Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
Subject Code: M10

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK0
M10aaMigrant work career0
M10aa01Earlier migrant work1
M10aa01aEver involved in migrant work2
M10aa01bTime involved in migrant work0
M10aa01cNumber of places worked0
M10aa02Change in migrant work0
M10aa03Later migrant work0
M10abCurrent involvement in migrant work0
M10ab01Involved in migrant work (vs not)1
M10ab02Time involved in migrant work0
M10ab03Conditions of migrant work1
M10acAttitudes to migrant work0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M10
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier migrant work
Subject code: M10aa01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of home visits while workingin town
Page in Source 630
Our classificationEarlier migrant work, code M10aa01
Operationalization
0: not frequent
1: frequent

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.18 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever involved in migrant work
Subject code: M10aa01a

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 916, 918
Our classificationEver involved in migrant work, code M10aa01a
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Emigrants (born in Germany but living in 
       another country)
  b) Remigrants (born in Germany and having
        worked for 6 months or  longer in another
        country)
0: Non-migrants in Germany
Observed distributionN=1.010
Remarks
German-born living in Switzerland 311, Austria 126, 
Luxemburg 74, Greece, 65, Netherlands 57, Uk 56.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.7
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- difference:   +0.6

Re-migrants:  M= 7.2
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- differece:    +0.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.5
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
Difference:     +0.7

Re-migrants:  M= 6.8
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
- difference:    0.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.36 p < .05
EMIGRANTS MOVED <5 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

B's in these comparisons controlled for:
- gender
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health

B=+.12(ns) when additionally controlled for:
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED 6-20 YEARS AGO(vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates: 
B= +.12(ns)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.44 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED >20 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= +.31 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
RE-MIGRANTS                   (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= -.04(ns)

Similar findings were observed in all above 
comparisons for happiness-measure: 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever involved in migrant work
Subject code: M10aa01a

StudyBartram (2013a): study RO 2009
TitleMigration, Return, and Happiness in Romania.
SourceEuropean Societies, 2013, Vol. 15, 408 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1080/14616696.2012.726735
Public15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1595

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 416
Our classificationEver involved in migrant work, code M10aa01a
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
1: Migrants
   a) 'Migrant' when not living in country of birth
   b) 'Returnee' when living in country of birth 
       but having worked more than 6 months 
       abroad.
0: Non-migrant/Homestayer  (living in country of birth 
and not having worked abroad)
Observed distribution1a: N=73, 1b: N=80, 0: N=1442

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants abroad:      M=6.4 SD=2.3
Returned migrants:    M=5.9 SD=2.2
Non-migrants:         M=6.2 SD=2.1
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= ns
1a=1b=0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.03 ns
MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
- income

Insignificant results remain when controlling for 
less of these factors
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.02 p < .000
RETURNEES (vs.non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- income
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .031
Beta additionally controlled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in migrant work (vs not)
Subject code: M10ab01

StudyMoller (1989): study ZA 1983
TitleCan't get no Satisfaction. Quality of Life in the 1980's.
SourceIndicator South Africa, 1989, Vol. 7, 43 - 46
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moller_v_1989.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, South African, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelLiving arrangement
Page in Source 22 (Rep.)
Our classificationInvolved in migrant work (vs not), code M10ab01
Operationalization
1 Township blacks
2 Rural fringe blacks
3 Homeland rural blacks
4 "White farm blacks"
5 Hostel blacks
Hostel black are typically migrant workers.
Remarks
"satisfied" or "very satisfied" :
1 48%
2 39%
3 45%
4 36%
5 17%
Computed for blacks only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Conditions of migrant work
Subject code: M10ab03

StudyMoller (1989): study ZA 1983
TitleCan't get no Satisfaction. Quality of Life in the 1980's.
SourceIndicator South Africa, 1989, Vol. 7, 43 - 46
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moller_v_1989.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, South African, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelWorking at several places and living in hostels
Page in Source 22 (Rep.)
Our classificationConditions of migrant work, code M10ab03
Operationalization
0 all blacks
1 blacks living in hostels 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dG=-.58 p < .01
"satisfied" or "very satisfied" :
0: 44%
1: 17%
Computed for blacks only.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dtau=-.10 p < .01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORKW04WORK: CONDITIONS
M10aa01Earlier migrant workL06aa01Earlier life-events
M10ab03Conditions of migrant workW04WORK: CONDITIONS
M10acAttitudes to migrant workW05WORK: ATTITUDES

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings