Findings on Happiness and MENTAL HEALTH

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MENTAL HEALTH
Subject Code: M07

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M07MENTAL HEALTH1
M07aaMental-health career0
M07aa01Earlier mental health19
M07aa02Change in mental health6
M07aa03Later mental health6
M07abCurrent general mental health 13
M07ab01Expert ratings of mental health7
M07ab02bScores on symptom inventories41
M07ab02cFeels close to mental breakdown1
M07acCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)14
M07ac04aDepressive (f31-33)62
M07ac05cNeurotic (f48)14
M07ac03aSchizophrenic (f20)8
M07adCurrent positive mental health14
M07aeCurrent treatment for mental problems18
M07ae01Perceived need for treatment2
M07ae02In ambulatory treatment10
M07ae03In mental hospital11
M07ae04Use of psycho-pharmacals3
M07afAttitudes to own mental health3
M07af01Readiness to seek professional care2
M07af02Satisfaction with treatment1
M07ab02Self ratings of mental health14
M07ab02aOverall selfestimate of mental health5
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)2
M07ac11aHysteric (f99)2
M07ac03bParanoid (f20-22)2
M07ac11bPsychasthenic (f99)1
M07ac04bHypomanic (f30)1
M07ac05aAnxious (f40)7
M07ac06aEating disorder (f50)1
M07ac02aAlcoholic (f10)4
M07ac11cPsychotic (f99)2
M07ab02dDaily living skills3
M07ac01Organic mental disorder (f00-f09)0
M07ac02Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)3
M07ac03Schizophrenia and delusions (f20-f29)0
M07ac04Mood (affective) disorders (f30-f39)2
M07ac05Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (f40-48)0
M07ac06Behavioral syndromes with physical factors (f50-f59)0
M07ac07Personality disorders (f60-69)0
M07ac08Mental retardation (f70-79)0
M07ac09Developmental disorders (f80-f89)0
M07ac10Behavioral and emotional disorders with onset in youth (f90-f98)0
M07ac11Unspecified mental disorder (f99)0
M07ac09aAutistic1
M07ac07aGender identity disorder (f 64)0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MENTAL HEALTH
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M07
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and MENTAL HEALTH
Subject code: M07

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal health problems
Page in Source 58, 66
Our classificationMENTAL HEALTH, code M07
Operationalization
Variables:
- Personal health difficulties
- Interviewer ratings of health
- How do you feel about your own health and physical 
condition?
- 22-item psychiatric screening inventory.
Remarks
Factor 5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.11 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological functioning
Page in Source 104
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Self reporty on the following questions:
a: How much of time, during the past month, have you 
been a very nervous person?
B: How often, during the past month, have you felt so 
down in the dumps that nothing could cheere you up?
c: How much of the time, during the past month, have 
you felt calm and peaceful?
d: how much of the time, during the paste month, have 
you felt downhearted and blue?
e: During the paste month, how much of the time were 
you a happy person?

SF-36 Psychological Functioning subscale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.46 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 psychological functioning
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.38 p < .05
T1 physical functioning by T2 happiness

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelComplaints about mental health
Page in Source 350
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
4-item additive index of specified physical complaints, 
 having occurred in the past 4 weeks and rated on a 4 
point scale,1: none,...4: longer than 2 weeks:
1. nervousness
2  depression
3. worrying
4. moodiness
Assessed at T2(1976) and T3(1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.57 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 complaints  
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.44 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 complaints  
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.32 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 complaints  
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.52 p < .01
T3 happiness by T3 complaints  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct at adulthood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Number of crimes - Minus total times found guilty by a 
criminal court or formally cautioned at police station.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health(at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance(at age 5,10,16)
- Emotional health(at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender(female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelGood conduct in childhood
Page in Source 5,14,15,5,16,19,24,25,29,31,52
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Childhood: Sum of mother's replies to 10 questions on 
aggression, obedience, restlessness and other 
behavioral characteristics at age 5, 10 and 16.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=
Good conduct assessed at:
- Age 5:   r=+.10
- Age 10:  r=+.13
- Age 16:  r=+.17
- Average: r=+.14
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.09
beta=+.085

When limiting good conduct up to:
- age 5:  beta=+.05
- age10:  beta=+.06

Indirect effect of childhood conduct:
Simulated:
beta= +.05

Subtraction of total variance in good conduct from 
childhood conduct:
beta= +.03
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance
- Emotional health
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Female

When limited to good conduct at age 5:
beta= +.04
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 10 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
10:
beta= +.036
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 16
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
16:
beta= +.062
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5 and 10
- Emotional health at aghe 5,10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at age 10
- Gender(female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct at age 16 and 34
- Self-perceived health
- Emotional health at age 26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional health
Page in Source 6,7,14,19,29,31,32,45,47,49,54-58
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Sum of replies on 24 items assessed at age 5,10,16 and 
26. 

Items at age 5 (filled in by parents):
a    Complains of headaches
b    Complaints of stomach ache or vomiting
c    Complaints of biliousness
d    Has temper tantrums (loss of temper)
e    Does child have sleeping difficulty
                 If yes, which difficulties:
                  - Getting off to sleep
                  - Waking during the night
                  - Waking early in the morning
                  - Nightmares or night terrors
                  - Wetting him/herself:
                     - Ever wetting bed during the 
night
                     - Ever wetting bed during the day
                     - Wetting pants in daytime         
         
f      Soils or ever make mess of his/her pants
g    Eating or appetite problems
                     - Not eating enough
                     - Overeating
                     - Faddiness
                     - Other eating problems
                     - Child attends school
                             If yes: Tears on arrival?
h   Often worried, worries about many things
i  Tends to do things on his own - rather solitary  
j   Irritable. Is quick to "fly of the handle"
k  Often appears miserable, unhappy, tearful or 
distressed
l  Tends to be fearful or afraid of new things or new 
situations or new situations
m  Is fussy of over
The score at age 5 is calculated of all 28   
(sub-)questions
Items at age 10 are the same as at age 5 but the 
following item was added:
Truants from school

Items at age 16:
Only the behavioral items used at age 5 and age 10, 
plus the following emotional health items:
Do you have/feel/are you:
a Backaches
b Feeling tired
c Miserable or depressed
d Worries
e Sleeping difficulties
f  Worries about health
g Violent rage
h People annoy and irritate you
i Twitching of the face, head and shoulders
j Suddenly become scared for no good reason
k Scared if alone
l  Easily upset or irritated
mFrightened of going out alone or meeting people
n Keyed up and jittery
o Suffer from indigestion
p Suffer from upset stomach
q Poor appetite
r Little things getting on your nerves and wearing you 
out
s Heart race like mad
t Bad pains in your eyes
         
Questions at age 26:
a   Do you often have backache?
b   Do you feel tired most of the time?
c   Do you often feel miserable or depressed?
d   Do you often have bad hadaches?
e   Do you often get worried about things?
f   Do you usually have great difficulty in falling or 
staying asleep?
g Do you usually wake unnecessarily early in the 
morning?
h Do you wear yourself out worrying about your health?
i  Do you often get into a violent rage?
j  Do people often annoy and irritate you?
k Have you at times have twitchting of the face, head 
or shoulders?
mDo you often become suddenly scared for no good 
reason?
n  Are you scared to be alone when there are no friends 
near you?
o  Are you easily ubset or irritated?
p  Are you frightened of going out alone or of meeting 
people?
q  Are you constant keyed up and jittery?
r   Do you suffer from indigestion?
s  Do you suffer from an upset stomach?
t  Is your appetite poor?
u  Does every little thing get on your nerves and wear 
you out?
v  Does your heart often race like mad?
w  Do you often have bad pains in your eyes?
x  Are you troubled with rheumatism or fibrositus?
y  Have you ever had a nervous breakdown?
Error Estimatess.e.=.02
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+
Happiness at age 34 by emotional health in 
childhood up to:
- Age 5: r= +.07
- Age 10:r= +.09
- Age 16:r= +.24
- Age 26:r= +.27
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.17
Happiness at age 34 by mental health up to:
- age 5: beta= +.17
- age 10:beta= +.05

Indirect effect of childhood emotional health:
Simulated: 
beta= +.08
Subtraction of total variance in emotional health 
from childhood emotional health:
beta= +.08

Beta controlled for childhood (age 5,10,16):
- Intellectual performance 
- Good conduct 
- Emotional health 
- Income (age 10)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.10
Beta additionally controlled for: adult
- Income 
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Good conduct(age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(age 26)
- Emotional health (26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.19
Emotional health at age 5 only
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.29
Emotional health at age 10 only
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.16
Emotional health at age 16 only.

Beta controlled for childhood:
- Intellectual performance(5,10,16)
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Emotional health (5,16)
- Social class of father (10)
- Family income (10)
- Number of siblings (10)
- Average employment rate (birth, 5, 10)
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health (5, 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household (10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life
Page in Source 1726-29
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in response to question: How do you feel 
about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Observed distributionM = 4,79; SD = 1,06
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2, 22 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=-
Ss in GOOD mental health
-T1 happiness     M=5,37  SD=0,86
-T2 happiness     M=5,12  SD=0,96
difference         -0.25
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.06
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
Ss in MODERATE mental health (common mental 
disorder)
-T1 happiness     M=4,15  SD=1,26
-T2 happiness     M=4,25  SD=1,31
difference         +0.1
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
Ss in BAD mental health (psychotic mental 
patients)
-T1 happiness     M=3,87  SD=1,44
-T2 happiness     M=4,44  SD=1,38
difference         +0.57
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelEver expected a nervous breakdown
Page in Source 17
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Direct question:
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.08
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelExpected a nervous breakdown more than once
Page in Source 17
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Direct question:
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.44
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological Distress
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
8 itmes from Langner's(1962) scale of psychiatric 
symptoms indicating impairment.
Observed distributionAt T4: M=12.68, SD=2.18, Range 8-24 At T2: M=12.60, SD=2.45, Range 8-24
Remarks
Assessed with 9 year interval at T2(1983) and T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(3 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(9 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.20 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 psychological distress
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.41 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T4 psychological distress

T1 is 1980


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyEstes (1973): study US 1971
TitleDeterminants of Differential Stress Levels among University Students.
SourceJournal of the American College Health Association, 1973, Vol. 21, 470 - 476
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/18454240_Determinants_of_differential_stress_levels_among_university_students
PublicUniversity students, mental patients and controls, California, USA, 1971-72
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier psychiatric treatment
Page in Source 471
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
0. No earlier treatment               1. Received 
psychiatric treatment prior    to college years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.68 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier psychiatric symptoms count
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
42-item California Symptoms Checklist, derived from 
Cornwell Medical Index, administered 11 years ago at 
T1(1969).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=
T1 symptoms by T5 happiness (11 year interval)
Males:   r= -.31 (05)      
Females: r= -.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affective states
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
40-item index of closed questions on irritability (7 
items), general anxiety (7 items), anxiety and tension 
(5 items), depression (6 items), anomie (8 items) and 
resentment (7 items). Scale: 1.00 = low to 5.00 = high 
negativity. Assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
                  Negative affective states
Happiness       T1       T2       T3       T4
T1       tau = -.54     -.35     -.33     -.31
T2       tau = -.37     -.56     -.43     -.39
T3       tau = -.31     -.45     -.61     -.45
T4       tau = -.35     -.42     -.46     -.52
All tau's significant (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 675
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Cattell (1973) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T2
NAS: r = +.39  (001)
PAS: r = -.08  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelEver expected a nervous breakdown
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Direct question:
0 No
1 Yes
Remarks
Data T1. Results T3 similar. 
Not computed for summed ABS.
                              

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: 
- Males  : T1: G= +.04
- Females: T1: G= +.00

Index of Negative Affects:
- Males  : T1: G= +.48
- Females: T1: G= +.47
- Unaffected by amount of worries.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 81
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
labeled 'Emotional Health' in Guilford et al 1976.
High loadings on: emotional stability, objectivity, 
friendliness and personal
relationships.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar= s
T1 neuroticism by T1 happiness:
- young (18-49)  r= -.17  (001)
- old   (50-97)  r= -.15  (01)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01
T1 neroticism by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.11 ns
T1 neroticism by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPast Depression
Page in Source 103-115
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
MMPI Depression Scale, taken 2 years previously (see 
GOUGH, 1953).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.83 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPast depression and insecurity
Page in Source 122
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Score derived from a 212-item inventory of past life 
experiences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.46 p < . 10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelEver expected a nervous breakdown
Page in Source 196
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Direct question: no vs yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= - p < . 05
Males   : _b = -.10 (05)
Females : _b = -.11 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: M07aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelRetrospective earlier adjustment
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code M07aa01
Operationalization
Selfrating of general adjustment on 3-point scale.

Assessed in 1960.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
Earlier retrospective adjustment (1960) by present 
happiness (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in depression
Page in Source 1929-1730
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in report of depression

A: Stopped being depressed 
   0 no
   1 yes
 
B: Became depressed 
   0 no
   1 yes
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.46 p < .001
T1-T2  T2 STOPPED being depressed by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.47 p < .001
T1-T2 BECAME depressed by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 health
- T1-T2 change in situation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in depression
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
Reported 
1. Sadness          
2. Elation          
3. Inner tension    
4. Hostile feelings 
5. Inability to feel
6. Pessimistic thoughts
7. Suicidal thoughts
8. Hypochondriasis
9. Worrying over trifles
10. Compulsive thoughts
11. Phobias
12. Rituals
13. Indecision
14. Lassitude
15. Fatiguability
16. Concentration difficulties
17. Failing memory
18. Reduced appetite
19. Reduced sleep
20. Increased sleep
21. Reduced sexual interest
22. Increased sexual interest
23. Autonomic disturbances
24. Aches and pains
25. Muscular tension
26. Loss of sensation or movement
27. Realisation
28. Depersonalization
29. Feeling controlled
30. Disrupted thoughts
31. Ideas of persecution
32. Ideas of grandeur
33. Delusional mood
34. Ecstatic experiences
35. Morbid jealousy
36. Other delusions
37. Commenting voices
38. Other auditory hallucinations
39. Visual hallucinations
40. Other hallucinations

Observed
41. Apparent sadness
42. Elated mood
43. Hostility
44. Labile emotional responses
45. Lack of appropriate emotion
46. Autonomic disturbances
47. Sleepiness
48. Distractability
49. Withdrawal
50. Perplexity
51. Blank spells
52. Disorientation
53. Pressure of speech
54. Reduced speech
55. Specific speech defects
56. Flight of ideas
57. Incoherent speech
58. Perseveration
59. Overactivity
60. Slowness of movement
61. Agitation
62. Involuntary movements
63. Muscular tension
64. Mannerisms and postures
65. Hallucinatory behaviour
66. Global rating of illness
67. Assumed reliability of the rating
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.43 p < .011
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in psychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
Negative psychotic symptoms and depression assessed by 
psychiatric
a. Demanding attention
b. Suicide ideas or behaviour
c. Panic attacks and phobias
d. Overactivity and restlessness
e. Laughing or talking to self
f. Acting out bizarre ideas
g. Posturing and mannerisms
h. Socially unacceptable habits or manners
Remarks
The Schedule for the Assessment of Negative 
Symtoms(SANS)(by psychiater)
SANS
Assessed T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .15
T1-T3 change in happiness by T1_T3 change symtoms 
(T1-T3 18 month)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in insight
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
Rating by psyciatrist using Schedule for the Assessment 
of Insight(SAI, David 1990) 
Items not described. Reference incomplete.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14 p < .42
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in social behaviour
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
Rating of:
- Depression
- Inappropriate sexual behaviour
- Poor self care
- Slowness
- Underactivity
- Poor attention span
- Other behaviour
Remarks
Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS) (Wykes & Sturt 1986)
Assessed at T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.09 p < .57
T1-T3 Chance in happiness by T1-T3 change 
symtoms(T1-T3 18 month)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: M07aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelSANS total score
Page in Source 263
Our classificationChange in mental health, code M07aa02
Operationalization
Rating of psychotic symptoms and depression by 
psychiatrist
a. Demanding attention
b. Suicide ideas or behaviour
c. Panic attacks and phobias
d. Overactivity and restlessness
e. Laughing or talking to self
f. Acting out bizarre ideas
g. Posturing and mannerisms
h. Socially unacceptable habits or manners
Remarks
Schedule for the Assesment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) 
[Andreason 1982]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.21
T1 happiness by T1 negative symptoms
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.09 p < .28
rpc controled for depression as measured with 
subscale of comprehensive Psychitric Rating Scale
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .15
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelType of disablility
Page in Source 530
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
Self report of disability
1: Seeing
2: Hearing
3: Speaking
4: Mobilty
5: Agility
6: Mental
7: Unknown
Observed distribution1: 14,09%; 2: 30,19%; 3: 6,71%; 4: 59,53%; 5: 54,53%; 6: 30,22%; 7: 6,70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=
             % not too happy    % very happy
Seeing           18.0             19.3 
Hearing          13.2             20.9
Speaking         23.2             22.2
Mobility         16.9             19.1
Agility          16.8             17.5
Mental           23.0             16.5
Unknow            6.3             23.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological functioning
Page in Source 104
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
Self reporty on the following questions:
a: How much of time, during the past month, have you 
been a very nervous person?
B: How often, during the past month, have you felt so 
down in the dumps that nothing could cheere you up?
c: How much of the time, during the past month, have 
you felt calm and peaceful?
d: how much of the time, during the paste month, have 
you felt downhearted and blue?
e: During the paste month, how much of the time were 
you a happy person?

SF-36 Psychological Functioning subscale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.46 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 psychological functioning
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.38 p < .05
T1 physical functioning by T2 happiness

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /2
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having a mental disorder, Netherlands, followed two years, 1996-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =687

Correlate
Author's labelRecovery from mental disorder
Page in Source 17
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 
(CIDI), Version 1.1 was used to determine mental 
disorders.
Remarks
Assessed at T0 (1996), T1 (1997) and T2 (1998)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aOR=0.95 ns
T0 Happiness, by T1/2 recovery from mental 
disorder

CI95 [0.79- 1.13]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.76 p < .05
CI95 [+.67- +.87]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological Distress
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
8 itmes from Langner's(1962) scale of psychiatric 
symptoms indicating impairment.
Observed distributionAt T4: M=12.68, SD=2.18, Range 8-24 At T2: M=12.60, SD=2.45, Range 8-24
Remarks
Assessed with 9 year interval at T2(1983) and T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(3 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(9 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.20 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 psychological distress
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.41 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T4 psychological distress

T1 is 1980


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelLater psychiatric symptoms count
Page in Source 22
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
42-item California Symptoms Checklist,
derived from Cornwell Medical Index,
administered 11 years later at T5(1980)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=
T1 happiness by T5 symptoms (11 year interval)
Males:   r= +.06 (ns)        
Females: r= -.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later mental health
Subject code: M07aa03

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent depression
Page in Source 264
Our classificationLater mental health, code M07aa03
Operationalization
Self report on 10 questions addressing frequency of 
depressive symptomatology in the previous week
Error Estimatesalpha=,88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=-
T1 happiness          T2 depression         
- low                 Ma = 2,47
- high                Ma = 1,57

Ma depression controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyPacker et al. (1997): study CA 1992
TitlePsychopathology and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.
SourceJournal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1997, Vol. 22, 231 - 234
Public18-40 aged, schizophrenics, Canada,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPsychopathology
Page in Source 232-233
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Rating by a psyciatrist using BPRS 24 symptoms checlist
-Somatic concern
-Anxiety
-Depression
-Suicidality
-Guilt
-Hostility
-Elated Mood
-Grandiosity
-Suspiciousness
-Hallucinations
-Unusual thought content
-Bizarre behaviour
-Self-neglect
-Disorientation/disorganisation
-Blunted affect
-Emotional withdrawal
-Motor retardation
-Tension
-Uncooperativeness
-Excitement
-Distractibility
-Motor hyperactivity
-Mannerisms and posturing
 
Rated 1 'not present' to 7 'extremely severe'
Remarks
Brief psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Ventura, Green, 
Shaner & Liberman (1993) Training and quality assurance 
with the brief psychiatric rating scale: 
"The drift buster" International Journal of Methods in 
Psychiatric Research.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.63 p < .0001
BRPS Total
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.52 p < .0005
BPRS negative symptom cluster
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.44 p < .01
BPRS Positive symptom cluster


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPatients vs healthy controls
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
0: healthy control group, matched for social 
demographic variables
1: remitted mental out-patients
Observed distributionN=0:20; 1:20
Remarks
Remitted mental out-patients: patients treated in an 
affective Disorder Program who rated 'better' or 'much 
better' after an additional therapy of 3-5 months 
according to Kellner's global scale of improvement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aDM=-
Healthy control group:         M=5,0; SD=1,4
Remitted mental out-patients:  M=2,7; SD=1,9
- difference:                   -2,3
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-at.=4,31 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyVanBeuningen & Moonen (2013a): study NL 2007
TitleGezondheid Belangrijker voor Geluk dan Leefstijl. (Health More Important for Happiness then Lifestyle.)
SourceBevolkingstrends, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), April 2013, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/F9E3C2DC-BB64-4DD5-AA51-2AA359F34AF6/0/20130401bb15art.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2007,2008,2009
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =27358

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 4,8
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on mental health (full question not 
reported):
0     very bad
:
100  very good

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.31 p < .01
males   r = +.29
females r = +.33
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dr=
18 to 25 years:    r = 0,27
25 to 45 years:    r = 0,31
45 to 65 years:    r = 0,32
65 years or older: r = 0,31
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=1,07 p < .01
sexe  or = 0,96
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dOR=1,07 p < .01
Age 18-25 vs. 65 plus  or = 0,61


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of mental disorders
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Diagnosed number of mental disorders:
1: 1 disorder
2: 2 disorders
3: 3 or more disorders (reference category)
Observed distribution1: 70,8%; 2: 17,7%; 3: 11,5%;
Remarks
Disorders assessed using the Composite International 
Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 1.1). Administered 
by trained interviewers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab= ns
1 disorder        B = +.24; CI95 [-.10- +.58]
2 disorders       B = +.01; CI95 [-.29- +.32]
3 or more dis     (reference category)

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-kind of disorder
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 42, 62
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Self report on shortened 6-item General Health 
Questionnaire (GHQ):
How did you feel in the past two weeks?
- Were you able  to concentrate on the things you were 
engaged in?
- Did you feel that you could not master your 
difficulties/troubles?
- Did you enjoy you daily activities?
- Did you feel unhappy and depressed?
- Did you lose faith in yourself?
- All things taken together, did you feel happy?

Rated:1 better than normal, 2 the same as normal, 3 
worse than normal, 4 much worse than normal. The 
answers were summed up and changed to a 10 point scale.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1987), T3 (1991), T4(1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between more and 
less healthy Ss over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.23 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- neuroticism
- extraversion
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.22 p < .001
additional control for lifecourse transitions 
(happened or not):
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.22 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring of the above variables

Effect stronger among women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 174
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Mental health summary score (Ware & Kosinski, et.al, 
1996)
Self-report on six questions

'During the past four weeks, have you had any of the 
following problems with your work or other regular 
daily activities as a result of any emotional problems 
(such as feeling depressed or anxious)?'

-Accomplished less than you would like?
-Didn't do work or other activities as carefully as 
usual?
(Responses are either 'yes' or 'no')


During the last four weeks, give the one answer that 
comes closest to the way you have been feeling.
-Have you felt calm and peaceful?
-Did you have a lot of energy?
-Have you felt downhearted and blue?
(Six point response scale)
6 All of the time
5 Most of the time
4 A good bit of the time
3 Some of the time
2 A little of the time
1 None of the time


'During the past four weeks, how much of the time has 
your physical health or emotional problems interfered 
with your social activities (like visiting with 
friends, relatives, etc.)?'
(Five point response scale)
5 All of the time
4 Most of the time
3
2
1 None of the time
Observed distributionQuartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .001
% happy (all or most of the time)
Lowest quartile :  15,9
2nd quartile    :  59,9
3rd quartile    :  81,9
Highest quartile:  93,0
Set Image size:   

M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=+
                          OR     CI 95
Lowest quartile           1      -
2nd quartile              6,8    4,5 - 10,1
3rd quartile              19,2   12,2- 30,2
Highest quartile          39,9   22,4- 71,0

Odds ratio controlled for:
-physical health
-self-esteem
-intimate contact (love and affection)
-sex (women vs. men)
-nationality (Swiss vs. Other)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 1729
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
1) Poor mental health: Patients of mental hospital 
2) Moderate mental health: General public scoring >2 on 
GHQ 
3) Good mental health:General public scoring <2 on GHQ
Observed distributionN = 1: 1119, 2: 794, 3: 149

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+ p < .001
T1: 1999
- Good mental health:     M = 5,37, SD = 0.86
- Moderate mental health: M = 4,15, SD = 1,26
- Poor mental health:     M = 3,87, SD = 1,44
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
T2: 2001
- Good mental health:     M = 5,12, SD = 0.96
- Moderate mental health: M = 4,25, SD = 1,31
- Poor mental health:     M = 4,44, SD = 1,38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelMental well-being
Page in Source 1018
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
General Health Questionaires (GHQ-12)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.56 p < .001
CURRENT Mental well-being by CURRENT happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 23
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
a: Severe mental illness(SMI)
   Patients of mental hospital
   - aged 18-65
   - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement 
b: Common mental disorder(CMD)
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
c: Healthy population
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire
Observed distributionN at T1/T2 = 1: 149/126; 2: 794/354; 3: 1119/583
Remarks
a: Non-probability chunk sample, data 1994 (T1) and 
1996 (T2)
b+c: Probility sample of community residents: data 1999 
(T1) and 2001 (T2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
a: Mental patients     T1  M = 3.86  SD = 1.43
                       T2  M = 4.45  SD = 1.40
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,59      -0,03
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
b: Common disorder     T1  M = 4,19  SD = 1.29
                       T2  M = 4.25  SD = 1.30
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,06      +0,01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=-
c: Mentally healthy    T1  M = 5,39  SD = 0,86
                       T2  M = 5,12  SD = 0,96
        T1-T2 (2 yr)change    -0,27      +0,10
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T1: c>a, b>a
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T2: c>b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudySullivan et al. (1991): study US 1988
TitleQuality of Life of Seriously Mentally Ill Persons in Mississippi.
SourceHospital and Community Psychiatry, 1991, Vol. 42, 752 -755
PublicFormer inpatients of mental hospital, Mississipi, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelnormal vs mentally ill
Page in Source 753
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
1 Non-mentally-ill 
  a national population
  b low socio-economic subsample
  c black-subsample

2 Seriously mentally ill
  a Missisippi 
  b Los Angeles
  c Maryland
Observed distributionN: 1a=1,297, 1b=122, 1c=106, 2a=101, 2b=278, 2c=66
Remarks
Samples b and c from Andrews and Withey(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=- p < .?
1. Non-mentally-ill       M = 5.3
   a national population  M = 5.4
   b low socio-economic   M = 5.1
   c black-subsample      M = 4.8

2 seriously mentally ill  M = 4.7
   a Missisippi           M = 5.3 
   b Los Angeles          M = 4.4
   c Maryland             M = 5.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudySullivan et al. (1991): study US 1988
TitleQuality of Life of Seriously Mentally Ill Persons in Mississippi.
SourceHospital and Community Psychiatry, 1991, Vol. 42, 752 -755
PublicFormer inpatients of mental hospital, Mississipi, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelnormal vs schizophrenia
Page in Source 753
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
1 Non-mentally-ill 
  a national population
  b low socio-economic subsample
  c black-subsample

2 Schizophrenics:Missisippi sample
Observed distributionN: 1a=1,297, 1b=122, 1c=106, 2= 101
Remarks
non-mentally-ill sample from Andrews and Withey(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=-
1. Non-mentally-ill
   a national population   M = 5.4
   b low socio-economic    M = 5.1
   c black-subsample       M = 4.8

2 Misissipi schizophrenics M = 5.3
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=+ ns
1a<2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=- ns
1b>2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=+ p < .05
1c<2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological deficits (mental illness)
Page in Source 603
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
10 indicators of psychological deficits including 
number of symptoms mentioned, plus a psychiatrist's 
ratings of the degree of psychopathology implicit in 
each symptom response, long- and short- term symptoms, 
and total symptom response set per respondent; 
Gottschalk anxiety scores, derived from TAT cards, 
global ratings by a interdisciplinary team of social 
scientists on perceived stress, stress impact, degree 
and direction of impairment.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= - p < . 05
Six of the deficit indicators correlated signifi- 
cantly (05) with both affect balance and with 
negative affect.
No relationships with positive affect were found.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general mental health
Subject code: M07ab

StudyLowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelMental health: complexity
Page in Source 291/292
Our classificationCurrent general mental health , code M07ab
Operationalization
Resource-deficit configuration: the high/high 
combination is the most "complex", the low/low 
combination the most "simple". 
A. Resources (aspects of positive mental health)
   13 characteristics, such as:
   - familial mutuality
   - insight
   - competence
   - self-satisfaction, etc.
   rated on the basis of an interview protocol.
B. Deficits (aspects of negative mental health): 
   5 ratings of mental impairment based on scores on a 
symptom inventory and analysis of the interview 
protocol.

Both resource level and deficit levels were devided in 
three categories: high, middle, low. This allowed nine 
combinations:
9:  high/high
*: high/middle
:
:
1: low/low

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSNR=+
Resource/deficit combinations in order of 
happiness: most happy:           medium/low
           second happy:         high/low
           third happy:          low/low
           least happy(ninth):   medium/medium

Resource/deficit combinations characteristic of 
the happiest among:
     high school seniors         high/high
     newly weds                  medium/low
     middle-aged parents         medium/low
     preretirees                 low/low 

The correspondence of happiness and "complexity" 
in mental health declines with age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelPsychiatric "Case- ness"
Page in Source 235
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Rating by two psychiatrists on a 4-
point scale, based on 6 years accumula- ted clinical 
information.
(Probability that someone is suffering from a 
psychiatric disorder.)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ars= - p < . s
Index of Positive Affects: r = -.19 (05)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.42 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldisease diagnosis
Page in Source 212,214
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Diagnosis of diseases, by main category
a: infections and parasitological
b: tumors
c: endocrine, nutritional, metabolic  
   disorders
d: blood, blood forming organs
e: mental disorders
f: neurological
g: circulatory
h: respiratory
i: digestive
j: urological, sexual organs
k: obstretic
l: dermatological
m: bones, motor connective tissues
n: congenital malformations
o: certain perinatal factors
p: misc. symptoms
q: injuries, poisoning, etc.
Observed distributionN: a:7, b:17, c:27, d: e:75, f:31, g:109, h:160 i:41, j:153, k:4, l:282, m:231, n: o: p:35, q:7
Remarks
These diagnosises are not mutual exclusive
Sick Ss only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=6.79
 b: Mt=7.06
 c: Mt=7.13
 d: Mt=
 e: Mt=5.36
 f: Mt=6.69
 g: Mt=7.20
 h: Mt=7.33
 i: Mt=6.40
 j: Mt=7.51
 k: Mt=9.38
 l: Mt=7.58
 m: Mt=6.81
 n: Mt=
 o: Mt=
 p: Mt=6.36
 q: Mt=7.14
All Mt=7.09
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=6.43
 b: Mt=6.61
 c: Mt=6.90
 d: Mt=
 e: Mt=5.04
 f: Mt=6.91
 g: Mt=7.30
 h: Mt=7.13
 i: Mt=6.73
 j: Mt=7.14
 k: Mt=8.75
 l: Mt=7.16
 m: Mt=6.66
 n: Mt=
 o: Mt=
 p: Mt=5.71
 q: Mt=7.14
All Mt=6.86
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=6.56
 b: Mt=7.35
 c: Mt=6.55
 d: Mt=
 e: Mt=5.26
 f: Mt=6.45
 g: Mt=7.00
 h: Mt=6.73
 i: Mt=6.40
 j: Mt=6.94
 k: Mt=7.50
 l: Mt=6.76
 m: Mt=6.46
 n: Mt=
 o: Mt=
 p: Mt=6.08
 q: Mt=6.43
All Mt=6.63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelDepression or anxiety
Page in Source 3
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
1 Not depressive or anxious
2 Depressive or anxious

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=.22 p < .01
CI99[0.218-0.229]

OR controlled for:
- age
- area deprivation
- body-mass index
- qualifications
- strenuous exercise
- smoking
- alcohol
- living w. partner
- parity
- participation in group activities
- sleep duration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDegree of positive symptoms
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Positive symptoms interfering with member's functioning 
rated by staff
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=1,84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDegree of negative symptoms
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Negative symptoms interfering with member's functioning 
rated by staff
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM= 1,54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.15 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyBaker & Intagliata (1982): study US 1981
TitleQuality of Life in the Evaluation of Community Support Systems.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1982, Vol. 5, 69 - 79
DOIdoi:10.1016/0149-7189(82)90059-3
PublicMental patients shortly after change in institutional setting, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelMental health status
Page in Source 78
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Rating by case-managers using the Global Assessment 
Scale (Endicott, Spitzer, Fleiss & Cohen, 1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.17 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab01

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelSeverity of pathology
Page in Source 29/67
Our classificationExpert ratings of mental health, code M07ab01
Operationalization
Rating by a psychiatrist on the basis of a detailed 
symptom check-list: 1-3 (minimal impairment) / 4-6 / 
7-9 / 8-12 (marked impairment)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.27 p < . 01
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.16 (ns)
    U-shaped curve: Ss with pathology ratings of   
  7-9 having most negative feelings.
    Significant differences between those with     
ratings of 4-6 and those with ratings of 7-9     
only. 
Unrelated to the Index of Positive Affects.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fr= -
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.16 (ns)
    U-shaped curve: Ss with pathology ratings of
    7-9 having most negative feelings.
    Significant differences between those with 
    ratings of 4-6 and those with ratings of 7-9   
  only.
Unrelated to the Index of Positive Affects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2002): study CA Mamawetan,Keewatin/Athab asca Parkland, Saskatchewan 2001
TitleHealthy Days, Healthy Satisfaction and Satisfacton with the Overall Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 59, 321 - 338
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1019601213926
PublicAdults, general public, Mackenzie, British Columbia, Canada, 2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =344

Correlate
Author's labelDays mentally not good
Page in Source 323, 327
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Thinking about your mental health, which includes 
stress, depression and problems with emotions, how many 
days during the past 30 days was your mental health not 
good?
____days

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-n-10-ar=-.44 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2002): study CA Prince George 2000
TitleHealthy Days, Healthy Satisfaction and Satisfacton with the Overall Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 59, 321 - 338
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1019601213926
PublicAdults, general public, City of Pirnce George, British Columbia, Canada, 2000-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =695

Correlate
Author's labelDays mentally not good
Page in Source 323, 325, 326
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Thinking about your mental health, which includes 
stress, depression and problems with emotions, how many 
days during the past 30 days was your mental health not 
good?
____days
Observed distributionApril 2000: M = 3.5 November 2000: M = 3.2 May 2001: M = 3.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-ar=-.36 p < .01
April 2000
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-ar=-.33 p < .01
November 2000
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-ar=-.32 p < .01
May 2001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2002): study CA Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan 1999
TitleHealthy Days, Healthy Satisfaction and Satisfacton with the Overall Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 59, 321 - 338
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1019601213926
PublicAdults, general public, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1468

Correlate
Author's labelMentally not good
Page in Source 324
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Thinking about your mental health, which includes 
stress, depression and problems with emotions, how many 
days during the past 30 days was your mental health not 
good?
____days
Observed distributionM = 4.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-ar=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2002): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealthy Days, Healthy Satisfaction and Satisfacton with the Overall Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 59, 321 - 338
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1019601213926
PublicAdults, general public, Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =642

Correlate
Author's labelDays mentally not good
Page in Source 325
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Thinking about your mental health, which includes 
stress, depression and problems with emotions, how many 
days during the past 30 days was your mental health not 
good?
____days
Observed distributionM = 4.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-ar=-.32 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyLai & McDonald (1995): study CA Calgary, Alberta 1991
TitleLife Satisfaction of Chinese Elderly Immigrants in Calgary
SourceCanadian Journal of Aging,1995, Vol.14, 536 - 552
DOIDOI:10.1017/SO714980800009107
PublicChinese elderly immigrants, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response14.7%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological health
Page in Source 542, 545-546
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
An adapted version of the psychiatric evaluation 
schedule of Pfeiffer (1975) was used to evaluate the 
psychological health of the respondents: 

1. What are the date, month, and year?
2. What is the day of the week?
3. What is the name of this place?
4. What is your phone number?
5. How old are you?
6. When were you born?
7. Who is the current president?
8. Who was the president before him?
9. What was your mother's maiden name?
10. Can you count backward from 20 by 3's?

SCORING: 
The 4 distinct levels of intellectual functioning are: 
1)intact intellectual functioning, 2)mild intellectual 
impairment, 3)moderate intellectual impairment, and 
4)severe intellectual impairment. 

For white subjects with at least some high school 
education, but not more than high school education, the 
following criteria have been established: 
0-2 errors (intact) 
3-4 errors (mild) 
5-7 errors (moderate) 
8-10 errors (severe) 
 

In this study, the scores of the scale can range from 
15 to 30, with the higher scores representing fewer 
psychological symptoms and therefore a healthier 
condition.
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha reliabilty coefficient is .83

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.23 p < .05
All
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .05
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltype of health problems
Page in Source 202, 204
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Suffer a lot from these health problems:
a:  no severe inconvenience
b:  pain/discomfort shoulder/nape of neck
c:  pain/discomfort back/loin
d:  discomfort arms, legs, hip or joints
e:  headache
f:  palpitations
g:  nervousness, anxiety
h:  difficult sleeping or insomnia
i:  melancholy, depressed or unhappy
j:  tiredness
k:  stomach pain
l:  indigestion or diarrhoa/constipation
m:  eczhema, rash itching
n:  cold, head cold or cough
o:  breathing difficulties
p:  discomfort or problems in the internal female 
sexual organs
Observed distributionN: 1:1021, b:104 c:114, d:87, e:61, f:20, g:39, h:37, i:40 j:101, k:36, l:38, m:40, n:55, o:38, p:13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=8.20
 b: Mt=6.59
 c: Mt=6.63
 d: Mt=6.46
 e: Mt=6.51
 f: Mt=5.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=5.86
 k: Mt=5.21
 l: Mt=5.79
 m: Mt=6.89
 n: Mt=6.91
 o: Mt=5.26
 p: Mt=5.81
All Mt=7.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.76
 b: Mt=6.68
 c: Mt=6.59
 d: Mt=6.63
 e: Mt=6.60
 f: Mt=6.00
 g: Mt=4.30
 h: Mt=4.93
 i: Mt=3.06
 j: Mt=5.90
 k: Mt=5.55
 l: Mt=5.46
 m: Mt=7.11
 n: Mt=7.13
 o: Mt=6.46
 p: Mt=5.78
All Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.18
 b: Mt=6.56
 c: Mt=6.30
 d: Mt=6.59
 e: Mt=6.39
 f: Mt=5.75
 g: Mt=4.55
 h: Mt=4.86
 i: Mt=3.44
 j: Mt=6.05
 k: Mt=5.86
 l: Mt=5.74
 m: Mt=6.38
 n: Mt=6.64
 o: Mt=6.35
 p: Mt=6.15
All Mt=6.85


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmental disorders
Page in Source 224
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you at present suffer from any of the following 
illnesses or disorders ?"
a: no illnesses/disorders
b: nervous/mental disorders
c: anorexia/bulimia
d: mental depression
Observed distributionN: a:367, b:70, c:8, d:12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=8.18
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.33
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.31
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=7.60
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.78
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.08
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.00
d: mental depression        Mt=4.16
All                         Mt=7.21
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.19
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.18
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=6.56
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=6.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmental disorders
Page in Source 234
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you at present suffer from any of the following 
illnesses or disorders ?"
1 no illnesses/disorders
2: one or more of the following:
2a: nervous/mental disorders
2b: anorexia/bulimia
2c: mental depression
2d: schizophrenia
2e: borderline cases
Observed distributionN: 1: 1303; 2:313; 2a:239; 2b:25; 2c:39; 2d:5; 2e:5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1:  Mt=8.19
2:  Mt=4.88
2a: Mt=5.03
2b: Mt=4.90
2c: Mt=3.98
2d: Mt=4.50
2e: Mt=5.00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1:  Mt=7.80
2:  Mt=4,83
2a: Mt=5.01
2b: Mt=4.90
2c: Mt=3.71
2d: Mt=4.00
2e: Mt=5.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1:  Mt=7.33
2:  Mt=4.91
2a: Mt=5.00
2b: Mt=5.40
2c: Mt=4.23
2d: Mt=4.50
2e: Mt=4.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological distress (K6)
Page in Source 55-57
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple questions:
a: "How often did you feel nervous?"
b: "How often did you feel hopeless?"
c: "How often did you feel restless or fidgety?"
d: "How often did you feel so depressed that nothing 
could cheer up?"
e: "How often did you feel that everything was an 
effort?"
f: "How often did you feel worthless?"

Rated:
0: none of the time 
1: a little of the time
2: sometime of the time
3: most of the time
4: all the time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelSelf rating of mental health
Page in Source 20
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Single question: 'How is your mental health?' Rated on 
0-1- numerical scale
Observed distributionM = 6,10; SD = 2,25
Error Estimates1 week retest:: r = +.77

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=+.70 p < .001
All
males  : r = +.73 (N = 95)
females: r = +.67 (N = 95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelMental Health Problems
Page in Source 224-225,234-35
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Self-reported on 4 questions.
a. During the last 12 months, have you suffered  from 
tiredness?

b. During the last 12 months, have you had difficulties 
in sleeping?

c. During the last 12 months, have you had nervous 
problems (anxiety worries)?

d. During the last 12 months, have you suffered 
depression?

All rated:
1. No
2. Yes, slight
3. Yes, serious

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-.12 p < .1
Self-employed:  (N=356)
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-.11 p < .1
Wage-earners:   (N=640)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyZullig et al. (2005): study US SouthCarolina 2005
TitleAdolescent Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived Satisfaction with Life.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1573 - 1584
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-7707-y
Public13-18 aged high school students, public high schools grades 9-12, South Carolina, USA, 200?
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response7.86%
Respondents N =4914

Correlate
Author's labelPoor mental health days
Page in Source 1579
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Now thinking about your physical health, wich includes 
physical illness and injury, for how many days during 
the past 30 days was your physical leath not good?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-er=-.27
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eOR=1.35
poor mental health 1-2 days
                 OR        CI95         p<
- white females: 0.62      [0.35-1.12]
- black females: 1.25      [0.83-1.87]  
- white males  : 1.71      [1.15-2.54]  05
- black males  : 1.82      [1.03-3.02]  005
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eOR=1.35
poor mental health 3-5 days
                 OR        CI95         p<
- white females: 1.46      [0.96-2.51]
- black females: 1.91      [1.25-2.92]  005
- white males  : 2.60      [1.66-4.05]  0001
- black males  : 2.00      [1.14-3.52]  05
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eOR=4.47
poor Mental health 6+ days
                 OR        CI95         p<
- white females: 4.41      [3.16-6.19]  0001
- black females: 4.09      [2.86-5.85]  0001
- white males  : 4.62      [3.05-7.00]  0001
- black males  : 4.73      [2.97-7.52]  0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyOstir et al. (2006): study US 2001
TitleDoes Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 77, 79 - 93
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-5554-z
Public40+ orthopedic patients, 3 month after discharge, USA, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response228
Respondents N =3751

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-care
Page in Source 83-86
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
Self-care subscale of 18 item Functional Independence 
Measure (FIM)
self report measure of basic daily living skills

Scored from (1) complete dependence to (7) complete 
independence
Remarks
Assessed at admission(T1) and after discharge(T2) with 
average 3 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.05
T2 happines by T1-T2 CHANGE in functional 
independance controled for:
-age
-gender
-mental status
-race
-length of stay
CI95 (1.03-1.06)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self ratings of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelPoor Mental Health
Page in Source 51,122,137,141,143
Our classificationSelf ratings of mental health, code M07ab02
Operationalization
a. Do you find it difficult to get up in the morning? 
Rated: 1 = never, 2 = not very much, 3 = pretty often, 
4 = nearly all the time.

b. Has any ill health affected the amount of work you 
do?
c. Have you ever been bothered by shortness of breath 
when you were not exercising or working hard?
d. Have you ever been bothered by your hearth beating 
hard?
e. Do you ever drink more than you should?
f. Are you troubled by your hands sweating so that you 
feel damp and clammy
g. Have there been times when you couldn't take care of 
things because you just couldn't get going?

Rated: 1 = Never, 2 = Hardly ever, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = 
Many times

h. Do you feel you are bothered by all sorts of pains 
and ailments in different parts of your body?
i. For the most part, do you feel healthy enough to 
carry out the things you would like to do?
j. Do you have any particular physical or health 
trouble

Rated: 1 = No, 2 =  Yes
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=1,6, SD=.32, Married Mothers M = 1,8 SD = .41, Single Mothers M=1,6 SD = .44
Error Estimatesalpha = .83
Remarks
Items taken from the Gurin, Veroff & Feld scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.42 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.20 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.37 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.33 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.44 p < .01
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall selfestimate of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02a

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelself-perceived mental health
Page in Source 204
Our classificationOverall selfestimate of mental health, code M07ab02a
Operationalization
Single question:
"How do you rate your mental health at present ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4468; %:1:1,3; 2:5,8; 3:16,8; 4:38,5; 5:37,6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.70 p < .00
1: Mt=1.84
2: Mt=4.24
3: Mt=6.20
4: Mt=7.80
5: Mt=9.14
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.65 p < .00
1: Mt=2.13
2: Mt=3.95
3: Mt=5.89
4: Mt=7.50
5: Mt=8.76
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.58 p < .00
1: Mt=2.75
2: Mt=4.44
3: Mt=5.76
4: Mt=7.03
5: Mt=8.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall selfestimate of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02a

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelself-perceived mental health
Page in Source 194
Our classificationOverall selfestimate of mental health, code M07ab02a
Operationalization
Single question:
"How do you rate your mental health at present ?"
1: very good
2: good
3: neither/nor
4: bad
5: very bad
Observed distributionN: 1:489, 2:596, 3:236, 4:60, 5:12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.66 p < .00
 1: Mt=9.08
 2: Mt=7.85
 3: Mt=6.19
 4: Mt=3.91
 5: Mt=3.12
All Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.62 p < .00
 1: Mt=8.64
 2: Mt=7.55
 3: Mt=5.98
 4: Mt=3.75
 5: Mt=2.50
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.52 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.95
 2: Mt=6.98
 3: Mt=5.81
 4: Mt=4.26
 5: Mt=3.54
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall selfestimate of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02a

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 508
Our classificationOverall selfestimate of mental health, code M07ab02a
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
Please think about the last four weeks. How often did 
it occur within this period of time that due to mental 
health or emotional problems:
a) you achieved less than you wanted to at work or in 
everyday tasks? 
b) you carried out your work or everyday tasks less 
thoroughly than usual?

Rated:
1 Always
:
5 Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personality traits
  a) openness
  b) conscientiousness
  c) extraversion
  d) agreeableness
  e) neuroticism
  f) external locus of control
  g) internal locus of control
  h) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  i) gender
  j) nationality
  k) age and age squared
  l) household income
  m) education
  n) physical health
  o) having children
  p) marital status

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall selfestimate of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02a

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional functioning
Our classificationOverall selfestimate of mental health, code M07ab02a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions of emotional functioning (yes 
or no)

During the past 4 weeks, have you had any of the 
following problems with your work or other regular 
daily activities as a result of any emotional problems 
(such as feeling depressed or anxious)?
-Cut down the amount of time you spent on work or other 
activities
-Accomplished less than you would like   
-Didn't do work or other activities as carefully as 
usual
Remarks
Sub-scale of the SF-36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.01
CI95 [+.00- +.01]

B controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-kind of disorder
-number of disorders


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall selfestimate of mental health
Subject code: M07ab02a

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelClinical impression
Page in Source 56,69
Our classificationOverall selfestimate of mental health, code M07ab02a
Operationalization
Each of 22 specific questions was answered yes or no by 
the person who tested the subject. The questions refer 
to affect states, neurotic behavior and other aspects 
of mental health. The score was the number of positive 
impressions.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.56 and appendix B for the full list of 
questions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1992): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleUnderstanding Happiness: A Theory of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceLongman Cheshire, 1992, Melbourne, Australia
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/headey_b_1992.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1981-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelGHQ (General Health Questionnaire)
Page in Source 42
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
Items concern both affect and symptoms: e.g. 'felt 
constantly under strain'; 'lost much sleep over worry') 
measure the risk of neurosis.
Goldberg; 1978, Manual of the General Health 
Questionnaire(NFER, Windsor)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=-.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Page in Source 68
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
Items concern both affect and symptoms: e.g. 'felt 
constantly under strain'; 'lost much sleep over worry') 
measure the risk of neurosis.
Goldberg; 1978, Manual of the General Health 
Questionnaire(NFER, Windsor)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.50 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. have you been a very nervous person?
b. have you felt so down in teh dumps nothing could 
cheer you up?
c. have you felt calm and peaceful?
d. have you felt downhearted and blue?
e. have you been a happy person?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Mental health subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire 
(Ware 1992).

Item e inflates correlation with happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.24 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta= ns
Beta's controlled for:
- social support
- crime-related worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
  - future society
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.25
Beta' s controlled for:
-vitality           (Beta +.17)
-social functioning (Beta +.22)

(30% of variance explained)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.15
Beta' s additionally controlled for satisfaction 
with:
-romantic relationships    (+.13)
-feeling part of community (+.12)
-health                    (+.24)
-recreation                (+.11)
-future security           (+.20)

(48% of variance explained)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelMental Health
Page in Source 258,262,264
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. have you been a very nervous person?
b. have you felt so down in teh dumps nothing could 
cheer you up?
c. have you felt calm and peaceful?
d. have you felt downhearted and blue?
e. have you been a happy person?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Mental health subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire 
(Ware 1992).

Item e inflates correlation with happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.42
Beta controlled for:
 - Vitality
 - General Health
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.49
Beta controlled for:
 - Social Functioning
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.41
Beta controlled for:
 - General Health
 - Physical Functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Functioning
Page in Source 262
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on two questions:
During the past fouur weeks .....
a. To what extent has your physical health or emotional 
problems interfered with your normal social activities 
with family, friends,neighbours or groups?
b. How much of the time has your physical health or 
emotional problems interfered with your social 
activities (like visiting friends, relatives etc.)?

Rated:
5: all of the time (100%) 
4: most of the time
3: a good bit of time
2: some of the time
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Social Functioning subscale of SF-36 health 
questionnaire (Ware 1992).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.14
Beta controlled for:
 - Mental Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyLam et al. (1998): study HK 1995
TitleTests of Scaling Assumptions and Construct Validity of the Chinese (HK) Version of the SF - 36 Health Survey.
SourceJournal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1998, Vol. 51, 1139 - 1147
DOIdoi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00105-X
Public14+aged patients and students, Hong Kong 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelMental Health
Page in Source 1142-1145
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions on feelings during the last 
month.
a. Felt calm and peaceful
b. Been a happy person
c. Been very nervous
d. Felt down in the dumps
e. Felt downhearted and blue
MH Subscale of SF-36 Heath Survey (Ware et al.1993)
Observed distributionM=68,65 SD=19,09 (transformed score on range 0-100)
Remarks
Item (b) about happiness, left out for this analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ar=+.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelExternalizing problem behavior
Page in Source 35
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about calling names (also on 
MSN), fighting, threatening (also on MSN), teasing 
(also on MSN), destroying, being armed, stealing.
Summed rating
1: no problem behavior
2: some 
3: rather 
4: serious 
5: very serious
Observed distributionin %: 1: 38.35,2:37.49,3: 23.41,4: 0.75,5: 0.00

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=-
1 no problem behavior  M=8.2
2 some                 M=7,7
3 rather               M=7,3
4 serious              M=7,2
5 very serious         M=7,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelInternalizing problem behavior
Page in Source 23,35,36
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about use of computer, 
internet, msn number of hours a day, and  feelings of 
loneliness.
Summed rating 
1: no problem behavior
2: some 
3: rather 
4: serious 
5: very serious
Observed distributionin % 1:53.44, 2: 36.75, 3: 8.65, 4: 1.06, 5: 0.10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=-
1:no problem behavior   M=8,2
2:some                  M=7,7
3:rather                M=7,1
4:serious               M=6,0
5:very serious          M=5,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelMental Disorder
Page in Source 798
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 
version 1.1). Administered by trained interviewers

0: no mental disorder
1: any mental disorder
   a: 1 disorder
   b: 2 disorders
   c: 3 or more disorders
Observed distribution0: 5938; 1a : 1138; 1b : 791; c : 208; d : 139
Remarks
People without a disorder had no current disorder, but 
may have had a history of mental disorder

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM= -
No mental disorder   M = 4.93; CI95 [4.90-4.95]
Any mental Disorder  M = 4.20; CI95 [4.12-4.28]
    Difference          -0.73
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM= -
1 disorder           M = 4.48; CI95 [4.40-4.57]
2 disorders          M = 3.78; CI95 [3.57-3.98]
3 or more disorders  M = 3.10; CI95 [2.86-3.34]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyDeHaes et al. (1987): study NL 1981
TitleThe Distinction between Cognition and Affect.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1987, Vol. 19, 367 - 378
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00300368
PublicEarly breast cancer patient, followed 11 and 18 month after treatment, The Netherlands, 1981-1987
Sample
Non-Response17% (6 refusals and one death in the meantime)
Respondents N =34

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological complaints
Page in Source 7
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (see de Haes, Pruyn & van 
Knippenberg, 1983)
Remarks
Synchronic correlations at:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aBeta=+.26
11 months after surgery (T1)
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.41
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aBeta=+.51
18 months after surgery (T2)
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.33
Beta's controlled for: 
- fatigue
- pain
- gastro-intestinal symptoms
- loss of libido
- activity level
- perceived impact of surgery on body image
- fear of recurrence of cancer and death


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelWell-being
Page in Source 34
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
18 items General Well-being scale (GWS)
Dupuy 1978

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-ar=+.74 p < .34
(N=57)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyKammann (1979): study NZ 1976 /1
TitleSourcebook for Affectometer 1.
Source'Why not?' Foundation, 1979?, Dunedin, New Zealand
PublicAdults, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Mental Illness Scales of the Cornell
Medical Index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.43 p < .01
Inadequacy
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.53 p < .01
Depression
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.42 p < .01
Anxiety
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.51 p < .01
Sensitivity
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.36 p < .01
Anger
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.40 p < .01
Tension
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.60 p < .01
Mental illness total


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyBernow (1985): study SE 1982
TitleLivskvaliteten i Sverige. (Quality of Life in Sweden).
SourceStockholm Läns Landsting, 1985, Stockholm, Sweden
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bernow_r_1982.pdf
Public18-70 aged, general public, Sweden, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1558

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological problems
Page in Source 192
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-ar=-.63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological health sumscore
Page in Source 937.939, 940
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions about psychological health: 
A  Positive feeling 
B  Thinking
C  Body image
D  Self-esteem
E  Negative feeling

Each rated on 1-5 scale, both for degree and for 
perceived 
importance

Summartion: (A+B+C+D+E)/5
Error EstimatesCronbach: raw score: .75, weighted score: .71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.51 p < .01
raw sum score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.40 p < .01
weighted sum score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bb=+.39 p < .01
raw sumscore
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bb=+.24 p < .05
weighed sum score

b's controled for
- physical health
- environmental health
- social relationshops


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological health
Page in Source 940
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions about psychological health: 
A  Positive feeling 
B  Thinking
C  Body image
D  Self-esteem
E  Negative feeling

Each rated on 1-5 scale, both for degree and for 
perceived 
importance

Summartion: (A+B+C+D+E)/5
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Error EstimatesCronbach: raw score: .75, weighted score: .71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.39 p < .01
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.24 p < .05
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyFang et al. (2002): study TW 1999
TitleValidation of the World Health Organizaton Quality of Life Instrument in Patients with HIV Infection.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2002, Vol. 11, 753 - 762
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1020870402019
PublicHIV-infected patients, Taipei, Taiwan, 1999-2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological domain
Page in Source 758
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport of experience in the last four weeks of:
- positive feeling
- thinking, learning, concentration
- self esteem
- spirituality/religion/ personal beliefs
ll rated on 5-points scales, ranging from "not at all" 
to "an extreme amount" with a higher score indicating a 
higher quality of life.
Error EstimatesConbach alpha .76
Remarks
Psychological subscale of WHOQOL-BREF

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ir=+.73 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNegative affect
Page in Source 928
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
F   Bored?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Rated:
 yes = 1
 no  = 0

Summation:
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.23 1.25 females 2.25 1.43
Remarks
Negative Affect Scale (NAS) in Bradburn's Affect 
Balance Scale(ABS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.77 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPositive Affect
Page in Source 928
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  
A   Particularly exited or interested in something?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something 
you had done?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
G   On top of the world?
I    That things were going your way?

Rated:
 yes = 1
 no  = 0

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.79 1.36 females 2.99 1.20
Remarks
Positive Affect Scale (PAS) in Bradburn's Affect 
Balance Scale(ABS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.44 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.72 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 928
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Self-report on the following questions:
a:Are you a talkative person?
b:Are you rather lively?
c:Do you enjoy meeting new people?
d:Can you usually let yourself go and  enjoy yourself 
at a lively party?
e:Do you usually take the initiative in making new 
friends?
f:Can you easily get some life into a rather dull 
party?
g:Do you tend to keep in the background on social 
occasions?
h:Do you like mixing with people?
i:Do you like plenty of bustle and excitement around 
you?
j:Are you mostly quiet when you are with other people?
k:Do other people think of you as being very lively?
l:Can you get a party going?

Rated: yes/no
Remarks
Score on subscale Extraversion of Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (Revised)
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.25 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyNettle (2005b): study GB 2000
TitleSocio-Economic Status and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper 2005, New Castle University, UK.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nettle_d_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =11419

Correlate
Author's labelMalaise inventory
Page in Source 6,12
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Self-report on a 24 questions (derived from the Cornell 
Medical Index):
How are you feeling generally:
- Do you often have backache?
- Do you feel tired most of the time?
- Do you feel miserable or depressed?
- Do you often have bad headaches?
- Do you often get worried about things?
- Do you usually have great difficulty in falling or 
staying asleep?
- Do you usually wake unnessarily early in the morning?
- Do you wear yourself out about your health?
- Do you often get into a violent rage?
- Do people often annoy and irritate you? 
- Have you at times had twitching of the face, head and 
shoulders?
- Do you often suddenly become scared for no good 
reason?
- Are you scared to be alone when there are no friends 
near you?
- Are you easily upset of irritated?
- Are you frightened of going out alone or of meeting 
people?
- Are you constantly keyed up and jittery?
- Do you suffer from indigestion?
- Do you suffer from an upset stomach?
- Is your appetite poor?
- Does every little thing get on your nerves and wear 
you out?
- Does your heart often race luik mad?
- Do you often have bad pains in your eyes?
- Are you troubled with rheumatism or fibrositis?
- Have you ever had a nervous breakdown?

Rating: yes (2), no (1)
Remarks
N=11269

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-h-sq-n-11-ar=-.38 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age, UK, followed 10 years, 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelMental wellbeing
Page in Source 9, 10
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions on mental health such as on
- distress (e.g. depression)
- wellbeing

Rated; 1-5
Observed distributionRange: 0-36. M = Employed 26,3, Self-employed: 26,5, Unemployed 24,0
Remarks
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.55 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelSANS total score
Page in Source 263
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Rating of psychotic symptoms and depression by 
psychiatrist
a. Demanding attention
b. Suicide ideas or behaviour
c. Panic attacks and phobias
d. Overactivity and restlessness
e. Laughing or talking to self
f. Acting out bizarre ideas
g. Posturing and mannerisms
h. Socially unacceptable habits or manners
Remarks
Schedule for the Assesment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) 
[Andreason 1982]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.21
T1 happiness by T1 negative symptoms
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.09 p < .28
rpc controled for depression as measured with 
subscale of comprehensive Psychitric Rating Scale
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .15
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal Subjective Quality of Life
Page in Source 263
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
a CPRS(Comprehensive Psychitric Rating Scale) 
depression
b Age
c LEC (Life Expreriences Checklist) opportunity
d LQOLP(Lancashire Quality of Life Profile) health
e LQOLP (Lancashire Quality of Life Profile)leisure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=36
a+b
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=58
a+b+c
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=76
a+b+c+d
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=79
a+b+c+d+e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelNegative Affect
Page in Source 194
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about the extent to which 
they feel several moods in general
- nervous
- distressed
- afaid
- jittery
- irritable
- upset
- scared
- ashamed
- guilty

rated on a 1 (very slightly or not all) to 5 
(extremely) scale
Remarks
10- item subscale of Negative Affect from the PANAS 
(Watson et al., 1988)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-ar=-.73 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelPsychopathic
Page in Source 84
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Psychopathic deviate sub scale of  Minnesota 
Multiphasic Personality Inventory Pathology Scales 
(with K corrections);

Measures social deviation, lack of acceptance of 
authority, amorality. Adolescents tend to score higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.22 p < .05
                     Mean psychopathy
a 10% least happy          28.8 
b 27% close to average     24.3  
c 10% most happy           21.0
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyKamp Dush & Amato (2005): study US 1992
TitleConsequences of Relationship Status and Quality for Subjective Well-Being
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, Vol.22, 607 - 627
DOIDOI:10.1177/026540750506438
Public19+ aged, United States, 1992-97
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =691

Correlate
Author's labelDistress symptoms
Page in Source 615, 616
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 22 questions on symptoms of psychiatric 
impairement.
Typical questions are:
- 'How often in the last year have you found yourself 
wondering if anything is worthwhile anymore?'and
- 'How often in the last year did you feel isolated and 
alone, somewhat apart from others, even among friends?'

Rated on an 3-point numerical scale:
(1=never; 2=sometimes; 3=often)
The mean of the items served as measure of distress.
Error Estimatesalpha=.73
Remarks
Langner scale (1962) on symptoms of psychiatric 
impairement

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-afr=-.46 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyPavot et al. (1997): study US 1992 /1
TitleThe Relationship between Self-Aspect Congruences Personality and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 1997, Vol. 22, 183 - 191
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00196-1
PublicCollege students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 189
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale from NEO-PI-R (Costa &McCrae, 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=-.32 p < .05
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arp=-.19 p < .05
rpc controled for real-ideal self congruence.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyLehman et al. (1992): study US 1983
TitleQuality of Life Experiences of the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1992, Vol. 15, 7 - 12
DOIdoi:10.1016/0149-7189(92)90055-Y
PublicMental Patients, United States, 1986
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response7
Respondents N =99

Correlate
Author's labelPsychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 8
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
A: Change Version of the Schedule for Affective 
Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C) by Endicott  & 
Spitzer 1978

B: Rand Health Insurance Mental Heal Battery (HISMH) by 
Ware et al 1979
Remarks
Measure A assessed in smaples a and b and measure B in 
sample c. The distribution of measure B was concerted 
to the range of A so that on measure could be used in 
the pooled sample

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.47 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological Distress
Page in Source 458
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
8 itmes from Langner's(1962) scale of psychiatric 
symptoms indicating impairment.
Observed distributionAt T4: M=12.68, SD=2.18, Range 8-24 At T2: M=12.60, SD=2.45, Range 8-24
Remarks
Assessed with 9 year interval at T2(1983) and T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(3 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(9 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.20 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 psychological distress
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.41 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T4 psychological distress

T1 is 1980


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Index of closed questions, rated on a 2-point scale, 
ranging from (0) True to (1) False. (order reversed)
a.  No more nervous than most other       people
b.  Keyed up most of the time
c.  Can't keep mind on one thing very     long
d.  Bothered by things not a bother to    others
e.  Worrying about something most of      the time
f.  Calm - don't get upset easily
g.  Anxious about someone/somthing        almost all of 
the time
h.  Happy most of the time
i.  Nervous some days - can't sit still     very long
j. Hard time keeping mind on work/task
k. Don't worry about what other people     think about 
me any more than most     people
l. Take things hard (get hurt easily)
m. Life a strain much of the time
n. At times think I'm just no good at    all
o. Lack faith in self
p. Feel useless at times
q. Things upset me easier than most      people
r. So many problems feel couldn't        handle
s. Feel about to go to pieces
t. Deny trouble/difficult problem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=
        T1: 1977      T2: 1979      T3: 1981

a.      +.03 (ns)     +.03 (ns)     +.32 (01)

b.      -.18 (01)     -.45 (01)     -.40 (01)
c.      -.02 (ns)     -.02 (ns)     -.06 (ns)

d.      -.05 (ns)     -.14 (05)     -.14 (05)

e.      -.26 (01)     -.24 (01)     -.34 (01)

f.      +.20 (01)     +.21 (01)     +.35 (01)
g.      -.10 (ns)     -.23 (01)     -.30 (01)

h.      +.43 (01)     +.35 (01)     +.44 (01)
i.      -.03 (ns)     +.01 (ns)     -.23 (01)

j.     -.10 (ns)     -.08 (ns)     -.19 (01)
k.     +.25 (01)     +.16 (05)     +.22 (01)


l.     -.23 (01)     -.18 (01)     -.24 (01)
m.     -.36 (01)     -.37 (01)     -.53 (01)
n.     -.34 (01)     -.16 (05)     -.34 (01)

o.     -.31 (01)     -.35 (01)     -.29 (01)
p.     -.34 (01)     -.17 (05)     -.33 (01)
q.     -.20 (01)     -.20 (01)     -.29 (01)

r.     -.17 (05)     -.23 (01)     -.42 (01)

s.     -.25 (01)     -.12 (ns)     -.24 (01)
t.     +.02 (ns)     -.09 (ns)     -.05 (ns)
All variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 674
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Cattel (1973) Sixteen Personality
Factor Questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=
Both hedonic level and neuroticism assessed at 
four times (three month intevals)
Correlations at:
T1: r = -.27  (001)
T2: r = -.31  (001)
T3: r = -.34  (001)
T4: r = -.27  (001)
NAS: r(mean) = +.36
PAS: r(mean) = -.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 674
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Eysenk (1969) Personality Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=
Both hedonic level and neuroticism assessed at 
four times (three month intervals)
Correlations at:
T1: r = -.31  (001)
T2: r = -.32  (001)
T3: r = -.34  (001)
T4: r = -.39  (001)
NAS: r(mean) = +.41
PAS: r(mean) = -.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCameron (1975): study US 1970
TitleMood as an Indicant of Happiness: Age, Sex, Social Class and Situational Differences.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 216 - 224
PublicCollege students, Detroit, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =187

Correlate
Author's labelEgo-Strength
Page in Source 218/220
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Barron Ego-Strength Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-ar=
Happy   mood: r=-.08  ns
Neutral mood: r=+.02  ns
Unhappy mood: r=-.04  ns

Happiness assessed by time sampling. Correlations 
concern frequency of report of happy, neutral or 
sad mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCameron (1975): study US 1970
TitleMood as an Indicant of Happiness: Age, Sex, Social Class and Situational Differences.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 216 - 224
PublicCollege students, Detroit, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =187

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 218/220
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Eysenck Neuroticism Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-ar=
Happy   mood: r=-.09  ns
Neutral mood: r=+.05  ns
Unhappy mood: r=+.16  (05) 

Happiness assessed by time sampling. Correlations 
concern frequency of report of happy, neutral or 
sad mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyGaitz & Scott (1972): study US Texas 1969
TitleAge and the Measurement of Mental Health.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 55 -67
PublicAdults, general public, Houston, Texas, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response2%, aged Mexican-Americans of high socio-economic status only
Respondents N =1441

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Page in Source 65
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Twenty-two Item Screening Score (see above)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-3-ar=-.34 p < . 01
Unaffected by age

Index of Positive Affects: r = -.02 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.57 (01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.41 p < . 01
Unaffected by age

Index of Positive Affects: r = -.02 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.57 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyGonzalez (1967): study US 1967
TitleStudy of Student Teachers' Life Adjustment.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1967, Chapel Hill, USA
PublicStudents teachers,University of California, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 126
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
20-item checklist of psychoneurotic and 
psychophysiologic symptoms, indicative of mental 
health. (Health Opinion Survey; see Leighton et al, 
1963).

high stress vs low stress.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cG=+1.0 p < .01
G' based on proportion very happy (vs not very 
happy).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyMiller & Wilson (1968): study US 1966
TitleRelation of Sexual Behaviors, Values, and Conflict to avowed Happiness and Personal Adjustment.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1968, Vol. 23, 1075 - 1086
PublicStudents, undergraduates, Kent State University at Ashtabula, Ohio, USA., 1966-67
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =132

Correlate
Author's labelMaladjustment
Page in Source 1082
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Scale containing MMPI items, designed to identify 
maladjustment in a college population. (Mt scale; see 
Kleinmuntz, 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-9-ar=-
males   : r = -.20 (ns)
females : r = -.45 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelEgo Strength
Page in Source 93/95
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
68-item index tapping a general factor of 
psychopathology, reflecting degree of maladjustment or 
ego-dysfunction, irrespective of differential 
diagnosis. (Ego Strength Scale: see BARRON, 1956)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar=+.27 p < . 01
Both variables assessed at T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyPhillips (1967): study US NewHampshire 1962 /1
TitleMental Health Status, Social Participation and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, Vol. 8, 285 -291
Public21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =593

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 288
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Twenty-two Item Screening Score of psychiatric symptoms 
indicating impairment. (Langner, 1962)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.39 p < . 01
Unaffected by age, S.E.S. and sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Scores on symptom inventories
Subject code: M07ab02b

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 81
Our classificationScores on symptom inventories, code M07ab02b
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
labeled 'Emotional Health' in Guilford et al 1976.
High loadings on: emotional stability, objectivity, 
friendliness and personal
relationships.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar= s
T1 neuroticism by T1 happiness:
- young (18-49)  r= -.17  (001)
- old   (50-97)  r= -.15  (01)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01
T1 neroticism by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.11 ns
T1 neroticism by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Feels close to mental breakdown
Subject code: M07ab02c

StudyWarr (1978): study GB 1976
TitleA Study of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceThe British Journal of Psychology, 1978, Vol. 6, 111 - 121
PublicSteel workers, 6 months after closure of plant, Manchester, UK, 1976
Sample
Non-Response9 % (4 % ill, 5 % refused), 13 % not contacted
Respondents N =1655

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety about mentalbreakdown
Page in Source 116
Our classificationFeels close to mental breakdown, code M07ab02c
Operationalization
Single closed question concerning Ss anxiety of having 
a nervous breakdown in the past few weeks rated on an 
11-point scale from 'not at all' to 'a great deal'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Daily living skills
Subject code: M07ab02d

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelFunctioning at home and at school
Page in Source 39, 43,44
Our classificationDaily living skills, code M07ab02d
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about feeling in the last 
week
- I got on well with (one of) my parents
- I managed to finish my (home)work in time

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx=1.79; SD/nx=.53 (nx= number of items in the subscale)
Error EstimatesAlpha=.68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.29 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Daily living skills
Subject code: M07ab02d

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelHeadache impact on daily activities
Page in Source 39, 43,44
Our classificationDaily living skills, code M07ab02d
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions about feeling in the last 
week 
- My headache interfered with my homework

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx=.73; SD/nx=.66 (nx= number of items in the subscale)
Error EstimatesAlpha=.87 (subjects without headache in the previous week excluded )

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Daily living skills
Subject code: M07ab02d

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDaily living skills
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationDaily living skills, code M07ab02d
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to:
- managing a household 
- getting around in the community
- personal appearance
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=2.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmental disorders
Page in Source 224
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you at present suffer from any of the following 
illnesses or disorders ?"
a: no illnesses/disorders
b: nervous/mental disorders
c: anorexia/bulimia
d: mental depression
Observed distributionN: a:367, b:70, c:8, d:12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=8.18
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.33
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.31
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=7.60
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.78
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.08
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=5.00
d: mental depression        Mt=4.16
All                         Mt=7.21
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
a: no illnesses/disorders   Mt=7.19
b: nervous/mental disorders Mt=5.18
c: anorexia/bulimia         Mt=6.56
d: mental depression        Mt=4.79
All                         Mt=6.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelLosing one's mind
Page in Source 261
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Have you experienced losing your mind
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2142 Ever in your life: N = 287

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.19
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.19
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.45
95% CI for difference:   [0.35 ; 0.59]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelLosing my memory
Page in Source 261
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Have you experienced losing your memory
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers: No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2021 Ever in your life: N = 408

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.11
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.13
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.91
ever in your life:       M = 3.63
95% CI for difference:   [0.19  ; 0.37]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labeldiagnostic group
Page in Source 242
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Clinical diagnosis of:
a  Depression
b: Alcoholisme
c: Schizoprenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=
depressives    M= 2.8  +/- 1.5
alcoholics     M= 4.0  +/- 1.4
schizophrenics M= 4.0  +/- 1.8
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cF=2,18 p < .001
a < b, c

Unaffected by control for:
- age
- anxiety/depression


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyBernheim et al. (2006): study DE 1990
TitleThe Potential of Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) to Reduce Bias in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 227 - 250
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-4755-0
PublicPatients university hospital, Berlin, Germany 1990-2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2584

Correlate
Author's labelDisease
Page in Source 234
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis taken from medical record:
A: Psychiatric disorders
   a: eating disorder
   b: post-traumatic stress
   c: anxiety disorder
   d: affective disorder (mainly depression)
   e: somatization disorder
   f: dependency (mainly drug abuse)
B: Somatic disorders
   a: cardio-vascular disorder
   b: metabolic (endocrine) disorder
   c: diabetes melitus
   d: end-stage liver disease (mostly cirrosis)
   e: liver disease(most cirrosis) after 
transplantation
Observed distributionN = Aa: 305…; Ab:283; Ac:281; Ad:308; Ae: 685; Af:128 Eating disorder: anorexia nervosa N= Ba:112; Bb:96; Bc:76; Bd:310; Be:171

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-ol-11-aDMt=
                         DMt      CI95
A: Psychiatric          3.56
   a: eating            3.4     0.5 -6.1
   b: post-traumatic    3.1     0.75-5.4
   c: anxiety           2.2     0.6 -3.8  
   d: affective         3.1     0.75-3.9
   e: somatization      4.0     1.4 -4.75
   f: dependency        3.9     1.4 -6.5

B: Somatic disorders    3.95
   a: cardio-vascular   4.3     1.7 -7.0 
   b: metabolic         4.1     1.8 -7.0
   c: diabetis          4.9     2.2 -7.6 
   d: liver             3.0     0.4 -5.9
   e: transp.liver      7.1     4.8 -9.1

All patients            4.0     1.3 -6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-qDMt=
A: Psychiatric            2.94 
   a: eating              3.1   0.4 -6.1
   b: post-traumatic      4.4   1.7 -7.5
   c: anxiety             3.2   1.05-6.75
   d: affective           3.2   2.25-3.85
   e: somatization        4.9   2.25-5.2
   f: dependency          4.3   2.2 -8.2

B: Somaticdisorder        3.09
   a: cardio-vasculair    5.1   2.2 -8.2
   b: metabolic           4.4   1.6 -7.9
   c: diabetes            5.95  2.4 -9.0
   d: liver               6.2   2.8 -7.2
   e: transplantation     8.1   6.0 -10.2

All patients              4.9   1.8 -7.9

All means transformd to range 0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyKammann (1979): study NZ 1976 /1
TitleSourcebook for Affectometer 1.
Source'Why not?' Foundation, 1979?, Dunedin, New Zealand
PublicAdults, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Mental Illness Scales of the Cornell
Medical Index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.43 p < .01
Inadequacy
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.53 p < .01
Depression
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.42 p < .01
Anxiety
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.51 p < .01
Sensitivity
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.36 p < .01
Anger
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.40 p < .01
Tension
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.60 p < .01
Mental illness total


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelObsessionality
Page in Source 498
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Obsessionalty subscale of Croqn-Crisp (1979) 
Experiental Index
Items not reported
Observed distributionMean:5,8; SD:3,5
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelAfective Disorder
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.05 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.11 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelOrganic Brain Disorder
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.15 p < .05
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.08 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelAlcoholism
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.11 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelMental retardation
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.06 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.20 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.22 p < .05
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality Disorder
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.06 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.13 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelDrug Abuse
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.13 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.08 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Subject code: M07ac

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelpsychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 174
Our classificationCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification), code M07ac
Operationalization
Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the 22-item 
Psychiatric Screening Inventory (Langner 1962)
Observed distributionM=3.04 SD= 2.87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.21 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)
Subject code: M07ac02

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationDisorders due to substance use (f10-f19), code M07ac02
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)
Subject code: M07ac02

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelKind of mental disorder
Page in Source 16
Our classificationDisorders due to substance use (f10-f19), code M07ac02
Operationalization
Diagnosed as having (vs not):
a: Mood disorder 
b: Anxiety disorder 
c: Substance use disorder
Observed distributiona: 23,9%; b: 58,7%; c: 35,2%
Remarks
Disorders assessed using the Composite International 
Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 1.1). Administered 
by trained interviewers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.62 p < .05
Mood disorder          CI95 [-.89- -.35]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.10 p < .05
Anxiety disorder       CI95 [-.36- +.17]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.00 p < .05
Substance use disorder CI95 [-.25- +.26]

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-number of disorders
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)
Subject code: M07ac02

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of chronic problems
Page in Source 833
Our classificationDisorders due to substance use (f10-f19), code M07ac02
Operationalization
Self-report of:
-drug use
-alcohol use
-arguing/emotional withdrawing

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.18 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alcoholic (f10)
Subject code: M07ac02a

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labeldiagnostic group
Page in Source 242
Our classificationAlcoholic (f10), code M07ac02a
Operationalization
Clinical diagnosis of:
a  Depression
b: Alcoholisme
c: Schizoprenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=
depressives    M= 2.8  +/- 1.5
alcoholics     M= 4.0  +/- 1.4
schizophrenics M= 4.0  +/- 1.8
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cF=2,18 p < .001
a < b, c

Unaffected by control for:
- age
- anxiety/depression


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alcoholic (f10)
Subject code: M07ac02a

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationAlcoholic (f10), code M07ac02a
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alcoholic (f10)
Subject code: M07ac02a

StudyRakib et al. (2005): study GB London 1999
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Fatique Syndrome.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 11 - 19
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-1693-y
PublicPatients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), London, 1999.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response62,8%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelChronic fatigue
Page in Source 15
Our classificationAlcoholic (f10), code M07ac02a
Operationalization
1. Patients
    a:: CFS patients
    b:. alcoholic
    c: depresives
0. Normals (medical students)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-eDM=-
1a: CFS patients               M=4.6  SD=0.8
1b: alcoholics                 M=4.4  SD=0.9
1c: depressed                  M=3.5  SD=0.9
0. Normals (medical students)  M=5.3  SD=0.7

1: Average patients            M=4.1
0: Normals                     M=5.3
- difference                    -1.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alcoholic (f10)
Subject code: M07ac02a

StudyPishkin & Thorne (1973): study US 1968
TitleA Factorial Study of Existential State Reactions.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 29, 392 - 402
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197310)29:4<392::AID-JCLP2270290403>3.0.CO;2-J
PublicDeviants and normals, USA, 196?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-ResponseNA
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelClinical groups
Page in Source 399
Our classificationAlcoholic (f10), code M07ac02a
Operationalization
a: incarcerated felons, 
b: alcoholics, 
c: students of philosophy, 
d: unmarried mothers, 
e: psychology students, 
f: psychiatric patients.
Observed distributionN= a: 193, b: 89, c: 155, d:336, e: 159, f: 388

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eD%=
% happy
a. 81
b: 78
c: 31  (assumption by WDH team)
d: 85
e: 32
f: 30
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eBMCT=
f,c,e < a,b,d
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aD%=
% satisfied
a. 47
b: 57
c: 68
d: 71
e: 67
f: 33
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aBMCT=
f,a < b,c,d,e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyKuiper & Martin (1998a): study CA Ontario 1993
TitleSense of Humor, self-concept, and Psychological Well-Being in psychiatric Inpatients.
SourceHumor, 1998, Vol. 11, 357 -381
URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/humr.1998.11.issue-4/humr.1998.11.4.357/humr.1998.11.4.357.xml
PublicPsychiatric patients, Ontario Canada, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelICD-9 diagnosis group
Page in Source 364
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
0: nonparanoid schizophrenic
1: clinically depressed
Observed distribution1. n = 24, 2. n = 32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-c-mq-v-5-cDM=- ns
nonparanoid schizophrenic M = 11.61
clinically depressed      M =  7.41
- difference                  -4.2

Possible range ABS: -40 to +40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labeldiagnostic group
Page in Source 242
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
Clinical diagnosis of:
a  Depression
b: Alcoholisme
c: Schizoprenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=
depressives    M= 2.8  +/- 1.5
alcoholics     M= 4.0  +/- 1.4
schizophrenics M= 4.0  +/- 1.8
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cF=2,18 p < .001
a < b, c

Unaffected by control for:
- age
- anxiety/depression


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyBarge-Schaapveld et al. (1997): study NL 1992
TitleAssessing Daily Quality of Life with the Experience Sampling Method.
SourceKatschnig, H.; et al; Eds. : "Quality of Life in Mental Disorders", Wiley & Sons, 1997, Chichester, UK, 97 - 107
PublicPatients, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 199?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =328

Correlate
Author's labelhealth
Page in Source 101
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
1 patients
  a acute or chronic backpain
  b schizophrenia 
  c anxiety disorders
  d major unipolar depression
2 healthy controls
Observed distributionN = 1a: 49, 1b: 55, 1c: 77, 1d: 63, 2: 84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aDM=+
Patients  M = 3,71
1a        M = 4,54  Mt =5,90
1b        M = 4,35  Mt =5,58
1c        M = 3,46  Mt =4,10
1d        M = 2,81  Mt =3,02  
Controls  
2         M = 4,98  Mt =6,63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSchizophrenia
Page in Source 84
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
Schizophrenia subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory Pathology Scales(with K 
corrections);

Assesses a wide variety of content areas, including 
bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions, 
social alienation, poor familial relationships, 
difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack 
of deep interests, disturbing questions of self-worth 
and self-identity, and sexual difficulties.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.28 p < .05
                     Mean schizophrenia
a 10% least happy          37.1 
b 27% close to average     29.9  
c 10% most happy           25.0
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudySullivan et al. (1991): study US 1988
TitleQuality of Life of Seriously Mentally Ill Persons in Mississippi.
SourceHospital and Community Psychiatry, 1991, Vol. 42, 752 -755
PublicFormer inpatients of mental hospital, Mississipi, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelnormal vs schizophrenia
Page in Source 753
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
1 Non-mentally-ill 
  a national population
  b low socio-economic subsample
  c black-subsample

2 Schizophrenics:Missisippi sample
Observed distributionN: 1a=1,297, 1b=122, 1c=106, 2= 101
Remarks
non-mentally-ill sample from Andrews and Withey(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=-
1. Non-mentally-ill
   a national population   M = 5.4
   b low socio-economic    M = 5.1
   c black-subsample       M = 4.8

2 Misissipi schizophrenics M = 5.3
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=+ ns
1a<2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=- ns
1b>2
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aT²=+ p < .05
1c<2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelschizophrenia
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+01 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.17 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyPishkin & Thorne (1973): study US 1968
TitleA Factorial Study of Existential State Reactions.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 29, 392 - 402
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197310)29:4<392::AID-JCLP2270290403>3.0.CO;2-J
PublicDeviants and normals, USA, 196?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-ResponseNA
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelClinical groups
Page in Source 399
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
a: incarcerated felons, 
b: alcoholics, 
c: students of philosophy, 
d: unmarried mothers, 
e: psychology students, 
f: psychiatric patients.
Observed distributionN= a: 193, b: 89, c: 155, d:336, e: 159, f: 388

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eD%=
% happy
a. 81
b: 78
c: 31  (assumption by WDH team)
d: 85
e: 32
f: 30
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eBMCT=
f,c,e < a,b,d
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aD%=
% satisfied
a. 47
b: 57
c: 68
d: 71
e: 67
f: 33
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aBMCT=
f,a < b,c,d,e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Schizophrenic (f20)
Subject code: M07ac03a

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelBeing definitely schizophrenic
Page in Source 33
Our classificationSchizophrenic (f20), code M07ac03a
Operationalization
Possibly schizophrenic vs definitely schizophrenic, as 
assessed by relative number of independant diagnoses, 
and having schizophrenic symptoms.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Paranoid (f20-22)
Subject code: M07ac03b

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPhobic avoidance
Page in Source 498
Our classificationParanoid (f20-22), code M07ac03b
Operationalization
Phobic avoidance subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:3,3; SD:2,1
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.27 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Paranoid (f20-22)
Subject code: M07ac03b

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelParanoia
Page in Source 84
Our classificationParanoid (f20-22), code M07ac03b
Operationalization
Paranoia subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality 
Inventory Pathology Scales(with K corrections);

Paranoid symptoms are: feelings of persecution, 
grandiose self-concepts, suspiciousness, excessive 
sensitivity, and rigid opinions and attitudes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.14 p < .05
                     Mean paranoia
a 10% least happy          12.3 
b 27% close to average     10.1  
c 10% most happy           8.8
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b,c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mood (affective) disorders (f30-f39)
Subject code: M07ac04

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationMood (affective) disorders (f30-f39), code M07ac04
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mood (affective) disorders (f30-f39)
Subject code: M07ac04

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelKind of mental disorder
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMood (affective) disorders (f30-f39), code M07ac04
Operationalization
Diagnosed as having (vs not):
a: Mood disorder 
b: Anxiety disorder 
c: Substance use disorder
Observed distributiona: 23,9%; b: 58,7%; c: 35,2%
Remarks
Disorders assessed using the Composite International 
Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 1.1). Administered 
by trained interviewers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.62 p < .05
Mood disorder          CI95 [-.89- -.35]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.10 p < .05
Anxiety disorder       CI95 [-.36- +.17]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.00 p < .05
Substance use disorder CI95 [-.25- +.26]

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-number of disorders
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source B76+77+78
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Single question:
How depressed do you generally feel on a scale from 0 
to 10?
Remarks
Surveys 10&11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.38
All
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.50
age 18-25
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.44
age 26-35
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.38
age 36-45
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.47
age 46-55
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.42
age 56-65
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.37
age 66-75
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.42
age 70+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source B68+ B69
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Single question:
How depressed do you generally feel on a scale from 0 
to 10?
Remarks
Surveys 10- 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.47
All
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.50
age 18- 25
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.51
age 26- 35
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.49
age 36- 45
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.47
age 46- 55
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.42
age 56- 65
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.37
age 66- 75
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-br=-.42
age 76+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHeadey (1999): study AU AU Victoria 1987
TitleOld Age is not Downhill: The Satisfactions and Well-Being of Older Australians.
SourceAustralian Journal on Aging, 1999, Vol. 18, 32 - 37
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1741-6612.1999.tb00887.x
Public24-76 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1987
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 33
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Beck (1961)Depression Inventory (BDI).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.59
Correlations were disattenuated for measurement 
error


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1992): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleUnderstanding Happiness: A Theory of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceLongman Cheshire, 1992, Melbourne, Australia
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/headey_b_1992.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, 1981-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelBDI (Beck Depression Inventory)
Page in Source 42
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 21 item Beck Depression Inventory
The BDI comprises 21 items measuring both affects and 
symptoms. The items are in multiple choice format, with 
the respondent being asked the description that best 
fits 'how you have been feeling lately'. 
Beck et al. 1961 Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 
561-571.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=-.49


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory
Page in Source 68
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 21 item Bech Depression Inventory
The BDI comprises 21 items measuring both affects and 
symptoms. The items are in multiple choice format, with 
the respondent being asked the description that best 
fits 'how you have been feeling lately'. 
Beck et al. 1961 Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 
561-571.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.43 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyKuiper & Martin (1998a): study CA Ontario 1993
TitleSense of Humor, self-concept, and Psychological Well-Being in psychiatric Inpatients.
SourceHumor, 1998, Vol. 11, 357 -381
URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/humr.1998.11.issue-4/humr.1998.11.4.357/humr.1998.11.4.357.xml
PublicPsychiatric patients, Ontario Canada, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelICD-9 diagnosis group
Page in Source 364
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
0: nonparanoid schizophrenic
1: clinically depressed
Observed distribution1. n = 24, 2. n = 32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-c-mq-v-5-cDM=- ns
nonparanoid schizophrenic M = 11.61
clinically depressed      M =  7.41
- difference                  -4.2

Possible range ABS: -40 to +40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyPacker et al. (1997): study CA 1992
TitlePsychopathology and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.
SourceJournal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1997, Vol. 22, 231 - 234
Public18-40 aged, schizophrenics, Canada,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelDepressive mood
Page in Source 233
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
rating bij a psychiatrist of the item 'depression' of 
the BPRS, on a 7-point scale of severity.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyWhiffen & Gotlib (1989): study CA Ontario 1984
TitleInfants of Postpartum Mothers: Temperament and Cognitive Status
SourceJournal of Abnormal Psychology 1989, Vol. 98, No. 3,274-279
Public2 months aged infants, Canada, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelMother's Mental State
Page in Source 277
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Infants of 
1: depressed mothers
0: non-depressed mothers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-rc-v-9-aDM=- p < .05
Infant's mother:
depressed      M=4.76 SD=1.74
non-drepressed M=5.56 SD=1.45
- difference:    -0.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHeinonen et al. (2004): study FI 1997
TitleIs the Evaluation of the Global Quality of Life Determined by Emotional Status?
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol.13, 1347 - 1356
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000040788.12947.b9
Public25-65 aged, 5 regions, Finland, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =3838

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 1352 -1354
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Beck Depression Inventory
Observed distributionMean 8.0 SD 7.6
Remarks
BDI Beck Depression Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-ar=-.59 p < .01
males
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aBeta=-.27 p < .001
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-ar=-.57 p < .01
females
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aBeta=-.25 p < .001
Beta's controled for
- socio-demographics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- physical health
  - self rated health
  - number of diseases
- functional well-being
  - self rated physical condition
  - ability to perform daily activities (ADL)
- social well-being
  - social support
  - satisfaction with family
- satisfaction with life-achievements


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2001a): study FI 1996
TitleSelf-Reported Life Satisfaction and Recovery from Depression in a 1-Year Prospective Study.
SourceActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2001, Vol. 103, 38 - 44
DOIDOI:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00046.x
PublicDepression patients, out-clinic, Finland, followed 12 months 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =203

Correlate
Author's labelDepression: psychological cognitive
Page in Source 41
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on Beck Depression Inventory, 
psychological/cognitive dimension, items 3,5-9,11,13,14 
(BDIPSY)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.51 p < .001
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.68 p < .001
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.67 p < .001
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2001a): study FI 1996
TitleSelf-Reported Life Satisfaction and Recovery from Depression in a 1-Year Prospective Study.
SourceActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2001, Vol. 103, 38 - 44
DOIDOI:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00046.x
PublicDepression patients, out-clinic, Finland, followed 12 months 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =203

Correlate
Author's labelDepression: somatic/vegitative
Page in Source 41
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on Beck Depression Inventory, 
somatic/vegetative dimension, items 15-21 (BDISOM)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.42 p < .001
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.63 p < .001
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.55 p < .001
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2001a): study FI 1996
TitleSelf-Reported Life Satisfaction and Recovery from Depression in a 1-Year Prospective Study.
SourceActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2001, Vol. 103, 38 - 44
DOIDOI:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00046.x
PublicDepression patients, out-clinic, Finland, followed 12 months 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =203

Correlate
Author's labelDepression: Full BDI
Page in Source 41
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 21 item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Observed distributionRange:0-63 Nomal mood (BDI 0-9): N = 21 Depressed (BDI 10-63) N = 167

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.60 p < .001
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.74 p < .001
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jr=+.72 p < .001
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyKoivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2003): study FI 1976
TitleSelf-Reported Happiness in Life and Suicide in Ensuing 20 Years.
SourceSocial Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2003, Vol. 38, 244 - 248
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00127-003-0625-4
PublicAdults, Finland, 1976-1995
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16%
Respondents N =29067

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 247
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Beck depression inventory(BDI)
0 BDI<10    : normal
1 BDI 10-18 : mild depression
2 BDI>18    : severe depression
Observed distributionN: 0=8,638, 1=1,361, 2=315

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jF=+164 p < .001
Statistics computed from cross table

N(COLUMM %)
             0            1          2
Happy        8,051(93%)  870(64%)    85(27%)
cannot say   388          171        40
Unhappy      199          320        190

Multiple comparison test: 0>1>2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, glass industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =106

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, commercial and textile-manufacturing occupations, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.24 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1977 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, metal industry, West-Germany, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =84

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.21 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicSkilled labourers, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied,
certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.49 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /1
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicAdministrative employees, General Sickfund, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, assembly industry, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicYoung female employees, cure-clinic, West Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelDepressiveness
Page in Source 147
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Index of direct questions about:
Displeased, uncertain, low-spirited, dissatisfied, 
inferior, day-dreamy behavior vs well-balanced, 
satisfied, certain, positive action.
Part of 114 item Freiburger Persönlichkeits-Inventar 
(Freiburger Personality Inventory: Fahrenberg & Selg, 
1973, short form A).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-ar=-.36 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudySchwarz & Strian (1972): study XZ Germany West 1967
TitlePsychometrische Untersuchungen zur Befindlichkeit psychiatrischer und intern-medizinischer Patienten. (Psychometric investigations on well-being in psychiatric and medical patients).
SourceArchiv für Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten, 1972, Vol. 216, 70 - 81
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00342498#
PublicPsychiatric patients, West Germany, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 74
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Expert rating on a 9-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar= - p < . 01
Stronger among internal depressed patients. 
Lower among depressed schizophrenic patients and 
among neurotic depressed patients.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudySchwarz & Strian (1972): study XZ Germany West 1967 /1
TitlePsychometrische Untersuchungen zur Befindlichkeit psychiatrischer und intern-medizinischer Patienten. (Psychometric investigations on well-being in psychiatric and medical patients).
SourceArchiv für Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten, 1972, Vol. 216, 70 - 81
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00342498#
PublicMedical patients, West Germany, 197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelDepression_A
Page in Source 75
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Expert rating (see Hamilton, 1960).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=-.86
Scattergram shows linear relation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudySchwarz & Strian (1972): study XZ Germany West 1967 /1
TitlePsychometrische Untersuchungen zur Befindlichkeit psychiatrischer und intern-medizinischer Patienten. (Psychometric investigations on well-being in psychiatric and medical patients).
SourceArchiv für Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten, 1972, Vol. 216, 70 - 81
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00342498#
PublicMedical patients, West Germany, 197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelDepression_B
Page in Source 75
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-rating scale (Zimmerman & v. Zerssen 
'Depressions-Skala').

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=-.98
Scattergram shows linear relation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labeldiagnostic group
Page in Source 242
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Clinical diagnosis of:
a  Depression
b: Alcoholisme
c: Schizoprenia

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=
depressives    M= 2.8  +/- 1.5
alcoholics     M= 4.0  +/- 1.4
schizophrenics M= 4.0  +/- 1.8
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cF=2,18 p < .001
a < b, c

Unaffected by control for:
- age
- anxiety/depression


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelDepressive symptom score
Page in Source 253
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 30 questions: 
a: Are you basically satisfied with your life? Yes 
No(1)
b: Have you dropped many of your activities and 
interests? Yes(1) No 
c: Do you feel that your life is empty? Yes(1) No 
d: Do you often get bored? Yes(1) No
e: Are you hopeful about the future? Yes No(1)
f: Are you bothered by thoughts you can't get out of 
your head? Yes(1) No
g: Are you in good spirits most of the time? Yes No(1)
h: Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen 
to you? Yes(1) No
i: Do you feel happy most of the time? Yes No(1) 
j: Do you often feel helpless? Yes(1) No
k: Do you often get restless and fidgety? Yes(1) No
l: Do you prefer to stay at home rather than go out and 
do things? Yes(1) No
m: Do you frequently worry about the future? Yes(1) No
n: Do you feel you have more problems with memory than 
most? Yes(1) No
o: Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now? Yes 
No(1)
p: Do you feel downhearted and blue? Yes(1) No 
r: Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now? 
Yes(1) No
s: Do you worry a lot about the past? Yes(1) No 
t: Do you find life very exciting? Yes No(1) 
u: Is it hard for you to get started on new projects? 
Yes(1) No
v: Do you feel full of energy? Yes No(1)
w: Do you feel that your situation is hopeless? Yes(1) 
No
x: Do you think that most people are better off than 
you are? Yes(1) No
y: Do you frequently get upset over little things? 
Yes(1) No
z: Do you frequently feel like crying? Yes(1) No 
aa: Do you have trouble concentrating? Yes(1) No 
ab: Do you enjoy getting up in the morning? Yes No(1)
ac: Do you prefer to avoid social occasions? Yes(1) No
ad: Is it easy for you to make decisions? Yes No(1)
ae: Is your mind as clear as it used to be? Yes No(1)

1: Depressive symptom score is equal to 8 and more
0: Depressive symptom score is less than 8
Remarks
Geriatric Depression Scale by Yesavage and Brink (1983) 
had been translated into Chinese and validated.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.2 p < .05
CI95 [0.2-0.3]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLomranz & Lubin (1981): study IL 1976
TitleA Hebrew Version of the Depression Adjective Check List.
SourceJournal of Personality Assessment, 1981, Vol. 45, 380 - 384
DOIDOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4504_6
Public18-40 aged college students Tell Aviv, Israel, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 383
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
The DACL (Depression Adjective Check Lists, Lubin, 
1967) is a 34 item self report inventory of state 
depression. Respondents completed three versions, which 
were presented in random order.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.52 p < .01
Version E
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.51 p < .01
Version E
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.52 p < .01
Version E
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.49 p < .01
Version F
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.50 p < .01
Version F
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.49 p < .01
Version F
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.50 p < .01
Version F
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.47 p < .01
Version G
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.49 p < .01
Version G
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.49 p < .01
Version G
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.47 p < .01
Version G


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelGDS
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Depression status was measured by the short version of 
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15):
Choose the best answer for how you have felt over the 
past week: 
a: Are you basically satisfied with your life? 
b: Have you dropped many of your activities and 
interests? 
c: Do you feel that your life is empty? 
d: Do you often get bored? 
e: Are you in good spirits most of the time? 
f: Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen 
to you? 
g: Do you feel happy most of the time? 
h: Do you often feel helpless? 
i: Do you prefer to stay at home, rather than going out 
and doing new things?
j: Do you feel you have more problems with memory than 
most? 
k: Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now?
l: Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now? 
m: Do you feel full of energy? 
n: Do you feel that your situation is hopeless?
o: Do you think that most people are better off than 
you are? 

Classified as:
1:6-9 mild depression
2:10 or more severe depression

Rated:
1: yes
0: no
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is 0.87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.06 p < .001
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.55 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
- public assistance
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelDepressive complaints
Page in Source 89/90
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Number of depressive complaints
(POF questionaire, Dijkstra et al 1983)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.41 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 depression
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.40 p < .001
T1 depression by T2 happiness

Computed for unemployed Ss only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyNg et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleAffluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 94, 257 - 271
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9422-5
Public15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =125077

Correlate
Author's labelDepression on individual land nation evel
Page in Source 264
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question. 
Did you experience these feeling a lot in the previous 
day?
Depression

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.17 p < .001
Individual level: Individual happiness by 
individual depression
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cr=-.40
Nation level: AVERAGE happiness by % depressed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelDepressed mood
Page in Source 51
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on six questions:
Please indicate how you are feeling now, or how you 
have been feeling THE LAST FEW DAYS.
Example-items:
a) I feel miserable and sad
b) I feel life is not worth living
c) I feel rather lively and excitable
Rated: 
1 No, not at all
:
4 Yes definitely
Remarks
6-item Depreseed Mood Scale of Women's Health 
Questionnaire (WHQ).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.60
Caucasians living in Birmigham, UK
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.57
Indians living in Birmingham, UK
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.70
Indians living in New Delhi


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudySullivan et al. (2000): study NL 1993
TitleModels of Health-Related Quality of Life in a Population of Community-Dwelling Dutch Elderly.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2000, Vol. 9, 801 - 810
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1008987709788
Public57+ aged, The Netherlands, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response50%
Respondents N =5279

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 805
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a 14-item scale 
designed to assess anxiety and depression in the 
medically ill
Depression subscale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ar=-.47 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyBarge-Schaapveld et al. (1997): study NL 1992
TitleAssessing Daily Quality of Life with the Experience Sampling Method.
SourceKatschnig, H.; et al; Eds. : "Quality of Life in Mental Disorders", Wiley & Sons, 1997, Chichester, UK, 97 - 107
PublicPatients, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 199?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =328

Correlate
Author's labelhealth
Page in Source 101
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
1 patients
  a acute or chronic backpain
  b schizophrenia 
  c anxiety disorders
  d major unipolar depression
2 healthy controls
Observed distributionN = 1a: 49, 1b: 55, 1c: 77, 1d: 63, 2: 84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aDM=+
Patients  M = 3,71
1a        M = 4,54  Mt =5,90
1b        M = 4,35  Mt =5,58
1c        M = 3,46  Mt =4,10
1d        M = 2,81  Mt =3,02  
Controls  
2         M = 4,98  Mt =6,63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 39, 43, 44
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about feelings in the last 
week
- I was feeling hopeless
- I did not sleep well

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx= .55; SD/nx=.47 (nx= number of items in the subscale)
Error EstimatesAlpha=.74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=-.29 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicPsychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory
Page in Source 63
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-br=-.72 p < .01
Happiness assessed at T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyDershem et al. (1996): study RU 1993
TitleThe Use of the CES-D for Measuring Symptoms of Depression in Three Rural Russian Villages.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1996, Vol. 39, 89 - 108
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00300834
PublicHousehold heads, villages, Russia 1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =263

Correlate
Author's labelCenter for Epidemilogical Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Sc )
Page in Source 103
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 11 questions about symptoms during the 
past week: 
- Blues 
- Effort
- Depressed
- Fearful
- Poor appetite
- Happy
- Enjoyed life
- Hopeful
- People disliked me
- Lonely
- Could not get going
Rating:
0 = none of the time, 
1 = some or little 
2 = occasionally or moderate amount
3 = most or all of the time

Shortened Russian version of CES-D scale (original 20 
items)
Observed distributionRange 3.33 to 48.12, mean 22.45 70% showed symptoms of depression ( higher than 16)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: 0.79
Remarks
21 % did not answer all items of the inventory and were 
excluded (mostly males)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-g-sq-n-7-ar=-.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelNegative feeling
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 
How often do you have negative feelings such as blue 
mood, 
despair, anxiey, depression?
1 Always
2 Very often
3 Quite often 
4 Seldom
5 Never
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Remarks
Full questions not reported in this paper. 
Question on negative feeling taken from WHOQOL-Bref. 
Question on importance figured in the full  WHOQOL 
questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.44 p < .0.1
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.24 p < .01
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory
Page in Source 928
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self- report on 21 items 
a: I am sad
b: I am afraid of the future
c: I failed as a person
d: I am not happy
e: I feel guilty
f: I have being punished
g: I feel disapointed
h: I am a bad person
i: I think often over a suicide
j: I am crying very often
k: I feel get annoyed
l: I have lack of interest in other persons
m: I have lack of dississsion
n: I am not good-looking
o: I dislike work
p: I sleep not well
q: I am fatigue
r: I have a lack of appetite
s: Ihave lost weight
t: I am afraid of my health
u: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.
Observed distribution Mean SD males 6.85 6.14 females 9.59 6.54
Remarks
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) comprises 21 items 
measuring both affects and symptoms. 
(Beck et al. 1961 Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 
561-571).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.44 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.56 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (2004): study GB 2002
TitleRapid Assessment of Well-Being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS).
SourcePsychology and Psychotherapy; Theory, Research and Practice, 2004, Vol. 77, 463 - 478
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =241

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 473
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: 
0 Never 
1 Rarely
2 Sometimes
3 Often
Observed distributionM = 7,97; sd = 6,61; range 0-24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.63 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyBowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032656.01524.07
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response23%
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelDepression/Anxiety (GHQ)
Page in Source 11, 15
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 12 questions:
Have you recently
a. Been able to concentrate on whatever you are doing
b. Lost much sleep over worry
c. Felt that you are playing a useful part in things 
d. Felt capable of making decisions about things
e. Felt constantly under strain
f. Felt you couldn't overcome your difficulties
g.Been able to enjoy your normal day to day activities
h. Been able to face up to your problems
i. Been feeling unhappy and depressed
j. Been losing confidence in yourself
k. Been thinking yourself as worthless person
l:. Been happy as reasonably happy, all things

Rated
1: less than usual
;
5: more than usual
Remarks
General Health Questionaire GHQ (Goldberg and Williams, 
1988)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.31 p < .01
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.05
Beta controlled for:
- social comparisons and expectations
- health
- health values
- social capital
- age
- gender
- socioeconomic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Page in Source 926.928.931
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated on 5 step scale
Observed distributionM=8.83 SD=1.97
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: .83
Remarks
Beck et al. (1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.56 p < .001
Positive Affect r=-.43
Negative Affect r=+.42
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.44 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLewis et al. (1999a): study GB 1999
TitlePreliminary Normative Data on the Depression Happiness Scale for a Mildly Depressed Group.
SourceNorth American Journal of Psychology, 1999, Vol. 1, 319 - 322
PublicStudents, Northern Ireland and England, 1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 320
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self- report on 21 items 
a: I am sad
b: I am afraid of the future
c: I failed as a person
d: I am not happy
e: I feel guilty
f: I have being punished
g: I feel disapointed
h: I am a bad person
i: I think often over a suicide
j: I am crying very often
k: I feel get annoyed
l: I have lack of interest in other persons
m: I have lack of dississsion
n: I am not good-looking
o: I dislike work
p: I sleep not well
q: I am fatigue
r: I have a lack of appetite
s: Ihave lost weight
t: I am afraid of my health
u: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated:
0: Never
1: Rarely
2: Sometimes
3: Often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-a
All                M = 48.04   SD = 10.75
Depressed          M = 37.68   SD = 10.07

The cutt-off point for clinically relevant 
depression of score 10 on the BDI corresponds with 
score 42 on this happiness scale (McGreal 
'Depression- Happiness Scale')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyRakib et al. (2005): study GB London 1999
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Fatique Syndrome.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 11 - 19
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-1693-y
PublicPatients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), London, 1999.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response62,8%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelChronic fatigue
Page in Source 15
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
1. Patients
    a:: CFS patients
    b:. alcoholic
    c: depresives
0. Normals (medical students)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-eDM=-
1a: CFS patients               M=4.6  SD=0.8
1b: alcoholics                 M=4.4  SD=0.9
1c: depressed                  M=3.5  SD=0.9
0. Normals (medical students)  M=5.3  SD=0.7

1: Average patients            M=4.1
0: Normals                     M=5.3
- difference                    -1.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in depression
Page in Source 1929-1730
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in report of depression

A: Stopped being depressed 
   0 no
   1 yes
 
B: Became depressed 
   0 no
   1 yes
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.46 p < .001
T1-T2  T2 STOPPED being depressed by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.47 p < .001
T1-T2 BECAME depressed by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 health
- T1-T2 change in situation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyJoseph & Lewis (1998): study GB 1996
TitleThe Depression-Happiness Scale: Reliability and Validity of a Bipolar Self-Report Scale.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1998, Vol. 54, 537 - 544
DOIDOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199806)54:4<537::AID-JCLP15>3.0.CO;2-G
Public18+ students, Ulster, UK, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Page in Source 539-540
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3); 
indicating the severity of symptoms.
Observed distributionMean: 6,93; sd = 5,90

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.75 p < .001
Negative correlation of Depression Happiness Scale 
(DHS) scores with scores on BDI supports construct 
validity of DHS 
(=A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-a).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDepression (BDI)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.
Observed distributionM 7.33 SD 6.54 Range 0-29
Error EstimatesAlpha .85
Remarks
Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh (1961); Beck 
Depression Inventory (BDI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.75 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDepression (SDS)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 20 questions: 
1. I feel down-hearted and blue          
2. Morning is when I feel the best          
3. I have crying spells or feel like it         
4. I have trouble sleeping at night         
5. I eat as much as I used to         
6. I still enjoy sex         
7. I notice that I am losing weight          
8. I have trouble with constipation         
9. My heart beats faster than usual          
10. I get tired for no reason         
11. My mind is as clear as it used to be         
12. I find it easy to do the things I used to         
13. I am restless and can't keep still         
14. I feel hopeful about the future          
15. I am more irritable than usual          
16. I find it easy to make decisions          
17. I feel that I am useful and needed         
18. My life is pretty full         
19. I feel that others would be better off if I were 
dead         
20. I still enjoy the things I used to do

Rated: a little of the time, some of the time, good 
part of the time, most of the time.
Observed distributionm 38,01 SD 8,47 Range 21-59
Error EstimatesAlpha 0.85
Remarks
Zung (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.81 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDepression (CES-D)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on questions:
1. I was bothered by things that don't usually bother 
me.
3. I felt that I could not shake off the blues even 
with the help of my family or friends.
4. I felt that I was just as good as other people.
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
6. I felt depressed.
7. I felt everything I did was an effort.
8. I felt hopeful about the future.
9. I thought my life had been a failure.
10. I felt fearful.
11. My sleep was restless.
12. I was happy. 
13. I talked less than usual. 
14. I felt lonely. 
15. People were unfriendly. 
16. I enjoyed life. 
17. I had crying spells. 
18. I felt sad. 
19. I felt that people disliked me. 
20. I could not get "going".

Rated:
Rarely or none of the time (<1 day) 
Some or a little of the time (1-2 days) 
Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 
days) 
Most or all of the time (5-7 days)
Observed distributionM 14,23 SD 10,87 Range 0-51
Error EstimatesAlpha = .91
Remarks
Radloff (1977).Depression measured with Center for 
Epidemological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.85 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 498
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Depression subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) Experiential 
Index.
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:3,9; SD:2,9
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .67

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.78 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelDepressed (vs not depressed)
Page in Source 24
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on several question.Question not reported
Remarks
Questions taken from Bradburn affect-balance scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.75 p < .001
Patients with Severe Mentally Ilness(SMI)
- Patients of mental hospital
- aged 18-65
- diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years duration
- hospitalized at least 2 times
- at least one of which prior to recruitement
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.66 p < .001
Community residente with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.46 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

The association between depressive symtoms and QOL 
need to be treated with caution because of the 
crudeness of the depressive symtoms used.

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in depression
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Reported 
1. Sadness          
2. Elation          
3. Inner tension    
4. Hostile feelings 
5. Inability to feel
6. Pessimistic thoughts
7. Suicidal thoughts
8. Hypochondriasis
9. Worrying over trifles
10. Compulsive thoughts
11. Phobias
12. Rituals
13. Indecision
14. Lassitude
15. Fatiguability
16. Concentration difficulties
17. Failing memory
18. Reduced appetite
19. Reduced sleep
20. Increased sleep
21. Reduced sexual interest
22. Increased sexual interest
23. Autonomic disturbances
24. Aches and pains
25. Muscular tension
26. Loss of sensation or movement
27. Realisation
28. Depersonalization
29. Feeling controlled
30. Disrupted thoughts
31. Ideas of persecution
32. Ideas of grandeur
33. Delusional mood
34. Ecstatic experiences
35. Morbid jealousy
36. Other delusions
37. Commenting voices
38. Other auditory hallucinations
39. Visual hallucinations
40. Other hallucinations

Observed
41. Apparent sadness
42. Elated mood
43. Hostility
44. Labile emotional responses
45. Lack of appropriate emotion
46. Autonomic disturbances
47. Sleepiness
48. Distractability
49. Withdrawal
50. Perplexity
51. Blank spells
52. Disorientation
53. Pressure of speech
54. Reduced speech
55. Specific speech defects
56. Flight of ideas
57. Incoherent speech
58. Perseveration
59. Overactivity
60. Slowness of movement
61. Agitation
62. Involuntary movements
63. Muscular tension
64. Mannerisms and postures
65. Hallucinatory behaviour
66. Global rating of illness
67. Assumed reliability of the rating
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.43 p < .011
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Page in Source 262
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex
Observed distributionEach question has a set of at least four possible answer choices, ranging in intensity. For example: - I do feel sad - I feel sad - I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it - I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it
Remarks
Beck et al.(1979) Depression Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.41
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.28 p < .004
rpc controled for depression as measured by 
subscale of Compresensive Psychatric Rating 
Scale(CPRS)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelCPRS depression
Page in Source 263
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Reported 
1. Sadness          
2. Elation          
3. Inner tension    
4. Hostile feelings 
5. Inability to feel
6. Pessimistic thoughts
7. Suicidal thoughts
8. Hypochondriasis
9. Worrying over trifles
10. Compulsive thoughts
11. Phobias
12. Rituals
13. Indecision
14. Lassitude
15. Fatiguability
16. Concentration difficulties
17. Failing memory
18. Reduced appetite
19. Reduced sleep
20. Increased sleep
21. Reduced sexual interest
22. Increased sexual interest
23. Autonomic disturbances
24. Aches and pains
25. Muscular tension
26. Loss of sensation or movement
27. Realisation
28. Depersonalization
29. Feeling controlled
30. Disrupted thoughts
31. Ideas of persecution
32. Ideas of grandeur
33. Delusional mood
34. Ecstatic experiences
35. Morbid jealousy
36. Other delusions
37. Commenting voices
38. Other auditory hallucinations
39. Visual hallucinations
40. Other hallucinations

Observed
41. Apparent sadness
42. Elated mood
43. Hostility
44. Labile emotional responses
45. Lack of appropriate emotion
46. Autonomic disturbances
47. Sleepiness
48. Distractability
49. Withdrawal
50. Perplexity
51. Blank spells
52. Disorientation
53. Pressure of speech
54. Reduced speech
55. Specific speech defects
56. Flight of ideas
57. Incoherent speech
58. Perseveration
59. Overactivity
60. Slowness of movement
61. Agitation
62. Involuntary movements
63. Muscular tension
64. Mannerisms and postures
65. Hallucinatory behaviour
66. Global rating of illness
67. Assumed reliability of the rating
Remarks
Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale (CPRS) [Asberg 
et al 1978]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.40 p < .000
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.01 p < .89
rpc controled for depression as measured with 
depression subscale of Comprehensive Psychiatric 
Rating Scale(CPRS)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelExtreme depression, occasional liability to
Page in Source 26
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyDolan & Metcalfe (2012): study US 2011
TitleValuing Health: A Brief Report on Subjective Well-Being versus Preferences.
SourceMedical Decision Making, 2012, Vol. 32, 578 - 582
URLhttp://mdm.sagepub.com/content/32/4/578
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0272989X11435173
PublicElderly, United States, 2011
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety level
Page in Source 580
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
1 Anxiety:
   a  Anxiety level 2: moderate anxious or depressed
   b  Anxiety level 3: extremely anxious or depressed
0 No anxiety level 1 (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-cBeta=-.16 p < .05
MODERATE anxiety (level 2)vs NOT (level 1)
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-cBeta=-.36 p < .05
EXTREME anxiety (level 3)vs NOT (level 1)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-cBeta=-.24 p < .01
SOME anxiety (level 2)vs NOT (level 1)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-cBeta=-.49 p < .01
EXTREME anxiety (level 3)vs NOT (level 1)

All beta's controlled for:
- Mobility restrictions
- Self-care restrictions 
- Usual activities restrictions  
- Pain
Beta's remain significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- household income
- gender
- age, age squared
- unemployment
- sick from work, disabled
- retired
- homemaker
- 2nd job
- marital status
- ethnicity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 84
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Depression subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory Pathology Scales(with K 
corrections);
Facets are:
- Poor morale
- lack of hope in the future
- a general dissatisfaction with one's own life 
situation. 
High scores are clinical depression whilst lower scores 
are more general unhappiness with life.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.39 p < .05
                     Mean depression         
a 10% least happy          26.9 
b 27% close to average     19.8  
c 10% most happy           15.9
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelCESD2 (depressive symptoms index)
Page in Source 443
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
11-item CES-D score
Observed distributionRange 0-16, M = 3,4, SD = 2,7
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha:.78

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.31 p < .05
T2 depression by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=-3.6 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyTiedje et al. (1990): study US 1985
TitleWomen with Multiple Roles: Role-Compatibility Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Mental Health.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1990, Vol. 52, 63 - 72
PublicMarried women with a preschool child, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =158

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 66
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self report on 13 questions about feelings in the past 
week such as loss of energy, crying easily, feeling 
lonely, feeling blue, feeling no  interest in things, 
and feeling  everything was an effort.
Range 1-5. Lower numbers reflect less depression.
Observed distributionN = 148 M = 1,93 (with correction for SCL raw scores .93) SD = .52, range 1-3,92
Error Estimatesalpha =.85
Remarks
Depression subscale of the SCL-90-R(Symptom Checklist 
90 Revised). The SCL-90-R is a tool to assess symptoms 
of psychopathology. The person reports the level of 
distress he experienced in the past week from a list of 
90 descriptions of physical and mental complaints.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.40 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelZung Depression Scale score
Page in Source 833
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 20 questions
a. I feel down-hearted and blue
b. Morning is when I feel the best
c. I have crying spells or feel like it
d. I have trouble sleeping at night
e. I eat as much as I used to
f. I still enjoy sex
g. I notice that I am losing weight
h. I have trouble with constipation
i. My heart beats faster than usual
j. I get tired for no reasonk
k. My mind is as clear as it used to be
l. I find it easy to do the things I used to
m. I am restless and cant keep still
n. I feel hopeful about the future
o. I am more irritable than usual
p. I find it easy to make decisions
q. I feel that I am useful and needed
r. My life is pretty full
s. I feel that others would be better off if I were 
dead
t. I still enjoy the things I used to do
Adapted from Zung
Error EstimatesCrombach alpha. 8c
Remarks
Adapted from Zung Depression Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.61 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyAbbey & Andrews (1985): study US Detroit 1984
TitleModeling the Psychological Determinants of Life-Quality.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 1 - 34
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317657
PublicTranquilizer users, Detroit, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response40%
Respondents N =675

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 16
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Sub-scale of Hopkins Symptom Checklist items were 
trapped: lonely, blue, hope- less. 1 = not at all, 4 = 
extremely.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-ar=-.69


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyBrook et al. (1979): study US Dakota County, Minnesota 1972
TitleOverview of Adult Health Status Measures Fielded in Rand's Health Insurance Study.
SourceMedical Care, 1979, Vol. 17
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3764335?seq=10
PublicHeads of households, Dayton , USA, 1972-1979
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3441

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 24 + 29 + 31+ 42
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 3 questions:
During the past month...
a. Did you feel depressed?
b. Have you felt so sad, discouraged, hopeless, or had 
so many problems that you wondered if anything was 
worthwhile? 
c. Have you felt downhearted and blue?
Observed distributionRange 3-18, M=5.64, SD=4.67
Error EstimatesInternal-Consistency=.84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.44 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: M07ac04a

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelDepression
Page in Source 64
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code M07ac04a
Operationalization
21-item index containing closed questions on pessimism, 
failure, dissatisfaction, sadness, guilt, punishment, 
disappointment, inferiority, suicide, crying, 
irritation, losing interest, indecisiveness, ugliness, 
inability to work, sleeplessness, tiredness, lack of 
appetite, loss of weight, concern about health, sexual 
listlessness. (Depression Inventory; see Beck et al., 
1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=-.47 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hypomanic (f30)
Subject code: M07ac04b

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHypomania
Page in Source 84
Our classificationHypomanic (f30), code M07ac04b
Operationalization
Hypomania sub scale of Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory Pathology Scales(with K 
corrections);

Indicates elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor 
activity, irritability, flight of ideas, and brief 
periods of depression.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²= ns
                      Mean hypomania
a 10% least happy          23.9 
b 27% close to average     23.9  
c 10% most happy           24.5
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1996-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT0 non response: 30%; T1 dropout: 21%; T2 dropout:15%
Respondents N =7076

Correlate
Author's labelSpecific Mental Disorder
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, 
version 1.1) adminstered by trained interviewers
A Major depression
  aa Dysthymia
  ab Bipolar disorder
B Any anxiety disorder
  ba Panic Disorder
  bb Agoraphobia
  bc Social Phobia
  bd Simple Phobia
  be Generalised anxiety disorder
  bf Obsessive compulsive disorder
C Any substance use disorder
  ca Alcohol abuse
  cb Alcohol dependence
  cc Drug abuse
  cd Drug dependence
Observed distributionA : 193; aa : 134 ab : 44; B : 711; ba : 108; bb : 79; bc : 275 bd : 408; be : 58; bf : 20; C : 342; ca : 139; cb : 166; cc : 15; cd : 41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Major depression:    M =2.97; CI95 [2.77-3.18] 
Dysthymia:           M =3.08; CI95 [2.84-3.32]
Bipolar disorder:    M =3.53; CI95 [3.15-3.92]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any anxiety disorder M = 4.13; CI95 [4.02-4.23]
Panic Disorder       M = 3.33; CI95 [3.05-3.61]
Agoraphobia          M = 3.90; CI95 [3.55-4.24]
Social Phobia        M = 3.90; CI95 [3.73-4.07]
Simple Phobia        M = 4.32; CI95 [4.19-4.46]
Generalised anxiety disorder 
                     M = 3.65; CI95 [3.27-4.03]
Obsessive compulsive disorder       
                     M = 2.93; CI95 [2.32-3.54]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
Any substance use    M = 4.43; CI95 [4.30-4.56]
Alcohol abuse disorder                   
                     M = 4.79; CI95 [4.62-4.96]
Alcohol dependence   M = 4.26; CI95 [4.06-4.45]
Drug abuse           M = 4.20; CI95 [3.67-4.73]
Drug dependence      M = 3.84; CI95 [3.38-4.29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelKind of mental disorder
Page in Source 16
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
Diagnosed as having (vs not):
a: Mood disorder 
b: Anxiety disorder 
c: Substance use disorder
Observed distributiona: 23,9%; b: 58,7%; c: 35,2%
Remarks
Disorders assessed using the Composite International 
Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 1.1). Administered 
by trained interviewers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.62 p < .05
Mood disorder          CI95 [-.89- -.35]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.10 p < .05
Anxiety disorder       CI95 [-.36- +.17]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.00 p < .05
Substance use disorder CI95 [-.25- +.26]

B's controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-number of disorders
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudySullivan et al. (2000): study NL 1993
TitleModels of Health-Related Quality of Life in a Population of Community-Dwelling Dutch Elderly.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2000, Vol. 9, 801 - 810
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1008987709788
Public57+ aged, The Netherlands, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response50%
Respondents N =5279

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety
Page in Source 805
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a 14-item scale 
designed to assess anxiety and depression in the 
medically ill
Anxiety subscale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ar=-.40 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyBarge-Schaapveld et al. (1997): study NL 1992
TitleAssessing Daily Quality of Life with the Experience Sampling Method.
SourceKatschnig, H.; et al; Eds. : "Quality of Life in Mental Disorders", Wiley & Sons, 1997, Chichester, UK, 97 - 107
PublicPatients, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 199?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =328

Correlate
Author's labelhealth
Page in Source 101
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
1 patients
  a acute or chronic backpain
  b schizophrenia 
  c anxiety disorders
  d major unipolar depression
2 healthy controls
Observed distributionN = 1a: 49, 1b: 55, 1c: 77, 1d: 63, 2: 84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aDM=+
Patients  M = 3,71
1a        M = 4,54  Mt =5,90
1b        M = 4,35  Mt =5,58
1c        M = 3,46  Mt =4,10
1d        M = 2,81  Mt =3,02  
Controls  
2         M = 4,98  Mt =6,63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelFree floating anxiety
Page in Source 498
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
Free floating anxiety subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported
Observed distributionMean: 6,1; SD:3,4
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.63 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyDolan & Metcalfe (2012): study US 2011
TitleValuing Health: A Brief Report on Subjective Well-Being versus Preferences.
SourceMedical Decision Making, 2012, Vol. 32, 578 - 582
URLhttp://mdm.sagepub.com/content/32/4/578
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0272989X11435173
PublicElderly, United States, 2011
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelAnxiety level
Page in Source 580
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
1 Anxiety:
   a  Anxiety level 2: moderate anxious or depressed
   b  Anxiety level 3: extremely anxious or depressed
0 No anxiety level 1 (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-cBeta=-.16 p < .05
MODERATE anxiety (level 2)vs NOT (level 1)
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-cBeta=-.36 p < .05
EXTREME anxiety (level 3)vs NOT (level 1)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-cBeta=-.24 p < .01
SOME anxiety (level 2)vs NOT (level 1)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-cBeta=-.49 p < .01
EXTREME anxiety (level 3)vs NOT (level 1)

All beta's controlled for:
- Mobility restrictions
- Self-care restrictions 
- Usual activities restrictions  
- Pain
Beta's remain significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- household income
- gender
- age, age squared
- unemployment
- sick from work, disabled
- retired
- homemaker
- 2nd job
- marital status
- ethnicity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Anxious (f40)
Subject code: M07ac05a

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelRand Anxiety Scale score
Page in Source 833
Our classificationAnxious (f40), code M07ac05a
Operationalization
Self-report on characteristic distress symtoms:
-worry
-irritability
-tension
-listlessness
-poor sleeping
-probloms
-demoralisation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.60 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hypochondric (f45.2)
Subject code: M07ac05b

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelSomatic anxiety
Page in Source 498
Our classificationHypochondric (f45.2), code M07ac05b
Operationalization
Somatic anxiety subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979) 
Experiential Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:4.0; SD:2,4
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha .38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.56 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hypochondric (f45.2)
Subject code: M07ac05b

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHypochondriasis
Page in Source 84
Our classificationHypochondric (f45.2), code M07ac05b
Operationalization
Hypochodriasis subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory Pathology Scales (with K 
corrections);

Hypochondrias is neurotic concern over bodily 
functioning.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.06 p < .05
                   Mean hypochodriasis         
a 10% least happy          13.0  
b 27% close to average     13.7  
c 10% most happy           12.1
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b, c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 15+51
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Self report on 24 questions measuring anxiety, 
hypochondrian and psychosomatic symptoms
Eysenk Personality Inventory
(Items moet ik nog opzoeken)
Error EstimatesCrombach alpha 0.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.23 p < .05
1881 Neuroticism by 1983 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.28 p < .05
1981 Neuroticism by 1983 Happiness: disattenuated
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlation were obtained assuming 
validity coefficient of 0.82 for neuroticism and 
0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 76
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Selfreport on multiple questions
Eysenk Personality Inventory

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=-.33 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000 /1
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, followed 7 years 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22000

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 504,508
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
East Germany

- neighborhood characteristics
  - living conditions
  - social comparison
  - social cohesiveness
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - non-German nationality
  - age
  - age squared
  - income
  - education 
  - marital status
  - health (subj.)
- other personality traits
  - openness
  - extraversion
  - agreeableness
  - comscientiousness
  - external locus of control
  - internal locus of control


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 221, 222, 225, 227
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Self-report on questionnaire
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
Neuroticism as measured by Short version of the Big 
Five Personality Domains (NEO-AC; Costa and McCrae), 
assessed in 2005.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=-.25
T3 LEVEL of happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.25 p < .001
Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-internal locus of control
-having a partner
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.20 p < .001
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 year lag)

Beta controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyHeadey (2010): study DE 1990
TitleThe Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 97, 7 - 21
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9559-x
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 15 years, 1990 - 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7329

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 24
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
On a scale of 1 - 7.
Observed distributionM = 3.96 SD = 1.22
Remarks
Result is for latest year available in 1990 - 2005 
(usually 2005).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.28 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyLangeveld et al. (1999): study NL 1997
TitleDo Experienced Stress and Trait Negative Affecivity Moderate the Relationship between Headache and Quality Adolescents?
SourceJournal of Pediatric Psychology, 1999, Vol. 24, 1 - 11
DOIDOI:10.1093/jpepsy/24.1.1
Public12-18 aged headache patients, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =64

Correlate
Author's labelTrait negative affectivity (NA)
Page in Source 4.6,7
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Remarks
Neuroticism subscale of the korte Amsterdamse 
Biografische Vragenlijst naar Kinderen (KABVK)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-ol-101-ar=-.31 p < .05
O-SLW-?-sq-ol-101-aBeta=-23 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelneuroticism
Page in Source 241, 245, 246
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Self report on 15 items. 
Typical item: "Sometimes I am so excited, that I can no 
longer control my voice."
Scale was derived from the NPV and the Dutch 
Personality Questionnaire.
Observed distributionM= 7,10 (sd=5,16)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .74
Remarks
Data available for 76 Ss, only 30 in regression 
analysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=-.30 p < .05
positive affect = +.03 (ns)
negative affect = -.53 (001)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gBeta=-.06 ns
Beta controlled factors:
- gender
- sense of coherence
- mastery
- social inadequacy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 42, 62
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Selfreport on the following questions:
- I worry more than is good for me
- I am very sensitive: I'm also bothered by small 
things.
- I am nervous very often .
- I bcome upset when I have to do something I cannot 
handle.
- It takes me a long time to forget a disappointment.
- I am a bundle of nerves
- I feel I am very tense

Rated 1 not applicable at all, to 7 completely 
applicable). The answers were summed up and changed to 
a 10 point scale.
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1987), T3(1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between more and 
less neurotic Ss over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.10 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- extraversion
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.10 p < .001
additional controlled for lifecourse transitions 
(happened or not):
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.10 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition :
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring of the above variables

Effect stronger (negative) for men


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelWell-being
Page in Source 34
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
18 items General Well-being scale (GWS)
Dupuy 1978

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-ar=+.74 p < .34
(N=57)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 928
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Self-report on the following questions:
a.Does your mood often go up and down?
b.Do you ever feel ‘just miserable’ for no reason?
c.Are you an irritable person?
d.Are your feelings easily hurt?
e.Do you often feel ‘fed-up’?
f.Would you call yourself a nervous person?
g.Are you a worrier?
h.Would you call yourself tense or ‘highly strung’?
i.Do you worry too long after an embarrassing 
experience?
j.Do you suffer from ‘nerves’?
h.Do you often feel lonely?
i.Are you often troubled about feelings of guilt?

Rated: yes/no
Observed distribution Mean SD males 6.06 3.61 females 7.25 2.96
Remarks
Score on Neuroticism-subscale  of Eysenck personality 
scale.
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.31 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.40 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyNettle (2005): study GB 2000 /1
TitleHappiness. The Science behind Your Smile.
SourceOxford University Press, 2005, Oxford, UK
PublicAdults, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =574

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 99
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Rated on 5-point numerical scale by neuroticism 
personality score.
The four groups are formed by creating quartiles from 
the distribution of scores;
1: Low 
2: Low-Mid
3: High-Mid
4: High
Observed distributionMeasure not reported
Remarks
N=574

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-5-aDM=-
1: Low          M=4,3
2: Low-Mid      M=3,9
3: High-Mid     M=3,6
4: High         M=3,0
O-H?-?-sq-?-5-aR²=0.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyPavot et al. (1997): study US 1992 /1
TitleThe Relationship between Self-Aspect Congruences Personality and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 1997, Vol. 22, 183 - 191
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00196-1
PublicCollege students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 189
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Neuroticism scale from NEO-PI-R (Costa &McCrae, 1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=-.32 p < .05
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-arp=-.19 p < .05
rpc controled for real-ideal self congruence.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyHarder (1969): study US 1969
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 50
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Adapted Super Neuroticism Scale, focus- sing on 
behavior and early childhood experiences, indicative of 
neuroticism (see Shaffer, 1968)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=-.34 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Neurotic (f48)
Subject code: M07ac05c

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 81
Our classificationNeurotic (f48), code M07ac05c
Operationalization
Factor-score derived from Guilford/ Zimmerman 
Temperament Survey (GZTS),
labeled 'Emotional Health' in Guilford et al 1976.
High loadings on: emotional stability, objectivity, 
friendliness and personal
relationships.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar= s
T1 neuroticism by T1 happiness:
- young (18-49)  r= -.17  (001)
- old   (50-97)  r= -.15  (01)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01
T1 neroticism by T2 happiness (2-10 yrs later)
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=-.11 ns
T1 neroticism by T3 happiness (10-17 yrs later)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating disorder (f50)
Subject code: M07ac06a

StudyGoldwurm et al. (2003): study IT 2001
TitleImproving Subjective Well-Being for the Promotion of Health: The Milan Project.
SourceHomeostasis, 2003, Vol. 42, 157 - 162
PublicParticipants in a happiness training, Italy, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelED Patients
Page in Source 160
Our classificationEating disorder (f50), code M07ac06a
Operationalization
1: Eeating Disorder Patients
0: students of psycho-therapy
Observed distributionN = 1: 20, 2: 92

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abD%=- p < .05
              Students          ED Patients
              Mean   SD         Mean   SD
% Happy       51.33  19.38      32.50  16.74
% Neutral     30.70  18.89      29.00  18.54
% Unhappy     17.98  12.79      38.50  18.72
Difference in % neutral ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Autistic
Subject code: M07ac09a

StudyRozga et al. (2010): study US California 2005
TitleBehavioral Profiles of Affected and Unaffected Siblings of Children with Autism: Contribution of Measures of Mother-Infant Interaction and Nonverbal Communication
SourceSpringerlink.com, Published online: 22 June 2010
DOIdoi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1051-6
Public6 months aged infants, California, United States, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelInfant's Autistic Symptomatology
Page in Source 289, 290, 291
Our classificationAutistic, code M07ac09a
Operationalization
2: Having autistic sibling & later diagnosed with 
autism (ASD)
1: Having autistic sibling & later NOT diagnosed with 
autism or ASD (NoASD-sib)
0: Low-risk control group (TD)
Observed distributionN = 0: 9, 1: 46, 2: 28
Remarks
eventual autism diagnosed at 36 month using ADOS (lord 
et al 2000)diagnostic classification of observed 
behaviours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-rc-th%-101-aD%=+
% of time expressing positive affect (vs neutral 
or negative):
2:  26,43%
1:  21,97%
0:  16,67%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hysteric (f99)
Subject code: M07ac11a

StudyLewis & Joseph (1996): study GB 1994
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression-Happiness Scale with the Crown-Crisp Experiental Index.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1996, Vol. 78, 497 - 498
PublicUniversity Students, UK, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelHysteria
Page in Source 498
Our classificationHysteric (f99), code M07ac11a
Operationalization
Hysteria subscale of Crown-Crisp (1979)Experiential 
Index
Items not reported.
Observed distributionMean:4,5; SD:2,7
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha .30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.36 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hysteric (f99)
Subject code: M07ac11a

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHysteria
Page in Source 84
Our classificationHysteric (f99), code M07ac11a
Operationalization
Hysteria subscale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality 
Inventory Pathology Scales(with K corrections);

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²= ns
                       Mean hysteria  
a 10% least happy          23.0 
b 27% close to average     22.0  
c 10% most happy           20.0
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychasthenic (f99)
Subject code: M07ac11b

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelPsychasthenia
Page in Source 84
Our classificationPsychasthenic (f99), code M07ac11b
Operationalization
Psychasthenia of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality 
Inventory Pathology Scales (with K corrections);

Indicates excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions, 
unreasonable fears, self-criticism, difficulties in 
concentration, and guilt feelings.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.31 p < .05
                     Mean psychasthenia
a 10% least happy          35.8 
b 27% close to average     29.7  
c 10% most happy           25.8
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychotic (f99)
Subject code: M07ac11c

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelSBS severe and moderate problems
Page in Source 263
Our classificationPsychotic (f99), code M07ac11c
Operationalization
Rating of psychotic symptomatology or disability with 
severe mental illness by psychiatrist
a. Depression
b. Inappropriate sexual behaviour
c. Poor self care
d. Slowness
e. Underactivity
f. Poor attention span
g. Other behaviour
Remarks
Social Behavior Schedule (SBS) [Wykes & Sturt,1986]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.09 p < .57
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+04 p < .70
rpc controled for depression as measured with 
subscale of comprehensive Psychitric Rating Scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Psychotic (f99)
Subject code: M07ac11c

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in psychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationPsychotic (f99), code M07ac11c
Operationalization
Negative psychotic symptoms and depression assessed by 
psychiatric
a. Demanding attention
b. Suicide ideas or behaviour
c. Panic attacks and phobias
d. Overactivity and restlessness
e. Laughing or talking to self
f. Acting out bizarre ideas
g. Posturing and mannerisms
h. Socially unacceptable habits or manners
Remarks
The Schedule for the Assessment of Negative 
Symtoms(SANS)(by psychiater)
SANS
Assessed T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .15
T1-T3 change in happiness by T1_T3 change symtoms 
(T1-T3 18 month)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelVitality
Page in Source 258
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:
During the last four weeks
a. did you feel full of pep?
b. did you have a lot of energy?
c. did you feel worn out?
d. did feel tired?

Rated:
6: all of the time (100%) 
.
.
1: none of the time (0%)
Remarks
Vitality subscale of SF-36 health questionnaire (Ware 
1992).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.18
Beta controlled for:
 - Mental Healthm(SF-3C subscale)
 - General Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11 questions:
a: My decisions are not usually influenced by what 
everyone else is doing
b: I have confidence in my opnions even if they are 
contrary to the general consensus
c: I have confidence in my own opnions, even if they 
are different from the way most other people think
d: I tend to worry about what other people think of me
e: I often change my mind about decisions if my friend 
or family disagree
f: I am not afraid to voice my opinions, even when they 
are in opposition to the opinions of most people
g: Being happy with myself is more important to me than 
having others approve of me
h: It's difficult for me to voice my opinions on 
controversal matters
i: I tend to be influenced by people with strong 
opinions
j: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
what others think is important
k: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
the values of what others think is important

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 7,5; SD=4,1 Controls: M=10,8; SD=2,2
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Autonomy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=-.10 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelEnvironmental mastery
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:
a: I am good at juggling my time so that I can fit 
everything in that needs to be done
b: I often feel overwhelmed by my responsabilities
c: I am quite good at managing the many 
responsabilities of my daily life
d: I am good at managing the responsabilities of daily 
life
e: I do not fit well with the people and community 
around me
f: I have difficulty arranging my life in a way that is 
satisfying to me
g: I have been able to create a lifestyle for myself 
that is much to my linking
h: I generally do a good job of taking care of my 
personal finances and affairs
i: In general I feel I am in charge of the situation in 
which I live
j: The demands of everyday life often get me down

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 4,7; SD=3,9 Controls: M= 9,8; SD=2,8
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Environmental Mastery

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.26 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.51 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal Growth
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11 questions:
a: I am not interested in activities that will expand 
my horizons
b: I have the sense that I have developed a lot as a 
person over time
c: When I think about it, I haven't really improved 
much as a person over the years
d: I think it is important to have new experiences that 
challenge how I think about myself and the world
e: I think it is important to have new experiences that 
challenge how you think about yourself and the world
f: I don't want to try new ways of doing things -- my 
life is fine the way it is
g: I do not enjoy being in new situations that require 
me to change my old familiar ways of doing things
h: There is truth to the saying you can't teach an old 
dog new tricks
i: For me, life has been a continuous process of 
learning, changing and growing
j: For me, life has been a continuous process of 
learning, changing, and growth
k: I gave up trying to make big improvements or changes 
in my life a long time ago.

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 9,1; SD=3,0 Controls: M=11,7; SD=1,6
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Personal Growth

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.30 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPositive relations
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 questions:
a: I dont't have many people who want to listen when I 
need to talk
b: I enjoy personal and mutual conversations with 
family members and friends
c: I often feel lonely because I have few close friends 
with whom to share my concerns
d: It seems to me that most other people have more 
friends than I do
e: People would describe me as a giving person, willing 
to share my time with others
f: Most people see me as loving and affectionate
g: I know I can trust my friends, and the know they can 
trust me
h: Maintaining close relationships has been difficult 
and frustrating for me
i: I have not experienced many warm and trusting 
relationships with others.

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 7,6; SD=3,5 Controls: M=11,7; SD=2,2
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Positive Relations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.43 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.28 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in Life
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:
a: I enjoy making plans for the future and working to 
make them a reality
b: My daily activities often seem trivial and 
unimportant to me
c: I am an active person in carrying out the plans I 
set for myself
d: I tend to focus on the present, because the future 
nearly always brings me problems
e: I don't have a good sense of what it is I'm trying 
to accomplish in life
f: I sometimes feel as if I have done all there is to 
do in life
g: I sometimes feel as if I've done all there is to do 
in life
h: I used to set goals for myself, but that now seems 
like a waste of time
i: Some people wander aimlessly through life but I am 
not one of them
j: I live life one days at a time and don't really 
think about the future.

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 6,6; SD=3,9 Controls: M=10,2; SD=2,7
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Purpose in Life

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.54 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-acceptance
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
a: I feel like many of the people I know have gotten 
more out of life than I have
b: In general, I feel confident and positive about 
myself
c: When I compare myself to friends and acquaintances, 
it makes me feel good about who I am
d: My attitude about myself is probably not as positive 
as most people feel about themselves
e: I made some mistakes in the past, but I feel that in 
all everything has worked out for the best
f: The past had its ups and downs, but in general, I 
wouldn't want to change it
g: In many ways, I feel disappointed about my 
achievements in life
h: When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased 
with how things have turned out
i: When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased 
about how things have turned out
j: When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased 
with how things have turned out so far
k: I like most parts of my personality
l: I like most aspects of my personality.

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 4,3; SD=3,7 Controls: M=10,9; SD=2,7
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Self-Acceptance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.29 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.57 p < .01
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of health, well-being and quality of life
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "health, well-being and quality of life"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,91 SD: 1,62, Non-exercisers: M: 7,42 SD: 2,19
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.36 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.22 p < .00
Beta after accounting for: Perceived contribution 
of:
Personal strengths, skills and resources
Self-confidence and self-assurance
Family and family relationships
Friendship and social relationships
Faith, religion, ethic or moral values
Power, status, and importance of yourself in 
society
Money, wealth, and luxuries
Satisfaction of basic needs (e.g. food, housing, 
etc.)
Love, loving and being loved
Partnership and sexuality
Sense of humour, attitudes and positive emotions
Work and work relationships
Goals, challenges and vital commitments
The way you are or personality
Sense of belonging
Habits and lifestyles
Self-image and self-esteem
Personal autonomy and independence
Genes and heredity

when ONLY exercisers are considered


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of health, well-being and quality of life
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "health, well-being and quality of life"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 7,71 SD: 2,12
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.02 p < .80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in insight
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Rating by psyciatrist using Schedule for the Assessment 
of Insight(SAI, David 1990) 
Items not described. Reference incomplete.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14 p < .42
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affect
Page in Source 194
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about the extent to which 
they feel several moods in general
- active
- determined
- inspired
- enthusiastic
- alert
- attentiv
- proud
- strong
- interested
- excited

rated on a 1 (very slightly or not all) to 5 
(extremely) scale
Remarks
10- item subscale of Positive Affect from the PANAS 
(Watson et al., 1988)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-ar=+.77 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyBlock & Kremen (1996): study US 1990
TitleIQ and Ego-Resiliency: Conceptual and Empirical Connections and Separateness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996, Vol. 70, 349 - 361
Public18-aged, followed 5 years; Berkeley, USA, 19??-19??.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =95

Correlate
Author's labelego- resilience
Page in Source 352
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER89)
1. I am generous with my friends.
2. I quickly get over and recover from being startled.
3. I enjoy dealing with new and unusual situations.
4. I usually succeed in making a favorable impressoion 
on people.
5. I enjoy trying new foods I have never tasted before.
6. I am regarded as a very energetic person.
7. I like to take different paths to familiar places.
8. I am more curious than most people.
9. Most of the people I meet are likeable.
10. I usually think carefully about something before 
ascting.
11. I like tot do new and different things.
12. My daily life is full of things that keep me 
interested.
13. I would be willing to describe myself as a pretty 
"strong"personality.
14. I get over my anger at someone reasonably quickly.
Items are responded to using a 4-step continuum: 1: 
does not apply at all; 
2: applies sligthly 3: applies somewat; 4: applies very 
strongly.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: +.76 5 years over time correlation +.51 (females), +.39 (males); adjusted for attenuation: +. 67 and +.51.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2. Average used here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-arpc=+.43 p < .01
Women (N=49)
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-arpc=+.47 p < .01
Men (N=46)

rpc's controlled for intelligence as measured with 
WAIS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological resources (positive mental health)_B
Page in Source 603
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
14 indicators of psychological resources including 
measures of mutuality (familial and extra-familial), 
resolution of losses, contextual and temporal 
perspective, growth, competence, in- sight, perceived 
and judged encroach-
ment, hope, and satisfaction with 
intrapersonal and interpersonal compe-
tence in general.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= +
In total, significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.

There were four significant or near significant 
correlations with positive affect, four with 
negative affect (including two inverse relation- 
ships), and eight with affect balance.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= +
In total significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current positive mental health
Subject code: M07ad

StudyHarder (1969): study US 1969
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =62

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment
Page in Source 52/61
Our classificationCurrent positive mental health, code M07ad
Operationalization
Bi-polar factor, having strong positive correlations 
with time competence (+.78), and inner directedness 
(+.74), and strong negative correlations with 
neuroticism (-.64) and anxiety (-.77).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+.11 ns
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.46 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in mental health consultations
Page in Source 1730
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in reponse to question: Seen a doctor for 
your nerves in the last year?
0 no
1 yes
Observed distribution0: 89,1%, 1: 10,9%
Remarks
T1-T2 2 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.72 p < .001
T1-T2 INCREASE in mental health consultations ny 
T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.32 p < .05
T1-T2 DECREASE in  mental health consultations by 
T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelRecieved leisure activities support
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether(or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month 

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelReceived time structuring support
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on question whether (or not) one received 
services in the last month for developing a structure 
of activities involving help from staff with planning 
time time on week nights, weekends, and holidays

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.22 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelVocational Rehabilitation/Specific services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month
a: Dealing with people
b: Work responsabilities
c: Expectations from work
d: Learning work skills
e: Personal problems interfering with work

Options: 
0: no
1: yes
Error Estimatestest-retest reliability .63

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Service concerning how to deal with people
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.00 ns
Service concerning work responsabilities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
Service concerning personal problems interfering 
with work
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
Service concerning learning work skills
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
Service concerning expectations from work
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Any of the above mentioned vocational 
rehabilitation services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelBasic Needs- services recieved
Page in Source 307,309
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month
a: Help with housing
b: Help with finances
c: Club loan
d: Help with medical care

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.17 ns
Housing services
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23 p < .10
Financial services
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Club loan
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.13 ns
Help with medical care
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Any of the above mentioned services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDaily living skills - services recieved
Page in Source 305, 307
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of service in the last month concerning:
a: managing a household
b: getting around in a community
c: personal appearance

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retst reliability .57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16 p < .10
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSocial contacts- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month about: 
a: friends in area and on vans
b: regular contact with members of the program

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSupervision and Guidance- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 305,307
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning frequency and 
recency of contact with staff members 

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.13 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Background characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelEmpowerment- services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month to 
raise his decision power and supportive interaction (21 
items)

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.19 p < .05
Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelStructure of activities - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning the:
a: number of days per week at the Club
b: number of hours per week at the club
c: attendance in area meetings
d: number of hours per week in task
e: attendance in Club recreation
f: attendance in other recreation
g: time spent in leisure activities
h: time spent socializing
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
Number of days per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Number of hours per week at the club
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in area meetings
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Number of hours per week in task
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.10 ns
Attendance in Club recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .01
Time spent in leisure activities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.08 ns
Attendance in other recreation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Time spent in socializing
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
Any of the above services (vs none)

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelSocial skills - services recieved
Page in Source 304, 307
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of service in the last month
a: help with relationships
b: help with communicating
c: help with developing trust
d: help with increasing friends
e: help with self-confidence in relating

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms 
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelReceived Financial support
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of services in the last month e.g. 
Transitional employment for which one were  paid

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23 p < .06
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelRevieved empowerment training
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month to raise his 
decision making power and supportive interaction

Options:
0=no
1=yes
Error Estimatesalpha= .82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelParticipated in Mental illness /chemical abuse groups
Page in Source 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions whether (or not) one received 
this type of services in the last month concerning
a: help with medication
b: recognizing symptoms
c: managing symptoms
d: recognizing stresses

Options: 
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - vocational rehabilitation
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelServices recieved for psychiatric symptoms
Page in Source 305
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning whether (or not) one 
received this type of service in the last month 
concerning 
a: help with medication
b: recognizing symptoms
c: managing symptoms
d: recognizing stresses

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
  - social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelType of psychiatric treatment recieved
Page in Source 304, 307, 309
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question whether (or not) one 
received this type of treatment in the last month
a: Individual treatment
b: Group treatment
c: Mica (Mental Ill Chemical Abusers) group treatment  
d: Double trouble treatment

Options:
0: no
1: yes
Error EstimatesTest-Retest reliability .95

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.10 ns
Individual treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Group treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
MICA group treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.14 ns
Double trouble treatment
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
Any of the above (vs none) treatments

Beta's controlled for: 
- Background characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- Clinical characteristics of positive and 
negative symptoms
- Functioning in terms of:
  - daily living skills
  - vocational skills
  - social skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyRosenfield (1997): study US 1988
TitleLabelling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Percieved Stigma on Life Satisfaction.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1997, Vol. 62, 660 - 672
URLhttp://www2.asanet.org/journals/asr/
Public20-70 Chronic mental patients, USA, 1989,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's label Received Vocational rehabilitation
Page in Source 664, 665
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether (or not) one received this type 
of services in the last month, e.g.
a: work responsabilities  
b: expectations from work
c: learning work skills

Options:
0=no
1=yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Demographic characteristics
- Clinical characteristics
- Perceived stigma
- Services for:
  - financial support
  - empowerment
  - mental illness/chemical abuse groups
  - time in leisure activities
  - structure for leisure time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current treatment for mental problems
Subject code: M07ae

StudyReinhardt (1968): study US 1967
TitleCharacteristics of Moods in Hospitalized and Normally Functioning Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Colombia University, 1968, USA
PublicFemale mental patients and controls, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelpatients vs normals
Page in Source 12
Our classificationCurrent treatment for mental problems, code M07ae
Operationalization
1: Female patients living in private mental hospital
0: Normal controls: Women attending institutions for 
higher education
Observed distributionN= 1: 20; 2: 58

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average level of daily moods in: 
          patients   non-patients   difference
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Highest (9-10) 6.43       7.28          -0.85
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average(3-8)   5.49       6.23          -0.72
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .05
Lowest(1-2)    4.45       5.07          -0.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived need for treatment
Subject code: M07ae01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for supervision
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationPerceived need for treatment, code M07ae01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions related to the frequency and 
recency of contact with staff members
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=1,56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.20 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived need for treatment
Subject code: M07ae01

StudyCherlin & Reeder (1975): study US Los Angeles County, California 1972
TitleThe Dimensions of Psychological Well-Being: A Critical Review.
SourceSociological Methods and Research, 1975, Vol. 4, 189 -214
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/2/189.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, general public, Los Angeles County, USA, 1972-1973
Sample
Non-Response20% in 1972 and 23% in 1973.
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNeed for help with emotional problems or family troubles
Page in Source 197
Our classificationPerceived need for treatment, code M07ae01
Operationalization
Closed question: 'During the past year did you ever 
feel that you could use some help in dealing with 
emotional problems or family troubles?'
never/ not very often/ sometimes/ often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.25 p < .001
Computed for 1973 data only:
Index of Positive Affects: r = +.01 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.40 (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyJol (1985a): study NL 1974
TitleLiever Samen dan Alleen? Veranderingen in Levensomstandigheden én Welbevinden van Alleenstaanden, 1974-1983. (Better together than Alone? Changes in Life Situations ánd Well-Being of Singles,1974-1983).
SourceC.B.S. Select, Nr. 3, Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985, The Hague, Netherlands, 171 - 184
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1983
Sample
Non-Response1974: 28%, 1983: 43%
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelProfessional help received
Page in Source 177/178
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
Number of professional help agencies contacted in the 
last two years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.22 p < .05
Singles 1983 (N = 484)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.17 p < .05
All 1983 (N = 3981)
ß controlled for sex and age.
Results 1974 not significantly different.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyPerneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998
TitleHealth and Happines in Young Swiss Adults.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 171 - 178
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000015314.97546.60
PublicUniversity students, Switzerland, 1998.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1257

Correlate
Author's labelConsulted psychiatrist or psychologist in past year
Page in Source 175
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
1- No
2- Yes
Observed distribution1: 89,6%, 2: 10,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aD%=- p < .001
% happy (all or most of the time)
1: 65,6
2: 40,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelMental health consulted
Page in Source 24
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
1: yes
0: no
Remarks
Community residence only
This question not asked to mental patients, they are 
stil in hospital

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.25 p < .05
Community residente with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.34 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyBriscoe (1982): study GB 1977
TitleSex Differences in Psychological Well-Being.
SourcePsychological Medicine, 1982, Monograph Supplement 1, 1 - 48
PublicMarried couples with high incidence of minor psychiatric problems, London, U.K., 1977
Sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelPsychiatric morbidity_A
Page in Source 22
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
0 No complaints 
1 Complaints (six or more visits to doctor)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.17 p < .01
                With    Without
very    happy    34%     42%
fairly  happy    56%     54%
not too happy    10%      6% 

                                                


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyBriscoe (1982): study GB 1977
TitleSex Differences in Psychological Well-Being.
SourcePsychological Medicine, 1982, Monograph Supplement 1, 1 - 48
PublicMarried couples with high incidence of minor psychiatric problems, London, U.K., 1977
Sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelPsychiatric morbidity_B
Page in Source 22
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
1 Married couples with complaints (six
  or more visits to a doctor in last
  year)
0 Control group of national sample of
  married persons. 
See also HALL 1976.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.21 p < .01
                married persons   national sample
                with complaints   of marrieds
very    happy       34%              44%
fairly  happy       56%              52%
not too happy       10%               5%
                  (n=50)           (n=602)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyDerogatis & Rutigliano (1996): study US 1991
TitleDerogatis Affects Balance Scale: DABS.
SourceSpilker, B.;Ed.: "Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, Second Edition", Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996, Philadelphia, USA, 169 - 177
PublicStudents and mental patients, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =338

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
1. mental patients
   a. outpatients, mainly sexual dysfunction complaints
   b. inpatients
0. normals (students)
Observed distributionN=338, 1a: 88, 1b: 50, 0: 200
Remarks
Selection method of respondents (normals) not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Bde-c-mq-n-5-aD%=-
                        Unhappy Moderate Happy
1. a.mental outpatients 18,2%   38,6%   43,2%  
   b.mental inpatients  56,0%   26,0%   18,0%
0. normals               2.5%   19,0%   78,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyBaker & Intagliata (1982): study US 1981
TitleQuality of Life in the Evaluation of Community Support Systems.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1982, Vol. 5, 69 - 79
DOIdoi:10.1016/0149-7189(82)90059-3
PublicMental patients shortly after change in institutional setting, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelClient status
Page in Source 76
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
0 National population USA 1978 (Data     Campbell 1981) 
                      
1 Client of community support system 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
Clients experiences reported less positive and 
more negative experiences


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyBanziger & Foos (1983): study US 1978
TitleThe Relationship of Personal Financial Status to the Utilization of Community Mental Health Centers in Rural Appalachia.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1983, Vol. 11, 543 - 552
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896804
PublicClients of community mental health centers, Ohio and West Virginia, 1982
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =151

Correlate
Author's labelUtilization of community health centers
Page in Source 548
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
Utilisation of community health center; number of 
visits
Observed distributionnot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-ar=-.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelConsultation: mental health
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
Index of closed questions:
(order reversed)
1. 'Have you seen a doctor or counselor    past 2 
months for emotional-type    health care?' (1) yes, (2) 
no;
2. 'If so, how many times?', rated on a    4-point 
scale: (1) 1-2 times, 
   (4) >6 times.
3. 'Have you seen a doctor or counselor    past year 
for emotional-type health    care?' (1) yes, (2) no;
4. 'If so, how many times?', rated on a    6-point 
scale: (1) 1-2 times, 
   (6) >10 times.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=
        T1: 1977      T2: 1979      T3: 1981

1.      -.13 (ns)     -.20 (01)     -.21 (01)


2.       .00 (ns)     +.08 (ns)     +.38 (ns)


3.      -.06 (ns)     -.20 (01)     -.14 (05)


4.      -.05 (ns)     +.26 (ns)     .


Correlational finding on Happiness and In ambulatory treatment
Subject code: M07ae02

StudyMoriwaki (1974): study US 1971
TitleThe Affect Balance Scale: A Validity Study with Aged Samples.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 73 - 78
Public60+ aged, psychiatric cases and controls, Los Angeles, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 76
Our classificationIn ambulatory treatment, code M07ae02
Operationalization
Normals vs psychiatric out-patients.
- psychiatric outpatients selected from   2 clinics.
- normal controls selected from members   of Lutheran 
Church all in good    physical and mental health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-c-mq-v-2-aDM=+ p < .001
Normal subjects also scored significantly higher 
than the psychiatric out-patients on the Index of 
Positive Affects (005) and lower on the Index of 
Negative Affects (001).


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyKuiper & Martin (1998a): study CA Ontario 1993
TitleSense of Humor, self-concept, and Psychological Well-Being in psychiatric Inpatients.
SourceHumor, 1998, Vol. 11, 357 -381
URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/humr.1998.11.issue-4/humr.1998.11.4.357/humr.1998.11.4.357.xml
PublicPsychiatric patients, Ontario Canada, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelICD-9 diagnosis group
Page in Source 364
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
0: nonparanoid schizophrenic
1: clinically depressed
Observed distribution1. n = 24, 2. n = 32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-c-mq-v-5-cDM=- ns
nonparanoid schizophrenic M = 11.61
clinically depressed      M =  7.41
- difference                  -4.2

Possible range ABS: -40 to +40


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life
Page in Source 243
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: With 3 weeks after admission to mental hospital
T2: 6 month later
Remarks
Depressive patients only (n= 28)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=+ p < .001
Happiness at:
T1:         M = 2,7 CI95 [1,2-4,3]
T2          M = 3,9 CI95 [2,3-5,5]
Difference     +1,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyMatlin (1966): study PR 1963
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matlin_n_1966.pdf
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1417

Correlate
Author's labelMental disturbances
Page in Source 44
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
0 Normals 
1 Out-patients of psychiatric hospital,   diagnosed as 
suffering from anxiety   and depression. (Sample MATLI 
1966/1   vs sample MATLI 1966/2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.35 p < . 01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cG=-.57 p < . 01
Index of Positive Affects: G' = +.03 (ns)
Index of Negative Affects: G' = +.65 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 1729
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
1) Poor mental health: Patients of mental hospital 
2) Moderate mental health: General public scoring >2 on 
GHQ 
3) Good mental health:General public scoring <2 on GHQ
Observed distributionN = 1: 1119, 2: 794, 3: 149

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+ p < .001
T1: 1999
- Good mental health:     M = 5,37, SD = 0.86
- Moderate mental health: M = 4,15, SD = 1,26
- Poor mental health:     M = 3,87, SD = 1,44
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
T2: 2001
- Good mental health:     M = 5,12, SD = 0.96
- Moderate mental health: M = 4,25, SD = 1,31
- Poor mental health:     M = 4,44, SD = 1,38


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 23
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
a: Severe mental illness(SMI)
   Patients of mental hospital
   - aged 18-65
   - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement 
b: Common mental disorder(CMD)
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
c: Healthy population
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire
Observed distributionN at T1/T2 = 1: 149/126; 2: 794/354; 3: 1119/583
Remarks
a: Non-probability chunk sample, data 1994 (T1) and 
1996 (T2)
b+c: Probility sample of community residents: data 1999 
(T1) and 2001 (T2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
a: Mental patients     T1  M = 3.86  SD = 1.43
                       T2  M = 4.45  SD = 1.40
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,59      -0,03
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
b: Common disorder     T1  M = 4,19  SD = 1.29
                       T2  M = 4.25  SD = 1.30
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,06      +0,01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=-
c: Mentally healthy    T1  M = 5,39  SD = 0,86
                       T2  M = 5,12  SD = 0,96
        T1-T2 (2 yr)change    -0,27      +0,10
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T1: c>a, b>a
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T2: c>b


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudySimpson et al. (1989): study GB 1987
TitleThe chronically mentally ill in community facilities. A study of quality of life.
SourceBritish Journal of Psychiatry, 1989, Vol. 154, 77 - 82
URLhttp://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/154/1/77.full.pdf
PublicChronic mental patients, Manchester, Great Britain, 1987
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity care facilities for mental ill
Page in Source 77
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
a.Patients from the acute ward of the District General 
Hospital (DGH)
b.Residents of a Hostel ward
c.Patients from a Group Home of the Withington Trust
Observed distributionN: a=11 b=10 c=13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
a. M=3.09 SD=1,36
b. M=3,60 SD=1,97
c. M=4,73 SD=1,87
Significance differences were examined using the 
Tukey multiple-comparison test
Patients in Group Home(c) significantly happier 
than in Hospital ward(a) and Hostel(b)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyDerogatis & Rutigliano (1996): study US 1991
TitleDerogatis Affects Balance Scale: DABS.
SourceSpilker, B.;Ed.: "Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, Second Edition", Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996, Philadelphia, USA, 169 - 177
PublicStudents and mental patients, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =338

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
1. mental patients
   a. outpatients, mainly sexual dysfunction complaints
   b. inpatients
0. normals (students)
Observed distributionN=338, 1a: 88, 1b: 50, 0: 200
Remarks
Selection method of respondents (normals) not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Bde-c-mq-n-5-aD%=-
                        Unhappy Moderate Happy
1. a.mental outpatients 18,2%   38,6%   43,2%  
   b.mental inpatients  56,0%   26,0%   18,0%
0. normals               2.5%   19,0%   78,5%


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyChason (1975): study US 1974
TitleA Comparison of Social Interest among Service-Oriented Professionals, Prisoners and Psychiatric Patients.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Florida State University, 1975, USA
PublicPrisoners and comparison groups, 1974, USA
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response33.3%
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelPrisoners vs. Comparison Groups
Page in Source 87
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
a: Prisoners 
b: Psychiatric patients 
c: Service oriented professionals
d: General population
Observed distributiona: N=65; b: N=54; c: N=53 ; d: N=73

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adDM=- p < .05
a: M = 1.32 CL95 [1.20-1.45]      
b: M = 1.76 CL95 [1.55-1.97]
c: M = 2.23 CL95 [2.04-2.41]
d: M = 2.25 CL95 [2.10-2.39]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBMCT= p < .05
a
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=- p < .05
a: M = 1.23 CL95 [1.11-1.35]
b: M = 1.86 CL95 [1.67-2.04]
c: M = 2.19 CL95 [2.03-2.35]
d: M = 2.22 CL95 [2.09-2.35]
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aBMCT= p < .05
a


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelRestrictiveness of setting
Page in Source 328
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
0 Open ward
1 Closed ward

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aDM=+ p < .001
Open ward  : M = 4.7  Mt' = 6.7
Closed ward: M = 5.4  Mt' = 7.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyHacker & Gaitz (1969): study US 1966
TitleThe Moral Career of the Elderly Mental Patient.
SourceGerontologist, 1969, Vol. 9, 120 - 127
PublicAged mental patients, 1 year after admission, USA, 1966
Sample
Non-Response66% drop-outs: 33% dead, 17% could not be located, 16% inco-herent or refusal.
Respondents N =36

Correlate
Author's labelIn treatment
Page in Source 125
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
0 Expatients: released (N=18)         
1 Inpatients: still in hospital (N=18)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Significant differences for the Index of Negative 
Affects only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In mental hospital
Subject code: M07ae03

StudyPierce & Clark (1973): study US 1962
TitleMeasurement of Morale in the Elderly.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1973, Vol. 4, 83 - 101
Public60+ aged, psychiatric cases and controls, San Fransisco, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response62% dropouts after 2 interviews (2 years)
Respondents N =435

Correlate
Author's labelMental illness
Page in Source 88
Our classificationIn mental hospital, code M07ae03
Operationalization
0   normals: probability community sam-
    ple, stratified by age, sex and
    living arrangement (N = 264).
1   psychiatric patients: np chunk sam-
    ple of patient admitted to local
    hospitals in 1959 (N = 171, 90 dis-
    charged in same year).


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-mG=-.50 p < . 01
G' based on proportion very happy
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bG=-.57 p < . 01
G' based on proportion very happy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-dG=-.47 p < . 01
G' based on proportion very happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of psycho-pharmacals
Subject code: M07ae04

StudyGelfin et al. (1998): study IL 1996
TitleEffect of Clinical Doses of Fluoxetine on Psychological Variables in Healthy Volunteers.
SourceAmerican Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, Vol. 155, 290 - 292
PublicParticipants in single blind drug experiment. Israel,1995
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15

Correlate
Author's labelEffect of Fluoxetine
Page in Source 291
Our classificationUse of psycho-pharmacals, code M07ae04
Operationalization
Subjects were given one capsule per day for 10 weeks:
- a placebo capsule for the first 2 weeks
- 10 mg of fluoxetine the 3rd week
- 20 mg of fluoxetine for 5 weeks
- a placebo capsule for the last 2 weeks

Happiness assessed at: 
T0: pretest
T1: after 2 weeks (end of first placebo phase)
T2: 5 weeks (after 1 week of recieving  10mg/day 
fluoxetine)
T3: 8 weeks (after 5 weeks of recieving 20mg/day 
fluoxetine)
T4: after the final two weeks of placebo administration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bDM=+
Overall Life satisfaction:
T0: M=3,8; SD=0,4
T1: M=3,7; SD=0,5
T2: M=3,7; SD=0,5
T3: M=3,9; SD=0,4
T4: M=3,9; SD=0,4
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of psycho-pharmacals
Subject code: M07ae04

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness.
Page in Source 37
Our classificationUse of psycho-pharmacals, code M07ae04
Operationalization
Direct question: Have you taken 'something against the 
nerves' during the last 14 days? 
0: Nothing
1: Swallowed something

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.41 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of psycho-pharmacals
Subject code: M07ae04

StudyAbbey & Andrews (1985): study US Detroit 1984
TitleModeling the Psychological Determinants of Life-Quality.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 1 - 34
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317657
PublicTranquilizer users, Detroit, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response40%
Respondents N =675

Correlate
Author's labelValium users
Page in Source 12
Our classificationUse of psycho-pharmacals, code M07ae04
Operationalization
Non-valium-users vs valium-users.
Respondents were interviewed every six weeks (Q.O.L. 
and anxiety every week via retrospection) during a 
24-week period. Bivariate correlations of qua- lity of 
life-as-a-whole evaluations and psychosocial factors 
were compared dur-
ing this period at indicated time-lags.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-aSNR=-
Valium-users in this study tended to rate their 
life quality slightly lower than did respondents 
in national studies, usually by about 0.4 on a 7- 
point scale. Non-valium-users rated their life 
quality at a level comparable to national studies.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own mental health
Subject code: M07af

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of health, well-being and quality of life
Our classificationAttitudes to own mental health, code M07af
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "health, well-being and quality of life"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,91 SD: 1,62, Non-exercisers: M: 7,42 SD: 2,19
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.36 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.22 p < .00
Beta after accounting for: Perceived contribution 
of:
Personal strengths, skills and resources
Self-confidence and self-assurance
Family and family relationships
Friendship and social relationships
Faith, religion, ethic or moral values
Power, status, and importance of yourself in 
society
Money, wealth, and luxuries
Satisfaction of basic needs (e.g. food, housing, 
etc.)
Love, loving and being loved
Partnership and sexuality
Sense of humour, attitudes and positive emotions
Work and work relationships
Goals, challenges and vital commitments
The way you are or personality
Sense of belonging
Habits and lifestyles
Self-image and self-esteem
Personal autonomy and independence
Genes and heredity

when ONLY exercisers are considered


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own mental health
Subject code: M07af

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of health, well-being and quality of life
Our classificationAttitudes to own mental health, code M07af
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "health, well-being and quality of life"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 7,71 SD: 2,12
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.02 p < .80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own mental health
Subject code: M07af

StudyReitz et al. (2004): study CH 1999
TitleImpact of Spinal Cord Injury on Sexual Health and Quality of Life.
SourceInternational Journal of Impotence Research, 2004, Vol. 16, 167 - 174
PublicSpinal cord injured, Switzerland, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =63

Correlate
Author's labelMental well being
Page in Source 168
Our classificationAttitudes to own mental health, code M07af
Operationalization
Single question: 'How satisfied are you currently with 
your mental well being?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bAoV= p < .NS
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Readiness to seek professional care
Subject code: M07af01

StudyGonzalez (1967): study US 1967
TitleStudy of Student Teachers' Life Adjustment.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1967, Chapel Hill, USA
PublicStudents teachers,University of California, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelReadiness for self- referral
Page in Source 130
Our classificationReadiness to seek professional care, code M07af01
Operationalization
3 item index containing: attitude towards professional 
help, use of professional help and perceived competence 
to handle problems one self.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cG=-.34 p < .05
G' based on proportion very happy (vs not very 
happy).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Readiness to seek professional care
Subject code: M07af01

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelReadiness for self- referral
Page in Source 262
Our classificationReadiness to seek professional care, code M07af01
Operationalization
3-item index, containing attitude to professional help, 
use of professional help, and perceived competence to 
handle one's problems oneself strong self help / self 
help / might need help / could have used help / has 
used help.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= -
Grade school    : G' = -.09 (05)
High school     : G' = -.15 (01)
College         : G' = -.24 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with treatment
Subject code: M07af02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with care
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationSatisfaction with treatment, code M07af02
Operationalization
Selfreport on the follwing questions:
-your general state of health?
-how often you see a doctor?
-your nervous well-being?
-pleased about having accomplished something?
-that things were going your way?
-proud because some one complimented you on something 
you had done?
Remarks
Cullen (1997) Satisfaction Schedule. 
Assessed at T1 and T3 (18 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.15 p < .39
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-cSelfreport on feelings during activities in the previous day (Day Reconstruction Method)

A worried
B rushed
C irritated or angry
D depressed
E tense or stressed
F calm or relaxed
G enjoying

Rated:
0 not al all
1
2
3
4
5
6 very much

Computation: (A+B+C+D+E)/5 - (F+G)/2
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Mood is usually applied to states lasting for minutes or hours, but most people can estimate their average or typical mood over a long period of time. Using the following scale, please indicate which statement best describes your typical mood for the current spring semester. Draw a circle around the number of the statement which best describes your average level of happiness or unhappiness during this semester.
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue"
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely "blue"
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"....feeling in good spirits usually..."
2 yes
1 no
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question :

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
1 low
2 both
3 good
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-se-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question

"Taken things together: how did you feel since you got ill....?"
7 very good
6
5
4
3
2
1 very bad
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
"just awful".
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
A-ARE-cq-sqr-v-3-aSelfreport on single question, asked 21 times in a period of 10 weeks (experience sampling)

How would you characterize your mood or impulse of the last instant....?
3 happy
2 neutral
1 sad

Summation: average of 21 scores.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 22 questions:

Below is a list of opposed attributes. Please indicate which applies best to your situation at this moment. Don't think too long. Place a cross next to the word this fits best. If you cannot decide, use the neither/nor option. Do not skip any lines.

At the moment I am feeling.....

A refreshed ...............................listless
B indifferent toward ...................interested in others
C pleased ..................................depressed
D successful..............................unsuccessful
E irritable...................................peaceful
F indecisive...............................ready to make decisions
G cheerful..................................Tearful
H in a good mood...................... in a bad mood
I lacking in appetite..................with a good appetite
J sociable..................................withdrawn
K unworthy.................................worthy
L relaxed................................... tense
M happy.....................................unhappy
N shy..........................................communicative
O sinful and wicked....................pure
P secure.....................................threatened
Q abandoned.............................cared for
R even-tempered.......................driven
S confident.................................insecure
T miserable.................................comfortable
U flexible.....................................inflexible
V tired.........................................rested
W hesitating................................firm
X calm........................................restless
Y lacking in energy....................energetic
Z useless...................................indispensable
AA sluggish................................ lively
AB superior.................................inferior

Response options:
3 positive option
2 neither nor
1 negative option


Summation: Mean

Name: Zerssen's 'Befindlichkeits Skala' version 1 (B-S)
A-BB-c-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"Looking at your present life situation, have you felt....?"
(yes/no)
A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Response options scoring
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A,C,E,G,I
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores B,D,F,H,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's ' Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 10 questions, repeated four times at 3 months intervals:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?" (yes/no)

A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): AC+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +4

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adjusted version 'exited/interested' item dropped)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 11 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?"
A angry
B bored
C could not get going
D depressed
E lonely
F too busy
G uneasy
H exited
I on top of the world
J pleased
K proud

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -7 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-fSelfreport on 10 questions:

We are interested in how people are feeling these days. The following items describe some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week
A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B That things were going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F Upset because someone criticized you
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Bored
I Very lonely or remote from other people
J Depressed or very unhappy

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to E
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average F to J
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -25 to +25

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?"
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
1 not at all
2 sometimes
3 often
4 very often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +15

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
A-Bde-c-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 40 items

Lead sentence and items not reported

Positive affect dimensions
A Joy
B Contentment
C Vigor
D affection

Negative affect dimensions
E Anxiety
F Depression
G Guilt
H Hostility

Rated
0 not at all
1
2
3
4 extremely

Computation:
Positive Affects Total (PTOT): A+B+C+D
Negative Affects Total (NTOT): E+F+G+H
Affects Balance Index (ABI) : PTOT-NTOT/20

Name: Derogatis Affects Balance Scale, short (DBAS)
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 96 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the wright thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last week
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 96 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling;
(Timeframe chosen by the subject: mostly past weeks.)
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't with living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the Wright thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going Wright for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L , Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range - 4 to +4
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

Over this period I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks)
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 6 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt dissatisfied with my life
B I felt happy
C I felt cheerless
D I felt pleased with the way I am
E I felt life was enjoyable
F I felt life was meaningless

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A + C + F
Positive affect score (PAS): B + D + E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Joseph's 'Short Depression-Happiness Scale' (SDHS)
A-BW-c-mq-v-5-cSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way during the past few weeks:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('past few days' version)
A-CA-mi-rc-th%-101-aRating on infants facial affect in 3 situations

1 negative
2 neutral
3 positive

Computation: Average of percentage of positive affect
A-CA-mi-rc-v-9-aRating of child behavior during testing session (Baley scales of infant development)

.. ' Happy'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Rater instructions and scale labels not reported
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-aClinical rating of cheerfulness.

Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 2 or 3 independent judges of cheerfulness as personality descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most characteristic of the subject.

Rating options: scale rating from 1 to 9 (scale options not reported)
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-abSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time d you feel….…' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % unhappy
C-A-h-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about what you have accomplished in life...?
3 well satisfied
2 reasonable satisfied
1 dissatisfied:
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life

Name: Cantril's self anchoring Ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Please rate your life satisfaction these days, compared to the BEST and the WORST periods in your life that you have just identified
Answers rated on an open line scale:
-5 | worst period
-4 |
-3 |
-2 |
-1 |
0
+1 |
+2 |
+3 |
+4 |
+5 | best period

Preceded by recall of best and worst periods in life-experience

Name: ACSA (Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment)
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-aSelfreport on 5 questions, repeated every week during 24 weeks:

A. "How do you feel about your life as a whole?"
1 terrible
2
3
4
5
6
7 delighted

B. "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are........?";
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. To what extent have the five areas of your life been what you wanted it to be? (refers to self, personal life, work life and health)
5 all
4
3
2
1 not at all

D. "How much have you really enjoyed your life as a whole?"
1 not at all,
2
3
4
5 a great deal

E. "How much has your life as a whole made you feel emotionally upset?"
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 a great deal

Summation: A+B+C+D+E
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

When you're not only thinking of your job, but of your total present situation (house, prices, health, love, politics, neighbors, etc.), how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole? Please mark the appropriate face below.

Rated on pictorial scale, consisting of seven smilies, expressing variations from very dissatisfied (a) to very satisfied (g) ( Kunin's 'Faces scale') Pictures not reproduced here).
1 unhappy face
.
.
4 neutral face
.
.
7 happy face

Item in the "Arbeitsbeschreibungsbogen" (job-description questionaire).
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A 20-item PANAS
To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life?
Aa nervous
Ab distressed
Ac afraid
Ad jittery
Ae irritable
Af upset
Ag scared
Ah exiled
Ai ashamed
Aj guilty
Ak hostile
Al active
Am determined
An inspired
Ao enthusiastic
Ap alert
Aq attentive
Ar proud
As strong
At interested

B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener)
Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal
Bb The conditions of my life are excellent
Bc I am satisfied with my life
Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 6 questions

Please describe how you have felt during THE PAST WEEK and make a small check mark. For example, the word nervous is on the first line. If you have felt nervous, check YES, if you have not felt nervous check NO
A Cheerfull
B Happy
C Feeling well
D Contented
E Enjoying yourself
F Looking forward to the future

Rating:
1 yes
0 no

Name: Contentment subscale in Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ).
Version: Past Week.
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

'How would you rate your overall life-satisfaction and contentment during the past week?'
1 very poor
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 very good

Last item (nr 277) in 'Quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) by Jean Endicott. The focus of this questionnaire is on health problems and physical performance.
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, how (much) do you feel happy? What score do you give if we put ten for 'extremely happy, zero for extremely unhappy' and five for neither happy nor unhappy'?"
10 extremely happy
9
8
7
6
5 neither happy nor unhappy
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
0 minimum score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 maximal score
Numbers presented on a horizontal line scale.
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eSelfreport on single question:

Do you generally feel that your life is a source of personal satisfaction?
1 no, never
2 yes, sometimes
3 yes, most of the time
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form) version 2 (5-step rating scale)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
M-TH-g-sq-v-9-aSelf report on single question:

"Please estimate your happiness on the scale below by marking a number from 1 to 9"
1 not very happy most of the time
2
3
4
5 happy most of the time
6
7
8
9 very happy most of the time
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very pleased
5 pleased
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed ( equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 could not be better
6
5
4
3
2
1 could not be worse

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version).
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about the good and bad things in your life, which of the answers best describes your life-as-a-whole?
1 as bas as can be
2 very bad
3 bad
4 allright
5 good
6 very good
7 as good as can be
O-H?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question

.. how happy overall.. (full text not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
Answer options not reported
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life..
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy

(originally presented horizontally)

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-afSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are these days?
1 not very happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-mSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in life today?
3 lots
2 some
1 almost none
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-iSelfreport on single question:

In general, how do you feel in terms of happiness in your current life?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 moderate
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-jSelfreport on single question

Do you feel your life at present is…?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 cannot say
2 fairly sad
1 very sad
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-m-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question :

All things considered, how happy would you say you are right now?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Would you say you are:......?
1 unhappy?
2 reasonably happy?
3 happy ?
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-eSelfreport on single question

I am a very happy person
2 true
1 false
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

To what extent do you think of yourself as a happy person?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you estimate your quality of life as a whole during the last 4 weeks?
| 0
|
|
|
|
|
| 100
Rated on 15 cm vertical open line
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life ....."
Full question not reported

Response options: not reported
O-SL?-g-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction of life in general"
(Full item not reported)
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question :

"On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today.......?"
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-aSelf report on single question:

Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at the ladder. Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder, and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the presentstage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?, Cicle the number
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Overall how satisfied are you with your life?
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Labels of reponse options not reported
O-SLW-?-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question

… satisfaction with life in general .. (full question not reported)

Rated on visual analogue scale
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-qSelfreport on single question:

Currently I am .. with life as a whole
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied, nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-eSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole today?
1 couldn't be worse
2 displeased
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 couldn't be better

Item in Manchester Short Assessment of QOL (MANSA)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice during the interview:

Are you at this moment satisfied or dissatisfied with life in general......?
7 very satisfied
6 for the greater part satisfied
5 rather more satisfied than dissatisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat more dissatisfied than satisfied
2 for the greater part dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- Do not know, difficult to say
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question;

How satisfied or unsatisfied were you last week with your life in general?
Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on the line

_________________________________________
completely completely

Scoring: mm on this 100 mm line
O-SLW-se-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question :

"How satisfied are you about your life as a whole since that time?" ( onset of disease)
7 very satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, I am satisfied with my life
2 true
1 false
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not too satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SQL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you the quality of your life these days?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither nor
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied

Numbering reversed in original rating scale
O-SQL-u-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

'All things considered, how would you rate the quality of your life on a scale from 1 to 10? If it is very bad, give it a score of 1. If it is very good, give it a score of 10. The scores in between allow you to say how close to either side you are.'
1 very bad
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very good
DK
O-SQL-u-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

On a 7-point scale from 1 indicating 'very satisfied and 7 indicating 'very dissatisfied', how would you rate your level of satisfaction with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 very satisfied
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please rate your satisfaction with your quality of life
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-Sum---mq-*-0-aSelf report on 8 items

A How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale
Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval

B a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree to 1 strongly disagree

C How do you feel usually?
0 extremely unhappy
.
.
10 extremely happy

Computation: factor
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of the following statements applies for you in the last 18 months.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 applies completely
6 apllies
5 apllies slightly
4 neither applies nor does not apply
3 slightly not applicable
2 not applicable
1 applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), last years version
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)
O-V-h-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how do you feel your life has turned out so far?
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MCTMultiple Comparison Test, variant not specified
Possible variants: Scheffe, Tukey, Student/Newman/Keuls, Bonferoni (BMCT)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level Correlate nominal, Happiness: metric
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpPOLYCHORIC CORRELATION
Variant of r
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
HOTELLING's T² statistic is the MANOVA equivalent of an F-statistic in an ANOVA situation.
Type: asymmetric test statistic
(one or more correlates; two or more happiness measures at the interval level of measurement)


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M07MENTAL HEALTHN09aa02gRegion in Israel
M07MENTAL HEALTHP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
M07aa02Change in mental healthT02THERAPY
M07abCurrent general mental health P04czStable
M07abCurrent general mental health P04bcFortuitous
M07abCurrent general mental health P04auEfficacious, productive
M07ab01Expert ratings of mental healthA08ac03Attitudinal (dis)functionality
M07ab02Self ratings of mental healthP06ab02Self-perceived health
M07ab02aOverall selfestimate of mental healthP06ab02aGlobal health rating
M07ab02bScores on symptom inventoriesP13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS
M07ab02dDaily living skillsR02ab01Personal qualities
M07acCurrent specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)T02THERAPY
M07ac02Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)S13STIMULANTS
M07ac02aAlcoholic (f10)S13ab01Use of alcohol
M07ac03bParanoid (f20-22)M07ac07Personality disorders (f60-69)
M07ac04aDepressive (f31-33)M13ac03bFeeling down (vs not)
M07ac04aDepressive (f31-33)P04cgPositive reacting
M07ac04bHypomanic (f30)M13ac03aFeeling elated (vs not)
M07ac04bHypomanic (f30)H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES
M07ac05aAnxious (f40)P04afAnxious
M07ac05aAnxious (f40)W07ab01Amount of worrying
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)P13abCurrent psycho-somatic complaints
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)P12ab02cProblems with health
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)P06af01Concerns about health
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
M07ac05bHypochondric (f45.2)C08ab02Specific concerns
M07ac05cNeurotic (f48)P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS
M07ac07aGender identity disorder (f 64)M06ad01Sex-reassignment
M07ac07aGender identity disorder (f 64)G01aeTransgender
M07ac07aGender identity disorder (f 64)G01adGender preference
M07ac08Mental retardation (f70-79)I03ad01Mental retardation
M07ac09Developmental disorders (f80-f89)P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
M07ac09aAutisticP04cwSociable
M07ac11aHysteric (f99)P04chPsychotic
M07ac11aHysteric (f99)P04bzNervous
M07ac11aHysteric (f99)P04axEmotional
M07ac11aHysteric (f99)P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
M07adCurrent positive mental healthP03abPersonality integration
M07adCurrent positive mental healthP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
M07adCurrent positive mental healthW02WISDOM
M07aeCurrent treatment for mental problemsT02ab04Effects of psycho-therapy
M07ae02In ambulatory treatmentM06ab01Visits to doctor
M07ae03In mental hospitalI02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING
M07ae04Use of psycho-pharmacalsH10ac01Use of medicaments
M07ae04Use of psycho-pharmacalsS13STIMULANTS
M07afAttitudes to own mental healthC08ab02Specific concerns
M07af01Readiness to seek professional careM06ae01Trust in medical professionals

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings