Africa M=1,9
African Americans          M=4,9

Happiness was scored using a 'mountain'like scale, 
since respondents appeared not to be familair with 
the 'ladder' as a rating device


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modern attitudes
Subject code: M12ab01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal modernity
Page in Source 632
Our classificationModern attitudes, code M12ab01
Operationalization
Attitude inventory
(correlations with agree-response)
a. Those who are successful in life,
   generally made plans and arranged 
   things in advance (modern)
b. A boy learns deepest and most 
   profound truth from older people
   (traditional)
c. The tradional way of growing maize
   is the best (traditional)
d. A community leader should be well
   liked and well educated(modern)
e. Preference for entrepreneurship
f. Entrepreneur (trader or big farmer)
Remarks
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. 
Sign in table is negative, but text indicates positive 
relationship. Present version approved by author.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.36 p < .01
a
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.34 p < .01
a.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.24 p < .01
b.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.26 p < .01
b
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .01
c
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.23 p < .01
c.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.07 ns
d.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .01
d
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.18 p < .01
e
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.21 p < .01
e.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.14 p < .05
f.
   
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .01
f 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modern attitudes
Subject code: M12ab01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelModern community leader
Page in Source 652
Our classificationModern attitudes, code M12ab01
Operationalization
What should most qualify a man to become community 
leader?
1 traditional
  - coming from high famaly
  - knowing tradition
2 modern
  - well liked
  - well educated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.

 controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- Higher monthly income
- More active person
- Worked for many tears in jobs
- Retired for many years
- No desire to return to work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Modern attitudes
Subject code: M12ab01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelModernity
Page in Source 632
Our classificationModern attitudes, code M12ab01
Operationalization
Index consisting of the following items(shortened):
A: Those who are successful in life
   generally made plans and arranged
   things in advance (+)
B: A boy learns deepest and most
   profound truth from older people(-)
C: The more things a man possesses the
   happier he is (+)
D: The traditional way of growing mais
   is the best(-)
E: A community leader should be well  
   liked and well educated(+)
F: Respect for old people does not 
   damage (-)
Remarks
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. 
Sign in table is negative, but text indicates positive 
relationship. Present version approved by author.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.10 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.13 p < .05
 controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- More active perso
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Community elder
- Satisfied with job while working
- Enjoys aspects of retirement
- Retired suddenly 
- Is happy as grandparents were              
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life overall
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life overall
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M12MODERNITYL01ab01Number of languages spoken
M12MODERNITYL09ab02cInternational life style
M12MODERNITYN04anOverall development (modernity) of nation
M12aa01Earlier modernityP01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
M12ab01Modern attitudesE01EDUCATION
M12ab01Modern attitudesV02ac01Modern value pattern
M12ab02Modern behaviorL09ab02dModernlife style

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings