Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)
Subject Code: M09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)0
M09aaMoving career0
M09aa01Earlier residential mobility3
M09aa01aEver moved or not8
M09aa01bTimes moved in country5
M09aa01cTime since last move9
M09ac01Likelihood to move1
M09abCurrent residential mobility0
M09aa01dRecently moved14
M09ab01Conditions of moving0
M09ab02Integration in new community3
M09acAttitudes to residential mobility2
M09aa01eMoved back0
M09adPre-move happiness1
M09ab03Motives for moving0
M09ab04Distance of move1
M09ac02Want to move2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier residential mobility
Subject code: M09aa01

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelResidential mobility
Page in Source 9, 11,15
Our classificationEarlier residential mobility, code M09aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your residential location 
which continued at lease one year? (Full question was 
not reported, assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 2.3, 1: 14%; 2: 18%; 3: 23%; 4: 15%; 5: 30% Average duration: 7.7 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.01 ns
OPRCs controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier residential mobility
Subject code: M09aa01

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelChange in living environment
Page in Source 253
Our classificationEarlier residential mobility, code M09aa01
Operationalization
0 Current living environment (urban, rural, suburban) 
different from the one 1 in childhood

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR=01 p < .01
Explained variance in ANOVA.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier residential mobility
Subject code: M09aa01

StudyMartin & Lichter (1983): study US Michigan 1973
TitleGeographic Mobility and Satisfaction with Life and Work.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 64, 524 - 534
Public16+ aged, employees, Michigan/US, followed 4 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response(43%)
Respondents N =827

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 529, 531
Our classificationEarlier residential mobility, code M09aa01
Operationalization
1: Movers (moved between T1 and T2)
0: Non-movers  (not moved between T1 and T2)
Remarks
T1:1973; T2:1977

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dDM=+ ns
              T1: 1973    T2:1977    Diff.
Movers:       3.58        3.34       -.24
Non-movers:   3.50        3.27       -.23
difference:   +.08        +.07
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.02 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 moving, 
controlling T1 happiness.

Beta addtionally controlled for:
- T1 income 
- T1 age
- T1 education
- T1-T2 change in perceived intrinsic job rewards
- T1-T2 change in perceived extrinsic job rewards


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyWang et al. (2015): study CN 2010
TitleDoes Consuming More Make You Happier? Evidence from Chinese Panel Data.
SourceMonash DOE Working Paper, 2015, No. 29, 1 - 26
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/277004500_Does_Consuming_More_Make_You_Happier_Evidence_from_Chinese_Panel_Data
Public18+ aged, general public, China, 2010-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =61009

Correlate
Author's labelLocals/migrants
Page in Source 18
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
0 Urban locals
1 Urban migrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jDM=-
2012
                 M       SD
Migrants       3.25     1.03
Locals         3.31     1.04

Difference= -.06
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jDM=+
2010
                 M       SD
Migrants       3.49     1.04
Locals         3.48     1.04

Difference= +.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 142
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1: Rural-to-Urban migrants
0: Non-migrants
  a) Residing in Urban area
  b) Residing in Rural area
Observed distribution1: M= 555, 0a: M= 983, 0b: M=1195

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
Rural-to-urban migrants: M=4.32 (SE=.17)
Urban residents:         M=4.29 (SE=.08)
- difference:              +.03
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-aDM=-
Rural-to-urban migrants: M=4.32(SE=.17)
Rural residents:         M=4.35(SE=.06)
- difference:              -.03
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-aBMCT= p < .001
0a<1<0b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants
Page in Source 6
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1: Migrants
   a) First generation migrants
   b) New generation migrants
0: Non-migrants (urban locals)

New-generation migrants moved more recently than 
first-generation migrants. Exact boundary unknown.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hDM=-
First-generation migrants: M=3.57 (SE=1.01)
Urban locals:              M=3.80 (SE=0.94)
- difference:               -0.23
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hDM=-
New generation migrants:   M=3.78 (SE=0.96)
Urban locals:              M=3.80 (SE=0.94)
- difference:               -0.02
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-8.6 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs urban locals)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-.34 ns
NEW GENERATION MIGRANTS   (vs urban locals)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-4.3 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs new generation 
immigrants)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.06 p < .01
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs new generation 
immigrants)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.06 p < .01
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs non-migrants)

Order of only this comparison is reversed by World 
Database of Happiness team.

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002 /1
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged general public, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =20000

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 113, 115
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1: Rural-to-Urban migrants
0: Non-migrants
    a) Urban locals
    b) Rural locals
Remarks
A hukou is a record in the system of household 
registration required by law in China. A household 
registration record officially identifies a person as a 
resident of an area and includes identifying 
information such as name, parents, spouse, residency 
status, and date of birth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-
Rural-Urban migrants: M=2.37
Urban locals:         M=2.5?
- difference:           .13

Rural-Urban migrants: M=2.37
Rural locals:         M=2.7?
- difference             .33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants vs urbans
Page in Source 1194
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1: Migrants
0: Non-migrants (urbans)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daDM=-
Migrants:     M=2.37 (SD=0.811)
Non-migrants: M=2.49 (SD=0.859)
- difference:   -.12
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daAoV=- p < .001
MIGRANTS (vs non-migrants)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1: Immigrant; not born in Italy
0: Non-migrant; born in Italy
Observed distribution481 (7.1%) immigrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=-
Immigrants:      M=6.90 SD=2.08
Native Italians: M=7.44 SD=1.76
- difference:     -0.54
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.55 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.47 p < .01
Beta is additionally controlled for:
- Family socio-economic status
Set Image size:   

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.40 p < .01
Beta is additionally controlled for:
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 14
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
T0: Approximately a year before migration.
T1: Approximately half a year after migration 
T2: Approximately two years after migration
T3: Approximately three years after migration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
       T0       T1        T2       T3 
T0   M=2.80
T1     0.64   M=3.44
T2     0.64     0.00    M=3.44
T3     0.74     0.10      0.10   M=3.54
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baBeta=+.42 p < .001
T0-T3 CHANGE in happiness

Linear and quadratic latent growth model did not 
fit well. Therefore, an unconditional latent 
growth with free parameters for T2 and T3 is 
assessed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever moved or not
Subject code: M09aa01a

StudyWu (2008): study TW 2005
TitleExamining the Appropriateness of Importance Weighting on Satisfaction Score from Range-of-Affect Hypothesis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Within-Subject Data.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 101 - 111
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9103-9
PublicSecondary school pupils, Taiwan, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4502

Correlate
Author's labelMigrant status
Page in Source 63
Our classificationEver moved or not, code M09aa01a
Operationalization
1 Migrant: mainland born
0 Non-migrant: Hong-Kong born
Observed distribution1; 28%, 0: 72%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aD%=-
% satisfied with life overall
- Mainland born    74,9%
- Hong-Kong born   78,6%
difference         -3,7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Times moved in country
Subject code: M09aa01b

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of communities in which one lived
Our classificationTimes moved in country, code M09aa01b
Operationalization
4-point scale ranging from "one" to "five or more"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.05
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Times moved in country
Subject code: M09aa01b

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of communities in which one lived
Our classificationTimes moved in country, code M09aa01b
Operationalization
4-point scale ranging from "one" to "five or more"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.04
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Times moved in country
Subject code: M09aa01b

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of communities in which lived
Our classificationTimes moved in country, code M09aa01b
Operationalization
4-point scale ranging from "one" to "five or more"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=-.02
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Times moved in country
Subject code: M09aa01b

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of communities in whichlived
Our classificationTimes moved in country, code M09aa01b
Operationalization
4-point scale ranging from "one" to "five or more"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=0.00
Controlled for: Income, housing density, 
education, social status, chronic illness, 
anxiety, freq. of meetings with relatives, no. of 
friends, opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, no. of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feeling of being liked, 
feeling of chance to succeed, feeling of being 
able to use knowledge and skills, gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Times moved in country
Subject code: M09aa01b

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelGeographic mobility.
Page in Source 70
Our classificationTimes moved in country, code M09aa01b
Operationalization
Number of times one moved his residence in the past 10 
years.
Observed distributionActual range 0-7 M 0.5 SD=1.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=-.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelResidential duration
Page in Source 438, 441
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
Years living at current address
Observed distributionMales: M=9.6 SD=11.6; Females: M=9.6 SD=11.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 p < .05
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- region in Australia
- remoteness of place of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) rate of single parents
  b) unemployment rate 
  c) rate of home owners
  d) rate of non-English speaking immigrants
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) social interaction and social support
  g) local disamenity
  h) rate of people over 64 years
  i) insecurity
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelTime in area
Page in Source 233
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta= ns
All 's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services, 
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, language, work status, marital 
status

Males  : N: 173  : +.04
Females: N: 154  : -.03
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.02
All 's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, language, work status, marital 
status.

Males  : N: 173  : +.04
Females: N: 154  : ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants
Page in Source 6
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
1: Migrants
   a) First generation migrants
   b) New generation migrants
0: Non-migrants (urban locals)

New-generation migrants moved more recently than 
first-generation migrants. Exact boundary unknown.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hDM=-
First-generation migrants: M=3.57 (SE=1.01)
Urban locals:              M=3.80 (SE=0.94)
- difference:               -0.23
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hDM=-
New generation migrants:   M=3.78 (SE=0.96)
Urban locals:              M=3.80 (SE=0.94)
- difference:               -0.02
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-8.6 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs urban locals)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-.34 ns
NEW GENERATION MIGRANTS   (vs urban locals)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hAoV=-4.3 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs new generation 
immigrants)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.06 p < .01
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs new generation 
immigrants)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.06 p < .01
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS (vs non-migrants)

Order of only this comparison is reversed by World 
Database of Happiness team.

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of urban residence
Page in Source 116
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many years have you lived in an urban area by the 
end of 2002? ..
Observed distributionM=7.51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.01 p < .10
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Household income
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Duration of urban residence squared: 
B=-.00(p<.10)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelYears lived in moshav
Page in Source 515; 518
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
years lived in the moshav
Observed distributionM=15 (years)
Remarks
A " moshav" is a settlement or a small community in 
Israel. The two "moshavs" investigated in this study 
contain 40-50 households each.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.05 p < .05
B controlled for:
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.03 ns
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 14
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
T0: Approximately a year before migration.
T1: Approximately half a year after migration 
T2: Approximately two years after migration
T3: Approximately three years after migration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
       T0       T1        T2       T3 
T0   M=2.80
T1     0.64   M=3.44
T2     0.64     0.00    M=3.44
T3     0.74     0.10      0.10   M=3.54
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baBeta=+.42 p < .001
T0-T3 CHANGE in happiness

Linear and quadratic latent growth model did not 
fit well. Therefore, an unconditional latent 
growth with free parameters for T2 and T3 is 
assessed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelYears at residence
Page in Source 164
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
Self report of years at the property (mini-farm)
Observed distributionrange: 0 - 60, M = 6.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelArrival in place of residence
Page in Source Extra info
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization
born in town 
arrived by age of 15 
> 20 years ago 
10-19 years ago 
5-9 years ago 
0-4 years ago

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDMt=
Happiness level in Mt' (0-10):
- born in town     males: 7.9   females: 7.5
- arr. by age 15          6.9            7.3
- >20 years ago           7.5            6.8
- 10-19 years ago         7.5            7.9
-  5-9  years ago         7.1            7.4
-  0-4  years ago         7.4            7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since last move
Subject code: M09aa01c

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelAge at arrival in place of residence
Page in Source Extra info
Our classificationTime since last move, code M09aa01c
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDMt=
Happiness level in Mt' (0-10):
- born               males: 7.9   females: 7.5
-  0-14                     7.0            7.3
- 15-24                     7.1            7.2
- 25-34                     7.6            7.6
- 35+                       7.5            7.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1: Migrated in the last 8 years
   a)  from an urban to a rural area
   b)  from a rural area to an urban area 
0: Not migrated in the last 8 years
Remarks
Migration assessed comparing residence at age 23 
(earlier wave in this panel) and 31 (present wave).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=.65 p < .NS
MALE URBAN-TO-RURAL MOVERS (vs non-migrants in 
urban areas)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=.81 p < .NS
MALE RURAL-TO-URBAN MOVERS (vs non-migrants in 
urban areas)

OR controlled for:
- education
- employment history

Similar findings were obtained when no controls 
are included or when additionally controlled for:
- social support
- active coping strategies
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future

Similar findings are found for females.

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelMoved
Page in Source 11, 12, 25,29,Table1,Fig.2
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
Moved:
0:  before move
1:  after move
Observed distributionN = 874
Remarks
T1: 2004-2005 before move T2: 2006 year of move, T3: 
2007-2008 after move

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+ p < .05
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness ALL
Before move       M =  6,86
After move        M =  7,08
- difference     DM = +0,22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by AGE
18-25             DM = -0.06  (N: 194)
26-35             DM = +0.38  (N: 280)
36-45             DM = +0.36  (N: 195)
46-55             DM = +0.18  (N: 136)
56-63             DM = +0.02  (N:  67)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by SEXE
Males             DM = +0,24
Females           DM = +0,20
- difference            0.04 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by DISTANCE
km less than 9    DM = +0,27
km 9  - 18        DM = +0,33
km 18 - 77        DM = +0,17
km 77 - 764       DM = +0,08
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by DESTINATION
urban --> urban   DM = +0,11 (N: 151)
rural --> urban   DM = +0,27 (N: 162)
urban --> rural   DM = +0,29 (N: 147)
rural --> rural   DM = +0,21 (N: 414)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelMoving within/across municipalities
Page in Source 11,16-18,29-31
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1: Moved in 2006
    a: across municipalities
    b: within municipalities
0 did not move
Observed distributionN = 1a: 874, 1b: ?, 0: 9.249
Remarks
T1: 2004-2005, T2: 2006, T3: 2007-2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
T1-T3 CHANGE happiness
- moved at T2     DM = +0,22 (N:874)
- did not move    DM = +0,02 (N:10249)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.33 p < .01
Moved ACROSS municipalities
- similar among males and females
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix= ns
Moved WITHIN municipality

b-fix's controlled for:
- socio-economic chharacteristics
  - gender 
  - household size
  - number of children
  - disabled or not
  - health
  - income
  - spouse in foreign country
  - marital status
  - education
  - german citizen or not
  - employment status
- regional characteristics
  - year fixed effects
  - labor market in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved home within East/West Germany in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.08  Beta=-.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.04  Beta=-.07

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMoved to West/East Germany following reunification
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.44  Beta=+.40
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.20  Beta=-.26

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 14
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
T0: Approximately a year before migration.
T1: Approximately half a year after migration 
T2: Approximately two years after migration
T3: Approximately three years after migration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
       T0       T1        T2       T3 
T0   M=2.80
T1     0.64   M=3.44
T2     0.64     0.00    M=3.44
T3     0.74     0.10      0.10   M=3.54
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baBeta=+.42 p < .001
T0-T3 CHANGE in happiness

Linear and quadratic latent growth model did not 
fit well. Therefore, an unconditional latent 
growth with free parameters for T2 and T3 is 
assessed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyGuillen-Royo & Velazco (2012): study PE 2005
TitleHappy Villages and Unhappy Slums? Understanding Happiness Determinants in Peru.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 253 - 270
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_18
PublicGeneral public, Peruvian corridor region, Peru, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =251

Correlate
Author's labelMigrant
Page in Source Table 5
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No

Full question was not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.10 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+1.3 p < .05
Non-urban
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=-.42 ns
Urban

B's controlled for: 
 -age
 -marital status
 -gender
 -Years of education
 -household expenditure
 -average expenditure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelNewcomer in community
Page in Source 631
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
0: local person (70%)
1: newcomer     (30%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.10 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyKleban & Turner-Massey (1978): study US 1975
TitleShort-Range Effects of Community Housing.
SourceThe Gerontologist, 1978, Vol. 18, 129 - 132
DOIDOI: 10.1093/geront/18.2.129
Public62+ aged applicants for community housing, followed 6 months, Philadelphia, USA, 1975.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =87

Correlate
Author's labelMoving
Page in Source 131
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1  Moved to community housing (experimental group)
0  Applied but did not move to community housing 
(control group):
     a:  moved to elsewhere
     b: still waiting to move
Remarks
Comparison of situation at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-gDM=+ p < .05
T1-T2 (6 month)CHANGE in happiness
- Movers became happier.
- Non-movers or waiting to move became less happy.

Significance level calculated by WDH.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelRecent move
Page in Source 225
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
1: lived 5 years or more in community
   or county if rural.
0: under 5 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.11 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.07 p < .05
 controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 :                
1: education, occupation, income, level of living
2: live alone, married, children, contact with
   relatives, contact with friends, church 
   attendance, organizational  membership. 
3: health problems, separated/divorced,
   unemployed
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

 in different age groups:
under 30: -.09 (ns)    30-49   : -.07 (ns)
50-64   : -.04 (ns)    over 64 : -.04 (ns)

              
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
 controlled for 3 only:
interaction with age: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyMartinson et al. (1984): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitlePredicting overall Life Satisfaction: The Role of Life Cycle and Social Psychological Antecedents.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00315724
Public18+aged, general public, N.W. Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelRecent move to ruralarea
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0: lived 5 years or more in community
   or county, if rural.
1: other.
(At time of study, all ss lived in primarily rural 
area)


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
age <30:  = +.04  ns
30 - 49:  = +.00  ns
50 - 64:  = +.01  ns
   > 64:  = -.03  ns

 controlled for:powerlessness, community 
solidarity, health, days too sick to work, 
separated / divorced, unemployed, contact with 
relatives, contact with friends, church 
attendance, organizational membership, education, 
family income.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyMartinson et al. (1985): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleLife Change, Health Status and Life Satisfaction: A Reconsideration.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 301 - 313
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00415128
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelRecent migrant
Page in Source 309
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
Single direct question:
1: Lived 5 years or more in community,
   or county if rural
0: Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=
 of different age groups:
under 30 : -.01  ns     30-49   : -.02  ns
50-64    : +.03  ns     over 64 : +.03  ns

 controlled for: negative life change, degree of 
disability, days lost due to illness, 
powerlessness, community solidarity, contact with 
friends, contact with relatives, organizational 
affiliation, church attendance, separated / 
divorced, sex, unemployed, family income, 
education. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyStorandt et al. (1975): study US 1970
TitlePredictors of a Dimension of Well-Being in Relocated Healthy Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 97 - 102
Public60+ aged, followed 15 months after move, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response50%; 47% unattainable, 3% incomplete
Respondents N =122

Correlate
Author's labelWell-being
Page in Source 99
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
Ratings by two psychologists on a 5-point scale. 
The raters were instructed to rate on a dimension of 
well-being that ranged from spent, played out, almost 
senile in manner, to alive, zestful, vital, even 
enthousiastic.
Assessed at T2 (11 to 19 month after move).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aAoV=+ ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (within 5 months of 
moving into new residence: 73 were tested up to 5 
months prior to moving, 49 were tested within 5 
months following the move; no significant 
differences between these groups were found)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recently moved
Subject code: M09aa01d

StudyWillits et al. (1978): study US 1946
TitleMigrant Status and Success: A Panel Study.
SourceRural Sociology, 1978, Vol. 43, 386 - 402
PublicHighschool pupils, rural area, followed 25 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1946-71
Sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =2081

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 394
Our classificationRecently moved, code M09aa01d
Operationalization
0. Non-migrants 
1. Migrants

Ss. were defined as a migrant if their residences at T1 
and T2 were more than 50 miles apart.
Remarks
Happiness assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.05 ns
Males:  - non-migrants M = 1.27   Mt' = 6.4
        - migrants     M = 1.27   Mt' = 6.4
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 ns
Females: - non-migrants M = 1.36   Mt' = 6.8
         - migrants     M = 1.42   Mt' = 7.1

 controlled for father's occupation, highschool 
grade point average and education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Integration in new community
Subject code: M09ab02

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelChange in social status
Page in Source 1196-1197
Our classificationIntegration in new community, code M09ab02
Operationalization
a) Born with rural hukou but acquired urban 
     hokou
b) Born with urban hukou
c) Born and still have rural hokou (reference)
Remarks
Rural-urban migrants only (N=1833)

A hukou is a record in the system of household 
registration required by law in China. A household 
registration record officially identifies a person as a 
resident of an area and includes identifying 
information such as name, parents, spouse, residency 
status, and date of birth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.01 ns
MIGRANTS WHO ACQUIRED URBAN STATUS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.20 p < .05
BORN WITH URBAN HOKOU

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
  q) GDP per capita
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  r) Between-group inequality
  s) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and Integration in new community
Subject code: M09ab02

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelAcculturative stress
Page in Source 16
Our classificationIntegration in new community, code M09ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
Compared to other situations in your life, how 
stressful would you rate?
a) moving from Russia
b) moving to Finland
c) your own adjustment to Finland

Rated:
1 Not severe at all
:
7 The most severe event I have ever faced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bar=-.17 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Integration in new community
Subject code: M09ab02

StudyLnnqvist et al. (2014): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration Psychological and Social Well-Being over the Course of Migration.
SourceSubmitted to European Journal of Social Psychology
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2105/epdf
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response62%
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelAdaptation difficulties
Page in Source 16
Our classificationIntegration in new community, code M09ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on 29 items:
Please indicate how much difficulty you experience in 
Finland in each of these areas:
Examples items include:
- Dealing with people staring at you
- Finding food you enjoy
- Using the transport system
- Making yourself understood

Rated:
1 no difficulty
:
5 extreme difficulty
Remarks
Socio-Cultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS)

Assessed at T1: Approximately half a year after 
migration.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bar=-.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Distance of move
Subject code: M09ab04

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelDistance of migration: move from urban to rural area
Page in Source 20,26,32
Our classificationDistance of move, code M09ab04
Operationalization
4 Quartiles of migration distance:
1 < 9km
2 9-18 km
3 18-77 km
4 77-764 km

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
CHANGE in life satisfaction before and after 
migration from an urban area to a rural area:
1  + 0,27
2  + 0,33
3  + 0,17
4  + 0,08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+0.0 ns
Linear regression
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
Nonlinear regression:
- Log of migration distance b=+.08 (p<.01)
There is no support for a u-shaped relation 
between migration distance and happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to residential mobility
Subject code: M09ac

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelLiving area
Page in Source 258, 162, 264
Our classificationAttitudes to residential mobility, code M09ac
Operationalization
Agreement with 2 statements:
a. If I could afford to leave the area I am now living 
in, I would move
b. The area I am now living in is a good place to 
retire

Rated: 
1: strongly disagree
.
.

5: strongly agree = 5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.12
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Difficulties with housing costs
 - Personal worries
 - Ideal age preference
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=-.15
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Difficulties with housing costs
 - % income spent on housing costs
 - Personal worries
 - Retail store access
 - Ideal age preference
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=-.18
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Difficulties with housing costs
 - Personal worries
 - Retail store access
 - Social age identity
 - Government planning
 - Worries getting around


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to residential mobility
Subject code: M09ac

StudyStokols et al. (1983): study US 1980
TitleResidential Mobility and Personal Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Environmental Psychology, 1983, Vol. 3, 5 - 19
PublicUniversity employees, California, USA, 1980
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =242

Correlate
Author's labelEnvironmental exploratory tendency
Page in Source 13
Our classificationAttitudes to residential mobility, code M09ac
Operationalization
Summed scores of 3 5-point Likert scales on 3 
dimensions of environmental exploratory tendency:
A Liking or disliking of moving to new places.
B Preference of exploring unfamiliar places or being in 
familiar surroundings.
C Comfortable or uncomfortable meeting new people.

Coded:
1 exploratory
0 non exploratory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cDM=+ ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Likelihood to move
Subject code: M09ac01

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelMove
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationLikelihood to move, code M09ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on question:
(Even though you may not want to move) Do you expect 
you will move in the coming year?
1: No 
0: Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.28 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.30 p < .01
Males

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - strain
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome problems
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Want to move
Subject code: M09ac02

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to move (to another state in Germany)
Page in Source 40
Our classificationWant to move, code M09ac02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Could you imagine yourself moving to another part of 
Germany?"
1: very much
2: yes, depending on the situation
3: probably not
4: never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.13
STANDARD OLS
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+11
INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLE REGRESSION

Instrument for happiness:
- regional yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - health status
  - income
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Want to move
Subject code: M09ac02

StudyKleban & Turner-Massey (1978): study US 1975
TitleShort-Range Effects of Community Housing.
SourceThe Gerontologist, 1978, Vol. 18, 129 - 132
DOIDOI: 10.1093/geront/18.2.129
Public62+ aged applicants for community housing, followed 6 months, Philadelphia, USA, 1975.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =87

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to move
Page in Source 130
Our classificationWant to move, code M09ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"With things as they are now, would you like to move?" 
1- Yes
0- No
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-gR=.20 p < .05
M-PL-c-sq-v-4-bR=.12 p < .05
Significance levels calculated by WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Pre-move happiness
Subject code: M09ad

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelMoved
Page in Source 11, 12, 25,29,Table1,Fig.2
Our classificationPre-move happiness, code M09ad
Operationalization
Moved:
0:  before move
1:  after move
Observed distributionN = 874
Remarks
T1: 2004-2005 before move T2: 2006 year of move, T3: 
2007-2008 after move

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+ p < .05
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness ALL
Before move       M =  6,86
After move        M =  7,08
- difference     DM = +0,22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by AGE
18-25             DM = -0.06  (N: 194)
26-35             DM = +0.38  (N: 280)
36-45             DM = +0.36  (N: 195)
46-55             DM = +0.18  (N: 136)
56-63             DM = +0.02  (N:  67)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by SEXE
Males             DM = +0,24
Females           DM = +0,20
- difference            0.04 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by DISTANCE
km less than 9    DM = +0,27
km 9  - 18        DM = +0,33
km 18 - 77        DM = +0,17
km 77 - 764       DM = +0,08
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by DESTINATION
urban --> urban   DM = +0,11 (N: 151)
rural --> urban   DM = +0,27 (N: 162)
urban --> rural   DM = +0,29 (N: 147)
rural --> rural   DM = +0,21 (N: 414)
Set Image size:   



Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How well do you feel these days? Is your current well-being....?
0 very low
1
2
3
4 very high
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question

Currently, how happy are you feeling?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-PL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How much are you enjoying life these days?
4 very much
3 somewhat
2 not very much
1 not at all
- don't know
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hSelfreport on single question

Generally speaking, how do you personally feel about your life?

1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 so-so
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything in your life into consideration, how happy are you?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 happy
4 some how happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-aAre you satisfied with your current life?
1: very unsatisfied
7: very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dSelf-report on single question

Are you satisfied with life in general?
1: unsatisfied
2: moderate satisfied
3: very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6 satisfied

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale' adjusted version
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-jSelfreport on single question:

Are you satisfied with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

Labels of intermediate response options not reported
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration, how satisfied are you with life in general at the present time? Would you say you are.....?
5 extremely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dSelf-report on two questions:

A) Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are:
1: not too happy
2: pretty happy
3: very happy

B) In general, how satisfying do you find the ways you're spending your life these days? Would you call it:
1: not very satisfying
2: pretty satisfying
3: very satisfying

Computation: A+B
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
M09aaMoving careerM08aa01Ever migrated or not
M09aa01Earlier residential mobilityL06aa01Earlier life-events
M09aa01Earlier residential mobilityM08aa01Ever migrated or not
M09aa01aEver moved or notM08aa01Ever migrated or not
M09aa01bTimes moved in countryM08aa08Re-migration
M09aa01cTime since last moveM08aa02Time since migration
M09aa01dRecently movedM08aa07Recent migration
M09aa01eMoved backM08aa08Re-migration
M09abCurrent residential mobilityL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
M09ab02Integration in new communityS06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
M09ab02Integration in new communityS07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS
M09ab02Integration in new communityS08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings