Findings on Happiness and MEANING

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MEANING
Subject Code: M05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M05MEANING0
M05aaMeaning career1
M05abCurrent meaning of life11
M05ab01Perceived usefullness of one's life7
M05ab02Perceived meaning of life in general1
M05acSatisfaction with meaning5
M05ab03Feeling part of larger whole3
M05adConcern about meaning1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MEANING
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Meaning career
Subject code: M05aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmeaningful work
Page in Source 166
Our classificationMeaning career, code M05aa
Operationalization
Single question:
" Do you think your work is meaningful?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN:All:3932; 1:4,8%; 2:11,3%; 3:73,5%
Remarks
Ss employed only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.01
2: Mt=7.19
3: Mt=8.11
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=6.46
2: Mt=6.79
3: Mt=7.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.33
2: Mt=6.51
3: Mt=7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmeaning in life
Page in Source 256
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you feel that your life has a meaning ?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: 1:73, 2:260, 3:1103

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
                        unemployed     employed
no meaning in life      Mt= 5.36       6.25
uncertain about meaning Mt= 6.65       6.50
meaning in life         Mt= 8.08       8.34
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.39 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.75
 2: Mt=6.56
 3: Mt=8.23
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
                        unemployed     employed
no meaning in life      Mt= 5.36       5.08 
uncertain about meaning Mt= 5.40       5.79
meaning in life         Mt= 7.63       8.06
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.46 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.18
 2: Mt=5.90
 3: Mt=7.99
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
                        unemployed     employed
no meaning in life      Mt= 5.18       5.31   
uncertain about meaning Mt= 5.46       5.80
meaning in life         Mt= 7.35       7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.38 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.24
 2: Mt=5.76
 3: Mt=7.36
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmeaningful work
Page in Source 140
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
Do you feel your work is meaningful?
1 no
2 not sure
3 yes
Observed distributionN All:3545; %:1:5,4; 2:12,6; 3:82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.18 p < .00
1: Mt=7.03
2: Mt=7.19
3: Mt=8.11
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.20 p < .00
1: Mt=6.48
2: Mt=6.79
3: Mt=7.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.16 p < .00
1: Mt=6.31
2: Mt=6.50
3: Mt=7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmeaningful work
Page in Source 166
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
" Do you think your work is meaningful?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN:All:3932; 1:4,8%; 2:11,3%; 3:73,5%
Remarks
Ss employed only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.01
2: Mt=7.19
3: Mt=8.11
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=6.46
2: Mt=6.79
3: Mt=7.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.33
2: Mt=6.51
3: Mt=7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment with/without meaning in life
Page in Source 174
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
a: unemployed b:employed
with/without meaning in life
1: no meaning
2: uncertain about meaning
3: with meaning in life
Observed distributionN All:4122; %:a1:2,2; a2:3,3; a3:7,5; b1:3,6; b2:14,5; b3:68,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=4.98          b1: Mt=5.90
a2: Mt=6.23          b2: Mt=6.44
a3: Mt=7.94          b3: Mt=8.35
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=4.13          b1: Mt=5.04
a2: Mt=5.65          b2: Mt=5.85
a3: Mt=7.70          b3: Mt=8.11
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=43.76         b1: Mt=5.19
a2: Mt=5.55          b2: Mt=5.65
a3: Mt=7.21          b3: Mt=7.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmeaningful work
Page in Source 132,160
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you feel your work is meaningful ?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: 1:53, 2:109, 3:690
Remarks
employed Ss only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < .00
1:  Mt=6.98
2:  Mt=7.86
3:  Mt=8.01
All Mt=7.94
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.24 p < .00
1:  Mt=6.23
2:  Mt=6.81
3:  Mt=7.79 
All Mt=7.56
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.17 p < .00
1:  Mt=6.04
2:  Mt=6.70
3:  Mt=7.21
All Mt=7.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmeaning in life
Page in Source 266
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you feel that your life has a meaning?"
1: no 
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4567; 1:290; 2:828; 3:3449

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.45 p < .00
1: Mt=5.31
2: Mt=6.39
3: Mt=8.28
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.50 p < .00
1: Mt=4.55
2: Mt=5.83
3: Mt=8.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.43 p < .00
1: Mt=4.93
2: Mt=5.68
3: Mt=7.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelSearch for meaning in religion
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions focusing on attempts to find 
meaning in the illness experience, esp. With reference 
to religious issues
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after 
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
T4: Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.01 ns
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelAbsence of "sense of purpose in life"
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Self report on having sense of purpose in life (vs 
not). Text is not reported.
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.26 p < .001
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta is controlled for:
- age
- ethnicity
- gender
- literacy
- pension
- public assistance
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyKobayashi et al. (2005): study JP 2001
TitleValidation of the Care Notebook for Measuring Physical Mental and Life Well-Being of Patiens with Cancer.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1035 - 1043
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-2958-1
PublicCancer out-patients, followed 4 weeks, Japan, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =249

Correlate
Author's labelSpiritual well-being
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions:
Please inducate how true each of the following 
statements is for you during the past 7 days
a. I feel peaceful
b. I have a reason for living
c. My life has been productive
d. I have trouble feeling peace of mind
e. I feel a sense of purpose in my life
f. I am able to reach down deep into myself for comfort
g. I feel a sense of harmony within myself
h. My life lacks meaning and purpose
i. I find comfort in my faith or spiritual beliefs
j. I find strength in my faith of spiritual beliefs
k. My illness has strengthened my faith or spiritual 
beliefs
l. I know that whatever happens with my illness, things 
will be okay.

Rating: 0: Not al all to 5: Very much

Name: FACIT-Sp-12, Functional Assessment of Chronic 
Illness Therapy scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-n-11-ar=+.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyDebats et al. (1993): study NL 1990
TitleOn the Psychometric Properties of the Life Regard Index (LRI): A measure of Meaningful Life.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 14, 337 -345
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/222201107_On_the_psychometric_properties_of_the_life_regard_index_(LRI)_A_measure_of_meaningful_life_An_evaluation_in_three_independent_samples_based_on_the_Dutch_version
Publicgeneral public, Netherlands, 1990
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =176

Correlate
Author's label Life Regard Index (LRI)
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 28 questionnair about
Framework subscale(FR):
a. Significant meaning
b. Philosophy in life
c. Personal framework
d. Clear direction
e. Purpose in living
f. No direction
g. Aims and goals
h. Excited energetic
i. No life purpose
j. Attaining goals
k. No deep beliefs
l. Life confusing
m. No interest in life
n. Energy is focused

Fulfilment subscale (FU):
o. Achievement blocked
p. Accomplishment blocked
q. Positive about life
r. Living fully
s. Life deeply fulfilling
t. Others more directed
u. Others feel better
v. Passion in life
w. Wasted potential
x. Events insignificant
y. Activities valueless
z. Activities unimportant
aa. Accomplishment
ab Need commitmen

Rated: 3 point Likert scale
1. I agree
2. I have no opinion
3. I disagree
Observed distributionFull scaled: M= 60.02 SD=8.92 Framework subscale: M=26.69 SD=3.96 Fulfilment subscale: M=33.39 SD=5.74
Error EstimatesFull scaled: Cronbacn's alpha=0.91 Framework subscale: Cronbacn's alpha=0.84 Fulfilment subscale: Cronbacn's alpha=0.87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-v-4-ar=+.73 p < .001
Full Scale
O-Sum---mq-v-4-ar=+.53 p < .001
Framework subscale (item a to n)
O-Sum---mq-v-4-ar=+.75 p < .001
Fulfilment subscale (item o to ab)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current meaning of life
Subject code: M05ab

StudyLewis et al. (1997): study GB 1995 /1
TitleReligiosity and Happiness: No Evidence for an Association among Undergraduates.
SourcePersonality and Individual Diffrences, 1997, Vol. 22. 119 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)88910-6
PublicUniversity students, Great Britan, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in life
Page in Source 120
Our classificationCurrent meaning of life, code M05ab
Operationalization
20 item Purpose in Life test (PIL)
(Crumbaugh 1968)
Observed distributionRange: 44-132, M = 100,99 SD = 15,85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.61 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyAbe & Moritsuka (1986): study JP 1981
TitleA Case-Control Study of Climacteric Symptoms and Complaints of Japanese Women by Symptomatic Type for Psychological Variables.
SourceMaturitas, 1986, Vol. 8, 255 - 265
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3784921&dopt=Abstract
PublicWomen in menopause patient and controls, Miyagi, North-east Japan, 1981-82.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response20 % (cases 21%,controls 19%)
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelInvolvement in family and/or community
Page in Source 262
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question: Do you think you are 
contributive to your family or community?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelLife meaningful
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Survey question: How often do you feel that your life 
has meaning?
Observed distributionM = 3,55 SD = 0,72 N = 32265

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+.42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.29 p < .01
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelFelt usefull
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instrcted time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"How often have you felt usefull?"
Rated on a 5-point sclae ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.33 p < .01
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.54 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyKeyes (1998): study US Wisconsin 1994
TitleSocial Well-Being.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 61, 121 - 140
Public18+ aged, general public, Dane County, Wisconsin USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Contribution
Page in Source 132
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Respondents indicated (dis)agreement with the following 
statements: You think/believe/feel
a) Your behavior has impact on others (+)
b) You have something valuable to give to the world (+)
c) Your daily activities do not produce anything 
worthwhile for your community (-)
d) You don't have time or energy to give anything to 
your community (-)
e) Your work provides an important product for society 
(+)
f) You have nothing important to contribute to society 
(-)
Items with (-) are reverse scored on scale ranging from 
1.strongly 2.moderately 3.slightly disagree 4.slightly 
5.moderately 6.strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 30.3 SD = 5.2
Error EstimatesMetric Loading ranging from .86 to 1.2 validity coefficient ranging from .49 to .65 Alpha Reliability .75

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.27 p < .01
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.20 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyRyff & Keyes (1995): study US 1990
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 719 - 727
Public25+ aged, USA, 199?
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1108

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in life
Page in Source 724
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 3 items rated on a 6-point scale ranging 
from completely disagree to completely agree.
-High scorers: have goals in life and a sense of 
directedness; feel there is meaning to present and past 
life; hold beliefs that give life purpose; have aims 
and objectives for living.
-Low scorers: lack a sense of meaning in life; have few 
goals or aims, lack sense of direction; do not see 
purpose of past life; have no outlook or beliefs that 
give life meaning.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-4-br=+.13 p < .00
C-BW-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.10 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in life
Page in Source 1073
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. 
Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly 
agree to disagree. 
High scorers have goals in life and a sense of 
directedness; feel there is meaning to present and past 
life; hold beliefs that give life purpose; have aims 
and objectives for living.
Low scorers lack a sense of meaning in life; have few 
goals or aims, lack sense of direction; do not see 
purpose of past life; have no outlook or beliefs that 
give life meaning.
Observed distributionYoung adults: women (m=94.92, sd=13.38), men (m=94.80, sd=11.93) Middle aged adults: women (m=95.47, sd=17.18), men (m=97.68, sd=16.20) Older adults: women (m=88.58, sd=16.14), men (m=92.92, sd=14.84)
Error Estimatesalpha=.90 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.42 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived usefullness of one's life
Subject code: M05ab01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived usefulness
Page in Source 567
Our classificationPerceived usefullness of one's life, code M05ab01
Operationalization
Perceived usefulness
Questions not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.68 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived meaning of life in general
Subject code: M05ab02

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in Life
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationPerceived meaning of life in general, code M05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:
a: I enjoy making plans for the future and working to 
make them a reality
b: My daily activities often seem trivial and 
unimportant to me
c: I am an active person in carrying out the plans I 
set for myself
d: I tend to focus on the present, because the future 
nearly always brings me problems
e: I don't have a good sense of what it is I'm trying 
to accomplish in life
f: I sometimes feel as if I have done all there is to 
do in life
g: I sometimes feel as if I've done all there is to do 
in life
h: I used to set goals for myself, but that now seems 
like a waste of time
i: Some people wander aimlessly through life but I am 
not one of them
j: I live life one days at a time and don't really 
think about the future.

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 6,6; SD=3,9 Controls: M=10,2; SD=2,7
Remarks
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Purpose in Life

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.54 ns
healthy control group


Correlational finding on Happiness and Feeling part of larger whole
Subject code: M05ab03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelfeeling part of a larger whole
Page in Source 384
Our classificationFeeling part of larger whole, code M05ab03
Operationalization
Single question:
" Do you feel part of a larger whole ?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4553; %: 1:12,2; 2:21,7; 3:75,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .00
1: Mt=6.51
2: Mt=7.23
3: Mt=8.14
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.31 p < .00
1: Mt=5.98
2: Mt=6.84
3: Mt=7.89
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.27 p < .00
1: Mt=5.86
2: Mt=6.56
3: Mt=7.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Feeling part of larger whole
Subject code: M05ab03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelrelations with nature
Page in Source 388
Our classificationFeeling part of larger whole, code M05ab03
Operationalization
Single question:
" How are your current relations with nature ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good 
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4365: %:1:1,8; 2:5,4; 3:26,4; 4:73,2; 5:76,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.19 p < .00
1: Mt=6.93
2: Mt=7.03
3: Mt=7.30
4: Mt=7.90
5: Mt=8.30
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=6.24
2: Mt=6.64
3: Mt=6.94
4: Mt=7.61
5: Mt=8.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=5.96
2: Mt=6.51
3: Mt=6.49
4: Mt=7.20
5: Mt=7.59


Correlational finding on Happiness and Feeling part of larger whole
Subject code: M05ab03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelfeeling part of a whole
Page in Source 362
Our classificationFeeling part of larger whole, code M05ab03
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you feel part of a larger whole?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: all:1424, 1:158, 2:335, 3:931

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.23 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.73
 2: Mt=7.41
 3: Mt=8.11
All Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.30 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.08
 2: Mt=6.98
 3: Mt=7.86
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.28 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.65
 2: Mt=6.66
 3: Mt=7.29
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with meaning
Subject code: M05ac

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with sense of meaning of life
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationSatisfaction with meaning, code M05ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your sense of meaning o 
life?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.07 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.11 p < .05
Beta's controlled for:
- mental healtgh
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - achievements in life
  - future society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with meaning
Subject code: M05ac

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelfulfilment of need to be useful
Page in Source 418
Our classificationSatisfaction with meaning, code M05ac
Operationalization
Single question:
"How well is your need to be useful fulfilled at 
present?"
1: very badly
2: badly
3: neither well nor badly
4: well
5: very well
Observed distributionN: all:1409, 1:8, 2:86, 3:360, 4:665, 5:290

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .00
 1: Mt=2.50
 2: Mt=5.93
 3: Mt=7.46
 4: Mt=7.90
 5: Mt=8.58
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.41 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.56
 2: Mt=5.06
 3: Mt=7.05
 4: Mt=7.61
 5: Mt=8.46
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.36 p < .00
 1: Mt=2.50
 2: Mt=5.20
 3: Mt=6.51
 4: Mt=7.10
 5: Mt=7.85
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with meaning
Subject code: M05ac

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with contributing to other people's lives
Our classificationSatisfaction with meaning, code M05ac
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about 
contributing to other people's lives?', rated on a 
7-point Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging from (1) 
Delighted to (7) Terrible,
(8) neither. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.28    (01)
T2: 1979     r= +.38    (01)
T3: 1981     r= +.38    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with meaning
Subject code: M05ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatsfaction with contribution to others life
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with meaning, code M05ac
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how much you 
are really contributing to other people's lives?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ moslty 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with meaning
Subject code: M05ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with contribution to others life
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with meaning, code M05ac
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about how much you 
are really contributing to other people's lives?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about meaning
Subject code: M05ad

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPhilosophical activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationConcern about meaning, code M05ad
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled philosophical activities (religious or 
spiritual, concern with the meaning of existence, 
adherence to an ethical or behavioral code).
They were also asked what they did "yesterday"
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.34 (ns)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r=-.37 ns females: r=+.39 05
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Youngest (hs seniors + newly-weds)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 22 questions:

Below is a list of opposed attributes. Please indicate which applies best to your situation at this moment. Don't think too long. Place a cross next to the word this fits best. If you cannot decide, use the neither/nor option. Do not skip any lines.

At the moment I am feeling.....

A refreshed ...............................listless
B indifferent toward ...................interested in others
C pleased ..................................depressed
D successful..............................unsuccessful
E irritable...................................peaceful
F indecisive...............................ready to make decisions
G cheerful..................................Tearful
H in a good mood...................... in a bad mood
I lacking in appetite..................with a good appetite
J sociable..................................withdrawn
K unworthy.................................worthy
L relaxed................................... tense
M happy.....................................unhappy
N shy..........................................communicative
O sinful and wicked....................pure
P secure.....................................threatened
Q abandoned.............................cared for
R even-tempered.......................driven
S confident.................................insecure
T miserable.................................comfortable
U flexible.....................................inflexible
V tired.........................................rested
W hesitating................................firm
X calm........................................restless
Y lacking in energy....................energetic
Z useless...................................indispensable
AA sluggish................................ lively
AB superior.................................inferior

Response options:
3 positive option
2 neither nor
1 negative option


Summation: Mean

Name: Zerssen's 'Befindlichkeits Skala' version 1 (B-S)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
C-BW-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

how things are going in your life.. (full item not reported)
0 the worst possible life you could imagine
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the best possible life you could imagine
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-cw-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

Thinking about the past week, please answer the questions below by circling one number.
Your life over the past week

A 10 the most peaceful feeling
.
.
0 none at all

B 10 the happiest feeling
.
.
0 none at all

C 10 the best quality of life
.
.
0 the worst

D 10 the most satisfaction with life
.
.
0 none at all

Summation: A+B+C+D/4
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 6 questions

Please describe how you have felt during THE PAST WEEK and make a small check mark. For example, the word nervous is on the first line. If you have felt nervous, check YES, if you have not felt nervous check NO
A Cheerfull
B Happy
C Feeling well
D Contented
E Enjoying yourself
F Looking forward to the future

Rating:
1 yes
0 no

Name: Contentment subscale in Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ).
Version: Past Week.
M-TH-cm-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question

Felt happy during the past month.. (full item not reported)
3 all of the time
2 most of the time
2 some of the time
0 none of the time
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with present life....."
(Full lead item not reported)
1
2
3
(Response options not reported)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to pretend for a moment that their life would end next week end then indicate how happy they felt about the life they been able to live. (Full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

'.satisfied with global life right now.'
(full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-Sum---mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A To what extend do you regard yourself as a happy person?
1 not happy
2 doubtful
3 happy
4 very happy
B How satisfied are you with your present life?
1 not satisfied
2 doubful
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied

Summation: A+B.
Name: Happiness Index
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M05MEANINGA06ANOMY
M05MEANINGV02aa01gMeaning
M05aaMeaning careerL04ac01kMeaningful (vs useless)
M05aaMeaning careerM13ac08Feeling full (vs empty)
M05abCurrent meaning of lifeR01abCurrent religious beliefs
M05ab01Perceived usefullness of one's lifeS02ab09Self-perceived usefulness
M05ab01Perceived usefullness of one's lifeL04ac01kMeaningful (vs useless)
M05ab02Perceived meaning of life in generalA06ANOMY
M05ab03Feeling part of larger wholeR01abCurrent religious beliefs
M05adConcern about meaningA01ab02Mental activity
M05adConcern about meaningI04abCurrent interests

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings