Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: PARTNER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: PARTNER
Subject Code: M04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER0
M04aaSpouse career0
M04aa01Earlier characteristics of spouse0
M04aa02Change in characteristics of spouse2
M04aa03Later characteristics of spouse0
M04abCurrent characteristics of spouse5
M04ab01Health of spouse3
M04ab01aMental health of spouse3
M04ab01bPhysical health of spouse2
M04ab02Personality of spouse3
M04ab03Social position of spouse2
M04ab03aEducation of spouse2
M04ab03bEmployment of spouse10
M04ab03cIncome of spouse5
M04ab03dOccupation of spouse4
M04ab03eSocial status of spouse6
M04ab03fSpouse is a migrant0
M04adCurrent behaviors of spouse1
M04ad01Support by spouse9
M04aeCurrent attitudes of spouse0
M04ae01Happiness of spouse5
M04afOwn attitudes to spouse5
M04agSimilarity with spouse0
M04acWork conditions of spouse8
M04ab01baweight of spouse1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: PARTNER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04aa02

StudyAtkinson et al. (1986): study US 1982
TitleThe Social Costs of Unemployment: Implications for Social Support.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1986, Vol. 27, 317 - 331
PublicUnemployed males followed 2 month after jobloss and matched controls, Boston, USA, 1982
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital support
Page in Source 322-6
Our classificationChange in characteristics of spouse, code M04aa02
Operationalization
Husbands were asked how supportive their wives had been 
during the recent past
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (two month difference. Perceived 
support dropped among the continuously unemployed, but 
rose among the re-employed, while remaining at the same 
level in the control group of continuously employed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in perceived marital support by T2 
happiness
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aBeta=
Control for happiness reduces the negative effect 
of unemployment on perceived marital support. This 
suggests that happiness mediates this effect, 
continued unemployment lowering happiness and 
unhappiness subsequently lowering perceived 
marital support.

Direct association between unemployment and 
happiness not reported in this publication.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04aa02

StudyAtkinson et al. (1986): study US 1982
TitleThe Social Costs of Unemployment: Implications for Social Support.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1986, Vol. 27, 317 - 331
PublicUnemployed males followed 2 month after jobloss and matched controls, Boston, USA, 1982
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelChange in spouse role performance
Page in Source 322-66
Our classificationChange in characteristics of spouse, code M04aa02
Operationalization
Husbannds rated their satisfaction with their wives 
role performance during the past month
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (two month difference. 
Satisfaction dropped among the continuously unemployed, 
but rose among the re-employed, while remaining at the 
same level in the control group of continuously 
employed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in satisfaction with wive's role 
performance by T2 husbands happiness
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aBeta=
Control for happiness reduces the negative effect 
of unemployment on perceived wive's role 
performance. This suggests that happiness mediates 
this effect, continued unemployment lowering 
happiness and unhappiness subsequently lowering 
perceived role performance of the wife.

Direct association between unemployment and 
happiness not reported in this publication.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelCombined effects of partner related correlates_B
Page in Source 71
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of spouse, code M04ab
Operationalization
1. Age
2. Professional status
3. Income
4. Intensity of sex life
5. Suffering from jealousy of self
   and/or partner
6. Satisfaction with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aR²=.16 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelCombined effects of partner related correlates_A
Page in Source 70
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of spouse, code M04ab
Operationalization
1. Professional status of husband
2. Frequency of contact with partner
3. Intensity of sex life
4. Satisfaction with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aR²=.24 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aR²=.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelPartner related factors
Page in Source 144
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of spouse, code M04ab
Operationalization
1 Professional status
2 Family communication
3 Satisfaction with physical health
4 Material satisfaction
5 Satisfaction with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aR²=.31 p < .05
Housewives without a job, aged <60 only (N=336)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04ab

StudyGwanfogbe et al. (1970): study CM 1965
TitlePolygyny and Marital Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study from Rural Cameroon.
SourceJournal of Comparative Family Studies, 1970, Vol. 28, 55 - 71
PublicMothers of young child, rural areas, Cameroon, 196?
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelAge of husband
Page in Source 62,64
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of spouse, code M04ab
Operationalization
Observed distributionM = 42,5 years (SD = 11,7); Range 22 to 70 years; Median 40,2 years.
Remarks
Most husbands older than wife.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta= ns
Beta controled for:
- wife order
- marital satisfaction
- husband's supportiveness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of spouse
Subject code: M04ab

StudySchimmack & Lucas (2007): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleMarriage Matters, Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction.
SourceSchmollers Jahrbuch, 2007, Vol. 1, 1 - 7
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.44710.de/dp623.pdf
PublicCouples, followed 21 years, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1728

Correlate
Author's labelspousal similarity in life-satisfaction
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of spouse, code M04ab
Operationalization
Correlation in response to single question: 

"Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days? 
10 totally satisfied
.
.
0  totally unsatisfied

Both spouses answered this question independently each 
year between 1984 and 2004
Remarks
847 couples that participated in all 21 waves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.52
Average correlation spousal similarity for each of 
the 21 waves from 1984 to 2004"

Same year correlations are higher than cross 
lagged correlations

The correlation declines slightly over the years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.64
Average correlation of own happiness with spouces 
happiness one year later
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.35
T1 own happiness by happiness of spouse 21 years 
later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelHealth
Page in Source 183
Our classificationHealth of spouse, code M04ab01
Operationalization
Being in good health
Observed distributionWomen: 85%, Men = 81 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
WIVES ONLY
Being in good health                + 0,62
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
HUSBANDS ONLY 
Being in good health                + 0,37)

OLCR's controlled for:
- having children
- family income
- health of spouse
- own employment
- employment of spouse

OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelExhaustion of spouse
Page in Source 275
Our classificationHealth of spouse, code M04ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions that refer to fatigue. e.g.: 

- I feel used up at the end of the workday
- I feel burned out from work
Rated 0(never) to 6 (always) scale:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.11 ns
Wives happiness by exhaustion of husband


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01

StudyKleiboer (2006): study NL 2001
TitleCouples Dealing with Multiple Sclerosis. A Diary Study Examining the Effects of Spousal Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht, 2006, Netherlands
PublicMS patients and their spouse, The Netherlands, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response12,9%
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelpatient or partner of patient
Page in Source 68-69
Our classificationHealth of spouse, code M04ab01
Operationalization
a: Patient (multiple sclerosis)
b: Spouse of patient
Observed distributionN= a: 61, b: 59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-mi-mqr-v-5-aDM=
Patients              M = +1,03
Spouces of patients   M = +1,03
difference                 0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01a

StudyBriscoe (1982): study GB 1977
TitleSex Differences in Psychological Well-Being.
SourcePsychological Medicine, 1982, Monograph Supplement 1, 1 - 48
PublicMarried couples with high incidence of minor psychiatric problems, London, U.K., 1977
Sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelMale sex
Page in Source 20
Our classificationMental health of spouse, code M04ab01a
Operationalization
0 Female (wives)
1 Males  (husbands)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+
Husbands:-all
-Ss has minor psychiatric illness        Mt'= 7.7
-wife has minor psychiatric illness      Mt'= 8.3
Wives:-all
-Ss has minor psychiatric illness        Mt'= 7.6
-husband has minor psychiatric illness   Mt'= 7.4
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.11 p < .05
                Males Females
very    happy   38%   38%
fairly  happy   60%   50%
not too happy    2%   12%

Reversed in national control group, see HALL 76.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMt=+
Males:-all
-Ss has minor psychiatric illness       Mt'= 3.12
-wife has minor psychiatric illness     Mt'= 4.03
Females:-all
-Ss has minor psychiatric illness       Mt'= 1.74
-husband has minor psychiatric problems Mt'= 1.83


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01a

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelFertility problem stress
Page in Source 412
Our classificationMental health of spouse, code M04ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 question on the amount of stress and 
disruption the fertility problem had produced in 
various domains of life of respondents life during the 
last 12 month
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.46 p < .01
Wives happiness by wives stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.39 p < .01
Wives happiness by husbands stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.12 ns
Husbands happiness by wives stress
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.39 p < .01
Husbands happiness by husbands stress
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01a

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelSelf esteem
Page in Source 412
Our classificationMental health of spouse, code M04ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions. Text not reported.
1:  strongly disagree
5:  strongly agree
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .76
Remarks
Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale, abbreviated version

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.57 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by wives selfesteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.29 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by husbands selfesteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.22 p < .<.05
Husbands happiness by wives self esteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.50 p < .<.01
Husbands happiness by husbands self esteem
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01b

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelHealth of partner
Page in Source 183
Our classificationPhysical health of spouse, code M04ab01b
Operationalization
Being in good health
Observed distributionWomen: 85%, Men = 81 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
ALL (correlation with couple's average happiness)

Wife being in good health           + 0,42
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
Husband being in good health        + 0,27
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
WIVES ONLY
Spouse being in good health         + 0,08
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
HUSBANDS ONLY
Cross section data                  + 0,02

OLCR's controlled for:
- having children
- family income
- health of spouce
- own health

OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences.
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical health of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01b

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2010): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labor.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol. 107, 77 - 79
URLhttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/28101/1/608759643.PDF
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2009.12.032
Public18-65 aged working couples, Germany, followed 7 years, 1999-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16937

Correlate
Author's labelHealth
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationPhysical health of spouse, code M04ab01b
Operationalization
Self rated f health (question nor reported)
1:  bad
:
5: very good

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.25 p < .01
Women's happiness by own health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.07 p < .01
Men's hapiness by wifes health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.06 p < .01
Women's happiness by husbands health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.25 p < .01
Men's happiness by own health

b's based on Probit-adjusted OLS, controlled for:
- age
- own health
- spuces health
- individual fixed effects
- time fixed effects

Unaffected by working hours.


Correlational finding on Happiness and weight of spouse
Subject code: M04ab01ba

StudyClark & Etile (2009): study DE 2002
TitleHappy House: spousal Weight and individual Well-being.
SourceWorking Paper no. 2010-07, Paris School of Economics, 2010, Paris, France.
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.07.010
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.07.010
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002,2004,2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19899

Correlate
Author's labelSpousal weight
Page in Source 11,12,22
Our classificationweight of spouse, code M04ab01ba
Operationalization
BMI of spouse
a: normal: BMI <25 (reference)
b: overweight: 25<= BMI<30
c: obese: BMI >=30

1: applies
0: does not apply

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ar=-.51 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man overweight, woman normal (vs both normal)
- women b = -.11 (01)
- men   b = -.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man obese, woman not overweight (vs both normal)
- women b = -.18 (01)
- men   b = -.24 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man non-overweight, woman overweight (vs both 
normal)
- women b = -.23 (01)
- men   b = -.22 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man overweight, woman not overweight (vs both 
normal)
- women b = -.11 (01)
- men   b = -.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-a
Man overweight, woman overweight (vs both normal)
- women b = -.10 (05)
- men   b = -.05 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=
Man obese, woman overweight (vs both normal)
- women b = -.28 (01)
- men   b = -.27 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man normal, woman obese (vs both normal)
- women b = -.51 (01)
- men   b = -.35 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-ab=-
Man overweight, woman obese (vs both normal)
- women b = -.25 (01)
- men   b = -.08 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aBeta=-
Man obese, woman obese (vs both normal)
- women b = -.25 (01)
- men   b = -.17 (05)

Beta's controlled for:
- partner's height 
- interaction between own and partner's height
- age
- age squared
- income(log)
- education
- householdsize
- legal arrangement
- work status
- waves 
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of spouse
Subject code: M04ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelSelf esteem
Page in Source 412
Our classificationPersonality of spouse, code M04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions. Text not reported.
1:  strongly disagree
5:  strongly agree
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .76
Remarks
Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale, abbreviated version

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.57 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by wives selfesteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.29 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by husbands selfesteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.22 p < .<.05
Husbands happiness by wives self esteem
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.50 p < .<.01
Husbands happiness by husbands self esteem
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of spouse
Subject code: M04ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelInternal control
Page in Source 412
Our classificationPersonality of spouse, code M04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions, e.g.:
" I can run my life pretty much the way I want to" 
other questions not reported

Rated:
1:  strongly disagree
5:  strongly agree
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.69 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by wives internal control
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.39 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by husbands internal control
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.25 p < .<.05
Husbands happiness by wives internal control
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.65 p < ..01
Husbands happiness by husbands internal control
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of spouse
Subject code: M04ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1992): study US 1987
TitleInfertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.
SourceJournal of Marriage and Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 408 - 417
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/353072?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
DOIDoi: 10.2307/353072
PublicInfertile couples, United States, 1987
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =370

Correlate
Author's labelIntimacy life quality
Page in Source 412
Our classificationPersonality of spouse, code M04ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions about satisfaction with the 
sexual and romantic aspects of their lives. Texts not 
reported.
Rated:
1:  very dissatisfied
5:  very satisfied
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .83

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.48 p < ..01
Wives happiness by wives intimacy life quality
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.36 p < .<.01
Wives happiness by husbands intimacy life quality
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.32 p < .<.01
Husbands happiness by wives intimacy life quality
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.57 p < .<.01
Husbands happiness by husbands intimacy life 
quality
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Social position of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelSocial stratum of husband
Page in Source 595
Our classificationSocial position of spouse, code M04ab03
Operationalization
0 Lower                                1 Upper strata.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bG=- ns
Computed for married females only.
Gammas based on proportion 'very satisfied'.

Employed females  : G' = -.31 (ns)
Unemployed females: G' = -.20 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social position of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of spouse
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationSocial position of spouse, code M04ab03
Operationalization
Direct questions:
 
- Educational level of spouse (AB or better) 
  a. in 1940.

- Occupational level of spouse
  b. 1940
  c. 1950
  d. 1960
Remarks
Earlier level of spouce (1940, 1950, 1960) by present 
happiness of subject (1972).
    
     

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .02
1940 education of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .02
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .03
1940 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 occupation of spouse by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Education of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03a

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldifference in educational levels
Page in Source 300
Our classificationEducation of spouse, code M04ab03a
Operationalization
Difference in education between spouses
1.similar
 1a: both long post-secondary(level IV)
 1b: both intermediate post-
    secondary(levelIII)
 1c: both short post-secondary (level II)
 1d: neither has any post-secondary 
    education (level I)
2.dissimiar
 2a: woman long (IV), man none (I)
 2b: man long (IV), woman none (I)
Observed distributionN1: all:325 1a:12, 1b:30, 1c:22, 1d:261 N2: all:18, 2a:4, 2b:14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
 similar:     dissimilar: 
 1a: Mt=8.13  2a:7.50     
 1b: Mt=7.75  2b:8.21
 1c: Mt=7.84
 1d: Mt=8.06
All 1: =8.03   2:8.05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
 similar      dissimilar
 1a: Mt=7.91  2a:6.88
 1b: Mt=7.50  2b:7.68
 1c: Mt=7.84
 1d: Mt=7.73
All 1:  7.73   2:7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
 similar:     dissimilar:
 1a: Mt=6.88  2a:6.88 
 1b: Mt=7.09  2b:7.14
 1c: Mt=7.28
 1d: Mt=7.39
All   1:7.33   2:7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Education of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03a

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldifference in educational levels(self-partner)
Page in Source 318
Our classificationEducation of spouse, code M04ab03a
Operationalization
difference in educational level between you and your 
partner
Difference in education between spouses
1.similar
 1a: both long post-secondary(level IV)
 1b: both intermediate post-
    secondary(levelIII)
 1c: both short post-secondary (level II)
 1d: neither has any post-secondary 
    education (level I)
2.dissimilar
 2a: woman long (IV), man none (I)
 2b: man long (IV), woman none (I)
Observed distributionN: All:1250; %:1a:9,9; 1b:7,6; 1c:7,9; 1d:65,3; 2a:3,0; 2b:6,3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1a: Mt=7.59   2a: Mt=7.96
1b: Mt=7.90   2b: Mt=8.29
1c: Mt=7.65
1d: Mt=8.13
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1a: Mt=7.38   2a: Mt=7.70
1b: Mt=7.58   2b: Mt=8.10
1c: Mt=7.43
1d: Mt=7.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1a: Mt=7.10   2a: Mt=7.44
1b: Mt=7.08   2b: Mt=7.79
1c: Mt=7.09
1d: Mt=7.48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Page in Source 183
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
0: No job
1: Part-time job= < 35 hours a week
2: Full-time job = >= 35 hours a week
Observed distributionFemales: 0: 29% , 1: 37% , 2: 34% . Males: 0: 9% , 1: 7% , 2: 84%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
ALL (correlation with couple's average happiness)
              M     SD    N
0: No job     7,89  0,24  3114
1: Part-time  8,04  0,11  3617
2: Full-time  7,93  0,01  9603
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
1<3<2
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (+.03)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full time (vs no job)    (-.15)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.19)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
Husband works full time (vs no job) (+.30)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
WIVES ONLY
              M     SD   CI95         N
0: No job     8,03  1,62 [7,96;8,09]  2384
1: Part-time  8,10  1,27 [8,05;8,17]  3033
2: Full-time  7,95  1,34 [7,96;8,09]  2751

Calculated from table 1
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
3<1,2
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (-.04)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full-time (vs no job)    (-.26)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.09)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .10
Husband works full-time (vs no job) (+.20)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
HUSBANDS ONLY 
              M    SD    CI95        N
0: No job     7,43 1,92 [7,29;7,57]  731
1: Part-time  7,81 1,47 [7,69;7,93]  583
2: Full-time  7,92 1,32 [7,89,7,95]  6854

Calculated from table 1
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
1<2<3
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (+.02)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.02)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full-time (vs no job)    (-.07)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Husband works full-time (vs no job) (-.07)

OLCR's controlled for:
- having children
- family income
- health of spouce
- own health


OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse in labour force
Page in Source 34,35,55,57
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
Spouse in labour force, various operationalizations 
depending on the analysis:
A: 1    - Working
     0    - All other 
B: 1    - Full-time
     0.5 - Part-time
     0    - None
C: 40  - Full-time
     20  - Part-time
       0  - None
D: Very long:       60+       5
      Long:               49-59   4
      Full time:         35-48   3
      Part time:          5-34   2
      Not working:    0-4     1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.82 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
   - Marital status:
     - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
     - Widowed
     - Divorced
   - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Education
  - Family income
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force


B and beta ns when additionally controlled for 
hours worked, occupational status, job security, 
earnings and unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 1077,1078,1082
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
This study examines the effects of being unemployed on 
life satisfaction. Question not reported.
1. employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=-.40
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment of partner
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
Question :' Is your husband /wife employed at this 
moment ?'
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      -.01       -.02       -.01 
1980      -.00       -.01       -.00
1984      -.06       -.07       -.06
1988      -.05       -.07       -.05

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      -.02       -.04       -.02
1980      -.02       -.03       -.02
1984      -.03       -.06       -.03
1988      -.05       -.10       -.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status spouse
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
a) 1: Spouse is full-time employed
   0: Spouse is part-time/ not employed
b) 1: Spouse is part-time employed
   0: Spouse is not employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.90 p < .001
SPOUSE IS FULL-TIME EMPLOYED (vs spouse is 
part-time/ not employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.32 ns
SPOUSE IS PART-TIME EMPLOYED (vs spouse is not 
employed)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) gender
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status partner
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
a) 1: Partner is full-time employed
   0: Partner is part-time/ not employed
b) 1: Partner is part-time employed
   0: Partner is not employed
Remarks
A partner is a person where one is in an unmarried 
relationship with.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.13 ns
PARTNER IS FULL-TIME EMPLOYED (vs partner is 
part-time/ not employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.65 ns
PARTNER IS PART-TIME EMPLOYED (vs partner is not 
employed)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) gender
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse employed
Page in Source 17-22
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.01 ns
MALES (N=58674/10085)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.01 ns
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)

B's controlled for: 
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyJoshi (1996): study GB 1991
TitleCombining Employment and Child Rearing: The Story of British Women's Lives.
SourceOffer, A.;Ed.: "In Pursuit of the Quality of Life", Oxford University Press, 1996, UK, 88 - 118
Public33 year aged women and husbands, Great Britain,1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10622

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status of partner
Page in Source 108
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
0 Partner not employed
1 partner employed
Observed distributionWomen N: 0 = 360 1 =4106, Men N: 0 = 1502, 1 = 2560

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
Employed women
0 Partner not employed M = 7,8 SD = 1,5 N = 2852
1 partner employed     M = 7,2 SD = 1,8 N =  157
Difference               - 0,6
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Unemployed women
0 Partner not employed M = 6,9 SD = 2,0 N =  203 
1 Partner employed     M = 7,9 SD = 1,6 N = 1254
Difference               + 1,0
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
Employed men
0 Partner not employed M = 7,7 SD = 1,4 N = 1337
1 Partner employed     M = 7,6 SD = 1,4 N = 2505
Difference               - 0,1
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Unemployed men
0 Partner not employed M = 6,5 SD = 2,3 N = 165
1 Partner employed     M = 7,1 SD = 1,9 N =  55  
Difference               + 0,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyHolland-Benin & Cable-Nienstedt (1985): study US 1978
TitleHappiness in Single- and Dual-Earner Families: The Effects of Marital Happiness, Job Satisfaction, and Life Cycle.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 975 -984
PublicMarried persons, non-institutionalized, USA, 1978-83
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =3050

Correlate
Author's labelWorkstatus of wife
Page in Source 198
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
0 Husbands of housewives        
1 Husbands of working wives

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-hG=+.03 ns
Husbands only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status of spouce
Page in Source 186/7
Our classificationEmployment of spouse, code M04ab03b
Operationalization
0 Spouce employed
1 Spouce unemployed
Remarks
Data T1. Results T3 similar. 
Computed for marrieds only. 

Happiness level in average ridits (RT):

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
- Husbands
  - S employed, wife employed          RT=.53
  - S employed, wife unemployed        RT=.50
  - S unemployed, wife employed        RT=.42
  - S unemployed, wife unemployed      RT=.34
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
- Wives
  - S employed, husband employed       RT=.53
  - S employed, husband unemployed     RT=.35
  - S unemployed, husband employed     RT=.45
  - S unemployed, husband unemployed   RT=.40
- Wives whose husband is chief wage earner
  - husband employed                   RT=.48
  - husband unemployed                 RT=.38

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03c

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpartner's income
Page in Source 298
Our classificationIncome of spouse, code M04ab03c
Operationalization
Single question:
"What was your partner's personal income before taxes 
last year ?"
income in 1000 DK
1: 0-50
2: 50-100
3: 100-200
4: 200-300
5: 300-400
6: 400-1.000
7: > 1.000
Observed distributionN: All:981, 1:95, 2:145, 3:403, 4:251, 5:62, 6:23, 7:2
Remarks
1 Danish krone was $0.18 at 2-1-1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.00 ns
 1: Mt=7.81
 2: Mt=7.88
 3: Mt=8.08
 4: Mt=7.86
 5: Mt=7.79
 6: Mt=7.94
 7: Mt=8.75
All Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.00 ns
 1: Mt=7.71
 2: Mt=7.55
 3: Mt=7.81
 4: Mt=7.63
 5: Mt=7.66
 6: Mt=7.39
 7: Mt=10.0
All Mt=7.70
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.00 ns
 1: Mt=7.40
 2: Mt=7.09
 3: Mt=7.31
 4: Mt=7.15
 5: Mt=7.26
 6: Mt=7.50
 7: Mt=8.75
All Mt=7.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03c

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelpartners income
Page in Source 316
Our classificationIncome of spouse, code M04ab03c
Operationalization
Single question:
" What was your partner's personal income before taxes 
last year ?" (in Danish krones)
1: 0-50.000
2: 50.001-100.000
3: 100.001-200.000
4: 200.001-300.000
5: 300.001-400.000
6: 400.001-1.000.000
Observed distributionN: All:3443; %:1:3,1; 2:6,8; 3:40,7; 4:35,1; 5:9,7; 6:4,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 p < .00
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=7.61
3: Mt=8.03
4: Mt=8.00
5: Mt=8.20
6: Mt=8.24
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.11 p < .00
1: Mt=6.60
2: Mt=7.36
3: Mt=7.65
4: Mt=7.84
5: Mt=7.89
6: Mt=8.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.07 p < .00
1: Mt=6.66
2: Mt=7.09
3: Mt=7.36
4: Mt=7.48
5: Mt=7.50
6: Mt=7.49


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03c

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2010): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labor.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol. 107, 77 - 79
URLhttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/28101/1/608759643.PDF
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2009.12.032
Public18-65 aged working couples, Germany, followed 7 years, 1999-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16937

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationIncome of spouse, code M04ab03c
Operationalization
Log annual labor income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.31 ns
Women's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.38 ns
Woman's happiness by husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.03 ns
Woman's happiness by interaction of own and 
husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.49 ns
Men's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.67 p < .01
Men's happiness by wife's income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.05 ns
Men's happiness by interaction between own and 
wife's income

All coefficients based on Probit-adjusted OLS, 
controlled for:
- age
- own health
- spuces health
- individual fixed effects
- time fixed effects

Unaffacted by weekly working hours
(which contradicts theory that gains in happiness 
from higher income are balanced by costs of 
working time)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03c

StudyPouwels et al. (2008): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Working Hours, and Happiness.
SourceEconomic Letters, 2008, Vol. 99, 72 - 74
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2007.05.032
Public18-65 aged, couples, neither unemployed nor disabled, Germany, 1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2698

Correlate
Author's labelPartner's net yearly labour income.
Page in Source 73
Our classificationIncome of spouse, code M04ab03c
Operationalization
Logarithm of partner's net yearly income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
WOMEN (+.47)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .01
MEN (+.42)


OPRC's controled for:
- own income
- product of own income and of partner
- age
- self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
Additional control for working hours shows the 
same effect among women (+.48) and a smaller 
effect among men (+.36)

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Coefficients denote relative differences in 
association, e.g. stronger among women than among 
men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03c

Study~Philips Nederland (1966): study NL 1964
TitleDe Nederlandse Huisvrouw. (The Dutch Houswife.)
SourceNIPO assigned by Philips Nederland, 1966, Eindhoven, Netherlands
PublicHousewives, The Netherlands, 1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 66
Our classificationIncome of spouse, code M04ab03c
Operationalization
Husband's income rated on a 3-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Occupation of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03d

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpartner's occupation
Page in Source 296,302
Our classificationOccupation of spouse, code M04ab03d
Operationalization
Single question:
"What is your partner's main occupation?"
1a: independent businessman/tradesman
1b: assistant in spouse's business
1c: unskilled/semi-skilled worker
1d: skilled worker
1e: housewife
1f: salaried employee/civil servant
1g: student
1h: pensioner
1i: social security recipient
Partner's job type
2a: top management
2b: intellectual employment(expert-level)
2c: intellectual employment(intermediate level)
2d: clerical
2e: sales or service
2f: agriculture, forestry, fishery
2g: the trades
2h: process or machine operator
2i: military
2j: other employment
Observed distributionN: 1:All: 988, 1a:101, 1b:19, 1c:132, 1d:164, 1e:47, 1f:348, 1g:55, 1h:110, 1i:12; N2: All:745; 2a:64; 2b:102; 2c:137; 2d:89; 2e:101; 2f:9; 2g:107; 2h:53; 2i:32; 2j:51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
  1a: Mt=7.80  
  1b: Mt=7.64  
  1c: Mt=8.26  
  1d: Mt=8.06  
  1e: Mt=8.30  
  1f: Mt=7.90  
  1g: Mt=7.59  
  1h: Mt=7.81  
  1i: Mt=8.13  
1All: Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
  1a: Mt=7.53   
  1b: Mt=8.16   
  1c: Mt=7.76   
  1d: Mt=7.78   
  1e: Mt=7.61   
  1f: Mt=7.64   
  1g: Mt=7.55   
  1h: Mt=7.66   
  1i: Mt=8.13   
1All  Mt=7.68
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
  1a: Mt=7.04   
  1b: Mt=7.76   
  1c: Mt=7.25   
  1d: Mt=7.51   
  1e: Mt=7.45   
  1f: Mt=7.19   
  1g: Mt=7.36   
  1h: Mt=6.91   
  1i: Mt=7.29        
1All  Mt=7.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Occupation of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03d

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpartner's job type
Page in Source 302
Our classificationOccupation of spouse, code M04ab03d
Operationalization
Single question:
"What does your partner's work consist of?"
a: top management
b: intellectual employment(expert-level)
c: intellectual employment(intermediate)
d: clerical
e: sales or service
f: agriculture, forestry, fishery
g: the trades
h: process or machine operator
i: military
j: other employment
Observed distribution All: 745, a:64, b:102, c:137, d:89, e:101, f:9, g:107, h:53, i:32, j:51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
  a: Mt=7.93
  b: Mt=7.78
  c: Mt=7.90
  d: Mt=8.06
  e: Mt=8.08
  f: Mt=8.89
  g: Mt=8.13
  h: Mt=8.06
  i: Mt=8.13
All: Mt=8.00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
  a: Mt=7.70
  b: Mt=7.43
  c: Mt=7.66
  d: Mt=7.81
  e: Mt=7.90
  f: Mt=8.89
  g: Mt=7.69
  h: Mt=7.83
  i: Mt=7.66
  j: Mt=7.55
All: Mt=7.70
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
  a: Mt=7.15
  b: Mt=7.04
  c: Mt=7.11
  d: Mt=7.28
  e: Mt=7.40
  f: Mt=8.61
  g: Mt=7.26
  h: Mt=7.45
  i: Mt=7.58
  j: Mt=6.96
All: Mt=7.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Occupation of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03d

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelpartner's main occupation
Page in Source 314,320
Our classificationOccupation of spouse, code M04ab03d
Operationalization
Single question:
"What is your partner's main occupation?"
1a: independent businessman/tradesman
1b: assistant in spouse's business
1c: unskilled/semi-skilled worker
1d: skilled worker
1e: housewife
1f: salaried employee/civil servant
1g: student
1h: pensioner
1i: social security recipient
Partner's job type
2a: top management
2b: intellectual employment(expert-level)
2c: intellectual employment(intermediate level)
2d: clerical
2e: sales or service
2f: agriculture, forestry, fishery
2g: the trades
2h: process or machine operator
2i: military
2j: other employment
Observed distributionN1: All:3427; %:1a:8,2 1b:0,6; 1c:16,6; 1d:20,5; 1e:2,0; 1f:44,8; 1g:4,1; 1h:1,1; 1i:2,2 N2: All:2903; %:2a:7,4; 2b:15,0; 2c:23,6; 2d:12,0; 2e:12,3; 2f:0,7; 2g:11,7; 2h:4,3; 2i:6,7; 2j:6,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1a: Mt=8.15   2a: Mt=8.33
1b: Mt=8.69   2b: Mt=7.83
1c: Mt=7.90   2c: Mt=8.15
1d: Mt=8.05   2d: Mt=8.06
1e: Mt=8.10   2e: Mt=8.19
1f: Mt=8.00   2f: Mt=7.88
1g: Mt=7.96   2g: Mt=8.00
1h: Mt=7.69   2h: Mt=7.90
1i: Mt=7.35   2i: Mt=7.39
              2j: Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1a: Mt=7.85   2a: Mt=8.18
1b: Mt=8.81   2b: Mt=7.70
1c: Mt=7.64   2c: Mt=7.79
1d: Mt=7.84   2d: Mt=7.75
1e: Mt=7.91   2e: Mt=7.89
1f: Mt=7.74   2f: Mt=7.75
1g: Mt=7.41   2g: Mt=7.80
1h: Mt=7.11   2h: Mt=7.78
1i: Mt=6.89   2i: Mt=7.16
              2j: Mt=7.70
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1a: Mt=7.58   2a: Mt=7.65
1b: Mt=8.21   2b: Mt=7.36
1c: Mt=7.23   2c: Mt=7.40
1d: Mt=7.44   2d: Mt=7.46
1e: Mt=7.46   2e: Mt=7.45
1f: Mt=7.40   2f: Mt=7.50
1g: Mt=7.23   2g: Mt=7.49
1h: Mt=6.99   2h: Mt=7.54
1i: Mt=6.83   2i: Mt=6.89
              2j: Mt=7.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Occupation of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03d

StudyDixon et al. (1984): study US 1979
TitleFisherman's Wives: A Case Study of a Middle Atlantic Coastal Fishing Community.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 10, 33 - 52
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287745
PublicFishermen and wives, and non-fishermen's wives controls, U.S.A., 1979
Sample
Non-Response1 to 2%, mostly by absence
Respondents N =271

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a Fishermen's wife
Page in Source 45
Our classificationOccupation of spouse, code M04ab03d
Operationalization
0 Non-fishermen's wives
1 Fishermen's wives                                     
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-?-sq-l-5-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelProfessional status of the husband
Page in Source 144,T59
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
Two item index of direct questions on the professional 
status of respondent's husband.Rated on a 5-point 
scale.
Remarks
Housewives without a job, aged <60 only (N=336). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
ß controlled for:communication with family, and 
three domain satisfactions (health, income, and 
partner)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelSocial stratum
Page in Source 594
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
Working in prestigeous occupations, rated on a 9-point 
scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-br=±
Computed for employed Ss only.
Positive among males.
Negative among females.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudyAbe & Moritsuka (1986): study JP 1981
TitleA Case-Control Study of Climacteric Symptoms and Complaints of Japanese Women by Symptomatic Type for Psychological Variables.
SourceMaturitas, 1986, Vol. 8, 255 - 265
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3784921&dopt=Abstract
PublicWomen in menopause patient and controls, Miyagi, North-east Japan, 1981-82.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response20 % (cases 21%,controls 19%)
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelType of job held by husband
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
Single direct question: Check an appropiate job which 
is corresponding to your husband's in the following 
list of jobs.
(list not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status of spouce
Page in Source 29
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
T1: seven category classification
1. Unskilled workers
2. Semi-skilled workers
3. Skilled workers
4. Owners of little businesses, cleri-
   cal and sales workers, and techni-     cians
5. Administrative personnel of large
   concerns, owners of small indepen-
   dent businesses, and semi-profes-
   sionals
6. Managers and proprietors of medium-
   sized businesses and lesser profes-
   sionals
7. Executives and proprietors of large
   concerns and major professionals

T2:eleven category classification
 1. Private household workers
 2. Service workers except private         household
 3. Farm laborers and farm foreman
 4. Farmers and farm managers
 5. Laborers, except farm
 6. Operatives, except transport
 7. Craftsmen and kindred workers
 8. Clerical and kindred workers
 9. Sales workers
10. Managers and administrators, except
    farm
11. Professional, technical and kindred
    workers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+/- ns
Association with level of happiness:
- T1 status by T1 happiness: b = +  (ns)
- T2 status by T2 happiness: b = -  (ns) 

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= - ns
Association with change in happiness T1 - T2:
- T1 status by change happiness b = -  (ns)
- T2 status by change happiness b = -  (ns)

b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, work-
status, income, own occupational status, and 
family
history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelWife of skilled worker
Page in Source 223
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
Wife of unskilled / semi-skilled / skilled worker

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.26 p < . 01
Computed for presently married females only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Social status of spouse
Subject code: M04ab03e

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a wife of a skilled worker
Page in Source 223
Our classificationSocial status of spouse, code M04ab03e
Operationalization
Being a wife of an unskilled / a semi- skilled / a 
skilled worker.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.26 p < . 01
Computed for presently married females only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelWorking hours of partner
Page in Source 187,192
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Hours worked:
Women:
1= 1–10
2= 11–20
3= 21–34
4= 35–40
5= 41–50
6= > 50

Men:
1 1-34
2 35-40
3 41-50
4 > 50
Remarks
Panel data only which also include some other personal 
characteristics (education, age, australian born or 
not)and family characteristics (age of children, living 
in city or not and include dummies for year of survey.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,03 ns
Women
Men hours work 1-34
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+,28 p < .05
Men hours  work 41-50
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+,28 p < .05
Men hours  work 41-50
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+,25 p < .10
Men hours men work > 50
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,09 ns
Men
Women hours work 1-10
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+,00 ns
Women Hours work 11-20
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,08 ns
Women hours work 21-34
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,07 ns
Women hours work 35-40
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,09 ns
Women hours work 41-50
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=-,24 ns
Women Hours work >50

Coefficients controlled for:
- Child born
- Family income
- Health women
- Hours Women:
1= 1–10
2= 11–20
3= 21–34
4= 35–40
5= 41–50
6= > 50
Health Men
Hours Men:
1 1-34
2 35-40
3 41-50
4 > 50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse in labour force
Page in Source 34,35,55,57
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Spouse in labour force, various operationalizations 
depending on the analysis:
A: 1    - Working
     0    - All other 
B: 1    - Full-time
     0.5 - Part-time
     0    - None
C: 40  - Full-time
     20  - Part-time
       0  - None
D: Very long:       60+       5
      Long:               49-59   4
      Full time:         35-48   3
      Part time:          5-34   2
      Not working:    0-4     1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.82 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
   - Marital status:
     - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
     - Widowed
     - Divorced
   - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Education
  - Family income
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force


B and beta ns when additionally controlled for 
hours worked, occupational status, job security, 
earnings and unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelLength of partner's commuting time
Page in Source 198, 200-201
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How long does it take, on average, for your partner to 
get to work? (in minutes)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.07 ns
All
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.01 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.14 p < .05
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelLength of partner's work week
Page in Source 198, 200-201, 294
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Self reporton single question:
How many hours on average does your partner work per 
week? (In hours)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.01 ns
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.04 ns
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelWork conditions of spouse
Page in Source 275
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions 
- time pressure
- working hard (My work requires working hard)
- ?
Rated: 1= never, 5 = always:
Observed distributionMen: M= 3,24 SD=.77, Women: M=2,96 SD = .88
Remarks
Husbands and wives answered these questions separately

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.02 ns
Wives's happiness by husbands work pressure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional demands of spouse
Page in Source 275
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Self report on 6 questions whether employees have to 
deal with emotionally charged situations and whether 
they are confronted with events that touch them 
personally:
- Do you face emotionally charged situations in your 
work?
Rated: 1 = never to 5 = always scale
Observed distributionMen: M=2,01 SD=.58 Women: M=2,12 SD=.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.16 p < .05
Wives'life satisfaction by husbands emotional 
demands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelWork to Family Interference (WFI )
Page in Source 274,275,278
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
Employee was asked to indicate the extent to his/her 
work is 
negatively influencing the home situation on 3 
questions e.g.:
- How often does it happen that you work schedule makes 
it 
difficult for for you to fulfill your domestic 
obligations? 
Assessed on a 1(never) to 5 (always) scale

Partners were asked to indicate the extent to which 
their 
partners work negatively influences family life on 3 
questions e.g.:
- How often does it happen that the work schedule of 
your partner makes it difficul for him/her to fulfill 
domestic obligations. 
Assessed on a 1(never) to 5 (always) scale
Observed distributionSelf rated: Men: M=1,98 SD=.67, Women:M=1,76 SD=.61 Spouse rated: Men: M=2,06 SD=.73, Women:M=1,76 SD=.70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=+.34 p < .01
Wives' happiness by wives'rating of husbands WFI
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=-.17 p < .05
Men's WFI (self rating) by Women's happiness
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-arpc=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Work conditions of spouse
Subject code: M04ac

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelTotal hours worked
Page in Source 10, 11, 15
Our classificationWork conditions of spouse, code M04ac
Operationalization
a individual
b spouse/partner
Observed distributionMales: a: M=24.12 sd=17.59 b:? Females: a: M=41.09 sd=17.43 b:?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.05   b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.01
b: b=-.00 SE=.00 ns      b=-.00 SE=.00 p<.10

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Employment status
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current behaviors of spouse
Subject code: M04ad

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelDemands-Spouse
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationCurrent behaviors of spouse, code M04ad
Operationalization
Self report on question:
- Spouse makes too many demands on me
Ranged:
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.08 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.26 p < .10
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyGwanfogbe et al. (1970): study CM 1965
TitlePolygyny and Marital Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study from Rural Cameroon.
SourceJournal of Comparative Family Studies, 1970, Vol. 28, 55 - 71
PublicMothers of young child, rural areas, Cameroon, 196?
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelHusband's supportiveness
Page in Source 62,64
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Supportive or not:
2 yes
1 no

Supportive in one if six areas: food preparation, care 
of children, farm work, education, health/medication 
and household equipment.
Remarks
N = 265

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta= ns
Beta controled for:
- wife order
- socio-economic status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelConfide-Spouse
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Self report on question whether they perceived 
emotional support from their spouse:
- I can share my very private feelings and concerns 
with spouse. 
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial-Spouse
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Participants were asked if they perceived financial 
support from their spouse:
- I feel that spouse would help me out financially if I 
needed it. 
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelSick Care-Spouse
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Participants were asked if they perceived instrumental 
support from their spouse:
- I feel that spouse would take care of me when I am 
sick
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.33 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse support
Page in Source 263
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about social support received 
from ones spouce. Questions measure the extend to which 
respondents felt that their spouce appreciated, 
respected, understood and cared for them.

Rated: not at all (1) to a great deal (5)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3: .91
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 spouse support by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.44 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.51 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.51 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.53 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse Support
Page in Source 50,67,74,132,138,1
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
'Think back to your experiences as a working parent 
over the last two months.How have you spouse helped you 
to manage? How often in the past two months did your 
spouse do each of the following?
a. Shared ideas or advice. 
b. Helped me to figure out how to solve a problem. 
c. Listened to my problems.
d. Was understanding or sympathetic. 
e. took over some of my responsibilities when I was 
especially tired or busy. 
F. Rearranges own schedule to fit my needs. 
g. Helped me with work for my job. Rated: 1= Never, 2 = 
Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Very often
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=3,1, SD=.69, Married Mothers M = 3,0 SD = .74, Single Mothers = NA
Error Estimatesalpha =.84

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.81 ns
Married fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.17 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.39 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.35
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta= ns
Married fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBeta= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=.05 p < .01
Married mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBeta=+.07 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- income
- organization (place of employment)
- stress
- support from friends/neighbors/relatives
- support from co-workers
- support from supervisors
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= ns
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ib= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.26
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ib=+.31 p < .01
B's additionally controlled for:
- resentment of spouse, 
- resentment of friends/neighbors/relatives
- resentment of co-workers and supervisor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelSpousal Resentment
Page in Source 50,132,138,141
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
'Think back to your experiences as a working parent 
over the last two months.How have you spouse helped you 
to manage? How often in the past two months did your 
spouse do each of the following?
1. Held my job responsibilities against me. 2. Showed 
resentment of my needs as a working parent. 3. Was 
critical of my efforts to combine work and family.

Rated: 1= Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 
5 = Very often
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=1,8, SD=.70, Married Mothers M = 1,9 SD = .83, Single Mothers = NA
Error Estimatesalpha = .73

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.32 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.25 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.27 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.31 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyLevitt et al. (1986): study US 1984
TitleSocial Network Relationships as Sources of Maternal Support and Well-Being.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1986, Vol. 22, 310 - 316
PublicMothers of 13-months infants, Florida, U.S.A., 1984
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelSpousal support
Page in Source 314
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
Summed ratings on "emotional support"
and "child-care assistance" on Kahn and
Antonucci (1984) Network Questionnaire.

1.Emotional support: yes/no response on
  whether spouse  
  -is in whom she confides
  -reassures her 
  -makes her feel respected 
  -would care for her if she were ill
  -is to whom she can talk when she is
   upset, nervous or depressed.

2.Child-care support: yes/no response
  on whether spouse 
  -helps on regular basis 
  -would be willing to babysit on short
   notice 
  -she could turn to for advice about
   her baby 
  -she would be comfortable leaving
   her infant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.46 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support by spouse
Subject code: M04ad01

StudyBrim (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocial Network Correlates of Avowed Happiness.
SourceJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1974, Vol. 158, 432 - 439
PublicFemales Feminists and controls. Seatle, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived assistancefrom husband
Page in Source 437
Our classificationSupport by spouse, code M04ad01
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions: 1. Would ask him for 
the loan of a    sizable amount of money if I were in   
 serious need.                       2. Would ask him 
to risk personal    danger to help me out of a tight    
spot.                               3. Would ask him to 
pick me up at the    airport late at night if there 
were    no other means of transportation    available.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-ar=+.14 ns
Computed for marrieds only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of spouse
Subject code: M04ae01

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence of long-term subjective well-being among spouses
Page in Source 14,18
Our classificationHappiness of spouse, code M04ae01
Operationalization
Correspondence in reported life satisfaction of spouses 
during this 14 year period.
Observed distribution35% of the cases the responses among spouses coincide exactly as compared to 9 % of perfect agreement to be expected under complete randomness. (14970 person-year observations for 1309 different families)
Remarks
Happiness assessed every year during 14 years. 
Calculated using bi-variate cross-tabulation of 
responses to the same question on life satisfaction at 
the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=3,87
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.20
Control variables are:
- age
- gender
- employment
- self rated health
- family income
- number of persons in the household
- trend over time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of spouse
Subject code: M04ae01

StudyDemerouti et al. (2005): study NL 2002
TitleSpillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earning Parents.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 2005, Vol. 67, 266 - 289
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001
PublicDual-earning parents of young children, the Netherlands, 2000
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59 %
Respondents N =382

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of spouse
Page in Source 275
Our classificationHappiness of spouse, code M04ae01
Operationalization
Same question on happiness answered by husband and 
wives separately
Observed distributionHusbands: M = 7.86, SD=1,13, Wives M=7,69, SD = 1,19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-ar=+.44 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of spouse
Subject code: M04ae01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction partner
Page in Source 10, 11
Our classificationHappiness of spouse, code M04ae01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+
MALES                   FEMALES
b=+.19  SE=.01  p<.01   b=+.22  SE=.01  p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Employment status
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of spouse
Subject code: M04ae01

StudyBookwala & Schulz (1996): study US 1991
TitleSpousal Similarity in Subjective Well-Being: The Cardiovascular Health Study.
SourcePsychology and Aging, 1996, Vol. 11, 582 - 590
Public65+ aged couples, United States, 1991
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1040

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of spouce
Page in Source 585
Our classificationHappiness of spouse, code M04ae01
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your life as a whole?
6  delighted
5
4
3
2
1 terrible

Same question answered by husbands and wives
Observed distributionHusbands M= 4.89 SD= 0.79 Wifes M= 4.74 SD= 0.80 -difference +0.15 p<.001
Remarks
Spouses were interviewed separately

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-6-ar=+.34 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of spouse
Subject code: M04ae01

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction of spouse
Page in Source 16
Our classificationHappiness of spouse, code M04ae01
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 5-point
scale 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= + p < . 05
65 % of the men, whose wives said they were very 
satisfied with their lives, also said they were
satisfied, whereas this was only true for 15 %
of the men whose wives were relatively dissatis- 
fied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Own attitudes to spouse
Subject code: M04af

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with characteristics of spouse
Page in Source 2332-2333
Our classificationOwn attitudes to spouse, code M04af
Operationalization
Self-report on four questions:
How satisfied are you with:
a) spouse's current income
b) spouse's current occupation
c) spouse's current social status
d) spouse's current achievements
Rated:
1 very dissatisfied
:
5 very satisfied
Observed distributiona) M=3.07, b) M=3.34, c) M=3.25, d) M=3.18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=-.00 ns
SATISFACTION WITH SPOUSE'S CURRENT INCOME
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=-.02 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH SPOUSE'S CURRENT OCCUPATION
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.06 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH SPOUSE'S CURRENT SOCIAL STATUS
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.03 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH SPOUSE'S CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS

B's controlled for satisfaction with:
- income
- Opportunities and social mobility
- Welfare provision
- Government policies and environment
- Occupation and social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Own attitudes to spouse
Subject code: M04af

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spouse's work
Page in Source 272
Our classificationOwn attitudes to spouse, code M04af
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.26 p < .001
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.33 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Own attitudes to spouse
Subject code: M04af

StudyKleiboer (2006): study NL 2001
TitleCouples Dealing with Multiple Sclerosis. A Diary Study Examining the Effects of Spousal Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht, 2006, Netherlands
PublicMS patients and their spouse, The Netherlands, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response12,9%
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelNegative reactions of partner
Page in Source 68-69
Our classificationOwn attitudes to spouse, code M04af
Operationalization
Selfreport on four questions:
Did it happen today that your partner..
a: made disapproving remarks on you
b: avoided you
c: hurt your feelings
d: demended a lot of you?

Rated: 0 (not at all) to 3 (very much)

Coded: 
0  no negative reactions at all
1  one or more negative reactions during the 14 day 
period
Observed distribution0: Patients 30% (N=18), Spouces 21% (N=13) 1: Patients 70% (N=43), Spouces 79% (N=46) Mean number of days on which negative responses were reported: 2,6
Remarks
Both patients and their spouces kept a structured 
electronic dairy during 14 days, which they completed 
at the end of the day

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-mi-mqr-v-5-aDM=- ns
                      Patients   Spouces     
No negative reactions M = 0,97   M = 1,11    
Negative reactions    M = 0,92   M = 1,00
difference               -0,05      -0,11

No significant difference in Positive nor Negative 
Affect, and hence neither in Affect Balance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Own attitudes to spouse
Subject code: M04af

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelHome stress
Page in Source 263
Our classificationOwn attitudes to spouse, code M04af
Operationalization
Self report on three questions about role ambiguity 
experienced in home life. Questions  focussed on 
certainity on how well one was handling household 
responsibilities and what their spouce expected of them 
at home.

Full questions not reported

Rated: very unsure (1) to very sure (5)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3: .70
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 homestress by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.36 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.15 p < .05
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.40 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.00 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.28 p < .05
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.02 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.34 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls   N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 ns
Beta's controlled for: 
- personal control
- network support
- spouse conflict
- coping style


Correlational finding on Happiness and Own attitudes to spouse
Subject code: M04af

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of attachment to male partner
Page in Source 58
Our classificationOwn attitudes to spouse, code M04af
Operationalization
Closed question: recently terminated relationships / 
apparently not dating / won't marry present beau / will 
possibly marry present beau / will fairly certain marry 
present beau / engaged / married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-aAoV=+ ns
Both variabls assessed at T2.
Females who are certain of getting married, who 
are engaged, or who are married are generally 
happier than the females who are not (05).


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Mood is usually applied to states lasting for minutes or hours, but most people can estimate their average or typical mood over a long period of time. Using the following scale, please indicate which statement best describes your typical mood for the current spring semester. Draw a circle around the number of the statement which best describes your average level of happiness or unhappiness during this semester.
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue"
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely "blue"
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BW-mi-mqr-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions, answered at the end of the day during 14 days

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('this moment' version) applied in multiple moment assesment (experience sampling method)
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

".....personal standing on quality-of-life ladder..."
(Full lead item not reported)
[ 5 ] best possible
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (adapted version)
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life?
1 completely failed
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely accomplished
B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
C How much do you enjoy your life these days?
3 a great deal
2 a fair amount
1 not very much
D How happy have you been for the past five years?
1 completely unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely happy

Summation: % positive answers

Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
6 delighted
5
4
3
2
1 terrible

Labels of other response options not reported
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".......happiness....."
(Full text not reported)
O-HL-c-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how would you say things are these days? Please put a circle around the appropriate number to indicate how happy you are these days.....?
9 very happy
8
7
6
5 pretty happy
4
3
2
1 not too happy

(originally rated on a horizontal scale)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-hSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how happy would you say you are? Are you......?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not so happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy or unhappy do you think you are.....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 moderately happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with present life....."
(Full lead item not reported)
1
2
3
(Response options not reported)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with overall life....."
(Full questions not reported)
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
- NA
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-aSelf rating on single question:

"All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you overall with your life as a whole these days?"

Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acSelfreport on single question:

If you consider all the aspects of your recent life, in what measure are you satisfied with it?
1 completely unsatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-nt-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now?
0 very dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

Combined with score on the same question rated on scale 1-10
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not too satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B … happiness… (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M04ab01baweight of spouseB03ac04Body Maass Index (BMI)
M04ab03aEducation of spouseE01EDUCATION
M04ab03bEmployment of spouseE02EMPLOYMENT
M04ab03bEmployment of spouseE02ab01Full-time home maker
M04ab03cIncome of spouseI01ab02Household income
M04ab03dOccupation of spouseO01OCCUPATION
M04ab03eSocial status of spouseS09acStatus consistency
M04ab03eSocial status of spouseS09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
M04ab03fSpouse is a migrantM03ab01Heterogeneity of marriage-partners
M04adCurrent behaviors of spouseM04ab02Personality of spouse
M04ad01Support by spouseM03ab04Mutual support
M04ad01Support by spouseS10ab02Sources of current support
M04ae01Happiness of spouseH09ab03Rating of happiness by spouse
M04afOwn attitudes to spouseL12LOVE-LIFE
M04afOwn attitudes to spouseM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings