Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
Subject Code: M08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY0
M08aaMigration career1
M08aa07Recent migration3
M08aa01Ever migrated or not41
M08aa02Time since migration20
M08aa03Migration generation11
M08ac01Likelihood to migrate0
M08abCurrent involvement in migration0
M08ab01Migration conditions1
M08ab02Adjustment to new country of settlement5
M08acAttitudes to own migration0
M08ac02Aspirations for migration1
M08ac03Satisfaction with migration0
M08aa04Migration at young age3
M08aa05Country of origin6
M08aa08Re-migration2
M08aa06Country of settlement3
M08adDifference in happiness of migrants with people in home country0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration career
Subject code: M08aa

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelNot born/born in coutry of residence
Our classificationMigration career, code M08aa
Operationalization
1 People born in country of residence
0 People not born in country of residence (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
B (0.337) controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - employmnet
  - education
  - marital status
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey

People born in country of residence are happier 
than people not born in country of residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

Study~Gallup International (2012): study AF 2012
TitleGallup World Poll 2012
Sourcehttps://worldview.gallup.com/
Public15+ aged, general public, Parts of the World, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =466689

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants vs Natives
Page in Source 115, 119, 120
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) ‘Newcomers’, migrants who moved to their 
destination country 
      less than five years ago.
  b) ‘Long-timers’, migrants who have been living in 
their  
      current country for at least five years.
0: Non-migrants (natives in destination country)
Remarks
Happiness is assessed for four migration-streams:
a) North-to-North migration
b) South-to-North migration
c) North-to-South migration
d) South-to-South migration

- North includes Northern America, Europe, Japan, 
Australia and New Zealand (a total of 56 countries).
- South is composed of Africa, the Americas (without 
the United States and Canada), the Caribbean, Asia 
(except Japan), and Oceania (except Australia and New 
Zealand).

- Using this definition, the ‘North’ does not include 
the OECD countries Chile, Israel, Mexico, the Republic 
of Korea, and Turkey, or high-income non-OECD countries 
such as Bahrain; Hong Kong, China; Puerto Rico; or the 
United Arab Emirates. Instead, several countries in 
Eastern Europe (such as Belarus, the Republic of 
Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine) are 
considered part of the ‘North’.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+/-
NORTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=5.500):

Newcomers:    M=6.53   Long-timers: M=6.67
Native-born:  M=6.62   Native-born: M=6.62
- difference:   -.09                  +.05
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=47.0   Long-timers: M=45.0
Native-born:  M=50.0   Native-born: M=50.0
- difference:   -3.0                  -5.0
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
SOUTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=10.000):

Newcomers:    M=6.24   Long-timers: M=6.10
Native-born:  M=6.62   Native-born: M=6.62
- difference:   -.38                  -.52
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=37.0   Long-timers: M=39.5
Native-born:  M=50.0   Native-born: M=50.0
- difference:  -13.0                 -10.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+
NORTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=1.250):

Newcomers:    M=5.67   Long-timers: M=5.52
Native-born:  M=5.42   Native-born: M=5.42
- difference:   +.25                  +.10
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=27.5   Long-timers: M=28.5
Native-born:  M=51.0   Native-born: M=51.0
- difference:  -23.5                 -22.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
SOUTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=8.250):

Newcomers:    M=5.38   Long-timers: M=5.20
Native-born:  M=5.42   Native-born: M=5.42
- difference:   -.04                  -.22
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=36.0   Long-timers: M=44.5
Native-born:  M=51.0   Native-born: M=51.0
- difference:  -15.0                  -6.5

Means adjusted by:
- gender
- age
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

Study~Gallup International (2012): study AF 2012
TitleGallup World Poll 2012
Sourcehttps://worldview.gallup.com/
Public15+ aged, general public, Parts of the World, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =466689

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants vs Matched stayers
Page in Source 116
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: ‘Long-timer’ migrants who have been living in the 
destination 
   country for at least five years.
0: Non-migrants (matched stayers in country of origin)
Remarks
Happiness is assessed for four migration-streams:
a) North-to-North migration
b) South-to-North migration
c) North-to-South migration
d) South-to-South migration

- North includes Northern America, Europe, Japan, 
Australia and New Zealand (a total of 56 countries).
- South is composed of Africa, the Americas (without 
the United States and Canada), the Caribbean, Asia 
(except Japan), and Oceania (except Australia and New 
Zealand).

- Using this definition, the ‘North’ does not include 
the OECD countries Chile, Israel, Mexico, the Republic 
of Korea, and Turkey, or high-income non-OECD countries 
such as Bahrain; Hong Kong, China; Puerto Rico; or the 
United Arab Emirates. Instead, several countries in 
Eastern Europe (such as Belarus, the Republic of 
Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine) are 
considered part of the ‘North’.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+
NORTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=5.500):

Long-timers:     M=6.57
Matched stayers: M=5.75
- difference:      +.82
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+
SOUTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=10.000):

Long-timers:     M=6.21
Matched stayers: M=5.70
- difference:      +.51
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
NORTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=8.250):

Long-timers:     M=5.32
Matched stayers: M=5.45
- difference:      -.13
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
SOUTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=1.250):

Long-timers:     M=4.99
Matched stayers: M=5.34
- difference:      -.35

Means matched by:
- gender
- age
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelPlace of Birth
Page in Source 135+136
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Single question: 
In which country were you born?
a: Ausralia
b: Other
Observed distributionN = a: 1480, b: 499

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,70
b Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,70
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=
a Mt = 7,71; SD = 1,49
b Mt = 7.58; SD = 1,64
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,88; SD = 1,35
b Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,61


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
In which country were you born?
..
Is English the first language you learned to speak as a 
child?
1: yes
0: no

Categorized into:
a) Immigrant from English speaking country
b) Immigrant from non-English speaking 
     country
a) Non-immigrant (reference)
Observed distributiona) Males: 11.6%; Females: 10.3%; b) Males: 14.3%; Females: 14.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 ns
IMMIGRANT FROM ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRY (vs 
non-immigrant)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
IMMIGRANT FROM NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRY (vs 
non-immigrant)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.11 p < .05
Females

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelMigrant
Page in Source 37,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Migrated to Australia:
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-.96 ns
Females: B=-.63 (ns)
Males:   B=-.01 (ns)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
Females: Beta ns
Males:   Beta ns

Beta and above B controlled for:
- Gender
- Family of origin
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parent divorced
  - Number of siblings

B and Beta not significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance (ln)
  - Religious denomination
- Work status:
  - Volunteer work (hours)
  - Education
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Occupational status
  - Job security
  - Unemployed
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study AU 1984
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2208

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bDMt=
General population   Mt = 7.9
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.4
 - Germany           Mt = 7.7
 - Ireland           Mt = 8.0
 - Italy             Mt = 7.7
 - Netherlands       Mt = 7.8
 - UK                Mt = 8.0
 - Yugoslavia        Mt = 7.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study AU 1981
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16 + aged, general public, Australia, 1981
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =246

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aDMt=+
General population   Mt = 7.6
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.6
 - Italy             Mt = 7.9
 - UK                Mt = 8.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin
Page in Source 520-530
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0: Canadian borne
1: Immigrant
Observed distributionb: 18,20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=-
                 % not too happy   % Very happy
Canadian borne        13,2            21,5
Immigrant             17,6            16,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1984
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1569

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement vs county of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 general population
1 immigrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMt=
General population   Mt = 7.4
Migrants from
 - Greece            Mt = 7.1
 - Italy             Mt = 7.6
 - Spain             Mt = 8.2
 - Turkey            Mt = 6.9
 - Yugoslavia        Mt = 7.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 26
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 Nationals(reference group)
1 Non-nationals
  a EU foreigners
  b Non-EU foreigners

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 p < .01
a: EU foreigners happier than nationals
When trait-happiness is also controled B= +.13
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
b: Non-EU foreigners less happpy than Nationals
When trait-happiness is also controled B=+.05

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study XZ Germany West 1982
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicImmigrants, West Germany, 1982
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =770

Correlate
Author's labelCounty of settlement vs country of origin
Page in Source 143
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 = general population
1 = migrant
Remarks
Average general population taken from German Welfare 
Survey (Wohlfahrtsurvey 2), 1980

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
General population   M = 7.7
Migrants from
 - Greece            M = 7.2
 - Italy             M = 6.9
 - Spain             M = 7.1
 - Turkey            M = 6.2
 - Yugoslavia        M = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelMigrant status
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Migrant status:
1: Migrant
   a) first-generation migrant
   b) second-generation migrant
0: Native German
Observed distribution1a) 9.2%, 1b) 8.1%, 0) 82.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANT  (vs native German)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.34 p < .05
SECOND-GENERATION MIGRANT (vs native German)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) gender
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21079

Correlate
Author's labelImmigration background
Page in Source 1009
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
All participants who have either migrated themselves 
(year of migration is reported) or their nationality is 
reported as non-German or another country of origin 
other than Germany was reported are classified as 
immigrants. The group of non-immigrants includes 
persons who reported Germany as the country of origin 
and have not migrated themselves and have had German 
citizenship since birth and indicated their parents as 
non-immigrants.

1: Immigration background
0: No immigration background
Observed distribution1: 14.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Immigrants:   Ma=6.84 SD=0.04
Natives:      Ma=6.98 SD=0.02
- difference:   0.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=001
Ma and eta squared are adjusted for:
- gender
- age
- immigration background*gender
- immigration background*age group
- immigration background*gender*age group

Only significant interaction is with age group, 
suggesting that immigrants with lower age are 
relatively happy compared to young natives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelNationality: Not German
Page in Source 508
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report ons single question:
Is your nationality German?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.70 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) gender
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 916, 918
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Emigrants (born in Germany but living in 
       another country)
  b) Remigrants (born in Germany and having
        worked for 6 months or  longer in another
        country)
0: Non-migrants in Germany
Observed distributionN=1.010
Remarks
German-born living in Switzerland 311, Austria 126, 
Luxemburg 74, Greece, 65, Netherlands 57, Uk 56.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.7
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- difference:   +0.6

Re-migrants:  M= 7.2
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- differece:    +0.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.5
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
Difference:     +0.7

Re-migrants:  M= 6.8
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
- difference:    0.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.36 p < .05
EMIGRANTS MOVED <5 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

B's in these comparisons controlled for:
- gender
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health

B=+.12(ns) when additionally controlled for:
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED 6-20 YEARS AGO(vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates: 
B= +.12(ns)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.44 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED >20 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= +.31 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
RE-MIGRANTS                   (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= -.04(ns)

Similar findings were observed in all above 
comparisons for happiness-measure: 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelForeign-born
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
A: Were you born in Germany?
1: yes
0: no
B: If not, what is your citizenship?
    a) Turkey
    b) Eastern Europe
    c) Southern Europe
    d) Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.07 p < .01
NOT BORN IN GERMANY        (vs born in Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.10 p < .01
BORN IN TURKEY             (vs born in Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.23 p < .01
BORN IN  EASTERN-EUROPE    (vs born in Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 ns
BORN IN SOUTH-EUROPE       (vs born in Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
OTHER                      (vs born in Germany)

B's controlled for: 
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 8, 10, 12
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Were you born in Germany?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Immigrants:  M=6.7 SD=1.75
Natives:     M=7.1 SD=1.81
- difference:  0.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Gender
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Employed
- Age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.07 p < .NS
B when additionally controlled for:
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyEasterlin & Plagnol (2008): study DE 1984
TitleLife satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68, 433-444.
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.009
Public16-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 1-21 years, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =294528

Correlate
Author's labelForeigners
Page in Source 440, 40 (appendix)
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
a) Turkish immigrants        (N=15.520)
b) Other European immigrants (N=24.930)
c) East-German natives       (N=48.668)
d) West-German natives       (N=205.410)
Remarks
East-Germany entails the area of the former Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik (DDR). West-Germany entails the 
former Bundes Republik Deutschland (BDR). They were 
reunited in 1990 into Germany.

N represents number of happiness-assesments, not the 
number of people interviewed.

Immigrants comprise 10% of the West-German population 
and 1% of the East-German population. Immigrants' 
happiness is aggregated over both regions.

The sample of West-Germans is a bit more than 4 times 
as big as the sample of East-Germans. Furthermore, the 
percentage of immigrants in West-Europe is 10 times 
larger than in East-Germany. Hence, for every immigrant 
in East-Germany included in the sample of foreigners, 
there are 40 immigrants in West-Germany included. To 
assess the gap between natives and immigrants, best 
practice would be to compare immigrants to West-German 
natives.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=+ p < .01
Turkish immigrants: M=6.70 SD=2.04 CI:6.67-6.73
East-German natives:M=6.32 SD=1.84 CI:6.30-6.34
- difference:         0.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=- p < .01
Turkish immigrants: M=6.70 SD=2.04 CI:6.67-6.73
West-German natives:M=7.08 SD=1.89 CI:7.07-7.09
- difference:         0.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=- p < .01
Turkish immigrants: M=6.70 SD=2.04 CI:6.67-6.73
European immigrants:M=7.03 SD=1.93 CI:7.01-7.05
- difference:         0.33
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=+ p < .01
European immigrants:M=7.03 SD=1.93 CI:7.01-7.05
East-German natives:M=6.32 SD=1.84 CI:6.30-6.34
- difference:         0.71
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dAoV=- p < .05
European immigrants:M=7.03 SD=1.93 CI:7.01-7.05
West-German natives:M=7.08 SD=1.89 CI:7.07-7.09
- difference:         0.05

Note: The small negative difference is likely to 
be driven by the fact that a small portion (about 
1/40) of the European immigrants lived in the 
'unhappier' East-Germany. Therefore, it would be 
better to conclude that there is no convincing 
difference.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin
Page in Source 1015
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
a) Country of birth: ..
b) Father's country of birth: ..
c) Mother's country of birth: ..

Classified as:
1: Migrants
    A) Former USSR
          a) first generation immigrant
          b) second generation immigrant
    B) Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from European and American 
countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
    C) Sephardi Jews (Jews from North-African and 
Middle-Eastern 
         countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
0: Non-migrants
Remarks
Jews-population in Israel (N=5114)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.06 ns
FORMER USSR MIGRANTS (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.03 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.09 ns
ASHKENAZI MIGRANTS   (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.04 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 p < .05
SEPHARDI MIGRANTS    (vs natives)
First generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.03 ns
Second generation

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- years in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- health
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 8
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) Where have you been born?
b) Where have your parents been born?

1: Other country
0: In same country as in which I live

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=-.13 p < .000
FIRST GENERATION (vs natives)
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- second generation migrant
- citizen
- perceived discrimination
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=-.11 p < .000
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *1st generation immigrant (-.15, 
p<.03)
- ethnic minority *2nd generation immigrant
- citizen         *ethnic minority member
- ethnic minority *perceived discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.06 p < .013
SECOND GENERATION (vs natives)
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- first generation immigrant
- citizen
- perceived discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.04 p < .09
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *1st generation immigrant
- ethnic minority *2nd generation immigrant 
(-.22, p<.005)
- citizen         *ethnic minority member
- ethnic minority *ethnic discrimination
- ethnic minority *non-ethnic discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008
TitleHappiness and 'economic migration': a comparison of Eastern European migrants and stayers
SourceMigration Studies, 1(2), 156-175
DOIdoi:10.1093/migration/mnt006
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42380

Correlate
Author's labelRecent migration
Page in Source 163, 165, 169
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Recent migrants (migrated <5 years ago)
  b) Established migrants (migrated>5 years  
       ago)
0: Non-migrants (Homestayers)
Observed distributionMigrants: N=1071; Non-migrants: N=42380

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants:     M=7.31
Non-migrants: M=6.31
difference:     +1.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 p < .04
RECENT MIGRANTS     (vs non-migrants)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 p < .001
ESTABLISHED MIGRANTS(vs non-migrant population)

Beta's are controlled for:
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Partner
- Employment
- Friends
- Health
- Income
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyOlgiati et al. (2013): study ZZ Western nations 2006
TitleAre Migrants Going Up a Blind Alley? Economic Migration and Life Satisfaction around the World: Cross-National Evidence from Europe, North America and Australia
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 383 - 404
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0151-4
Public15+ aged general public, 16 Western countries, 2006-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =51004

Correlate
Author's labelForeign born
Page in Source 392, 395
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Were you born in this country, [country], or not?
1: Not born in this country
0: Born in this country
Observed distribution1: 9.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-1.3 ns
B controlled for:
- ln income
- ln income*foreign born
- age and age squared
- gender
- marital status
- household size
- religion
- satisfaction with health
- country of residence
- survey round


Interaction income*foreign born: B=+.12(ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.46 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- being unemployed

Interaction income*foreign born: B=+.02(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyOlgiati et al. (2013): study ZZ Western nations 2006
TitleAre Migrants Going Up a Blind Alley? Economic Migration and Life Satisfaction around the World: Cross-National Evidence from Europe, North America and Australia
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 383 - 404
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0151-4
Public15+ aged general public, 16 Western countries, 2006-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =51004

Correlate
Author's labelForeign born
Page in Source 398
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Were you born in this country, [country], or not?
1: Not born in this country
0: Born in this country
Observed distribution1: 9.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-3.1 ns
Happiness by migrant status IN SEPARATE QUANTILES.

In first quantile  (lowest 20%)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-1.8 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+3.3 ns
In second quantile (20-40%)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.56 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-25 ns
In third quantile  (40-60%)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-7.5 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-4.8 ns
In fourth quantile (60-80%)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+7.4 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-3.4 ns
In fifth quantile  (highest 20%)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-1.3 ns
B's controlled for:
- ln income
- ln income*foreign born
- age and age squared
- gender
- marital status
- household size
- religion
- country of residence
- survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, general public, New-Zealand and Tonga, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
A lottery was conducted among people who subscribed to 
emigrate from Tonga to New Zealand. In this lottery, 
about 10% is randomly assigned to move to New 
Zealand.They can only truly move in case they have 
obtained a full-time job in New Zealand within 6 
months. It results in three groups:
1: Migrants: This were the winners in the lottery who 
truly moved  from Tonga to New Zealand.
0: Non-migrants: 
    a) The persons who lost in the lottery.
    B) Winners in the lottery who were still in New 
Zealand at the time of the survey.
Remarks
T1: 2005 (on average 11 months after migration). T2: 
2008 (on average 33 months after migration). 
Migrants were randomly selected (experimental set-up)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.13 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.67 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's not controlled
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.15 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.78 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- height
- religion
- employment status before moving
- personal income before moving
- household income before moving
- visited New Zealand before 2000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 49, 51
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Comparison of different samples:
1: Migrants: Indians in UK
0: Non-migrants 
    a) Caucasians in UK
    b) Non-migrants in India
Observed distribution1: N=52, 0a: N=51, 0b:N= 50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=12.2 p < .001
INDIANS RESIDING IN UK (versus Indians in Delhi)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
Indians immigrants in UK:     M=4.90
Stayers in India:             M=4.16
- difference:                   +.74

Matched on:
- Occupation
- Marital status
- Education level
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=-
INDIANS IN UK (vs natives)

Indian immigrants in UK:     M=4.90
Caucasians in UK (natives):  M=5.16
- difference:                  -.26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBaltatescu (2005): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleSubjective Well-Being of Immigrants in Europe and Their Evaluation of Societal Conditions. An Exploratory Study.
SourcePop, L.; Matiuta, C.; Eds.: "European Identity and Free Movement of Persons in Europe", 2005, University of Oradea Publishing House, Oradea, Romania, 128 - 143
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/baltatescu_sm_2005.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 13 nations in Europe, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28320

Correlate
Author's labelNatives and non-natives in 13 european nations
Page in Source 9
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Average response to question:
"Are you born in this country?"
1: Yes
2: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
               Born in country
               Yes          No    Difference
Austria        7.7         7.5    -0.2
Belgium        7.8         7.5    -0.3
Germany        7.3         7.0    -0.3
Denmark        8.4         7.7    -0.7
Spain          7.5         7.2    -0.3
France         7.5         7.3    -0.2
UK             7.7         7.1    -0.6
Greece         6.6         6.4    -0.2
Ireland        7.9         7.6    -0.3
Netherlands    7.9         7.5    -0.4
Norway         7.9         7.6    -0.3
Portugal       7.0         6.9    -0.1
Sweden         7.9         7.7    -0.2

Average        7.6         7.3    -0.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=-
               Born in country
               Yes          No    Difference
Austria        7.7         7.3    -0.4
Belgium        7.5         7.2    -0.3
Germany        7.0         6.7    -0.3
Denmark        8.5         7.7    -0.8
Spain          7.1         6.8    -0.3
France         6.4         6.2    -0.2
UK             7.1         6.8    -0.3
Greece         6.3         6.2    -0.1
Ireland        7.5         7.0    -0.5
Netherlands    7.7         7.0    -0.7
Norway         7.8         7.5    -0.3
Portugal       5.9         5.8    -0.1
Sweden         7.8         7.6    -0.2

Average        7.3         6.9    -0.4
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdr=-.43
All respondents in all countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelimmigration
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 native
1 immigrants
  a first generation
  b immigrants citizen
  c immigrant non citizen
Observed distributionN = 0: ? 1: ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.22 p < .01
First generation migrants (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.18 p < .01
immigrant citizen (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
immigrant noncitizen (compared to native)

B' s controlled for 
- country
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBartram (2013b): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleHappiness among North-to-South Migrants in Europe.
SourceWorking Paper, 16-12-2013, University of Leicester, Department of Sociology, UK
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2290154
DOIDOI:10.2139/ssrn.2290154
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2002-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56395

Correlate
Author's labelNorth-to-South Migration
Page in Source 23-24
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Classified by counrty of birth:
1: Migrants: Born in Northern Europe (Belgium, France, 
Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, and Britain) who 
currently reside in Southern Europe (Cyprus, Greece, 
Portugal, and Spain).
0: compared to stayers (of same age, gender, and 
education (including that of parents).
Observed distribution1: 338 0: 56057
Remarks
North-South migration in Europe involves a change from 
wealthy to less wealthy countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants:         M= 7.30
Matched Stayers:  M= 7.51
Difference:       D= -.21
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.32 p < .011
B controlled for:
- Income
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Partner
- Unemployed
- Retired
- Friends
- Health
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 50, 55, 56
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) First-generation
  b) Second-generation
  c) 2.5 generation (one non-native parent)
0: Non-migrants in host country (reference)
Observed distribution1a) 5094, 1b) 1339, 1c) 3348, 0) 54925
Remarks
The 'in total' happiness of natives differs when 
comparing natives to 1st generation. 2nd generation, or 
3th generation migrants since it is a weighted mean 
based on the specific number of migrants per country. 
By doing this, endogeneity of a different ratio 
migrants/natives per country is avoided.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1a)
       1st generation Natives difference
Belgium        7.42    7.74    -.32          
Switzerland    7.75    8.12    -.37            
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29            
Denmark        8.11    8.34    -.23       
Spain          7.43    7.66    -.23       
Finland        8.04    8.03    +.01            
France         7.14    7.28    -.14         
UK             7.31    7.49    -.18            
Netherlands    7.51    7.80    -.29            
Norway         7.61    7.93    -.32           
Portugal       6.67    6.77    -.10         
Sweden         7.55    7.89    -.34            
Slovenia       7.11    7.21    -.10

In total       7.36    7.72    -.36
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1b)
       2nd generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.33    7.74    -.41     
Switzerland    7.93    8.12    -.19      
Germany        7.16    7.32    -.16
Denmark        8.17    8.34    -.17            
Spain          8.16    7.66    +.50            
Finland        8.71    8.03    +.78            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             6.99    7.49    -.50            
Netherlands    7.73    7.80    -.07            
Norway         8.00    7.93    +.07           
Portugal       6.84    6.77    +.07            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.89    7.21    +.68

In total       7.52    7.62    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1c)
       2.5 generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.62    7.74    -.12     
Switzerland    8.00    8.12    -.12      
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29
Denmark        8.10    8.34    -.24            
Spain          7.62    7.66    -.04            
Finland        7.96    8.03    -.07            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             7.38    7.49    -.09
Netherlands    7.66    7.80    -.12            
Norway         7.82    7.93    -.11           
Portugal       6.17    6.77    -.60            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.32    7.21    +.11

In total       7.59    7.69    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.17 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.19 p < .001
SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.07 p < .001
2.5 GENERATION

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Log household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Immigrant status*country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBaltatescu (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleCentral and Eastern Europeans Migrants' Subjective Quality ofLlife. A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Identity and Migration Studies, 2007, Vol. 1, 67 - 80
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, Europe, 2002-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =88029

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 75
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
In which country are you born?
1: Not in country of residence
   a) Born in East-Europe
   b) Not born in East-Europe
0: In counrty of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            East-EU    
            migrants   Natives     difference     
Living in:
Denmark     8.1 (1.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -.4  
Finland     7.7 (1.9)  8.0 (1.6)   -.3
Sweden      7.5 (1.9)  7.9 (1.7)   -.4  
Norway      7.3 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.4
Netherlands 7.2 (2.0)  7.7 (1.6)   -.5 
Austria     7.1 (2.4)  7.6 (2.0)   -.5
Ireland     7.3 (1.9)  7.6 (1.9)   -.3  
Belgium     7.1 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   -.4
UK          6.9 (2.1)  7.1 (2.0)   -.2  
Spain       7.0 (2.1)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     7.0 (2.1)  6.9 (2.3)   +.1  
France      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1
Greece      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1 
Portugal    5.7 (2.1)  5.8 (2.1)   -.1
In total    7.0 (2.2)  7.3 (2.1)   -.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            Other    
            migrants   Natives     difference
Living in:
Denmark     7.0 (2.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -1.5  
Finland     7.5 (2.4)  8.0 (1.6)   -.5
Sweden      7.2 (2.3)  7.9 (1.7)   -.7
Norway      7.6 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.1
Netherlands 7.1 (1.8)  7.7 (1.6)   -.6
Austria     7.0 (2.3)  7.6 (2.0)   -.6
Ireland     6.5 (1.1)  7.6 (1.9)   -1.1
Belgium     7.8 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   +.3
UK          7.2 (2.0)  7.1 (2.0)   +.1
Spain       7.0 (2.2)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     6.4 (2.4)  6.9 (2.3)   -.5
France      6.6 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   +.2
Greece      5.9 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   -.5
Portugal    5.4 (2.4)  5.8 (2.1)   -.4
In total    6.6 (2.3)  7.3 (2.1)   -.7

Standard errors in parantheses


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelBorn in contry
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 Migrated
1 Born in country of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.23 p < .001
b(0.229) controlled for 
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.20 p < .001
	b(0.202) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyPalisi (1985b): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleVoluntary Associations and Well-Being in Three Metropolitan Areas: Cross Cultural Evidence.
SourceInternational Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1985, Vol. 22, 265 - 288
PublicMales, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelNative born
Page in Source 276
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 Foreign born
1 Native born 
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=-.00
London
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=-.07
Los Angeles
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.14
Sydney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyPalisi & Canning (1983): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleUrbanism and Social Psychological Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Test of Three Theories.
SourceThe Sociological Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 24, 527 - 543
PublicMales, metropolitan areas, England, USA, Australia, 1977-1980
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67 %
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelNative born
Page in Source 537
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
0 Foreign born 
1 Native born

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.01 ns
London
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.01 ns
Los Angeles
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=-.05 ns
Sydney
rpc controled for: Frequency of visits to friends
and visits to kin



Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyMerens (2007): study NL 2004
TitleHet Geluk van de Marokkaanse Vrouw. (The Happiness of Maroccan Wifes.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 34 - 37
URLhttps://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_2007/Veel_geluk_in_2007
Public15-64 aged, living in cities, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response49-62%
Respondents N =4096

Correlate
Author's labelEtnic origin
Page in Source 35
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1. Native Dutch
2. Migrants from
  a: Turkey
  b: Marocco
  c: Surinam
  d: Dutch Antilles
Observed distributionN. 1: 642; 2a: 1864 2b: 2022 2c: 2009 2d: 1746

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
                     Female      Male       All
1. Native Dutch      M =3,14     3,15        ?
2. Migrants from
   a: Turkey         M =2,70     2,84        ?
   b: Marocco        M =2,90     2,83        ?
   c: Surinam        M =2,88     2,95        ?
   d: Dutch Antilles M =2,87     2,94        ?

Happiness-scale in report reversed!


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyVerkuyten (1989): study NL 1984
TitleHappiness among Adolescents in the Netherlands: Ethnic and Sex Differences.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1989, Vol. 65, 577 - 578
DOIdoi: 10.2466/pr0.1989.65.2.577
Public13-16 aged general public, Netherlands, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3228

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic minority
Page in Source 578
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Ethnic status:
1: Ethnic minority
0: Dutch origin
Remarks
Nearly all ethnic minorities in The Netherlands are 
first or second generation immigrants.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
Ethnic minority: M=1.3
Dutch origin:    M=1.6
- difference:     -0.3
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bAoC=3.09 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=-
Ethnic minority: M=6.9
Dutch origin:    M=7.4
- difference:     -0.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bAoC=9.11 p < .05
ANCOVA's include controls for:
- gender
- length of residence in Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBartram (2013a): study RO 2009
TitleMigration, Return, and Happiness in Romania.
SourceEuropean Societies, 2013, Vol. 15, 408 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1080/14616696.2012.726735
Public15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1595

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 416
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
1: Migrants
   a) 'Migrant' when not living in country of birth
   b) 'Returnee' when living in country of birth 
       but having worked more than 6 months 
       abroad.
0: Non-migrant/Homestayer  (living in country of birth 
and not having worked abroad)
Observed distribution1a: N=73, 1b: N=80, 0: N=1442

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants abroad:      M=6.4 SD=2.3
Returned migrants:    M=5.9 SD=2.2
Non-migrants:         M=6.2 SD=2.1
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= ns
1a=1b=0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.03 ns
MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
- income

Insignificant results remain when controlling for 
less of these factors
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.02 p < .000
RETURNEES (vs.non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- income
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .031
Beta additionally controlled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyKnies et al. (2014): study GB 2009
TitleLife Satisfaction, Ethnicity and Neighbourhoods: Is There an Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Composition on Life Satisfaction?
SourceCREAM Working Paper, 2014, No. 7, London. UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/crm/wpaper/1407.html
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2009/2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32025

Correlate
Author's labelFirst-Generation migrants
Page in Source 24, 27, 28
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) What is your country of birth? If non-British: 
b) What is your ethnicity?
1: Non-British ethnicity and first-generation migrant
  a) Other 'White' background
  b) Mixed background (e.g., White and Asian)
  c) Indian
  d) Pakistani
  e) Bangladeshi
  f) Carribean
  g) African
  h) Other
0: British ethnicity and non-migrant
Observed distribution1a) 1.077; 1b) 222; 1c) 867; 1d) 487; 1e) 380; 1f) 360; 1g) 782; 0) 24.611

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=+.01 (ns)   (vs. British)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.09 (ns)
Indian          B=-.08 (ns)
Pakistani       B=-.40 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.48 (01)
Carribean       B=-.42 (01)
African         B=-.15 (05)
Other           B=-.30 (01)

No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.11 (05)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.13 (ns)
Indian          B=-.21 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.41 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.43 (01)
Carribean       B=-.30 (01)
African         B=-.14 (10)
Other           B=-.37 (01)

B controlled for:
- gender
- age and age squared
- education
- marital status
- number of children
- employment status
- household income
- housing
- health
- religion
- length of stay
- urban/rural residence
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.10 (10)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.12 (ns)
Indian          B=-.17 (05)
Pakistani       B=-.34 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.36 (01)
Carribean       B=-.26 (01)
African         B=-.10 (ns)
Other           B=-.35 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Neighbourhoud characteristics:
  a) Economic status of neighbourhood 
  b) MOSAIC-typology of the neighbourhood
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.11 (ns)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.08 (ns)
Indian          B=-.10 (ns)
Pakistani       B=+.05 (ns)
Bangladeshi     B=-.44 (10)
Carribean       B=-.36 (05)
African         B=-.24 (10)
Other           B=-.32 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Ethnic diversity in neighbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelUS born
Page in Source 172, 175
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
1: born in the United States
0: born outside the United States
Observed distributionN = 1: 38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.23 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.22 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.16 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- human capital
  - education
  - income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.18 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- human capital
  - bilingual
  - English fluent
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.20 p < .10
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- social capital: child
  - get on nerves
  - makes too many demands
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.23 p < .10
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- social capital: spouse
  - get on nerves
  - makes too many demands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of birth
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Were you born in this country?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.07 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- working full-time
- marital status
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyBartram (2011): study US 1995
TitleEconomic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 103, 57 - 76
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9696-2
Public18-94 aged natives and immigrants, USA, 1995
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response203
Respondents N =1339

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant Status
Page in Source 64-65-67-69-71
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Were you born in the 
UNITED STATES? 
0: Yes
1: No 

If 'no': Where were you born?
A: Africa
b: Latin America
c: Canada
d: Asia
e: Europe
Observed distributionTotal sample: M=1534; Natives: M=1414 Total immigrants:120; European and Canadian immigrants: M=41; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: N=79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDM=
                   Immigrants/ US natives  
Difference
- all               M=7.46 / M=7.68   - 0.22
- Canada, Europe       M=8.03         +.0.35
- Africa, Asia, Latin  M=7.18         -.0.50
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.29 p < .028
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-2.2 p < .028
B and beta controlled for: 
- Ln(income) 
- Interaction ln(income)*immigrant status,
- Children, 
- Age, 
- Unemployed, 
- Religion, 
- Health.

Interaction immigrant*ln(hh income) B=.56(p=.041)

B when controlled for 'financial satisfaction' in 
addition:
B=-1.3 (p<.13) for immigrant status
B=+.36 (p<.14) for ln (hh)income*immigrants status

Similar results are found in an ordered logit 
model.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever migrated or not
Subject code: M08aa01

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study US 1955
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 195?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelCategories of adult Americans
Page in Source 164
Our classificationEver migrated or not, code M08aa01
Operationalization
a Negroes
b Immigrants
c Farmers
d Junior executives
e College teachers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=
Negroes              M=4,9
Immigrants           M=7,0
Farmers              M=7,3 
Junior executives    M=7,6
College teachers     M=7,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

Study~Gallup International (2012): study AF 2012
TitleGallup World Poll 2012
Sourcehttps://worldview.gallup.com/
Public15+ aged, general public, Parts of the World, 2009-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =466689

Correlate
Author's labelMigrants vs Natives
Page in Source 115, 119, 120
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) ‘Newcomers’, migrants who moved to their 
destination country 
      less than five years ago.
  b) ‘Long-timers’, migrants who have been living in 
their  
      current country for at least five years.
0: Non-migrants (natives in destination country)
Remarks
Happiness is assessed for four migration-streams:
a) North-to-North migration
b) South-to-North migration
c) North-to-South migration
d) South-to-South migration

- North includes Northern America, Europe, Japan, 
Australia and New Zealand (a total of 56 countries).
- South is composed of Africa, the Americas (without 
the United States and Canada), the Caribbean, Asia 
(except Japan), and Oceania (except Australia and New 
Zealand).

- Using this definition, the ‘North’ does not include 
the OECD countries Chile, Israel, Mexico, the Republic 
of Korea, and Turkey, or high-income non-OECD countries 
such as Bahrain; Hong Kong, China; Puerto Rico; or the 
United Arab Emirates. Instead, several countries in 
Eastern Europe (such as Belarus, the Republic of 
Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine) are 
considered part of the ‘North’.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+/-
NORTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=5.500):

Newcomers:    M=6.53   Long-timers: M=6.67
Native-born:  M=6.62   Native-born: M=6.62
- difference:   -.09                  +.05
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=47.0   Long-timers: M=45.0
Native-born:  M=50.0   Native-born: M=50.0
- difference:   -3.0                  -5.0
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
SOUTH-TO-NORTH MIGRATION (N=10.000):

Newcomers:    M=6.24   Long-timers: M=6.10
Native-born:  M=6.62   Native-born: M=6.62
- difference:   -.38                  -.52
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=37.0   Long-timers: M=39.5
Native-born:  M=50.0   Native-born: M=50.0
- difference:  -13.0                 -10.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=+
NORTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=1.250):

Newcomers:    M=5.67   Long-timers: M=5.52
Native-born:  M=5.42   Native-born: M=5.42
- difference:   +.25                  +.10
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=27.5   Long-timers: M=28.5
Native-born:  M=51.0   Native-born: M=51.0
- difference:  -23.5                 -22.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMa=-
SOUTH-TO-SOUTH MIGRATION (N=8.250):

Newcomers:    M=5.38   Long-timers: M=5.20
Native-born:  M=5.42   Native-born: M=5.42
- difference:   -.04                  -.22
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oDMa=-
Newcomers:    M=36.0   Long-timers: M=44.5
Native-born:  M=51.0   Native-born: M=51.0
- difference:  -15.0                  -6.5

Means adjusted by:
- gender
- age
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyChow (2012): study CA Calgary, Alberta 2007
TitleHealth Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 347 - 358
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9810-0
Public65+aged Chinese migrants, Calgary, Canada, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelLength of residence
Page in Source 352-353
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Length of residence in Canada:
1: more than 10 years
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic status
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - financial need
- migration history
  - country of origin 
- Health
  - physical mobility
  - medication use
  - perceived needs for services
- Social network
- quality of neighbouhood
- Psychological well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyUskul & Greenglass (2005): study CA 2005
TitlePsychological Wellbeing in a Turkish-Canadian Sample.
SourceAnxiety, Stress, and Coping, 2005, Vol. 18, 269 - 278
DOIDOI: 10.1080/10615800500205983
PublicTurkish immigrants, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =181

Correlate
Author's labelYears spend in Canada
Page in Source 274.275
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-ar=+.13 ns
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aBeta=+.12 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- married status
- optimism
- proactive coping


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged migrants, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2971

Correlate
Author's labelLength of time living in Germany
Page in Source 1008, 1009
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Time since migration:
1) born in Germany
2) 0-14 years 
3) 15-30 years 
4) over 30 years
Observed distribution1) 25.4%, 2) 14%, 3) 26.5%, 4) 21.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+/-
           German born  0-14   15-30   over 30
German born    Ma=6.88
0-14             0.23   Ma=.65 
15-30            0.04   0.21    Ma=6.84
over 30          0.26   0.03    0.22    Ma=6.62
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dE²=.004
Ma and eta squared controlled for:
- gender
- age 
- gender*length of time living in Germany 
(interaction is not significant)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 916, 918
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Emigrants (born in Germany but living in 
       another country)
  b) Remigrants (born in Germany and having
        worked for 6 months or  longer in another
        country)
0: Non-migrants in Germany
Observed distributionN=1.010
Remarks
German-born living in Switzerland 311, Austria 126, 
Luxemburg 74, Greece, 65, Netherlands 57, Uk 56.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.7
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- difference:   +0.6

Re-migrants:  M= 7.2
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- differece:    +0.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.5
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
Difference:     +0.7

Re-migrants:  M= 6.8
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
- difference:    0.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.36 p < .05
EMIGRANTS MOVED <5 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

B's in these comparisons controlled for:
- gender
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health

B=+.12(ns) when additionally controlled for:
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED 6-20 YEARS AGO(vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates: 
B= +.12(ns)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.44 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED >20 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= +.31 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
RE-MIGRANTS                   (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= -.04(ns)

Similar findings were observed in all above 
comparisons for happiness-measure: 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelYears since migration
Page in Source 1118
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question to people who were born 
outside of Germany:
When did you come to Germany?

a) <10 years ago
b) 10-20 years ago
c) 20-30 years ago
d) >30 years ago
e) German-born (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .01
MIGRATED <10 YEARS AGO        (vs. German born)

Per region of birth:
Turks:           -.10(ns)
East-Europeans:  +.33(01)
South-Europeans: +.19(05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .10
MIGRATED 10-20 YEARS AGO      (vs. German born)

Per region of birth:
Turks:           +.00(ns)
East-Europeans:  +.17(01)
South-Europeans: +.04(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
MIGRATED 20-30 YEARS AGO      (vs. German born)

Per region of birth:
Turks:           -.09(10)
East-Europeans:  -.04(ns)
South-Europeans: +.13(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
MIGRATED >30 YEARS AGO        (vs. German born)

Per region of birth:
Turks:           -.16(05)
South-Europeans: -.08(ns)

B's controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- Employment status
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- House ownership
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelYears since migration
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Question not reported
Observed distributionM= 34 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Identity
- German citizenship
- Speaks German
- Writes German"			-1	0	0	0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelDuration in new country
Page in Source 17
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Years in Germany since migration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.00 ns
Duration
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.00 ns
Duration squared

OPRC's controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelYears in Israel
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question for foreign born:
Year of immigration: ..

Re-calculated to years since migration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.00 ns
JEWS
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.07 p < .05
ARABS

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- Hebrew fluency
- health
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelYears since migration
Page in Source 98-99
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: Years since migration
Observed distributionM = 43,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=+.03 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.07 ns
Beta controled for immigration history
- continent or origin
- language proficiency in Hebrew
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.04 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, general public, New-Zealand and Tonga, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
A lottery was conducted among people who subscribed to 
emigrate from Tonga to New Zealand. In this lottery, 
about 10% is randomly assigned to move to New 
Zealand.They can only truly move in case they have 
obtained a full-time job in New Zealand within 6 
months. It results in three groups:
1: Migrants: This were the winners in the lottery who 
truly moved  from Tonga to New Zealand.
0: Non-migrants: 
    a) The persons who lost in the lottery.
    B) Winners in the lottery who were still in New 
Zealand at the time of the survey.
Remarks
T1: 2005 (on average 11 months after migration). T2: 
2008 (on average 33 months after migration). 
Migrants were randomly selected (experimental set-up)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.13 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.67 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's not controlled
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.15 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.78 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- height
- religion
- employment status before moving
- personal income before moving
- household income before moving
- visited New Zealand before 2000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, general public, New-Zealand and Tonga, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness
Page in Source 6
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
a) Happiness at T1: 2005
b) Happiness at T2: 2008
Remarks
Sample split into:
- Tongans who migrated to New-Zealand in 2004
- Non-migrants
Migrants were randomly selected (experimental set-up)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=-
MIGRANTS
T1:          M=4.01
T2:          M=3.66
- difference:  0.35
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+
NON-MIGRANTS
T1:          M=4.14
T2:          M=4.33
- difference:  0.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelimmigration
Page in Source 7
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
0 native
1 immigrants
  a first generation
  b immigrants citizen
  c immigrant non citizen
Observed distributionN = 0: ? 1: ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.22 p < .01
First generation migrants (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.18 p < .01
immigrant citizen (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
immigrant noncitizen (compared to native)

B' s controlled for 
- country
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelmigration and length of stay
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
0 native reference
1 immigrants
  a less than 1 year
  b 1-5 years 
  c 5-10 years
  d 11-20 years 
  e >20 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.22 ns
immigrated less than 1 year ago (compared to 
natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
immigrated 1-5 years ago (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.36 p < .01
immigrated 5-10 years ago (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.20 p < .01
immigrated 11-20 years ago (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.16 p < .01
immigrated more than 20 years ago (compared to 
natives) 

B's controlled for
- country
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=
B's unaffected by additional control for foreign 
birth of parents


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of stay
Page in Source 39
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Duration of stay in years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
a) Interaction: duration of stay in years*Country 
of settlement
b) Interaction: duration of stay in years squared 
*Country of settlement

Difference from grand mean

B's:           a)           b)
- Belgium      -.02(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Switzerland  -.05(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Germany      +.01(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Denmark      +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Spain        +.05(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Finland      -.01(.001)   +.00(.01)
- France       +.05(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Great-Britain-.04(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Netherlands  -.02(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Norway       -.08(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Portugal     +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Sweden       +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Slovenia     +.11(.001)   -.00(.001)

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Country of residence
- Marital status
- Unemployed
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyVerkuyten (1989): study NL 1984
TitleHappiness among Adolescents in the Netherlands: Ethnic and Sex Differences.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1989, Vol. 65, 577 - 578
DOIdoi: 10.2466/pr0.1989.65.2.577
Public13-16 aged general public, Netherlands, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3228

Correlate
Author's labelLength of residence
Page in Source 578
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Length of residence in The Netherlands.
a) 1-3 years
b) 4-8 years
c) 9-15 years
Remarks
Participants belonging to ethnic minority only (N=518)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoC=0.17 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bAoC=0.24 ns
ANCOVA's control for:
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyVerkuyten (1986a): study NL 1984
TitleThe Impact of Ethnic and Sex Differences on Happiness among Adolescents in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 126, 259 - 260
PublicAdolescents, autochtones and allochtones, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1984
Sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =261

Correlate
Author's labelLength of residence
Page in Source 260
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
1-5, 6-10, 11-15 years,
Allochtones only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM= ns
 1 - 5 years   Mt = 6.0
 6 -10 years   Mt = 6.4
11 -15 years   Mt = 6.3
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM= ns
 1 - 5 years   Mt = 6.0
 6 -10 years   Mt = 6.4
11 -15 years   Mt = 6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM= ns
 1 - 5 years   M = 0.8   Mt' = 5.8
 6 -10 years   M = 1.3   Mt' = 6.3
11 -15 years   M = 0.7   Mt' = 5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM= ns
 1 - 5 years   M = 0.8   Mt = 5.8
 6 -10 years   M = 1.3   Mt = 6.3
11 -15 years   M = 0.7   Mt = 5.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyHernandez Plaza et al. (2005): study ES 2000 /1
TitleEstructura y Funciones del Apoyo Social en un Colectivo de Immigrantes Marroquies. (Structure and Functions of Social Support of Moroccan Immigrants).
SourceAnales de Psicologia, 2005, Vol. 21, 304 - 315
PublicMoroccan immigrants, Spain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelTime living in the country
Page in Source 419
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
Time living in the country was measured by one open 
item ("How long have you been living in Spain")
For current analysis, this variable was re-cathegorized 
in three levels:
1. Less than 2 years
2. Between 2 and 6 years
3. More than 6 years
Observed distribution1. Less than 2 years: 30%, 2. Between 2 and 6 years: 50% 3. More than 6 years: 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
1 less than 2 years:     M = 1,65; SD = 0,79
2 between 2 and 6 years: M = 1,69; SD = 0,87
3 more than 6 years:     M = 1,86; SD = 0,91
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-bar=+.08 ns
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baChi²=.59 ns
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baMW=2021 ns
Comparison between
1 less than 2 years: M = 1,65; SD = 0,79
2 between 2 and 6 years: M = 1,69; SD = 0,87
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baMW=737 ns
Comparison between
1 less than 2 years: M = 1,65; SD = 0,79
3 more than 6 years: M = 1,86; SD = 0,91
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baMW=1717 ns
Comparison between
2 between 2 and 6 years: M = 1,69; SD = 0,87
3 more than 6 years: M = 1,86; SD = 0,91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's label?30 years in US
Page in Source 172-173
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
1: Living in the US for 30 years or longer
0: Living in the US less than 30 years
Observed distributionM = 30,1 SD 16, 8. N = 1: 34, 0: 28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time since migration
Subject code: M08aa02

StudyDaly & Carpenter (1985): study US 1982
TitleAdjustment of Vietnamese Refugee Youths: A Self- Report.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1985, Vol. 56, 971 - 976
Public15 - 21 aged Vietnames refugees living in a foster home, USA, 1982-83
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =41

Correlate
Author's labelTime since immigration
Page in Source 974
Our classificationTime since migration, code M08aa02
Operationalization
0  1.5 years or less.                  1  3 years or 
more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aDM=+ p < .05
< 1.5 year:  M = 5.8   Mt' = 5.3
> 3   year:  M = 6.8   Mt' = 6.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin
Page in Source 1015
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
a) Country of birth: ..
b) Father's country of birth: ..
c) Mother's country of birth: ..

Classified as:
1: Migrants
    A) Former USSR
          a) first generation immigrant
          b) second generation immigrant
    B) Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from European and American 
countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
    C) Sephardi Jews (Jews from North-African and 
Middle-Eastern 
         countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
0: Non-migrants
Remarks
Jews-population in Israel (N=5114)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.06 ns
FORMER USSR MIGRANTS (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.03 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.09 ns
ASHKENAZI MIGRANTS   (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.04 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 p < .05
SEPHARDI MIGRANTS    (vs natives)
First generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.03 ns
Second generation

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- years in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- health
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 8
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) Where have you been born?
b) Where have your parents been born?

1: Other country
0: In same country as in which I live

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=-.13 p < .000
FIRST GENERATION (vs natives)
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- second generation migrant
- citizen
- perceived discrimination
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=-.11 p < .000
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *1st generation immigrant (-.15, 
p<.03)
- ethnic minority *2nd generation immigrant
- citizen         *ethnic minority member
- ethnic minority *perceived discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.06 p < .013
SECOND GENERATION (vs natives)
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- first generation immigrant
- citizen
- perceived discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.04 p < .09
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *1st generation immigrant
- ethnic minority *2nd generation immigrant 
(-.22, p<.005)
- citizen         *ethnic minority member
- ethnic minority *ethnic discrimination
- ethnic minority *non-ethnic discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelmigration generation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
a: respondent and the parents not born in host country 
(G1)
b: respondent born in host country both parents born 
abroad (G2.5)
c: respondent born in host country one parent born 
abroad (G2)
d: both respondent and parents born in host country 
(G3) (reference group)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.23 p < .01
a (compared to d)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.05 ns
b (compared to d)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.17 p < .01
c (compared to d)

B's controled for 

- country
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployed
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelethnic status
Page in Source 8
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
0 native 
1 migrants or migrants descendants
    a africa
    b asia
    c europe
    d eastern europe
    e western europe
    f south american
    g turkish
    h others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.34 p < .01
African descent (compated to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
Asian descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.26 p < .01
eastern euro descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.03 ns
western europe descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.07 ns
South American descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.35 p < .01
Turks descent (copared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.02
other descent (copmared to natives)

B's controlled for 
- country
- gender
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=
B's are much reduced after control for perceived 
discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 50, 55, 56
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) First-generation
  b) Second-generation
  c) 2.5 generation (one non-native parent)
0: Non-migrants in host country (reference)
Observed distribution1a) 5094, 1b) 1339, 1c) 3348, 0) 54925
Remarks
The 'in total' happiness of natives differs when 
comparing natives to 1st generation. 2nd generation, or 
3th generation migrants since it is a weighted mean 
based on the specific number of migrants per country. 
By doing this, endogeneity of a different ratio 
migrants/natives per country is avoided.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1a)
       1st generation Natives difference
Belgium        7.42    7.74    -.32          
Switzerland    7.75    8.12    -.37            
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29            
Denmark        8.11    8.34    -.23       
Spain          7.43    7.66    -.23       
Finland        8.04    8.03    +.01            
France         7.14    7.28    -.14         
UK             7.31    7.49    -.18            
Netherlands    7.51    7.80    -.29            
Norway         7.61    7.93    -.32           
Portugal       6.67    6.77    -.10         
Sweden         7.55    7.89    -.34            
Slovenia       7.11    7.21    -.10

In total       7.36    7.72    -.36
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1b)
       2nd generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.33    7.74    -.41     
Switzerland    7.93    8.12    -.19      
Germany        7.16    7.32    -.16
Denmark        8.17    8.34    -.17            
Spain          8.16    7.66    +.50            
Finland        8.71    8.03    +.78            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             6.99    7.49    -.50            
Netherlands    7.73    7.80    -.07            
Norway         8.00    7.93    +.07           
Portugal       6.84    6.77    +.07            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.89    7.21    +.68

In total       7.52    7.62    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1c)
       2.5 generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.62    7.74    -.12     
Switzerland    8.00    8.12    -.12      
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29
Denmark        8.10    8.34    -.24            
Spain          7.62    7.66    -.04            
Finland        7.96    8.03    -.07            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             7.38    7.49    -.09
Netherlands    7.66    7.80    -.12            
Norway         7.82    7.93    -.11           
Portugal       6.17    6.77    -.60            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.32    7.21    +.11

In total       7.59    7.69    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.17 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.19 p < .001
SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.07 p < .001
2.5 GENERATION

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Log household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Immigrant status*country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyPalisi & Canning (1983): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleUrbanism and Social Psychological Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Test of Three Theories.
SourceThe Sociological Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 24, 527 - 543
PublicMales, metropolitan areas, England, USA, Australia, 1977-1980
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67 %
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelFather native born
Page in Source 535
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
0 Father not native born 
1 Native born
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc= ns
London
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc= ns
Los Angeles
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc= ns
Sydney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyGijsberts (2007): study NL 2004
TitleLaagopgeleide Allochtonen relatief Tevreden met de Nederlandse Samenleving. (Low Educated Immigrants Relatively Satisfied with Dutch Society.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 89 - 93
PublicCity dwellers, aged 15-64, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response49-62%
Respondents N =4096

Correlate
Author's labeletnic origin
Page in Source 90
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
1. Native Dutch
2. Allochtones
   a.Turkish
   b. Maroccanian
   c. Surinamian
   d. Antillian
Observed distributionN= 1: ? 2a: ? 2b: ? 2c: ? 2d ?.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
% (very) happy
1. Native Dutch    91
2. Allochtones
   a.Turkish       73
   b. Maroccanian  78
   c. Surinamian   79
   d. Antillian    79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant generation
Page in Source 34
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
1. First 
2. Second
3. Third
4. Fourth or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caDM=0 ns
% Very Happy
-First    36%
-Second   35%
-Third    29%
-Fourth + 36%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelLife course stage at migration
Page in Source 485, 493, 497
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
Self report on age at migration. Text is not reported. 
1: Migration in adulthood
     a : Adolescence (12 to 21 years)
     b: Early adulthood (22 to 40 years)
     c: Middle adulthood (41 to 50 years)
     d: Late adulthood (51 and older)
0: Youth or U.S. born (reference)
Observed distributionAdolescence: 8.8% Early adulthood: 18.7% Middle adulthood: 13.4% Late adulthood: 23.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.00 ns
ADOLESENCE (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for: 
- age 
- gender
- origin
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.00 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.04 ns
EARLY ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.28 ns
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.27 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.36 p < .05
LATE ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.31 p < .10
Beta additionally controlled for 
- Church
- Friends
- Group events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant status
Page in Source 80/88/93
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
1. Third generation if born and living 
   in USA but having 2 grandparents
   born elsewhere.
2. Second generation if born and living
   in USA themselves, but having at
   least 3 grandparents, born elsewhere
3. First generation if they themselves
   grew up in Europe and at least 3
   grandparents were not born in USA.

Sequence reversed by us
Remarks
IMMIGRANTS FROM WESTERN EUROPE

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-br=+.01 ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.01 ns
ßL standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends, and socioeconomic status.
Also involved in the model are positive and 
negative affect.
                             
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=-.06 ns
ßL standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends, and socioeconomic status.
Also involved in the model are well-being and 
negative affect.
             
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=+.00
Indirect path via perception of US-life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.00
Indirect path via perception of US life
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with relatives.
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with relatives.
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with friends.
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with friends
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=-.06
Total for direct and indirect paths. 

IMMIGRANTS FROM EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE    

    
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.01
Total for direct and indirect paths

IMMIGRANTS FROM EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-br=-.08 ns
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.06 ns
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=-.13 ns
ßL standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends and socioeconomic status.
Also involved in the model are well-being and 
negative affect.
        
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=-.19 p < .05
ßL standardized direct path coefficient in a 
LISREL-model, controlled for perceptions of 
US-life, contacts with relatives, contacts with 
friends and socioeconomic status.
Also involved in the model are positive and 
negative affect.
                   
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=+.08
Indirect path via perception of US-life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.10
Indirect path via perception of US-life
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=-.01
Indirect path via contacts with relatives.
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=-.01
Indirect path via contacts with relatives.
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with friends.
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=+.00
Indirect path via contacts with friends
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aßL=-.06
Total for direct and indirect paths
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bßL=-.10
Total for direct and indirect paths.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration generation
Subject code: M08aa03

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of origin of immigrants
Page in Source 82
Our classificationMigration generation, code M08aa03
Operationalization
Western vs Eastern/Southern Europe.
Asserted by the open question: "Aside from being 
American, what nationality do you think of your family 
being mainly?".
- Western Europeans: British, German, Scandinavian, 
Austrian, Swiss, French,
etc.
- Eastern/Southern Europeans: Polish,  
Czechoslovakian, Russian, Greek, Italian, Spanish, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aDM=
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=2.95        M=2.98        DM=+.03
second     M=3.24        M=3.08        DM=-.16
third      M=3.27        M=3.17        DM=-.10 
          
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=6.74        M=6.22        DM=-.52
second     M=6.90        M=6.72        DM=-.18
third      M=6.88        M=6.85        DM=-.03 
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration at young age
Subject code: M08aa04

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelSchool before 10 years old in destination country
Page in Source 38
Our classificationMigration at young age, code M08aa04
Operationalization
1: When studying in a school in the country of 
settlement before the age of 10.
0: Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.31 p < .001
ALL
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.21 p < .000
<30 YEARS OLDS

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Country of residence
- Marital status
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects
- Migration at young age*Country of residence

B's of interaction term:  
             All immigrants   <30 aged
Belgium:      -.43 (p<.001)   -.33 (p<.001)
Switzerland:  +.34 (p<.001)   -.52 (p<.001)
Germany:      +.44 (p<.001)   +.25 (p<.001)
Denmark:      -.03 (p<.001)   +.35 (p<.001)
Spain:        +.01 (ns)       -.01 (ns)
Finland:      +.45 (p<.001)   +.42 (p<.001)
France:       -.12 (p<.001)   -.30 (p<.001)
Great-Britain:-.16 (p<.001)   +.25 (p<.001)
Netherlands:  +.00 (p<.001)   +.25 (p<.001)
Norway:       +.16 (p<.001)   +.05 (ns)
Portugal:     +.56 (p<.001)   +.32 (p<.05)
Sweden:       -.11 (p<.001)   -.17 (p<.001)
Slovenia:     -.45 (p<.001)   -.53 (p<.001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration at young age
Subject code: M08aa04

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of birth
Our classificationMigration at young age, code M08aa04
Operationalization
Born in the UK.
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 89%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .05
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.03 p < .24
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration at young age
Subject code: M08aa04

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelLife course stage at migration
Page in Source 485, 493, 497
Our classificationMigration at young age, code M08aa04
Operationalization
Self report on age at migration. Text is not reported. 
1: Migration in adulthood
     a : Adolescence (12 to 21 years)
     b: Early adulthood (22 to 40 years)
     c: Middle adulthood (41 to 50 years)
     d: Late adulthood (51 and older)
0: Youth or U.S. born (reference)
Observed distributionAdolescence: 8.8% Early adulthood: 18.7% Middle adulthood: 13.4% Late adulthood: 23.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.00 ns
ADOLESENCE (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for: 
- age 
- gender
- origin
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.00 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.04 ns
EARLY ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.28 ns
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.27 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.36 p < .05
LATE ADULTHOOD (vs youth or U.S. born)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.31 p < .10
Beta additionally controlled for 
- Church
- Friends
- Group events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
1 migrant 
 a: born in English 
 b: other
0 non-migrant
Observed distributionImmigrant English 13.0%; Immigrant non-English 6.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01 ns
Immigrant English (vs non-migrant)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.08 ns
Immigrant non-English (vs non-migrant)

OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudyNesterko et al. (2013): study DE 2006 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in Immigrants and Native-Born Germans: The Role of Immigration-Related Factors
SourceQuality of Life Research, 22, 1005-1013
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0239-y
Public16+ aged migrants, Germany, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2971

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 1011
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
Country of birth:
a) Germany 
b) Turkey                                      
c) Ex-Yugoslavia                       
d) West-European countries    
e) East-European countries      
f) Other countries
Observed distributiona) 754 (25.4%), b) 453 (15.2%), c) 244 (8.2%), d) 465 (15.7%), e) 641 (21.6%), f) 376 (12.7%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/-
Germany                 M=6.87 (CI: 6.75-7.01)
Turkey                  M=6.34 (CI: 6.18-6.51)
Ex-Yugoslavia           M=6.64 (CI: 6.42-6.86)
West-European countries M=7.01 (CI: 6.84-7.17)
East-European countries M=7.02 (CI: 6.88-7.16)
Other countries         M=6.80 (CI: 6.62-6.98)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin
Page in Source 1015
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
a) Country of birth: ..
b) Father's country of birth: ..
c) Mother's country of birth: ..

Classified as:
1: Migrants
    A) Former USSR
          a) first generation immigrant
          b) second generation immigrant
    B) Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from European and American 
countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
    C) Sephardi Jews (Jews from North-African and 
Middle-Eastern 
         countries)
         a) first generation immigrant
         b) second generation immigrant
0: Non-migrants
Remarks
Jews-population in Israel (N=5114)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.06 ns
FORMER USSR MIGRANTS (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.03 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.09 ns
ASHKENAZI MIGRANTS   (vs natives)
First generation

Effect is significant when excluding health as 
control variable.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.04 ns
Second generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 p < .05
SEPHARDI MIGRANTS    (vs natives)
First generation
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.03 ns
Second generation

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- years in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- health
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+aged intra-European migrants, 13 EU nations, 2004-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =2560

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 40
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
The migrant's country of origin in Europe:
a)  Belgium
b)  Switzerland
c)  Germany
d)  Denmark
e)  Spain
f)  Finland
g)  France
h)  Great-Britain
i)  Netherlands
j)  Norway
k)  Portugal
l)  Sweden
m)  Slovenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
DIFFERENCES FROM AVERAGE HAPPINESS IN THE 13 EU 
NATIONS

Belgium:       B: -.27 (.001)
Switzerland:   B: +.46 (.001)
Germany:       B: -.02 (.01)
Denmark:       B: -.07 (.001)
Spain:         B: -.27 (.001)
Finland:       B: -.03 (.001)
France:        B: -.12 (.001)
Great-Britain: B: -.02 (.01)
Netherlands:   B: -.00 (ns)
Norway:        B: +.21 (.001)
Portugal:      B: -.18 (.001)
Sweden:        B: +.07 (.001)
Slovenia:      B: +.24 (.001)

B controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Year-fixed effects
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
B additionally controlled for:
- Cuurent country of residence

Belgium:       B: -.17 (.001)
Switzerland:   B: -.59 (.001)
Germany:       B: -.06 (.01)
Denmark:       B: -.07 (ns)
Spain:         B: -.20 (.001)
Finland:       B: -.10 (.01)
France:        B: -.11 (.05)
Great-Britain: B: +.01 (ns)
Netherlands:   B: +.01 (ns)
Norway:        B: +.07 (ns)
Portugal:      B: -.09 (.05)
Sweden:        B: -.02 (ns)
Slovenia:      B: +.13 (.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of origin
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
Region of origin:
a) Africa
b) Asia-Australasia
c) Europe
d) Latin America/Caribbean
e) North-America
f) Unknown (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.11 ns
AFRICA                  (vs unknown)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.21 p < .05
ASIA-AUSTRALASIA        (vs unknown)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 ns
EUROPE                  (vs unknown)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.01 ns
LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN (vs unknown)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.28 p < .01
NORTH-AMERICA

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Survey year
- Immigrant status
- Immigrant status*country of residence
- region of origin


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of origin
Subject code: M08aa05

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of origin of immigrants
Page in Source 82
Our classificationCountry of origin, code M08aa05
Operationalization
Western vs Eastern/Southern Europe.
Asserted by the open question: "Aside from being 
American, what nationality do you think of your family 
being mainly?".
- Western Europeans: British, German, Scandinavian, 
Austrian, Swiss, French,
etc.
- Eastern/Southern Europeans: Polish,  
Czechoslovakian, Russian, Greek, Italian, Spanish, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aDM=
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=2.95        M=2.98        DM=+.03
second     M=3.24        M=3.08        DM=-.16
third      M=3.27        M=3.17        DM=-.10 
          
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=6.74        M=6.22        DM=-.52
second     M=6.90        M=6.72        DM=-.18
third      M=6.88        M=6.85        DM=-.03 
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of settlement
Subject code: M08aa06

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of stay
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCountry of settlement, code M08aa06
Operationalization
Duration of stay in years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
a) Interaction: duration of stay in years*Country 
of settlement
b) Interaction: duration of stay in years squared 
*Country of settlement

Difference from grand mean

B's:           a)           b)
- Belgium      -.02(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Switzerland  -.05(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Germany      +.01(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Denmark      +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Spain        +.05(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Finland      -.01(.001)   +.00(.01)
- France       +.05(.001)   -.00(.001)
- Great-Britain-.04(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Netherlands  -.02(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Norway       -.08(.001)   +.00(.001)
- Portugal     +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Sweden       +.00(ns)     +.00(ns)
- Slovenia     +.11(.001)   -.00(.001)

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Country of residence
- Marital status
- Unemployed
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of settlement
Subject code: M08aa06

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of residence
Page in Source 33, 50
Our classificationCountry of settlement, code M08aa06
Operationalization
1: Country of residence
   a) natives
   b) first generation immigrants
   c) second generation immigrants
   d) Persons with 1 non-native parent (2.5  
      generation)
0: Grand mean of all 13 countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
BELGIUM:        B= +.07 (.001)
SWITZERLAND:    B= +.18 (.001)
GERMANY:        B= -.43 (.001)
DENMARK:        B= +.57 (.001)
SPAIN:          B= +.08 (.001)
FINLAND:        B= +.42 (.001)
FRANCE:         B= -.23 (.001)
GREAT-BRITAIN:  B= -.28 (.001)
NETHERLANDS:    B= +.09 (.001)
NORWAY:         B= +.10 (.001)
PORTUGAL:       B= -.59 (.001)
SWEDEN:         B= +.20 (.001)
SLOVENIA:       B= -.19 (.001)

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Survey year
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+/-
HAPPINESS BY GROUP

BELGIUM:
 a) natives     B= +.08 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.08 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.29 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.04 (.001)
SWITZERLAND:    
 a) natives     B= +.24 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.24 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.33 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.10 (.001)
GERMANY:        
 a) natives     B= -.39 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.05 (.01)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.16 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
DENMARK:        
 a) natives     B= +.58 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.07 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.18 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.19 (.001)
SPAIN:          
 a) natives     B= +.08 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.00 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.51 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
FINLAND:        
 a) natives     B= +.40 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.07 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.44 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.06 (.001)
FRANCE:         
 a) natives     B= -.26 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.20 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.11 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.21 (.001)
GREAT-BRITAIN:  
 a) natives     B= -.24 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.03 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.51 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.01 (ns)
NETHERLANDS:   
 a) natives     B= +.07 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.14 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.02 (ns)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.04 (.001)
NORWAY:         
 a) natives     B= +.12 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.09 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.11 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.09 (.001)
PORTUGAL:       
 a) natives     B= -.66 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= +.15 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.09 (ns)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.46 (.001)
SWEDEN:         
 a) natives     B= +.23 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.12 (.001)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= -.09 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= -.14 (.001)
SLOVENIA:       
 a) natives     B= -.25 (.001)
 b) 1st gen.    B= -.04 (ns)
 c) 2nd gen.    B= +.55 (.001)
 d) 2.5 gen     B= +.19 (.001)

B additionally controlled for:
- Region of origin


Correlational finding on Happiness and Country of settlement
Subject code: M08aa06

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of settlement
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCountry of settlement, code M08aa06
Operationalization
1: Country of residence
0: Grand mean happiness of the 13 countries

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=.00
ALL

Belgium:       B: -.03 (.05)
Switzerland:   B: +.06 (.05)
Germany:       B: -.41 (.001)
Denmark:       B: +.56 (.001)
Spain:         B: +.03 (ns)
Finland:       B: +.42 (.001)
France:        B: -.04 (ns)
Great-Britain: B: -.18 (.001)
Netherlands:   B: +.16 (.001)
Norway:        B: -.03 (ns)
Portugal:      B: -.45 (.001)
Sweden:        B: +.07 (.001)
Slovenia:      B: -.16 (.001)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=.00
<30 YEARS OLDS

Belgium:       B: -.16 (.001)
Switzerland:   B: +.29 (.001)
Germany:       B: -.27 (.001)
Denmark:       B: +.20 (.001)
Spain:         B: +.11 (.05)
Finland:       B: +.46 (.001)
France:        B: +.11 (.01)
Great-Britain: B: -.66 (.001)
Netherlands:   B: -.04 (ns)
Norway:        B: +.16 (.001)
Portugal:      B: -.24 (.001)
Sweden:        B: +.12 (.001)
Slovenia:      B: -.09 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Marital status
- Migration at young age
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent migration
Subject code: M08aa07

StudyBartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008
TitleHappiness and 'economic migration': a comparison of Eastern European migrants and stayers
SourceMigration Studies, 1(2), 156-175
DOIdoi:10.1093/migration/mnt006
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42380

Correlate
Author's labelRecent migration
Page in Source 163, 165, 169
Our classificationRecent migration, code M08aa07
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Recent migrants (migrated <5 years ago)
  b) Established migrants (migrated>5 years  
       ago)
0: Non-migrants (Homestayers)
Observed distributionMigrants: N=1071; Non-migrants: N=42380

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants:     M=7.31
Non-migrants: M=6.31
difference:     +1.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 p < .04
RECENT MIGRANTS     (vs non-migrants)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 p < .001
ESTABLISHED MIGRANTS(vs non-migrant population)

Beta's are controlled for:
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Partner
- Employment
- Friends
- Health
- Income
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent migration
Subject code: M08aa07

StudyMähönen et al. (2013): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008
TitleMet expectations and the well-being of diaspora immigrants: A longitudinal study
SourceInternational Journal of Psychology, 48(3), 324-33.
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.662278
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 1.5 years, 2008-2010
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =143

Correlate
Author's labelEmigration
Page in Source Not reported, author's re-calculation
Our classificationRecent migration, code M08aa07
Operationalization
T1: A year before migrating from Russia to Finland.
T2: Half a year after migrating from Russia to Finland.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+
T1:           M = 3.04 SD=1.05
T2:           M = 3.62 SD=0.96
- difference:    +0.58
O-SLP-cm-sq-v-5-aAoV=5.3 p < .001
.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent migration
Subject code: M08aa07

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, general public, New-Zealand and Tonga, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationRecent migration, code M08aa07
Operationalization
A lottery was conducted among people who subscribed to 
emigrate from Tonga to New Zealand. In this lottery, 
about 10% is randomly assigned to move to New 
Zealand.They can only truly move in case they have 
obtained a full-time job in New Zealand within 6 
months. It results in three groups:
1: Migrants: This were the winners in the lottery who 
truly moved  from Tonga to New Zealand.
0: Non-migrants: 
    a) The persons who lost in the lottery.
    B) Winners in the lottery who were still in New 
Zealand at the time of the survey.
Remarks
T1: 2005 (on average 11 months after migration). T2: 
2008 (on average 33 months after migration). 
Migrants were randomly selected (experimental set-up)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.13 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.67 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's not controlled
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.15 ns
T1 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.78 p < .01
T2 MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrants)

B's controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- height
- religion
- employment status before moving
- personal income before moving
- household income before moving
- visited New Zealand before 2000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Re-migration
Subject code: M08aa08

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 916, 918
Our classificationRe-migration, code M08aa08
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) Emigrants (born in Germany but living in 
       another country)
  b) Remigrants (born in Germany and having
        worked for 6 months or  longer in another
        country)
0: Non-migrants in Germany
Observed distributionN=1.010
Remarks
German-born living in Switzerland 311, Austria 126, 
Luxemburg 74, Greece, 65, Netherlands 57, Uk 56.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.7
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- difference:   +0.6

Re-migrants:  M= 7.2
Non-migrants: M= 7.1
- differece:    +0.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=+
Emigrants:    M= 7.5
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
Difference:     +0.7

Re-migrants:  M= 6.8
Non-migrants: M= 6.8
- difference:    0.0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.36 p < .05
EMIGRANTS MOVED <5 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

B's in these comparisons controlled for:
- gender
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health

B=+.12(ns) when additionally controlled for:
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED 6-20 YEARS AGO(vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates: 
B= +.12(ns)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.44 p < .01
EMIGRANTS MOVED >20 YEARS AGO (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= +.31 (p<.01)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
RE-MIGRANTS                   (vs non-migrants)

When including the additional covariates:
B= -.04(ns)

Similar findings were observed in all above 
comparisons for happiness-measure: 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Re-migration
Subject code: M08aa08

StudyBartram (2013a): study RO 2009
TitleMigration, Return, and Happiness in Romania.
SourceEuropean Societies, 2013, Vol. 15, 408 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1080/14616696.2012.726735
Public15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1595

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 416
Our classificationRe-migration, code M08aa08
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
1: Migrants
   a) 'Migrant' when not living in country of birth
   b) 'Returnee' when living in country of birth 
       but having worked more than 6 months 
       abroad.
0: Non-migrant/Homestayer  (living in country of birth 
and not having worked abroad)
Observed distribution1a: N=73, 1b: N=80, 0: N=1442

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Migrants abroad:      M=6.4 SD=2.3
Returned migrants:    M=5.9 SD=2.2
Non-migrants:         M=6.2 SD=2.1
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= ns
1a=1b=0
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.03 ns
MIGRANTS (vs. non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
- income

Insignificant results remain when controlling for 
less of these factors
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.02 p < .000
RETURNEES (vs.non-migrant general population)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- income
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- partner
- employment
- sociability
- health
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .031
Beta additionally controlled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration conditions
Subject code: M08ab01

StudyHernandez Plaza et al. (2004): study ES 2000
TitleApoyo Social y Bienstar Subjetivo en un Collectivo de Immigrantes. Efectos Directos o Amortiguadores. ( Social Support and Social Well-Being in a Group of Immigrants: Direct or Buffer Effects?)
SourceBoletin de Psicologia, 2004, Vol. 80, 79 - 96
PublicMoroccan immigrants, Spain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelLegal situation
Page in Source 84
Our classificationMigration conditions, code M08ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question with two answer options:
0. Illegal situation
1 Legal situation
Observed distributionLegal immigrants: 60%, Illegal immigrants: 40%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
0 illegal situation: M = 1,38; SD = 0,57
1 legal situation:   M = 1,93; SD = 0,94
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baF=5.61 p < .020
Univariate analysis of variance, main effect
Controlling for:
- gender
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to new country of settlement
Subject code: M08ab02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelIdentity (lagged)
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationAdjustment to new country of settlement, code M08ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
A) To what extent do you view yourself as a German? 
Scaled:
1 not at all
:
5 completely

B) To what extent do you feel that you belong to the 
culture of the country where you or your family comes 
from? 
1 not at all
:
5 to a very large extent

Combined into: 
1: Strong minority identity
2: Strong majority identity
3: Two strong/weak identities (reference)
Observed distribution1: 58%; 2: 20%
Remarks
Seven year-lagged identity is taken for 
causality-purposes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
STRONG MAJORITY IDENTITY (vs two strong or weak 
identities)

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in identity in the 
past seven years.
B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Years since migration
- German citizenship
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.25 p < .05
CURRENT happiness by identity SEVEN YEARS EARLIER
B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.24 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- Speaks German
- Writes German
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 ns
STRONG MINORITY IDENTITY (vs two strong or weak 
identities)

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in identity in the 
past seven years.
B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
CURRENT happiness by identity SEVEN YEARS EARLIER
B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Years since migration
- German citizenship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to new country of settlement
Subject code: M08ab02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelGerman citizenship
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationAdjustment to new country of settlement, code M08ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your citizenship?
1: German
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution25% has German citizenship

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.90 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in citizenship

B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Years since migration
- Identity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+4.0 p < .001
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT citizenship

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- German speaking ability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to new country of settlement
Subject code: M08ab02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelGerman literacy
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationAdjustment to new country of settlement, code M08ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What's the case with you personally: How well do you 
know  German?
a) Speaking
b) Writing
Scaled:
1 not at all
:
5 very well

Classified into:
a) 
1: speaks German
0: does not speak German
b)
1: writes German
0: does not write German
Observed distribution1: 84%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.17 ns
SPEAKING

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in German speaking 
ability.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 ns
WRITING

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in German writing 
ability.

B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Identity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.22 p < .05
SPEAKING

CURRENT in happiness by CURRENT German speaking 
ability.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
WRITING

CURRENT in happiness by CURRENT German writing 
ability.

B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Years since migration
- German citizenship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to new country of settlement
Subject code: M08ab02

StudyBoski (1989): study US 1984
TitleCorrelative National Self-Identity of Polisch Immigrants in Canada and the United States.
SourcePaper presented at the 2th Regional Conference of IACCP, 1989, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/boski_p_1989.pdf
PublicPolish migrants, New Jersey USA, 198?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSelfusa ( Positive)
Page in Source Figure 5
Our classificationAdjustment to new country of settlement, code M08ab02
Operationalization
correlation of self dicription and prototype of ideal 
American, both assessed using Q-sort

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-?-0-aBeta=+.10 ns
Beta controled for gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Adjustment to new country of settlement
Subject code: M08ab02

StudyMeredith (1984): study US 1982
TitleLevel and Correlates of Perceived Quality of Life for Lao Hmong Refugees in Nebraska.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 83 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00315723
Public16+ aged, recent refugees from Laos, USA, 1982
Sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =145

Correlate
Author's labelEnglish ability
Page in Source 91
Our classificationAdjustment to new country of settlement, code M08ab02
Operationalization
Index of closed questions, rated on a 7-point 
Delighted-Terrible scale: How do you feel about:
- your ability to speak in English?
- your ability to write in English?
- your ability to read in English?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspirations for migration
Subject code: M08ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelWilligness to migrate
Page in Source question 131
Our classificationAspirations for migration, code M08ac02
Operationalization
Would you like to migrate to another country (beyond 
former USSR borders)? 
1 Yes
2 No
3 Hard to say
- NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 13,3% 2: 70,9% 3: 15,5% NA: 0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=-
1: M = 2,50
2: M = 2,54
3: M = 2,47
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=-.01 p < .675


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-oSelfreport on 11 questions

Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday? How about..?
A enjoyment
B physical pain
C worry
D sadness
E stress
F anger
G depression

Did you yesterday..?
H feel well rested
I smile and laugh a lot
J learn or do something interesting
K were you treated with respect all day yesterday

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Computation:
- Average % positive affect = (A+H)+I+J+K)/5
- Average % negative affect = (B+C+D+E+F+G)/6
- Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect

These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in agregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"

A So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
B Proud, because someone had complimented you
C Very lonely or remote from people?
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F On top of the world?
G Depressed
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?
J Could not do anything, simply because you could not start?

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on B,D F,H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A,C,E,G,I,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -6 to +4

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life

Name: Cantril's self anchoring Ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How content do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely discontented
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely content
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 15 questions:

In your life, what is your regular level of …
A overall wellbeing
B happiness
C pleasure
D bliss (seemingly complete happiness)
E peace of mind
G satisfaction
G serenity
H displeasure
J beatitude (perfect happiness)
J inner peace
K fullfilment
L joy
M feeling bad
N tranquility (inner calm)
O plenitude (feeling of complete satisfaction, happiness and fulfillment)
P unhappiness

Rated:
1 strongly disagree
2
3
4
5
6
7 strongly agree

Name: Subjective Authentic-Durable Happiness Scale (SA-DHS)
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are.....?"
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy

B "How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life.....?"
1 rarely
2 now and than
3 fairly often
4 all the time

Summation: factor score
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"......happiness during past few weeks....."
(Full lead not reported)
4 very happy
3
2
1 not too happy
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-?-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question

Text of question not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy or unhappy do you think you are.....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 moderately happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question

.. Satisfaction with life.. (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you are leading?
1 not satisfied at all
3 not so satisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLP-cm-sq-v-5-aSelf-report on single question:
How happy, pleased or satisfied have you been with personal life during the past two weeks?

Rated:
1 Not at all
:
5 Very much
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

… satisfied with overall life.. (full text not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation.

- Your life as a whole.

1 Completely dissatisfied
2 Mostly dissatisfied
3 Somewhat dissatisfied
4 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
5 Somewhat satisfied
6 Mostly satisfied
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Please look at this satisfaction scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 Dissatisfied

Numbers were presented in different order (1 satisfied… 10 dissatisfied).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bSelfreport in 2 questions:

A. "How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 not at all satisfied

B. "Where would you place your life as a whole?"
Rated on a thermometer scale.
100 perfect, as good as you can imagine it being
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 terrible, as bad as you can imagine it being

Summation: factor loading
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
5 strongly agree
4 slightly agree
3 neither agree nor disagree
2 slightly disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoCANALYSIS of COVARIANCE (ANCOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric.

Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate.
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + ½n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ ½n1(n1 + 1); ½n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = ½n1n2 <-> W = ½ n1(Ne + 1) « no association.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
ZZZZZSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRYE03ETHNICITY
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRYL10ao02Local ethnic diversity
M08aaMigration careerE03aaEthnic status in specific nations
M08aa03Migration generationF01ahSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young)
M08aa04Migration at young ageF01af01gMigration of parents
M08aa07Recent migrationL06aa01Earlier life-events
M08abCurrent involvement in migrationL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
M08ab01Migration conditionsN04ah05Perceived discrimination
M08ac02Aspirations for migrationL07ab02Object of life-goals
M08ac03Satisfaction with migrationE03aeAttitudes to one's ethnic status
M08adDifference in happiness of migrants with people in home countryM08ac03Satisfaction with migration

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings