Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject Code: M02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS52
M02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)219
M02aa01Married vs never married119
M02aa02Married vs widowed62
M02aa03Married vs divorced76
M02aa04Married vs separated 33
M02aa05Still-married vs broken marriage (widowed+separated+divorced)21
M02aa06Married vs will-full unmarried (never married + divorced)2
M02aa07Formally-married vs living-as-married20
M02abNon-married states (compared mutually)1
M02ab01Never married6
M02ab01aVs widowed57
M02ab01bVs divorced55
M02ab01cVs separated27
M02ab01eVs formerly married (widowed+divorced+separated)17
M02ab02Widowed7
M02ab02aVs divorced31
M02ab02bVs separated14
M02ab02cVs divorced, separated or never (willful unmarried)2
M02ab03Divorced or separated8
M02ab03aVs separated3
M02ab04Separated2
M02acLiving as married6
M02ac01Living-as-married vs formerly married1
M02ac02Living-as-married vs never married4
M02ac03Living-as-married vs widowed2
M02ac04Living-as-married vs divorced2
M02ac05Living-as-married vs separated2
M02adRemarried2
M02agAttitudes to marital status0
M02ag01Attitudes to one's own marital status1
M02ag01aDesire of getting married2
M02ag01bExpected satisfaction if married1
M02ag01cSatisfaction with being single1
M02ag02Attitudes to marriage in general1
M02ag02aPerceived happiness of the married2
M02ag02bPerceived characteristics of singles5
M02aeBroken marriage (divorced and widowed vs married or never married2
M02afTime trend current marital status and happiness0
M02ab01dVs formerly married (divorced+seperated)1
M02ab01fVs co-habiting5
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
2       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
3       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
5       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
6       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
2       M= .90      Mt=5.9
3       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
4       M= .96      Mt=6.0
5       M= .58      Mt=5.6
6       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
3       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
4       M=6.98      Mt=6.6
5       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
6       M=7.18      Mt=6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelRelationship Status
Page in Source 125
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
a: Never Married
b: De-facto/Living Together
c: Married
d: Separated/Not divorced 
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a: 308, b: 140, c: 1158, d: 53, e: 121, f: 121

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a: Mt = 7,49, SD = 1,63
b: Mt = 7,82, SD = 1,59
c: Mt = 8,00, SD = 1,53
d: Mt = 7,30, SD = 1,84
e: Mt = 7,31, SD = 2,23
f: Mt = 7,98, SD = 1,91
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
c>a, p<.000
b>e, p<.020


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.96      Mt=7.0
2       M=2.11      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .58      Mt=5.6
6       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.56      Mt=6.2
2       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
3       M=6.43      Mt=6.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=5.86      Mt=5.4
6       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
3       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.22     Mt=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
2       M= .85      Mt=5.9
3       M= .00      Mt=5.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=-.56      Mt=4.4
6       M= .29      Mt=5.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.75      Mt=5.3
2       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
3       M=4.31      Mt=3.7
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=4.70      Mt=4.1
6       M=5.29      Mt=4.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
2       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
3       M=2.00     Mt=3.3
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.28     Mt=4.3
6       M=2.31     Mt=4.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
3       M= .84      Mt=5.8
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M= .74      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
4       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
5       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
3       M=6.80      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
5       M=7.09      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
3       M= .84      Mt=5.8
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M= .74      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
3       M=6.80      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
5       M=7.09      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
4       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
5       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.29     Mt=7.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M= .81      Mt=5.8
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .22      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
5       M= .87      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.15      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
2       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
3       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
5       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
6       M=7.02      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
5       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
6       M=2.84     Mt=6.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.16      Mt=4.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=3.29      Mt=2.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.78      Mt=3.1
6       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=1.84     Mt=2.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.89     Mt=3.0
6       M=2.33     Mt=4.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.09      Mt=7.9
2       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
5       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.56      Mt=7.6
2       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
4       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
6       M=2.05      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
3       M=2.87     Mt=6.2
4       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.94     Mt=6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
2       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
5       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
6       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.15      Mt=6.1
2       M= .71      Mt=5.7
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M= .93      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
6       M= .86      Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
5       M=8.30      Mt=8.1
6       M=7.18      Mt=6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.10      Mt=7.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
6       M= .83      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
6       M=2.92     Mt=6.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
2       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
3       M=6.17      Mt=5.7
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.22      Mt=5.8
6       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .81      Mt=5.8
2       M= .77      Mt=5.8
3       M= .61      Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .45      Mt=5.5
6       M= .77      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
6       M=2.65     Mt=5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmarital status
Page in Source 58
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
a: single
b: concubinage
c: married
d: separated
e: divorced
f: widowed
Observed distributionN: a:358, b:265, c:720, d:16, e:73, f:67

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
a: single              Mt=7.60
b: living with someone Mt=8.05
c: married             Mt=7.91
d: separated           Mt=6.25
e: divorced            Mt=6.51 
f: widowed             Mt=7.31
All                    Mt=7.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
a: single              Mt=7.10  
b: living with someone Mt=7.65
c: married             Mt=7.68
d: separated           Mt=5.79
e: divorced            Mt=6.48
f: widowed             Mt=7.24 
All                    Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
a: single              Mt=6.50 
b: concubinage         Mt=7.38
c: married             Mt=7.16
d: separated           Mt=5.63
e: divorced            Mt=6.01 
f: widowed             Mt=6.29
All                    Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmarital status
Page in Source 62
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
marital status
1. Living as married
1b: living with someone
1c: married
2. Living without partner
2a: single
2d: separated
2e: divorced
2f: widowed
Observed distributionN all:4679, 1a:28,8%, 1b::44,7%, 2a:17,9%, 2b:2,9%, 2c::5,4%, 2d:0,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.84
1b: Mt=8.06
2a: Mt=7.03
2b: Mt=7.04
2c: Mt=7.34
2d: Mt=7.16
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.54
1b: Mt=7.83
2a: Mt=6.46
2b: Mt=6.70
2c: Mt=6.94
2d: Mt=7.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.21
1b: Mt=7.48
2a: Mt=5.89
2b: Mt=6.26
2c: Mt=6.53
2d: Mt=6.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
2       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
3       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.55     Mt=5.2
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.34      Mt=8.2
2       M=8.35      Mt=8.2
3       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
4       M=5.82      Mt=5.4
5       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
4       M= .20      Mt=5.2
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.78      Mt=6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.22      Mt=5.8
2       M=5.74      Mt=5.3
3       M=4.92      Mt=4.4
4       M=5.04      Mt=4.5
5       M=5.64      Mt=5.2
6       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .87      Mt=5.9
2       M= .82      Mt=5.8
3       M= .06      Mt=5.1
4       M= .39      Mt=5.3
5       M= .51      Mt=5.5
6       M= .86      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
2       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
3       M=2.30     Mt=4.3
4       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
5       M=2.34     Mt=4.5
6       M=2.61     Mt=5.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.48      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ±1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 99
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Married
Never married
Widowed
Divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE²=+.09 p < .01
Married             M=5.02  Mt=6.70
Never married       M=4.97  Mt=6.62
Widowed             M=4.60  Mt=6.00
Divorced            M=4.41  Mt=5.68


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
2       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
3       M=5.76      Mt=5.3
4       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
5       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
6       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
3       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
6       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
3       M= .10      Mt=5.1
4       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
5       M= .09      Mt=5.1
6       M=1.43      Mt=6.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.78      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.28      Mt=5.9
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.34      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.67      Mt=6.3
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
3       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
6       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
3       M= .48      Mt=5.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .21      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.26      Mt=6.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M= .81      Mt=5.8
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .22      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M= .81      Mt=5.8
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .22      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.02     Mt=6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
2       M= .62      Mt=5.6
3       M= .40      Mt=5.4
4       M=-.23      Mt=4.8
5       M= .03      Mt=5.0
6       M= .70      Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
2       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
3       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
4       M=4.93      Mt=4.4
5       M=5.37      Mt=4.9
6       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
2       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
3       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
4       M=2.43     Mt=4.8
5       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
6       M=2.55     Mt=5.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=8.13      Mt=7.9
2       M=8.24      Mt=8.0
3       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=8.1
2       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
3       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=2.70      Mt=7.7
2       M=2.81      Mt=7.8
3       M=2.11      Mt=7.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.08      Mt=7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.03      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.74      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .42      Mt=5.4
2       M= .79      Mt=5.8
3       M= .04      Mt=5.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=-.41      Mt=4.6
6       M= .50      Mt=5.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.33      Mt=5.9
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=5.44      Mt=4.9
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=5.34      Mt=4.8
6       M=6.36      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
2       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
6       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= 2.15     Mt=7.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=- .25     Mt=5.3
5       M=  .78     Mt=5.8
6       M= 2.04     Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.50     Mt=8.3
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
5       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=5.33      Mt=4.8
5       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
5       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= 2.15     Mt=7.1
2       M= 3.33     Mt=8.3
3       M=-1.00     Mt=4.0
4       M=- .25     Mt=5.3
5       M=  .78     Mt=5.8
6       M= 2.04     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
2       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
3       M=5.00      Mt=4.4
4       M=5.33      Mt=4.8
5       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
5       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
6       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
4       M= .47      Mt=5.5
5       M= .31      Mt=5.3
6       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
4       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
5       M=7.09      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.14      Mt=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
6       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
2       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
3       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.09      Mt=5.7
6       M=6.05      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
4       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
5       M=7.09      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
5       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
6       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
4       M= .47      Mt=5.5
5       M= .31      Mt=5.3
6       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .41      Mt=5.4
2       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
3       M= .56      Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=-.17      Mt=4.8
6       M= .33      Mt=5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study KR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1251

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
5       Empty category
6       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=5.39      Mt=4.9
5       Empty category
6       M=6.40      Mt=6.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .95      Mt=6.0
2       M= .66      Mt=5.7
3       M= .80      Mt=5.8
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M= .88      Mt=5.9
6       M= .92      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
2       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
3       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
4       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.31     Mt=4.4
6       M=2.44     Mt=4.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
2       M=4.93      Mt=4.4
3       M=5.07      Mt=4.5
4       M=6.10      Mt=5.7
5       M=5.96      Mt=5.5
6       M=5.74      Mt=5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .77      Mt=5.8
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M= .00      Mt=5.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=-.29      Mt=4.7
6       M= .59      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.23     Mt=4.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.14     Mt=3.8
6       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=5.58      Mt=5.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=5.43      Mt=4.9
6       M=6.18      Mt=5.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
3       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.69     Mt=5.6
6       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
4       M= .89      Mt=5.9
5       M= .53      Mt=5.5
6       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=6.95      Mt=6.6
3       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
4       M=6.28      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.00      Mt=6.7
6       M=7.41      Mt=7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Direct question: "At this moment are you ......?" 
(order reversed)
1 Married
2 Living together
3 Divorced
4 Seperated
5 Widowed
6 Never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .01
France
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .01
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Great-Britain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.20 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11
Italy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.15 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .01
Denmark
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .05
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.13 p < .01
Belgium
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=<.10
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16
Belgium
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.21 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.14 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .01
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17
Spain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.16
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18
Ireland
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.20 p < .01
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 ns
Northern Ireland

Irregular relation between answering categories 
and means in satisfaction.

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=<.10
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=<.10
In none of the european countries ß weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
satisfaction(HAPP 2.1), affect(AFF 2.3), 
satisfaction with health, income and family life; 
age, income, education,having children, work, male 
sex; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, 
religiousness, social participation; uncertainty 
about future, expected negative changes in income; 
satisfaction 5 years in past and future; 
tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, hopeless about 
life and sense of control.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .01
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11
EC

ß's controlled for: education, work, income, age, 
type of dwelling, having children and social 
participation.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=<.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .01
Spain
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .01
Ireland
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=<.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
Northern Ireland
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=<.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.11
EC

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+
EC (stratified sample)    
married            Mt'=  7.22
living together    Mt'=  6.78
divorced           Mt'=  5.89
separated          Mt'=  5.78
widowed            Mt'=  5.67
never married      Mt'=  6.67

ß's controlled for: satisfaction(HAPP 2.1), 
affect(AFF 2.3), satisfaction with health, income 
and family life; age, income, education, having 
children, work, male sex; urbanisation, type of 
dwelling, own home, religiousness, social 
participation; uncertainty about future, expected 
negative changes in income; satisfaction 5 years 
in past and future; tolerance, loneliness, 
misantropy, hopeless about life and sense of 
control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.96      Mt=7.0
3       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .39      Mt=5.4
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
2       M=3.63     Mt=8.8
3       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
6       M=3.27     Mt=7.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=2.65      Mt=7.7
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.49      Mt=6.1
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
2       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=2.89     Mt=6.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NO 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1239

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.56      Mt=7.6
2       M=2.09      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
4       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
5       M=1.76      Mt=6.8
6       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
3       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
4       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
5       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
6       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
2       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
3       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
4       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
5       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PL 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =938

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
2       M=6.62      Mt=6.2
3       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
6       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M= .60      Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .66      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
3       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.65     Mt=4.3
6       M=2.94     Mt=6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1185

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .16      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=6.64      Mt=6.3
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
6       M=7.10      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.43     Mt=4.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
6       M=2.84     Mt=6.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RO 1993
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1103

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .95      Mt=5.9
2       M= .00      Mt=5.0
3       M=-.15      Mt=4.8
4       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
5       M= .14      Mt=5.1
6       M= .43      Mt=5.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.08      Mt=5.6
2       M=5.63      Mt=5.1
3       M=5.03      Mt=4.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=5.52      Mt=5.0
6       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
3       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
6       M=2.53     Mt=5.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RU 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1961

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.55      Mt=5.0
2       M=4.65      Mt=4.1
3       M=5.05      Mt=4.5
4       M=4.46      Mt=3.8
5       M=4.45      Mt=3.8
6       M=5.14      Mt=4.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .50      Mt=5.5
2       M= .22      Mt=5.2
3       M=-.62      Mt=4.4
4       M=-.60      Mt=4.4
5       M=-.88      Mt=4.1
6       M= .38      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
2       M=2.29     Mt=4.3
3       M=2.22     Mt=4.1
4       M=2.23     Mt=4.1
5       M=2.44     Mt=4.8
6       M=2.53     Mt=5.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SI 1992
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1035

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.16      Mt=4.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=3.29      Mt=2.5
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.78      Mt=3.1
6       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .41      Mt=5.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=1.84     Mt=2.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.89     Mt=3.0
6       M=2.33     Mt=4.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ZA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2736

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
2       M=5.78      Mt=5.3
3       M=6.46      Mt=6.1
4       M=3.20      Mt=2.4
5       M=5.42      Mt=4.9
6       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
2       M= .97      Mt=6.0
3       M= .90      Mt=5.9
4       M=-.26      Mt=4.7
5       M=-.04      Mt=5.0
6       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
3       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
4       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
6       M=2.73     Mt=5.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
"Tick the option best fitting your condition:
1: Single/No partnership
2: In a non-stable relationship (<3 yr)
3: In a stable relationship (>3 yr)
4: Separated/divorced
5: Widow"
Observed distribution1: 1,5% 2: 25,5% 3: 70,9% 4: 1,5% 5: 0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .NS
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= p < .NS


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ES 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
3       M=6.92      Mt=6.6
4       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
5       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
6       M=7.01      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
3       M=2.78     Mt=6.0
4       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
5       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
6       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .77      Mt=5.8
2       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
3       M= .72      Mt=5.7
4       M=-.14      Mt=4.9
5       M=-.15      Mt=4.8
6       M= .90      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
3       M=2.78     Mt=6.0
4       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
5       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
6       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
3       M=6.92      Mt=6.6
4       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
5       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
6       M=7.01      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .77      Mt=5.8
2       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
3       M= .72      Mt=5.7
4       M=-.14      Mt=4.9
5       M=-.15      Mt=4.8
6       M= .90      Mt=5.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1047

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M= .81      Mt=5.8
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .22      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.47     Mt=8.2
2       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
4       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
5       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
6       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.29      Mt=8.1
2       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
5       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=3.18      Mt=8.2
2       M=2.76      Mt=7.8
3       M=2.78      Mt=7.8
4       M=2.82      Mt=7.8
5       M=2.71      Mt=7.7
6       M=2.43      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CH 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
2       M= .76      Mt=5.8
3       M= .77      Mt=5.8
4       M= .45      Mt=5.5
5       M= .74      Mt=5.7
6       M= .91      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.03      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
5       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.57      Mt=8.4
2       M=8.24      Mt=8.0
3       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
5       M=8.31      Mt=8.1
6       M=8.13      Mt=7.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study TR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .67      Mt=5.7
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=-.07      Mt=4.9
6       M= .59      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
6       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
6       M=6.22      Mt=5.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =304

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.33     Mt= 7.6
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.12     Mt= 7.1
6       M=3.29     Mt= 7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M= .81      Mt=5.8
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .22      Mt=5.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.13      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .96      Mt=6.0
6       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M= 8.05      Mt= 7.8
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= 8.56      Mt= 8.4
6       M= 7.45      Mt= 7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1484

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 278
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Self-reported on two questions:
A) Are you currently--married, widowed, divorced, 
separated, or have you never been married?
B) How many children have you ever had?

a) married 
b) married with kids
c) not married with kids
d) not married and no kids (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+43 p < .01
MARRIED 
(vs not married and no kids)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.02 ns
MARRIED WITH KIDS     
(vs not married and no kids)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.19 p < .01
NOT MARRIED WITH KIDS 
(vs not married and no kids)

OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- race
- working full-time
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study US 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1839

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent marital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you currently..."
1   Married
2   Living as married
3   Divorced
4   Separate
5   Widow
6   Single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.74      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.03      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .95      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.74      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.03      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.50      Mt=7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyAbramson et al. (1981): study US 1979
TitlePilot Analysis of a Happiness Questionnaire.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1981, Vol. 48, 570
Public20-65 aged, general public, USA, 198?
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 570
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
(1) Other (divorced, widowed).
(2) Single
(3) Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cr=+ p < .05
People who reported that they were happy tended to 
be married.


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyNelson (1982): study US 1978 /1
TitleCoping with the Loss of the Father.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1982, Vol. 3, 41 - 60
PublicMothers, Winnipeg, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-ResponseWidowed (57%), Divorced (56%), Married (72%)
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelFamily status
Page in Source 50
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
1 Married
2 Widowed 
3 Divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS
Subject code: M02

StudyWard (1979): study US 1972 /1
TitleThe Never-Married in Later Life.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1979, Vol. 34, 861 - 869
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7872

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 864
Our classificationMARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, code M02
Operationalization
a: Married
b: Never married
c: Divorced/seperated
d: Widowed
Observed distributionN= A: 6747, b: 554, c: 854, d: 720

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaChi²=+ p < .000
Age 25-49: % very happy
- Married            39,4%
- Never married      20.4%
- Divorced/seperated 16,5%
- Widowed            15,5%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaChi²=248 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=+
Age 50+: % very happy
- Married            43,2%
- Never married      26,1%
- Divorced/seperated 20,3%
- Widowed            23,8%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaChi²=196 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAsendorpf (2008): study 2000
TitleLiving Apart Together: Eine eigenständige Lebensform? (LAT: A Independent Way of Life?)
SourceWorking Paper 78, SOEP, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/78210/diw_sp0078.pdf
Public18+ aged, Germany, followed 6 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13541

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation
Page in Source 19, 47
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a Living alone and being single 
b LAT
c Cohabiting
d Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
             MALES     FEMALES   Difference
Single:      Ms=5.9    Ms=6.4    -0.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
LAT:         Ms=6.4    Ms=6.6    -0.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=-
Cohabiting:  Ms=6.4    Ms=6.7    -0.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMs=+
Married:     Ms=6.9    Ms=6.8    +0.1

Ms controlled for:
- age
- number of children
- education
- prestige of profession
- size of city of residence
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBMCT= p < .05
a < b,c < d  both among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 178,181
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 Married
0 Not married
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.04 ns
T2 happiness by T2 marital status
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Education
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source B83
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Single question:
I am going to ask about your marital satus. Please 
indicate which of the following categories that apply 
to you at the present time:
a: Married
b: De-facto/Living Together
c: Never Married
d: Separated/Not divorced
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a+b:1308, c:272

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=- p < .000
a+b Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,41
c   Mt = 7,48; SD = 1,59
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
a>c; p<.000
a>d; p<.034
a>e; p<.000
b>e; p<.000
c>e; p<.006
f>c; p<.002


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelPartnered
Page in Source 22
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: without partner
1: with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+4.6 p < .001
B controlled for:
 - equivalised Income
 - net worth
 - gender
 - age
 - educational attainment
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelPartnered
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: without partner
1: with partner:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+4.6 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- networth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- age
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 36,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married:
    a : First marriage
    b : Second marriage
    c : Cohabitation
0: Not married (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+/-
B    = +4.4(p<.01) 1st marriage(vs.not married)
Beta = +.11(p<.01) 
B    = +4.0(p<.01) 2nd marriage(vs.not married)
Beta = +.05(p<.01)
B    = -0.8(p<.01) Cohabitation(vs.not married)
Beta = ns

B en Beta controlled for:
- Gender (male)
- Migration
- Family of origin
  - Parent's education
  - Parent's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Family size
  - Marital status
     - Divorced
     - Widowed
- Age

When additonally controlled for church attendance, 
denomination and charity work:
a: B=    +4.69; beta= +.12
b: B=    +4.93; beta= +.06
c: B=    +0.19;  beta= + ns

B and Beta not significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance (ln)
  - Religious denomination
- Work status:
  - Volunteer work (hours)
  - Education
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Occupational status
  - Job security
  - Unemployed
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+/-
a: Women: B= +3.75
   Men:   B= +4.71
b: Women: B= +3.47
   Men:   B= +4.11
c: Women: B= -2.34
   Men:   B= +0.86

B and Beta similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs no partner
Page in Source 18,30,T21
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not having partner 
1 Having partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.27 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aG=+.12 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-atc=+.07 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.15 p < .01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, education, 
professional status, income, and community size
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, education, 
professional status, income, community size
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a partner and child
Page in Source 75
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Single direct question, rated on a 4-point scale:
1 = no child, no partner
2 = no child, with partner 
3 = with child, no partner 
4 = with child, with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.22 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyChow (2012): study CA Calgary, Alberta 2007
TitleHealth Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 347 - 358
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9810-0
Public65+aged Chinese migrants, Calgary, Canada, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 352-353
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=.+08 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic status
  - gender
  - age
  - financial need
- migration history
  - country of origin
  - length of residence in Canada
- Health
  - physical mobility
  - medication use
  - perceived needs for services
- Social network
- quality of neighbouhood
- Psychological well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyUskul & Greenglass (2005): study CA 2005
TitlePsychological Wellbeing in a Turkish-Canadian Sample.
SourceAnxiety, Stress, and Coping, 2005, Vol. 18, 269 - 278
DOIDOI: 10.1080/10615800500205983
PublicTurkish immigrants, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =181

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 274.275
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report on single question:" What's your marital 
status?"
1: married 
0: single, divorced, or widowed.
Remarks
Order changed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-ar=+.05 ns
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aBeta=+.14 p < .07
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- years in Canada
- optimism
- proactive coping


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyJones (2002): study CA 1997
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =18000

Correlate
Author's labelmarital status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 not married
  a separated
  b widowed
  c single
2 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=+
              very happy   somewhat happy
1 not married
  a separated    25%           53%
  b widowed      35%           55%
  c single       40%           51%
2 married        48%           46%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPacker et al. (1997): study CA 1992
TitlePsychopathology and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.
SourceJournal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1997, Vol. 22, 231 - 234
Public18-40 aged, schizophrenics, Canada,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 232
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 marrioed
0 unmarried

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 529-530
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: Single
b: Married
c: Divorced
d: Widowed
e: Separated
Observed distributiona; 20,98%; b: 53,93%; c:7,81% d: 14,04%; e: 3,24%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=
                 % Not too happy  % Very happy
Single             13,9             21,6
Married            12,4             20,2
Divorced           20,8             17,4
Widowed            15,0             23,5 
Separeted          22,6             14,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 395
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: not married
1: married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=+.56 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Widowed
3. Age
4. Monthly income
5. Perceived health
6. Days in bed
7. Family size
8. Functional ability
9. Satisfaction with family
   relationships
10.Social contacts 
11.Number of children
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with 
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyChappell & Badger (1989): study CA Winnipeg, Manitoba 1985
TitleSocial Isolation and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1989, Vol. 44, 169 - 176
Public60+ aged, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 1985
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Isolation
Page in Source 170-172
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report of non-instrumental social contacts:
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
b: minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
d: not married (vs married) 
e: no children (vs has children)
f: no companions (vs has companions)
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
h: no children plus not married (vs has children plus 
married)
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children plus 
not live alone)
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live alone 
plus has confidants)
Observed distributiona:40%, b:10%, c:31%, d:40%; e:15%, f:4%, g:16%, h:9%; i:8%, j:7%
Remarks
All respondents named someone in their social network, 
which could include: people in their household, 
parents, siblings, children, other relatives, friends, 
and neighbours. No one was totally isolated. Those 
involved in instrumental relations, such as health care 
worker or a shopkeeper are not included in these 
figures. Size of social network is not included as an 
indicator of social isolation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-.22 ns
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=.52 ns
b:minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=2.74 p < .01
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.55 p < .001
d: not married (vs married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-61 ns
e: no children (vs has children)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=4.89 p < .001
f: no companions (vs has companions)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.54 p < .001
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.03 ns
h: no children plus not married (vs has children 
plus married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.16 ns
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children 
plus not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.90 p < .001
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live 
alone plus has confidants)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 233
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.03
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,             
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, language, work status, time in 
area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: -.04
Females: N: 154  ß: -.05
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=-.03
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services; and for sex, 
age, formal education, language, work status, time 
in area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: +.06
Females: N: 154  ß: -.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 80/1/91/4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Non-married                      
1 Married (not formally married
  cohabitating included)











Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.29 p < .001
ALL Ss (including not formally married 
cohabitating Ss (considered as married)):

- males:    DMt = +0.9
- females:  DMt = +0.8
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.62 p < .001
Weaker when not formally married cohabitating Ss 
(considered as married) are included
- males:   G' = +.47  
- females: G' = +.52  
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.30
ß controlled for: gender, age, household income, 
being in love, desire to change dating patern or 
marital status, locus of control, social support 
(1. instrumental: problems managing money, 
deciding how to spend money, not enough money to 
do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to 
get by on; 
2. expressive: no close companions, no one to 
depend on, unsatisfactory sex life, problems 
communicating, dissatisfied with marital status, 
not enough close friends, no one to show 
love/affection, too dependent on others, not 
having children, no one to understand problems; 3. 
interpersonal demands: too many responsibilities, 
no one to depend on, too many demands on time, 
problems communicating, problems with children, 
problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with 
those who are close), and satisfaction with: job 
and financial situation, friendships, love 
relationships and living situation.

No difference after control  for 'satisfaction 
with love relationships' only (DMt =0.0 ns).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aDM=+
NOT FORMALLY MARRIED COHABITATING Ss EXCLUDED:

- males:   DMt= + 0.7
- females: DMt= + 0.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1979
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged, general public, Ontario, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =895

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 80/81/83
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Non-married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDMt=+
- males:        DMt = +0.7
- females:      DMt = +0.8
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aG=+.40
- males:     G'= +.39
- females:   G'= +.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 257-260
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 3-point scale with 
the choice statements: 'single', 'once-married' and 
'married'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.11
ß controled for: self-rated health, adjustment to 
retirement, lonely and number of friends in city.
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atb=+.11 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.11 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. Yes
0: No
Observed distribution1. 84.93%; 0. 15.07%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.32 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.32 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.30 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.29 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.28 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.25 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 142, 149
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married
0: Other
Observed distribution1: 80%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.32 p < .10
URBAN RESIDENTS         (N=983)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.10 p < .NS
RURAL RESIDENTS         (N=1195)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.44 p < .05
RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRANTS (N=555)

B's controlled for:
- ethnic discimination
- gender
- age
- ethnic minority
- education 
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 215,210
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status:
1 married
0 not married
  a single  (reference group)
  b divorced/separated/widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.9 p < .00
married
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.34 ns
divorced/separated/widowed
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.91 ns
married
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.64 ns
divorced/separated/widowed
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.82 p < .00
married
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.77 ns
divorced/separated/widowed
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.25 p < .05
married
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.25 ns
divorced/separated/widowed
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
OR and B values are versus reference group.

OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- household income
- unemployement
- urban residency
- domain satisfaction
- value priorities
- lifestyle

For a subgroup of 87% of respondents with at least 
one positive experience of happiness, enjoyment 
and accomplishment, OR and B values are higher for 
marrieds and lower for divorced/separated/widowed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a. single, married (reference)
b.  Divorced and not remarried
c.  Divorced and remarried
d.  Widowed and not remarried
e.  Widowed and remarried
Observed distributiona: 25.6%, b: 69.4%, c: 1.9%, d: 0.5%, e: 2.4%, f: 0.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=+.03 ns
Single(VS divorced and not remarried)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=.029 ns
Married(VS divorced and not remarried)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.26 ns
Divorced and remarried(VS divorced and not 
remarried)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.12 ns
Widowed and not remarried (VS divorced and not 
remarried)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=+.34 p < .NS
Widowed and remarried(VS divorced and not 
remarried)

b's controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - education
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 18
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married or living together
0: others
Observed distributionM = 0.64, SD = 0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.51 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- current drug use
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 116
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question on marital status:
1: With spouse
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution90% married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.06 ns
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Gender
- Income expectations
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Interaction male*married: B=+.35(p<.01)

Interaction is only negative for those who 
migrated recently


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 1082
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Report to single question:
1: living with partner
0: living alone

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.08 ns
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelCurrently in partnership
Page in Source 419, 422, 424, 428,
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- at least one partnership

- females
  - aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.23 (01)
  - aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.26 (01)
- males
  - aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.38 (01)
  - aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.27 (01)

Regression analysis with following controll 
variables yield similar resuls:
- interaction between currently in partnership and 
age
- number of separations
- number of children
- firstborn boy/girl, number of additional 
children
- number of additonal children, interaction 
between currently in partnership, at least one 
child
- at least one child, number of additonal 
children, remaining with the same partner as for 
the first child
- at least one child, number of additonal 
children, first birth at or before age 21

Exceptions are:
- males aged 25-45 years, controlled for number of 
seperations Beta = =.30 (01)

Also the interaction between partnership and age 
does not matter
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regression analysis across all subjects yielded 
similar results.

Exceptions are males aged 25-45, controlled for 
different variables, yield somewhat lower results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment with/without partner/friend
Page in Source 170
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
unemployment with/without partner/friend
Observed distributionN All:3389
Remarks
DMt + for all 3 correlates
unemployed < employed
without friend < having a friend
without partner < having a partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=5.20   6.41      6.63     7.36 
partner   :Mt=6.28   7.59      7.40     8.28
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=4.73   5.75      6.14   6.80     
partner:   Mt=5.56   7.35      6.99     8.03
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=4.80   5.25      5.45     5.93
partner   :Mt=5.94   7.15      6.69     7.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpartner
Page in Source 286
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have a partner?"
1: no, and I have never had one
2: no, but I have had one
3: not sure
4: yes
Observed distributionN: 1:59, 2:264, 3:41, 4:1105
Remarks
It is likely that the original sign of the correlation 
was wrong: this was adjusted here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.38
 2: Mt=7.13
 3: Mt=6.89
 4: Mt=7.96
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.98
 2: Mt=6.68
 3: Mt=6.23
 4: Mt=7.69
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.25 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.40
 2: Mt=6.00
 3: Mt=5.68
 4: Mt=7.24
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelwith/without partner
Page in Source 152-164
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: no partner
1: partner
Observed distributionN; 0: 713; 1:3425
Remarks
Values and numbers are computed from the composite 
values of Ventegodt page 152-164. See Spreadsheet 
Seq.nr. 1 under Observed Associations
Values were then transformed to a 0-10 scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=6.90
1: Mt=7.99
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
men         women:
0:Mt=6.90   Mt=6.90
1:Mt=8.10   Mt=7.90
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
unemployed   employed:
0: Mt=6.10   Mt=7.11
1: Mt=7.36   Mt=8.08
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=6.33
1: Mt=7.71
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
men         women:
0:Mt=6.23   Mt=6.44
1:Mt=7.76   Mt=7.66
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
unemployed   employed:
0: Mt=5.41   Mt=6.58
1: Mt=7.03   Mt=7.80
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=5.60
1: Mt=7.35
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
men         women:
0:Mt=5.50   Mt=5.71
1:Mt=7.36   Mt=7.34
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
unemployed   employed:
0: Mt=5.09   Mt=5.74
1: Mt=6.90   Mt=7.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelwith/without partner
Page in Source 144-164
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1:partner     
0:no partner
Remarks
Ss in laborforce only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
  children  no children  children  no children
  employed men(N=462)    unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=8.15   8.19         7.70      7.11  
0:Ms=6.18   7.43         5.00      5.90
  employed women(N=428)  unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=8.05   7.91         8.04      8.00
0:Ms=6.95   7.43         6.25      6.66
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
  children  no children  children  no children
  employed men(N=462)    unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=7.81   7.86         6.80      6.73
0:Ms=5.44   6.66         5.00      5.45
  employed women(N=428)  unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=7.76   7.76         7.45      7.34
0:Ms=6.80   6.21         5.50      6.34
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
  children  no children  children  no children
  employed men(N=462)    unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=7.25   7.48         7.00      6.73 
0:Ms=5.15   5.65         5.00      5.00
  employed women(N=428)  unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=7.24   7.76         6.94      7.34
0:Ms=6.10   6.13         5.25      6.00
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
  friend    no friend    friend     no friend 
  employed  employed     unemployed unemployed
1:Ms=8.29   7.53         8.10       7.05
0:Ms=7.50   6.80         6.88       5.00
(N All=803)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
  friend    no friend    friend     no friend 
  employed  employed     unemployed unemployed
1:Ms=8.08   7.13         7.50       6.36 
0:Ms=6.86   5.90         6.88       3.34
(N All=803)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
  employed  employed     unemployed unemployed
  friend    no friend    friend     no friend
1:Ms=7.60   6.63         7.38       6.25
0:Ms=6.15   5.40         5.88       5.00
(N All=803)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelhaving a partner
Page in Source 304
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have a partner?"
1: no, and I never had one
2: no, but I have had one
3: not sure
4: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4604; %:1:1,9; 2:14,5; 3:2,5; 4:81,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=7.13
2: Mt=6.80
3: Mt=6.63
4: Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.23 p < .00
1: Mt=6.45
2: Mt=6.28
3: Mt=6.16
4: Mt=7.69
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.31 p < .00
1: Mt=5.99
2: Mt=5.60
3: Mt=5.35
4: Mt=5.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsingle breadwinner
Page in Source 340
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 single breadwinner
0 other
Observed distributionN: All:4458; 1:2407; 2:2051; 3:2012; 4:2446; 5:3723; 735
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given, because catagories 
are overlapping

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
            children    no children
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=7.04     6.59
 men        Mt=6.78     7.11
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.96     7.84
 men        Mt=8.03     8.08
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
            children    no children
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=6.54     6.15
 men        Mt=6.15     6.83
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.69     7.64
 men        Mt=7.69     7.76
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
            children    no children
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=5.73     5.68
 men        Mt=5.55     5.86
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.39     7.31
 men        Mt=7.38     7.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 588
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Never married, widowed or divorced   1 Married.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bG=+.02 ns
Gammas based on proportions 'very satisfied'.

Helsinki      : G' = -.05 (ns)
Rural communes: G' = +.05 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2009): study XZ Germany West 1994
TitleLocal Environmental Quality and Life-Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceEcological Economics, Vol. 64, 787 - 797
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.04.016
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1994-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsena
Respondents N =23014

Correlate
Author's labelLiving together with partner
Page in Source 792
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Without partner
1 With partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .01
OPRC (+.19) controled for:
- affected by noise and air pollution 
- socio-economic characteristics
- demographic characteristics
- housing characteristics
- residential characteristics

OPRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size. OPRC means only that living with a partner 
goes with more happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage
Page in Source 25
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 single (reference group)
1 not-single
  a not married but living together
  b married and living together
  c married but separated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.22 p < .01
a:Living together happier than singles
When trait-happiness is also controled B=+.23
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.34 p < .01
b: Marrieds happier than singles
When trait-happiness is also controled B=+.29
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.27 ns
c: Separated less happy than singles
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.25

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 20
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.34
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.40
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-German nationality
-Univeristy graduate
-Region in Germany (East/West)
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelLiving together withpartner
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Question :' Are you living together with a partner ?'
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.18       +.22       +.18       +.07
1980      +.16       +.23       +.16       +.04
1984      +.16       +.22       +.16       +.05
1988      +.20       +.27       +.20       +.10

ß's controlled for age, gender and perceived class 

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.28       +.61       +.28       +.22
1980      +.24       +.51       +.24       +.17
1984      +.23       +.49       +.23       +.21
1988      +.24       +.51       +.24       +.18

ß's controlled for age, gender and perceived class 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on marital status:
a. single (reference)
b. married/living with partner
c. divorced/separated
d. widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.41 p < .001
MARRIED/LIVING WITH PARTNER (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.42 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.43 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.44 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.41 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.06 ns
DIVORCED/SEPARATED          (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.00 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.05 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.06 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.08 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.08 ns
WIDOWED                     (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.13 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.13 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.15 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.14 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Education
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Individual is:
a) married
b) separated
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) single (reference group)
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) married: 0.63 (0.48) b) Separated: 0.02 (0.13) c) divorced: 0.08 (0.27) d) widowed: 0.06 (0.24)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.05 ns
a) married (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.09 ns
b) separated (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.14 p < .05
c) divorced (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.43 p < .01
d) widowed (vs single)

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Monthly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Similar results for pooled OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 16-18,30
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a Married (reference)
b Single
c Separated
d Divorced
e Widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 ns
Single    (vs. married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.39 ns
Separated (vs. married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 ns
Divorced  (vs. married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.51 ns
Widowed   (vs. married)

b's controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Income
- Spouse in foreign country
- Years of education
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelSerious/permanent partnership
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital state:
a) 1 serious partnership
b) 0 no serious partnership
Observed distributionM=0.83; SD=0.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.41 p < .01
b controlled for:
- number of close friends
- household income
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- educational career
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelPartnered
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: without partner
1: with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+3.0 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- age
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelHas partner
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Could I ask about your current legal marital status?
1: married or in a civil partnership
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 61.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.82 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.49 p < .05
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 37
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: Married (reference)
1: Unmarried
   a: single
   b: divorced
   c: widow
Observed distribution0: M = 0,645 SD = 0,479; 1a: M = 0,248 SD = 0,432; 1b: M = 0,09 SD = 0,286; 1c: M = 0,017 SD = 0,129

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
Single   (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 p < .1
Divorced (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
Widow    (vs married)

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
No significant change when:

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWeick (1997): study DE 1995
TitleLebensbedingungen und Bewertungen. (Living Conditions and Evaluations).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 1997", Verlag Bonn Aktuell, 1997, Germany, 468 - 480
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1997.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold composition
Page in Source 477
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a children but no partner
   b with partner, no children
   c married, no children
   d married with young children (<6)
   e married with older children (6-16)
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                            West   East
Living alone
 a single                   6,7     6,0
 b divorced                 6,2     5,6
 c widowed                  6,4     6,6
Living together
 a children, no partner     6,6     6,4
 b partner, no children     7,3     6,5
 c married, no children     7,2     6,4
 d married, young children  7,1     6,7
 e married, older children  6,9     6,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelPartner status status
Page in Source 7,8,21
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a No partner
b Partner in Household (reference category)
c Partner outside the household
Observed distributiona: M = 0,07 b: M = 0,9 c: M = 0,03

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.43 p < .01
NO PARTNER (VS PARTNER IN HOUSEHOLD)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.32 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same  controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
PARTNER OUTSIDE THE HOUSEHOLD (VS PARTNER IN 
HOUSEHOLD)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
1: Married
0: Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Education
- Foreign-born
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily and household forms
Page in Source 513
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a with partner, no children
   b with partner and children
   c with others (communal)
   d other family household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=
Living alone                    West     East
a single                        7,7       7,1*
b divorced                      7,0       4,6*
c widowed                       7,6       6,6
Living together
a. with partner, no child       8,0       7,0
b. with partner and children    8,0       7,1
c. with others                  8,0       6,9
a with partner, no children     7,9       6,4
b with partner and children     -         6,9
c with others (communal)        8,0        -
d other family houhold          8,0       6,9

* N<20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 95
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a) married
b) single
c) widowed
d) divorced
e) separated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
          Mean    Unhappy(1-3) Very happy(8-10)
Married   7,4     4,0%         50,5%
Single    7,2     2,4%         40,5%
Widowed   7,3     4,9%         44,5%
Divorced  6,8     9,2%         34,6%
Separated 6,8     2,6%         30,8%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 295
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a) separated
b) single
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) married (reference group)
Observed distributiona) M=0.015; SD=0.123 b) M=0.200; SD= 0.400 c) M=0.070; SD=0.255 d) M= 0.063; SD=0.243 e) Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.40 p < .01
a) separated (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
b) single (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
c) divorced (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.42 p < .01
d) widowed (vs married)

b's controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 735
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status:
a) Married
b) Separated
c) Divorced
d) Widowed
e) Never married (reference group)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.27
Married, males   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04
Married, females (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07
Separated, males (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.13
Separated, women (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.30
Divorced, men   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.21
Divorced, women (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.47
Widowed, men   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.19
Widowed, women  (vs. never married)

Beta's controlled for:
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- household income
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelPartner
Page in Source 222, 225
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: has a partner at T3 (2004)
0: has not
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.23 p < .001
T3 LEVEL of happiness 

Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .001
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 years lag)

Beta controlled for
-average priority at t 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 35
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 currently married
0 other (separated, divorced, widowed)
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.62 sd=0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.11 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 p < .05
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 married
0 other (separated, divorced, widowed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.12  Beta=+.09
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
West: Beta=+.17  Beta=+.20

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Other marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 48, 49
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married
0: Unmarried
   a: single
   b: widowed
   c: divorced
   d: separated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
1  M = 3,85
0a M = 3,83
0b M = 3,71
0c M = 3,6
0d M = 3,44

The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is 
recorded here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.21
Single
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.31
Widowed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.55
Separated

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - household size
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Have it all'
Page in Source 18
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.42 p < .01
A only: Relative high income     (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.73 p < .01
Ba only: Cohabiting             (vs living alone)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.39 p < .01
Bb only: Children:              (vs childless)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.54 p < .01
Bc only Family                  (vs not living 
with partner and child)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
A+Ba: high income and cohabiting  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .05
A+Bb: high income and children  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
A+Bc: high income and family   (vs not)

b's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort

b's for  A, Ba, Bb and Bc only differ slightly in 
analyses A-B combinations

Similar results for 40-54 aged women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 183
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: not living with partner (never married, widowed, 
divorced, separated)
1: living with partner (married or cohabiting)
Observed distribution0 = 40%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eLRCD= p < .048
Univariate analysis, method not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelMarried Status
Page in Source 43
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1:Married
0:Not
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.20 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- earnings (log)
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySing (2009a): study HK 2006
TitleThe Quallity of Life in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 295 - 335
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9349-x
Public20-69 aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 318
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status:
1 married
0 not married
  a single
  b other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mD%=
% happy (very and quite)
married   48%
single    59%
other     37%
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mtc=-.19
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bD%=
% feels happy (often and sometimes)
married   62%
single    65%
other     56%
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-btc=-.08
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cD%=-
% accomplished wants (a great deal and some)
married   59%
single    52%
other     48%
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ctc=-.03
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aDM=-
married   M = 2,0
single    M = 2,0
other     M = 1,9
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBMCT=ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 312
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreported marital status
1  marital relation
   a: married
   b: cohabiting
0  no marital relation
   a: unmarried
   b: divorced
   c: widowed

Rated
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+2.4 ns
unmarried (vs. cohabiting)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-2.5 ns
married (vs. cohabiting)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+4.4 ns
divorced (vs. cohabiting)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.5 ns
widowed (vs. cohabiting)

B is controlled for: 
-residence
-living arrangement
-income
-education
-age
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelPartnered
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: without partner
1: with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+8.4 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- age
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 183
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: Single
1: Other
    a: Married
    b: Divorced
    c: Widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.81 p < .01
MARRIED (vs single)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.80 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.58 p < .01
DIVORCED (vs single)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.48 p < .05
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.05 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.16 ns
WIDOWED (vs single)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.35 p < .10
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.05 p < .10
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married (reference)
0: not married 
   a.divorced
   b.widowed
   c.single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.11 ns
B controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -Caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -religion
 -employment status
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLandiyanto et al. (2010): study ID 2007
TitleWealth and Happiness: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia.
SourceWorking Paper, 2010, 1 - 19, Mahidol University, Thailand
URLhttp://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/labor/FLS/IFLS/papers/2010_landiyanto2.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29013

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage
Page in Source 17
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about marriage status of 
repondents:
1 Formal marriage
0 Unmarried, non-formal marriage and ever married
Observed distributionM=0.64; SD=0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-car=+.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 164
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married/living with partner
0: not married
   a: widowed
   b: never married
   c: seperated/divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-.33
married/living with partner M = 8,02
not married
- widowed                   M = 7,69
- never married             M = 7,50
- seperated/divorced        M = 6,77


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs not married
Page in Source 98-99
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
Observed distribution1: 75%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=+.12 p < .01
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.07 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- immigration history
  - continent or origin
  - language proficiency in Hebrew
- background
  - age
  - gender
  - income
  - education
  - participation in social activities
  - selfrated health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelnot married
Page in Source 518
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 not currently married
1 married
Observed distributionN = 0: 4,6%, 1: 95,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-2.3 p < .05
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Unaffected by type of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-2.5 p < .05
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, München, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: married
b: separated or divorced
c: widowed
Observed distributiona: M = 0.50; SD = 0.50; b: M = 0.04; SD = 0.19; c: M = 0.09; SD = 0.29

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.19 p < .01
Married               (vs not)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.06 ns
Separated or divorced (vs not)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=-.06 ns
Widowed               (vs not)

B's controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Age
 -Health condition
 -Education 
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 63
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: unmarried
   a: never married
   b: divorced
   c: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+
Mistaken title of the graphic
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelSingle/Couple
Page in Source 17
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a. Single
   1: Yes
   0: No
b. Couple
  1: Yes
  0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.40 p < .01
SINGLE (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.36 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.46 p < .01
COUPLE (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.49 p < .01
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2009): study JP 2009
TitleCountry Profile of Japan: Citizens' Perception of Quality of Life, Social Capital, and Governance
SourceInoguchi, T.; Ed.: "Human Beliefs and Values in East and Southeast Asia in Transition", Akashi Shoten, 2009, Japan, 129 - 151
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1003

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 134
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
Observed distributionN= 1:732, 0: 271

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=+ p < .00
1: M =       2,80 [CI95 2,74 2,85] SD 0,79
0: M =       2,39 [CI95 2,29 2,49] SD 0,82
-difference +0,41 [CI95 0,29 0,52]
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .00
1: M =       2,05 [CI95 2,00 2,10] SD 0,64
0: M =       1,80 [CI95 1,71 1,88] SD 0,70
-difference +0,25 [CI95 0,16 0,35]
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM=+ p < .00
1: M =       1,78 [CI95 1,74 1,83] SD 0,60
0: M =       1,47 [CI95 1,39 1,55] SD 0,68
-difference +0,31 [CI95 0,24 0,39]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKusago (2007): study JP 1978
TitleRethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post - WW 2 Japan - A Fresh Approach
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 79 - 102
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0016-9
PublicGeneral public, Japan, 3 annual 1978-2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =18

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a. single
b. divorced/ widowed
c. married (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.19 p < .01
1978

Single           (vs married)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.22 p < .01
Divorced/widowed (vs married)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.27 p < .01
1990

Single           (vs married)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.21 p < .01
Divorced/widowed (vs married)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.17 p < .01
2002

Single           (vs married)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.14 p < .05
Divorced/widowed (vs married)

B's controlled for:
-age
-gender
-employment status
-house ownership
-family income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyShin (1986): study KR 1980
TitleEducation and the quality of life in Korea and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 50, 360 - 370
URLhttp://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/3/360.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1215

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 367
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried (including widowed and
  divorced)
1 Marrieds

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.06 ns
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.06 ns
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.12 ns
ß controled for education, income, age, gender, 
own house and community size.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study LT 2001
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Lithuanian women, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response10.5 %
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source S25
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: single
1: married or co-habiting
Observed distribution0 = 29,9 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=- ns
Married/co-habiting M = 1.25
Single              M = 1.50
- difference          - 0.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelmarriage/separated/widowed
Page in Source 902
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
    a: separated
    b: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.15 p < .05
Married (vs not)
- no significant difference between males and 
females
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=-.04 ns
Separated
- negative among women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.02 ns
widowed
- no significant difference between males and 
females

B's controlled for
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008
TitleHappiness and 'economic migration': a comparison of Eastern European migrants and stayers
SourceMigration Studies, 1(2), 156-175
DOIdoi:10.1093/migration/mnt006
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42380

Correlate
Author's labelLiving with a partner/spouse
Page in Source 163, 165, 167
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Assessment of interviewer:
1: Living with partner/spouse
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution56.9% lives with partner/spouse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.11 p < .000
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant status
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Religion
- Gender
- Employment
- Friends
- Health
- Income
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 259
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: non-married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.40 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual marital status

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 18
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status was dichotomized:
0: others
1: married or living together
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = 0.12, SD = 0.33 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 0.39, SD = 0.48 3) Thai female sex workers. M = 0.25, SD = 0.43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.86 ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.74 ns
Yunnan male sex customers (N = 283)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.97 ns
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OR's controlled for:
- years of education
- income rank
- HIV positive
- current drug use
- age
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 33, 50, 57
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 
This question is about your legal marital status not 
about who you may or may not be living with. Which one 
of the descriptions on this card describes your legal 
marital status now?
1: Legally married
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution53% married; SD= 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.46 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Unemployed
- Country of residence
- Survey year
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.46 p < .001
B additionally controlled for:
- Immigrant status
- Immigrant status*country of residence
- Region of origin


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelmarried and parental status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a no partner reference
b no partner with children
c couple
d couple with children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.37 p < .01
no partner with children (compared to no partner)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.47 p < .01
couple (compared to no partner)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.60 p < .01
couple with children (compared to no partner

Bs controlled for 
- gender
- age 
- education 

Bs lower after additional control for 
- income
- occupation
- employment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBartram (2013b): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleHappiness among North-to-South Migrants in Europe.
SourceWorking Paper, 16-12-2013, University of Leicester, Department of Sociology, UK
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2290154
DOIDOI:10.2139/ssrn.2290154
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2002-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56395

Correlate
Author's labelLiving with a partner
Page in Source 22-24
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1: living with partner/spouse
0: otherwise
Observed distribution58.9% lives with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.60 p < .000
B controlled for:
- Income
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Education
- Unemployed
- Retired
- Friends
- Health
- Immigrant status
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGraham (2005): study ZZ Latin America 2001
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public16+ aged, general public, 17 countries in Latin America, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18135

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 217
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 married
0 other (single, divorced, widowed)
Observed distributionN=15209

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cb=+.06
B controlled for:
- Country
- Age
- Gender
- Log wealth index
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelMarried/partnered
Page in Source 298
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married or living with a partner
0: Other
Observed distributionM=0,62 SD=0,48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .001
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .001
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .001
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. Married
0. Unmarried 
   (never married, divorced, widowed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.57 p < .05
Married compared to WIDOWED.
In all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.44 p < .05
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.63 p < .05
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.43 p < .05
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.46 p < .05
In the richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.55 p < .05
Married compared to DIVORCED.
In all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.37 p < .05
Married compared to SINGLE.
In all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.10 p < .05
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.31 p < .05
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.48 p < .05
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.65 p < .05
In richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.

B's controlled for:
-at individual level:
 -gender
 -employment status
 -age
 -age squared
 -social class
 -individual income.
-at country level:
 -average national GDP per capita
 -income inequality
 -national growth in GDP.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in a stable relationship
Page in Source 369-369,372-374,377
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do you live in a stable relationship with a partner?
0  No
1  Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
            Parter     No partner  Difference
            M    SD    M    SD     DM
Netherlands 3,53 0,54  3,07 0,62   +0,46
Denmark     3,50 0,54  3,15 0,65   +0,35
Iceland     3,57 0,52  3,11 0,58   +0,46
Belgium     3,48 0,52  3,01 0,74   +0,47  
Sweden      3,38 0,60  3,08 0,63   +0,30
Austria     3,32 0,63  3,06 0,69   +0,24
Finland     3,26 0,54  2,85 0,62   +0,41
W-Germany   3,11 0,58  2,86 0,63   +0,25
E-Germany   3,01 0,70  2,79 0,74   +0,22
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Difference higher in nations where marriage is 
least seen as necessary for happiness.
- least   DM = +0.34
- most    DM = +0.09
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=+.48
Gs controled for:
- country of residence
- perceived freedom and control over life
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aGs=>15
Happiness (above) captures more of variance than 
life-satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married/ registered partnership
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.52 p < .001
1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.36 p < .001
2008

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

No significant change if additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 60
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a)Single(reference)
b)Married
c)Divorced or widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.04 p < .01
Married OPRC (0.0399)          (vs single)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.04 p < .01
Divorced/widowed OPRC (-0.0444) (vs single)

OPRC's controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual Level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - employment status
  - maximum inflation rate experienced(age 18+)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 514
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 partner
0 no partner
  a divorced
  b widowed
  c never married (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
partner               (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.05 p < .036
divorced              (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 p < .353
widow                 (vs never married)

Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: Married
b: Divorced
c: Separated
d: Widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.08 p < .01
Married (vs. unmarried)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= +0,148
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.13 p < .01
Divorced (vs. not divorced)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,202
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.20 p < .01
Separated (vs.living together)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,305
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.06 p < .01
Widowed (vs. not-widowed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,099
Beta's  controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - education
  - employment status
  - number of children
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 7
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M= 0.63 SD= 0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+3.7 p < .05
B (+3.68) controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 3,68 points greater happiness on scale 
10-100 of the married


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 519-521,526
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: Not married
1: Married (or living as married) .
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v212

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 ns
b (0,08783)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-gender
-education
-age
-age squared
-number of children
-home life quality
-income
-unemployed
-church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 164
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 non-married
1 married(incl. common law)
Observed distribution90% married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.27 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 94
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: Not married
1: Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.29 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL marital status

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 54 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 159
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married 
c: divorced
d: separated 
e: widowed
f: never married (reference category)
Observed distributionRange 0-1 a: M= 0.61, SD= 0.49 b: M= 0.06, SD= 0.23 c: M= 0.03, SD= 0.17 d: M= 0.02, SD= 0.13 e: M= 0.05, SD= 0.23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.36 p < .000
Married (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.17 p < .000
Living as married (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.10 p < .036
Divorced (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.35 p < .000
Separated (vs never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 ns
Widowed (vs never married) 

B's controlled for:
- self assessed health
- employment status
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPalisi (1985b): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleVoluntary Associations and Well-Being in Three Metropolitan Areas: Cross Cultural Evidence.
SourceInternational Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1985, Vol. 22, 265 - 288
PublicMales, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 276
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.11
London
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.20
Los Angeles
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.08
Sydney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPalisi & Canning (1983): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleUrbanism and Social Psychological Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Test of Three Theories.
SourceThe Sociological Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 24, 527 - 543
PublicMales, metropolitan areas, England, USA, Australia, 1977-1980
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67 %
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 537
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.19 p < .05
London 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.16 p < .05
Los Angeles 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.10 ns
Sydney 
rpc controled for: Frequency of visits to friends 
and kin, neighborhood (centre or suburb) and type 
of house (single family home or not)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVeenhoven & VanSchoonhoven (1991): study ZZ EU 11 1975
TitleLevensvoldoening van Alleenstaanden; Achterstand op Samenwoners in 11 EG landen 1974-1986. (Life Satisfaction of Singles; Arrearage on Cohabitants in 11 EC countries 1974-1986).
SourceGezin, 1991, Vol.3, 15 - 25
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16152
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 11 member states, 1975-1986
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =200000

Correlate
Author's labelliving together (vs single)
Page in Source 21
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 single
  - never married
  - separated
  - widowed
1 together
  - married
  - unmarried co-habiting
Remarks
Possibly some of the married Ss live alone and some of 
the singles may in fact live together

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.13
AVERAGE correlation in all nations and years
Co-habitors tend to be happier than singles

Average correlation is similar across separate 
countries and varies between +.10 and +.16, with 
the exception of France (+.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-br=+.08
CHANGE in correlation over the years
Cohabitors have become happier relative to singles

Trend correlations differ across separate nations. 
Cohabitors became less happy relatively in 
Denmark, France and Ireland, but happier in 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands 
and the UK, while no change occured in Belgiun and 
Northern Ireland.

The overall trend in differs slightly across sex 
and age categories:
             Males      Females
all 18 aged  r = +.08   r = +.01
25-39 aged   r = +.07   r = +.08
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 7
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1 currently married or living with partner
0 other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.74 p < .10
Turkish immigrants
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.1 p < .05
Moroccan immigrants

B's controlled for:
- Income(Absolute)
- Income(Relative)
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Religion
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelHaving partner
Page in Source 92,89
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Having partner or not:
0. no
1. yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
0. 75%
1. 93%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
0. 76%
1. 91%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+1.5
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.93
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- trust in parliament
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBergman (2009): study NL 2006
TitleKinsey Revisited: Relatie tussen Seksualiteit en Geluk.(Kinsey Revisited: Relation between Sexuality and Happiness.)
SourceBachelor Thesis, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Sociology, 2009, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Public19-69 aged heterosexuals, the Netherlands, 2006.
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2591

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 21
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: single 
1: married
Observed distributionN = 0:826 1:1765

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=+
0: single  M = 3,96  (SD = 1,3)
1: married M = 4,47  (SD = 1,14)
- difference  +0.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBoelhouwer (2009): study NL 2006
TitleBedrieglijke Vrouwen. (Fallacious Women).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "M/V," Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP), 2009, 124 - 129
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =9607

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 125
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried
  a Single 
  b Divorced
  c Widowed
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
ALL
Unmarried:
  a Single   = 7,5
  b Divorced = 7,0
  c Widowed  = 7,5
    Married  = 7,9
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
FEMALES
Unmarried:
  a Single   = 7,6
  b Divorced = 7,0
  c Widowed  = 7,5
    Married  = 8
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
MALES
Unmarried:
  a Single   = 7,4
  b Divorced = 6,9
  c Widowed  = 7,8
    Married  = 7,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyClarijs (2009): study NL 2006
TitleSeksuele Satisfactie en Geluk bij Hetero-en Homoseksuelen. (Sexual Satisfaction and Happiness by Hetero-and Homosexual People.)
SourceBachelor Thesis, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Sociology, 2009, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Public19-69 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelRelationship
Page in Source 12
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report on single question
1: relation
0: no relation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=+
Hetero sexuals
0: no relation  M= 4,81  SD= 0,67
1:    relation  M= 4,92  SD= 0,67
difference        +0,11
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=4,47 p < .002
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=-
Homo sexuals
0: no relation  M= 4,95  SD= 0,76
1:    relation  M= 4,89  SD= 0,73
difference        -0,06
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=0,00 p < .1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelFamily stage
Page in Source 33
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: Living with parents
b: Living alone
c: Living together
d: Living with family (spouce and children) (reference 
category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 278 2: 282 3: 656 4: 748

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            Parents Alone Together  Family 
Very happy   25,5%   15%   28,5%    24,5%
Happy        67,5%   66%   66,5%    68,5%
Unhappy      7%      19%   5,5%     7%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
     UNHAPPY (vs happy)   VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
     observed controlled  observed   controlled
Parents  1,01   1,77       1.06       1,11
Alone    2,75*  2,23*      1,12       1,10
Together 0,72   0,59*      1,09       1,06 
Family   1      1          1          1

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- situation 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCloin & Wennekers (2007): study NL 2004
TitleEen Gelukkige Combinatie. (A Happy Combination).
SourceSchnabel, P. ; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 51 - 56
Public20-65-aged; Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1491

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold type
Page in Source 53
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Household-situations for men:
a: couple, no child, man works part time (substantial), 
woman has a job
b: couple, with child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
c: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
d: couple with child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
e: couple, with child, man works part-time 
(substantial), woman has a job
f: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
g: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has no job
h: man lives alone, works full-time
i: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has a job, 
man does housekeeping
j: man lives alone, works part-time (substantial or 
small)
k: man lives alone, has no job

Household-situations for women:
a: couple, with child, woman works full-time, man works
b: couple, with child, woman works part-time 
(substantial), man works 
c: couple, no child, woman works full-time, man works
d: couple, no child, woman works part-time, man works
e: couple, with child,woman has no job, man works
f: woman lives alone,works full-time
g: couple, no child, man has no job and keeps the 
house, woman works
h: couple with child,woman works part-time (small), man 
works 
i: couple, no child, woman has no job, man has no job
j: couple, no child, woman has no job, man works
k: woman lives alone, works part-time (small or 
substantial)
l: mother lives alone, has a job
m: woman lives alone, has no job
n: mother lives alone, has no job
Observed distributionN: Men: 696: a: 25; b: 127; c: 48; d: 74; e: 16; f: 129; g: 49; h: 107; i: 29. N: Women: 795: a: 21; b: 119; c: 54; d: 100; e: 57; f: 60; g: 35; h: 27; i: 63; j: 76; k: 64; l: 26; m : 69; n: 24.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
% (very) happy by their household-situation: MALES
a: 92
b: 91
c: 90
d: 88
e: 88
f: 84
g: 84
h: 76
i: 69
j: 69
k: 45

% (very) happy by their household-situation: 
FEMALES
a: 95
b: 94
c: 93
d: 91
e: 88
f: 87
g: 86
h: 85
i: 83
j: 76
k: 67
l: 62
m: 54
n: 50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status/having children
Page in Source 143 + 147
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. married/cohabiting, without children or children at 
different ages.
0. not married (a. single; b. divorced) without 
children or children at differen ages.
Observed distributionNative Dutch: 0: 32,1%; 1: 67,9% Surinamese/ Antillean: 0: 47,6%; 1: 52,4% Maroccean: 0: 28,1%; 1: 71,9% Turks: 0:21,3%; 1: 78,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
No Children
1: Mean 7,26 SE:0,10
a: Mean 7,16 SE:0,08 
b: Mean 7,02 SE:0,15
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .10
1>a,b
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
With Children
1: Mean 7,31 SE:0,12
a: Mean 7,22 SE:0,11 
b: Mean 7,20 SE:0,18
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .10
1>a,b
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Married/
cohabiting        Mean             
-has children     7,31
-no children      7,26 
difference       +0,05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Single            Mean              
-has children     7,22
-no children      7,16
difference       +0,06
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Divorced          Mean           
-has children     7,20
-no children      7,02 
difference       +0,18
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
Single parents with children 0-3 
(vs. Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Single parents with children 4-11
(vs.Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Single parents with children 12-15
(vs. Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .10
Single parents with children 16-25
(vs. single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.04 p < .10
Couples with children 0-3
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.04 ns
Couples with children 4-11
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Couples with children 12-15 
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Couples with children 16-25
(vs. Couples with children age >25)

Beta's controlled for
-gender
-ethnic groups
-education
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 42,48
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married
   a: Married (community of property)
   b: Married (marriage settlement)
0: Unmarried
   a: Divorced
   b: Living with partner (not married)
   c: Widowed
   d: Never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+-
1a M = 4,1
1b M = 4,16
0a M = 3,65
0b M = 4,09
0c M = 3,71
0d M = 3,84
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.15
Marriage settlement               (vs not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-1.0
Divorced                          (vs not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.15
Living with partner (not married) (vs not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.95
Widowed                           (vs not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-1.0
Never married                     (vs not)

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - health status
  - household size
  - income 
  - gender
  - age
  - parental status
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHenkens (1997): study NL 1992
TitleInactiviteit en Sociaal Isolement, Gezondheid en Welbevinden: Mannelijke Werkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Inactivity and Social Isolation, Health and Well-Being: Employed and Unemployed Compared).
SourceNIDI Working Paper, 1997/2, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/henkens_k_1997.pdf
Public55-64 aged men, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response61,7
Respondents N =575

Correlate
Author's labelhaving a partner
Page in Source 6
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-dDM=+ s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVeenhoven & VanSchoonhoven (1991): study NL 1989
TitleLevensvoldoening van Alleenstaanden; Achterstand op Samenwoners in 11 EG landen 1974-1986. (Life Satisfaction of Singles; Arrearage on Cohabitants in 11 EC countries 1974-1986).
SourceGezin, 1991, Vol.3, 15 - 25
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16152
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1989
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2969

Correlate
Author's labelLiving together (vs single)
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 living together
  - married
  - unmarried co-habiting
2 single
  - never married
  - separated
  - widowed
Observed distributionN = 1: 1967, 2: 1002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=-
Together: M = 3.60  CI[3.56-3.64]
Single:   M = 3.12  CI[3.05-3.19]
Difference   -0.48
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dG=-.33 p < .01
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dtc=-.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 7
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married (divorced, widowed or
  never married)
1 Married (married or cohabitating)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.57 p < . 01
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-atc=+.12 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelLiving together/marriage first partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 Married or living as married with first partner
0 Other (mostly singles)
Observed distributionN in this situation at: T1= 412, T1-T3=297, T3-T4=127, T3-T5 or T4-T5=74, Total=910
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who had 
been married during this 12 year period and Ss who 
did not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.85 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteritstics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
- extraversion
and life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.87 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition 
(happened or not):
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring the above years of 
transition variables

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDeggeller et al. (1978): study NL 1978
TitleVrouw '78. (Women '78).
SourceStudy for Ladies Journal Margriet by NOVUM, 1978, Haarlem, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/deggeller_l_1978.pdf
Public18-65 aged women The Netherlands, 1978
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1119

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Tabel 3b
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
a: married, youngest child <10 years old
b: married, youngest child >10 years old
c: married no children at home
d: unmarried, living alone
e: divorced, living alone
f: unmarried, divorced, living with partner

Rated on a 5-point verbal scale 5, very satisfied; 4: 
satisfied; 3: not unsatisfied; 4: dissatisfied; 5: very 
dissatisfied
Observed distributionN:a=463; b=259; c=215; d= 76; e=81; f=25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-jDM=
                              M      SD    
a: married,youngest 
   child <10 years           3.56    0.65
b: married,youngest 
   child >10 years           3.83    0.72  
c: married no children
   at home                   4.08    0.68  
d: unmarried, living alone   3.12    0.68
e: divorced, living alone    3.28    0.68
f: unmarried, divorced
   living with partner       3.77    0.56
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-jBMCT= p < .05
e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyStapel (1970): study NL 1969
TitleHet Gelukkige Nederland: Een Staat van Welvaart. (Happy Netherlands: A State of Welfare).
SourceNIPO, "Zo zijn Wij: De Eerste 25 jaar NIPO Onderzoek", Agon/Elsevier, 1970, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 56 - 63
Public21+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1969
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1003

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 59
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1  married
0  not married
   a  never married
   b  separated, divorced or widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1:  M = 2.80
0a: M = 2.67
0b: M = 2.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

Study~NIPO (1949): study NL 1948
TitleWat de Mensen Gelukkig Maakt. (The Things that Contribute to Happiness).
SourceDe Publieke Opinie, 1949, Vol. 3, 3 - 4
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~NIPO_1949.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried            
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aD%= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status:
1: Married
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution1: 68%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
- gender
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000
- employment status 
- personal income 
- relative income 
- survey wave
- time period of the year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHofoss (2004): study NO 1984
TitleHealthy Living Does not Reduce Life Satisfaction among Physically Handicapped Persons.
SourcePatient Education and Counseling, 2004, Vol. 52, 17 - 22
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0738-3991(02)00244-6
Public25 -50 aged physically handicapped, Norway, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11,9%
Respondents N =5572

Correlate
Author's labelMarried/cohabiting
Page in Source 19
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 not married/cohabiting
1 married/cohabiting

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cD%=+
SMALL HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
0 not married/cohab.  61,53      38,47
1 married/cohabiting  69,65      30,35
  difference         + 8,12     - 8,12
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=1.44
CI95% [1.20-1.72]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cDM=+
MEDIUM/LARGE HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
1 not married/cohab.  54,49      45,51
0 married/cohabiting  59,25      40,75
  difference         + 4,76     - 4,76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=1.21
CI95% [0.98-1.50]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 412
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married nor cohabiting 
1 Married or cohabiting

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.12
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county. 
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.12 p < .01
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, 
occupationally active, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 411
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married nor cohabiting 
1 Married or cohabiting
Remarks
                                           

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, number of friends, occupationally 
active, degree of urbanization.              
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.                               
                                            


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 411
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married nor cohabiting 
1 Married or cohabiting
Remarks
      

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.30 p < .01
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, number of 
friends, occupationally active.        

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic
level of the county.                             


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 368
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: unmarried
   a single
   b divorced
   c widow
2: married
Observed distributionN = 1a: 317, 1b: 85, 1c:39 2: 509

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aDM=
1a unmarried M= 5,04  SD= 1,36
1b divorced  M= 4,26  SD= 1,37
1c widow     M= 4,48  SD= 1,33
2  married   M= 5,03  SD= 1,26
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDM=
1a unmarried M= 7,09  SD= 2,05
1b divorced  M= 5,41  SD= 2,35
1c widow     M= 6,74  SD= 1,90
2  married   M= 7,24  SD= 1,99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGuillen-Royo & Velazco (2012): study PE 2005
TitleHappy Villages and Unhappy Slums? Understanding Happiness Determinants in Peru.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 253 - 270
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_18
PublicGeneral public, Peruvian corridor region, Peru, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =251

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source Table 5 & Table 9
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.53 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+1.1 p < .05
Non-urban
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+1.0 p < .05
Urban

B's controlled for: 
 -age
 -gender
 -years of education
 -migrant
 -household expenditure
 -average expenditure

Unaffected by view on happiness (in total sample)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 232
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Widowed / never married / married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bG= +
Index of Positive Affects:
Males   : G = +.12
Females : G = +.16

Index of Negative Affects:
Males   : G = -.20
Females : G = -.01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= -
Males   : G = -.04
Females : G = -.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG=
Males   : G = +.18
Females : G = -.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBartram (2013a): study RO 2009
TitleMigration, Return, and Happiness in Romania.
SourceEuropean Societies, 2013, Vol. 15, 408 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1080/14616696.2012.726735
Public15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1595

Correlate
Author's labelLiving with a partner/spouse
Page in Source 414, 416
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Assessment of interviewer:
1: Living with partner/spouse
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution60.7% lives with a partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- immigrant status
- religiosity
- employment
- sociability
- health
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBaltatescu & Cummins (2004): study RO Bihor county 2003
TitleSubjective Wellbeing in a Post-Communist Country: Romania's International Wellbeing Index.
SourcePowerpoint presentation at 6th Conference ISQOLS, November 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttp://slideplayer.com/slide/4801500/
Public18+ aged, general public, Bihor County, North-West Romania, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =368

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 8
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: unmarried
1: divorced/widowed
2: married/free union

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caD%=
% very satisfied
0: unmarried             59%
1: divorced/widowed      64% 
2: married/free union    51%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGraham (2005): study RU 2000
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8911

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 217
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"What is your marital status?
1 Never married 
2 In a registered marriage
3 Living together, not registered
4 Divorced and not remarried 
5 Widower (widow)"

converted to the dichotomy:
1 married
0 other (single, in unregistered partnership, divorced, 
widowed)
Observed distributionN=9064 M=2.37 sd=1.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebb=+.09
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Log equivalent income
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 17,24
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
Observed distributionM = 0,69 SD = 0,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+/0
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.35 p < .01
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- calories consumed per day in logarithm
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- work (is employed)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySchyns (2000): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 95
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
           Mean   Unhappy(1-3) Very happy(8-10)
Married    5,4    25,4%        17,5%
Single     5,0    27,7%        11,6%
Widowed    4,2    51,7%        7,6%
Divorced   4,2    42,0%        11,0%
Separated  4,3    46,7%        16,7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
What is your marital status? 
1 single
2 married
3 we live together, but officially are not married
4 we live apart, but officially are not divorced
5 divorced
6 widowed
Observed distributionN = 1: 15,9% 2: 64,2% 3: 3,3% 4: 1% 5: 6,9% 6: 8,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
1: M = 2,52
2: M = 2,58
3: M = 2,47
4: M = 2,50
5: M = 2,21
6: M = 2,33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 362
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=- p < .004
Marrieds     M=1,94
Singles      M=2,11
-difference   -0,18
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=- ns
Marrieds     M=1,75
Singles      M=1,83
-difference   -0,08
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM=+ ns
Marrieds     M=2,09
Singles      M=2,08
-difference   +0,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyIbrahim & Chung (2003): study SG 2000
TitleQuality of Life of Residents Living Near Industrial Estates in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 61, 203 - 225
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1021305620042
Public16+ aged, residents of flats, Jurong quarter, Singapore, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 220
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married
   a: single 
   b: widowed
   c: divorced
Observed distributionN= 0: 91; 1: 186; 2:14; 3: 9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aDM=
1: married         M = 3,76
0: not married
   a: single       M = 3,63 
   b: widowed      M = 3,36  
   c: divorced     M = 3,22
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aF=4.65 p < .003


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKeng & Hooi (1995): study SG 1993
TitleAssessing Quality of Life in Singapore: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 35, 71 - 91
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079239
Public15-54 aged, general public, Singapore, 1993
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =329

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 83
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: single
2: married
Observed distribution1: 64.4% 2: 33.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sqt-n-5-aDM=0 ns
1: M = 3.52
2: M = 3.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status, married vs non-married
Page in Source 203,208,212
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: non married
Observed distribution1: 35%, 0: 65%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.04 ns
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.01 ns
Africans only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.09 ns
Whites onlly
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-I
OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - health status
  - employment status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
  - quality toilet
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neigbours
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
middle, poorest)
  - percieved to be better/same/worse than at age 
15
  - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelMarried or not
Page in Source 631
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: not married to one wife
   -never married                      
   -living together                    
   -married to more than one wife 
   -separated, divorced  
   -widowed  
1: married to one wife
                 

                            

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Tick the option best fitting your condition:
1: No relationship
1a: Single/No partnership
1b: Separated/divorced
1c: Widow/ed
2: In a non-stable relationship (<3 yr)
3: In a stable relationship (>3 yr)
Observed distribution1a: 36,1% 1b: 1,5% 1c: 3,4% 2: 10,2% 3: 48,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .05
1a: M= 7,30 SD= 1,89
1b: M= 5,00 SD= 5,00
1c: M= 6,14 SD= 3,02
2: M= 8,05 SD= 1,40
3: M= 7,01 SD= 1,57
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBMCT= p < .05
Games-Howell posthoc comparisons: 2 > 3
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1a: M= 7,34 SD= 1,41
1b: M= 4,33 SD= 4,04
1c: M= 7,29 SD= 1,50
2: M= 7,71 SD= 1,31
3: M= 7,51 SD= 1,19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGutiérrez et al. (2005): study ES Madrid 2002
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being: Big Five Correlates and Demographic Variables.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2005, Vol. 38, 1561 - 1569
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886904002958
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.015
PublicNursing professionals, 7 hospitals, Madrid, Spain, 2002
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelRelationship status
Page in Source 1565-1567
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: with partner
0: without partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- sex only
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for demographics:
- age 
- sex
R^2 = 0.03
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 ns
Beta controlled for:
- sex
and for personality:
- neuroticism
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 ns
Beta controlled for:
- sex
and for personality:
- extraversion
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- sex
and for personality:
- openness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- socio-demographic variables:
   - sex
   - age
- personality:
   - neuroticism
   - extraversion
   - openness
   - agreeableness
   - conscientiousness
R^2 = 0.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFernandez Ballesteros et al. (2001): study ES 1996
TitleThe Contribution of Socio-Demographic and Psychological Factors to Life Satisfaction.
SourceAgeing and Society, 2001, Vol. 21, 25 - 43
Public65+ aged, Spain, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =507

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: single 
b: married
c: divorced
d: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-gDM=
Single   M=2.66 SD=0.81
Married  M=2.96 SD=0.74
Divorced M=2.00 SD=0.63
Widowed  M=2.65 SD=0.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelPartner
Page in Source 79
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.12 p < .00
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study SE 1998
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Swedish women 1998
SampleNo sample: full population
Non-Response23 %
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source S25
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: single
1: married or co-habiting
Observed distribution0 = 17.8 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=+
single              M = 1.78
married/co-habiting M = 1.98
- difference           +0,20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLalive & Stutzer (2010): study CH 2000
TitleApproval of Equal Rights and Gender Differences in Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Popululation Economics, 2010, Vol. 23, 933 - 962
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-009-0257-4
PublicSalaried workers, Switzerland, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6203

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 27
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a Single (reference group)
b Married 
c Separated 
d Divorced 
e Widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.33
Married (vs sinlge)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.65
Separated (vs single)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.19
Divorced (vs single)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.00
Widowed (vs single)

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age 
- Nationality
- Employment status
- Household income 
- Household size

B = +.33 means that 1 point difference in level of 
schooling corresponds with +.33 
point difference in happiness on the 0-10 scale
Ordered Probit analysis (OPRC) yields similar 
results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFrey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992
TitleMaximizing Happiness?
SourceGerman Economic Review, 2000, Vol. 1, 145 - 167
URLhttps://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/C_335_2000.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Switzerland, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 156
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 single (reference)
1 a married
  b divorced
  c seperated
  d widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
married
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.17 p < .01
divorced
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.62 p < .05
separated
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.08
widowed

Beta controlled for:
-Employment status
-Income
-Education
-Demographic factors (age, gender)
-Institutional factor (direct democratic rights)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyYao et al. (2009): study TW 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Taiwan.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 377 - 404
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9353-1
Public20-69, aged, general public, Taiwan, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1016

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage
Page in Source 388
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=+ p < .09
Married   M=2,49   CI95[2,42-2,56]
Single    M=2,36   CI95[2,25-2,47]
difference  0,13
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mgH=+.14
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=- p < .01
Married   M=2,65   CI95[2,60-2,71]
Single    M=2,84   CI95[2,75-2,93]
difference -0,19
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bgH=-.25
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM= p < .00
Married   M=2,57   CI95[2,52-2,63]
Single    M=2,30   CI95[2,22-2,38]
difference +0,27
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cgH=+.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 788, 793-798
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 Married
0 Non-married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.04 ns
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.03 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - widowed
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study TO 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, aspirant migrants who stayed, Tonga, followed 3 years, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 5, 9
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Marital status:
1: Married
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution1: 68%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.05 ns
B controlled for:
- gender
- age
- years of education
- region of birth
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000
- employment status 
- personal income 
- relative income
- survey wave
- time period of the year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGokdemir (2015): study TR 2010
TitleConsumption, Savings and Life Satisfaction: the Turkish Case
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 183 - 196
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0227-y
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response4.79%
Respondents N =955

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on marital status:
1. married
0. others
   a. never married
   b. separated/divorced
   c. widowed
Observed distributionNever married = 22.22%; Married = 67.71%; Separated/divorced = 3.14%; Widowed = 6.92%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbDM=±
 Never married:      M = 5.79 
 Married:            M = 5.32
 Separated/divorced: M = 5.20
 Widowed:            M = 4.76
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbBMCT= p < .05
 (Married, Separated/divorced, widowed) < Never 
married


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyNoble (2009): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2007
TitleSubjective Well-Being: A Ukrainian Case Study.
SourceThesis, 2009, University College London, UK
Public18-85 aged, general public, 2 districts in city Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =136

Correlate
Author's labelBeing married/cohabiting
Page in Source 123, 134, 136, 139, 261
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Are you currently:
a) single
b) co-habiting
c) married
d) separated
e) divorced
f) widowed
g) other"

converted to dichotomy
1: married or cohabiting
0: other
Observed distributionM=0.66; Borshegovka M=0.70 sd=0.45; Pechersk M=0.58 sd=0.49; p-value of difference= 0.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
city district Borshegovka r=+.07 (ns)  N=86
city district Pechersk    r=+.11 (ns)  N=50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public6000+ adults, aged 15 to 75, Ukraine
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11922

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 16, 36
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: other
Observed distributionM = 0,71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.23 p < .01
Beta controled for:
- gender
- married state
- widowed state
- separated state
- chronic disease
- drinker
- smoker
- height
- unemployed
- inactive
- household size
- log income
- years of schooling
- pensioner


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelHas partner
Page in Source 19,31,33,45
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
+0.685 Married/cohabitating with children
+0.530 Married/cohabitating without children
- 0.004 Single with children
+0.000 Single without children
Values taken from a regression of life-satisfaction on 
"success" variables plus 6 family dummies.
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.30
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.23
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Good conduct
- Educational achievement
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health(at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.23
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance (5,10,16)
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyNettle (2005): study GB 2000
TitleHappiness. The Science behind Your Smile.
SourceOxford University Press, 2005, Oxford, UK
Public42 aged, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =11269

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status at age 42
Page in Source 79
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: married
b: cohabitation
c: single
d: separated
e: divorced
f: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-h-sq-n-11-aDM=-
                       M
a: married            7,6
b: cohabitation       7,1
c: single             6,5
d: separated          6,2
e: divorced           6,3
f: widowed            6,3

Difference between married and never married or 
divorced slightly greater among females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 12
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 Married
0 Not married: Widowed, Divorced/separated, Never 
married
Observed distributionMarried: 54%, Widowed/divorced/separated: 19%, Never married: 27%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=+
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of marital status

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif.
Married         62           41         +21%  
Widowed/     
divorced/
separated       34           35          -1% 
Never married    5           24         -19%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelPartnered
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: without partner
1: with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+6.6 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- age
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelLiving w. partner and parity
Page in Source 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: No partner and nulliparous (reference)
b: No partner and parous
c: Partner and nulliparous
d: Partner and parous

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR==/- p < .01
No partner and nulliparous (vs. no/no):     OR= 
1.0 CI99[0.948-0.982] 
Partner and nullyparous (vs. no/no):
OR= 1.6 CI99[1.507-1.599] 
Partner and parous (vs. no/no): 
OR= 1.6 CI99[1.581-1.612] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs not married
Page in Source 24
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-- p < .-
Mental patients with severe disorder:Patients of 
mental hospital
 - aged 18-65
 - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years 
duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=+.23 p < .05
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=+.20 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Dummy variables created for people describing 
themselves:
a) Married
b) Living in a couple
c) Widowed
d) Divorced
e) Seperated
f) Never married (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 p < .05
Married (vs. never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.12 p < .01
Living in a couple (vs. never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.15 p < .05
Widowed (vs. never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.10 p < .05
Divorced (vs. never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.32 p < .01
Seperated (vs. never married)

b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- health
- education
- unemployed
- number of children
- religious participation
- region

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs widowed, never married, divorced or separated
Page in Source 236
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Never married, widowed, divorced or    separated
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.53 p < .001
all not married      23%   very happy
married              45%
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=0
all not married      M = 1.1   Mt' = 6.1
married                  1.1         6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
all not married      M = 7.3   Mt' = 7
married                  7.8         7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Widowed / married / unmarried

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDMt= +
Widowed      Mt = 4.08
Unmarried    Mt = 6.00
Married      Mt = 5.66


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAbrams (1973): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Social Indicators.
SourceSocial Trends, 1973, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public16+ aged, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 38
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 married
0 not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=-
Unmarried M = 6.0
Married   M = 5.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 1 & 3
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on current marital status
1. married
0. non-married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.30 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Car ownership
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.28 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Number of cars in household
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.29 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Car price
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.26 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Car price
-Year in which acquired first car

Above B's all additionally controlled for
-Total family income
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 3,4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. married
0. not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- income
- party identification
- age over 64
- education
- age under 30
- race
- ethnicity
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
Additonally controlled for 
- health
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. Married
0. Not Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=+ p < .05
% Very Happy
-Married       43%
-Not Married   24%

Unaffected by age and gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 not married
2 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%=+
              Married     Not married     
Very happy      62%            45%
Fairly happy    35%            48%
Not happy        3%             6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 2002
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15450

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 1607
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report on single question on marital status
0: not married
1: married
Observed distributionM = 0.46, SD = 0.50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fr=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyNapier & Jost (2008): study US 2000
TitleWhy are Conservatives Happier than Liberals?
SourcePsychological Science, 2008, Vol. 19, 565 - 572
PublicVoters, before and after presidential election, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1142

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 567
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1=married
0=unmarried
Remarks
Scores adjusted for non response, within-household 
selection, poststratification of age and education, and 
attrition from T1 to T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-a
T1 marital status by T2 happiness
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.13 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Political conservatism
- Income
- Education
- Sex
- Age
- Employment status
- Church attendance
- Need for cognition
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.12 p < .01
B additionally controlled for
- Rationalization of inequality

B mean point happiness (1-10) more or less per 
(0-1) marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 2
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: unmarried
1: married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
                 all    males     females
0: unmarried      36      35         37
1: married        57      53         62


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 358
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
3 married
2 common law
1 single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 253
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: currently married
0: other
Observed distribution1: 64%
Error Estimatess.e.=0.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.32 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.13
b and Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- income
- employment status
- parental status
- self rated physical health
- religious participation

Beta unaffected by additionsl control for
- religious social identity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKinney & Coyle (1992): study US 1992
TitlePredicting Life Satisfaction Among Adults With Physical Disabilities.
SourceArchives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 1992, VoI. 73, 863 - 869
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1387523
Public18-55 aged, physically disabled, USA,1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =790

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage
Page in Source 867
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1a  married 
1b  long-term relationship 
0a  never married
0b  divorced or separated 
0c   widowed
Observed distributionnever married 60% 1a: 22%, 1b 5%, 0a: 60%, 0b: 13%, 0c: 2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.53 p < .001
R change .002 when entered after:
- satisfaction with leisure
- satisfaction with standard of living
- satisfaction with self-esteem
- satisfaction with health
- satisfaction with religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPinhey et al. (1997): study US Guam 1991
TitleOverweight and Happiness: The Reflected Self-Appraisal Hypothesis Reconstructed.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1997, Vol. 78, 747 - 755.
DOIDOI:9710113640
Public18+ aged, general public, Guam, USA, 1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response29,6
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 752
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.09 ns
B controled for
- BMI
- ethnicity
- age
- sexe
- education
- income
- employment
- parenthood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 789
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married 
0: Not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
% Happy (very+pretty):
Married     90% 
Not-married 82%
-difference  8%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.24 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV= p < .00001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.14
Control variables are not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 18 months, 1989
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 181
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: unmarried
1: married
Observed distribution Homeowners Renters Married 14,7% 19,3% Single 85,3% 80,7%
Remarks
T1-T2 lag: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.04 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 marital status.

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - income
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborhood satisfaction
- housing type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHagerty (2000): study US 1989
TitleSocial Comparison of Incomes in One's Community: Evidence from National Surveys of Income and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol. 78, 764 - 771
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1989-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8362

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 38
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1:  married; 
0: otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBeta=+.17 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- household income
- community mean income
- sexe
- years of education

Constant across different specifications


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 192
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
3.married
2.common law
1.single
Observed distributionin percentages a: 80%; b:4,3% c:15%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.06 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.04 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.02 ns

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.09 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.07 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRohe & Basolo (1997): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleLong-Term Effects of Homeownership on the Self-Perceptions and Social Interaction of Low-Income Persons.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1997, Vol. 29, 793 - 819
URLhttp://eab.sagepub.com/content/29/6/793
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0013916597296004
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 36 months, 1989-1991
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 809
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: unmarried
1: married
Remarks
T1-T3 lag: 36 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.08 ns
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 marital status.

Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - income
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborthood satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self report on single question on marital status
0: not married
1: married
Observed distributionM = 0.60, SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyShin (1986): study US 1986
TitleEducation and the quality of life in Korea and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 50, 360 - 370
URLhttp://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/3/360.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3642

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 367
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarrieds (including widowed and
  divorced)
1 Marrieds

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.14 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.14 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
ß controled for education, income, age, gender, 
own house and commuunity size.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelContinuity in marital status
Page in Source 476
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Continually unmarried (vs continually married) during 
the last 3 to 4 years
a: never married
b: divorced or separated
c: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.20 p < .05
a: never married         (vs continually married)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.48 p < .001
b: divorced or separated (vs continually married)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.31 p < .001
c: widowed               (vs continually married)

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Similar for males and females

Reversed among low harmony couples: both men and 
woman who remained married in spite of low marital 
harmony at T1 report significantly less happiness 
at T2 than the continuously unmarried.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyThoits & Hewitt (2001): study US 1986
TitleVolunteer Work and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2001, Vol. 42, 115 - 131
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1986-1989
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseT1: 33% T2: 21%
Respondents N =2867

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage
Page in Source 123-126
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: Married
0: Unmarried
Observed distribution55% married
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fr=+.07 p < .01
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fr=+.12 p < .01
Woman


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMookherjee (1997): study US 1986
TitleAssessment of Happiness among the Elderly Population in the United States.
SourceChrakravarty, I.;Ed.: "Life in Twilight Years", Kwality Book, 1997, Calcutta, India, 327 - 343
Public60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =3049

Correlate
Author's labelMaritial Status
Page in Source 335/331
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1.not-married
2.married
Observed distribution N: 1=1555 2=1494

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .00
1. M=2.09 SD.65
2. M=2.38 SD.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.21 p < .00
%happy      %unhappy
1. 82           17
2. 92            8
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.18 p < .00
Beta controlled for socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
Beta controlled for
- socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
- satisfaction with:
   - Neighbours
   - Non-working activities
   - Family
   - Friends
   - Health
   - Finance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 873
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 non-married states
1 married
Observed distributionMarried 51%, non-married states 49%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.25 p < .01
b(0.251) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 1079
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 unmarried
1 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.19 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age 
- gender
- educational level
- self-rated health 
- self-perceived financial situation
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aR²=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 833
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: not married
1: married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.35 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBall & Robbins (1984): study US 1983
TitleMarital Status and Life Satisfaction of Black Men.
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1984, Vol. 1, 459 - 470
DOIDOI:10.1177/0265407584014004
Public18+ aged, black men, Florida, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 463-465
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Non-married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=-.73 p < .05
Married           Mt = 5.83
Non-married       Mt = 6.56
Specification non-married:
- single          Mt = 6.4
 -widowed         Mt = 7.0
 -separated       Mt = 6.5
 -divorced        Mt = 6.8
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.14 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.14 p < .05
ß controlled for: self-perceived health, age,
SES, social participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.13 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.17 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyRichards et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleThe Influence of Serious Personal Losses or Misfortunes on Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1984, Vol. 12, 67 - 73
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1520-6629(198401)12:1<67::AID-JCOP2290120109>3.0.CO;2-B
Public25-59 aged, general public, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelMaried status
Page in Source 69
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married 
1 Married
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=+.07 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=+.07 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-bBeta=+.06 ns
ß controled for physical activity, self-perceived 
health, social integration and report of serious 
personal loss or misfortune in the past year. Same 
for Blackes and Whites.
  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. not married
Page in Source 178-180
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 married
0 not married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.09 p < .001
beta controlled for:
- family composition before age 16
- mothers education
- current own education, income
- sex, age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLough et al. (1985): study US 1980
TitleLife Satisfaction Following Heart Transplantation.
SourceHeart Transplantation, 1985, Vol. 4, 446 - 449
PublicHeart transplantation recipients, 7 month to 14 years after transplant, USA, 198?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 447
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 unmarried
1 married
Remarks
Most Ss had stable family lives. Less than 10% 
experienced a change in family makeup as a result of 
the transplantation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-?-5-aAoV= ns
O-QL?-c-sq-v-6-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 701
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: not married [including: divorced, separated, 
widowed, never maried, or common law marriage]
1: married
Observed distributionT1: M = 0,41, SD = 0,49 T2: M = 0,50, SD = 0,50
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.02 ns
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.14 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.03 ns
T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCohen et al. (1982): study US 1979
TitleCommunity Stressors, Mediating Conditions and Well-Being in Urban Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1982, Vol. 10, 377 - 391.
DOIdoi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198210)10:4<377::AID-JCOP2290100408>3.0.CO;2-T
Public18-55 aged, general public, New York City, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =602

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 384
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0: unmarried
1: married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 235
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSNR=+ p < .03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyYoder & Nichols (1980): study US 1976
TitleA Life Perspective Comparison of Married and Divorced Persons.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1980, Vol. 42, 413 - 419
Public18+ aged, general public, USA., 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1321

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 417
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0. Unmarried (divorced and single) 
1. Married (first- and remarried)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar=+ p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyLee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25.1%
Respondents N =403

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 220,221
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 = unmaried
1 = married
Observed distributionmales: M=0.9 SD=0.2 females: M=0.7 SD 0.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=+.09
males
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.03
beta controlled for 
-education
-selfrated health
-age
-number of children
-contact with children
-aid given
-aid received
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=+.06
females
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.12
beta controlled for 
-education
-selfrated health
-age
-number of children
-contact with children
-aid given
-aid received


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 253
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR²=.02 p < .01
Explained variance in ANOVA.
Life satisfaction is lower among the divorced and 
separated


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGoudy & Goudeau (1981): study US 1975
TitleSocial Ties and Life Satisfaction of Older Persons: Another Evaluation.
SourceJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 1981, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public50+ aged, general public, North-Central Iowa, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response11.3%
Respondents N =2321

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 41/43
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 unmarried
1 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.07 p < .01
B controlled for age, income, education, relatives 
in community, friends in community, local people 
known, organizational memberships, community 
attachment, quality of life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 unmarried 
1 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.23 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.22
Beta controlled for:
- resources only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.17
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- assessments
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.18
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.16
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- assessments
- comparisons

Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- house ownership
- number of children
- number of household members
Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- leisure time
- housing, health
- education
- community
- government
Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
- perceived financial improvement in the past few 
years.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 221
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0. Unmarried
1. Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 ns
ß controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 :                
1: education, occupation, income, level of living
2: live alone, children, contact with relatives,
   contact with friends, church attendance,
   organizational membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/   
   divorced, unemployed.                       
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

ß in different age groups:
under 30: +.11 (ns)    30-49   : -.12 (ns)
50-64   : -.10 (ns)    over 64 : -.06 (ns)
                                 
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 p < .05
ß controlled for 2 only:
interaction with age: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =534

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 229
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0. Unmarried
1. Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
ß controlled for education, occupation, income, 
live alone, contact with relatives, contact with 
friends, church attendance, organization 
membership, separated / divorced, retired, 
widowed, place of residence, sexe, age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyButtel et al. (1977): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleIdeology and Social Indicators of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 353 - 369
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353138
Public18+ aged, general public, Winconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =548

Correlate
Author's labelMaried status
Page in Source 362
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Non-married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySigelman (1981): study US 1974
TitleIs Ignorance Bliss? A Reconsideration of the Folk Wisdom.
SourceHuman Relations, 1981, Vol. 34, 965 - 974
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2650

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 971
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not-married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.19 p < .01
ß controlled for: age, gender, race, education, 
family income, church attendance, political 
participation and health condition.
ß hardly increases when intelligence (IQ) is also 
controled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGove & Zeiss (1987): study US 1974
TitleMultiple Roles and Happiness.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 125 -137
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1975
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response23,3%
Respondents N =2248

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 126,129
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
WOMEN
Has work, no children
- Married      M = 3,56
- Not married  M = 3,23
Difference      +0,33
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,38
- Not married  M = 3,17
Difference      +0,21
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children away
- Married      M = 3,36
- Not married  M = 2,97
Difference      +0,39
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, no children
- Married      M = 3,40
- Not married  M = 3,04
Difference      +0,36
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,37
- Not married  M = 2,97
Difference      +0,30
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children away
- Married      M = 3,36
- Not married  M = 2,87
Difference      +0,39
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
MEN
Has work, no children
- Married      M = 3,37
- Not married  M = 3,03
Difference      +0,30
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=-
Has work, children at home
- Married      M = 3,17
- Not married  M = 3,21
Difference      -0,04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
Has work, children away
- Married      M = 3,50
- Not married  M = 3,01
Difference      +0,49
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, no children
- Married      M = 2,97
- Not married  M = 2,84
Difference      +0,13
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work,children at home
- Married      M = 3,14
- Not married  M = 2,59
Difference      +0,55
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=+
No work, children away
- Married      M = 3,44
- Not married  M = 2,82
Difference      +0,62
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 845
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried
1 Currently married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
ß = +.14 p < .01 after control for the 
sociodemographic variables:
sex/age/occupational prestige/health 
impairment/employment status.
ß = +.13 p < .01 after further control for the 
Cattell personality variables.     
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
ß controled for the sociodemographic variables: 
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment/employment status.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
ß controled for the Cattel personality variables.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyTessler & Mechanic (1975): study US 1973
TitleConsumer Satisfaction with Prepaid Group Practice: A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1975, Vol. 16, 95 -113
PublicEmployees' families, two firms, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =712

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 103
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not currently married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-cr=-.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyZehner (1977): study US 1973
TitleIndicators of the Quality of Life in New Communities.
SourceBallinger, 1977, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
PublicResidents communities,planned and unplanned, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3894

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 116/119
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0. Not-married 
1. Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aD%=+
% of happy married  persons is similar in planned 
and unplanned communities.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBock & Radelet (1988): study US 1973
TitleThe Marital Integration of Religious Independents: A Reevaluation of Its Significance.
SourceReview of Religious Research,1988, Vol. 29, 228 - 241
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3511221
Public18+aged, white population, USA 1973-1974
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =5683

Correlate
Author's labelmarried/unmarried
Page in Source 233,234,237
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1: married
0: unmarried
Observed distributionN=1:8413, 0:4356

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ p < .05
MALES
Church goers (Affiliates)
- married     40,2% very happy
- unmarried   20,8% very happy
difference   +19,4%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ p < .05
Non-church goers (Independents)
- married     29.5% very happy
- unmarried   15.6% very happy
difference    +13.9%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ ns
FEMALES
Church goers (Affiliates)
- married     45.1% very happy
- unmarried   26.3% very happy
difference   +18.8%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+ ns
Non-church goers (Independents)
- married     33.1% very happy
- unmarried   23.7% very happy
difference    +9.4%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=- ns
RELIGIOUS INDEPENDENTS ONLY (n=799)

Age 18-29
-married    18%   very happy
-unmarried  29.9% very happy
difference  -11.9%

Age 30-44
-married    25%   very happy
-unmarried  28.1% very happy
difference  -3.1%

Age 45-90
-married    7.8%  very happy
-unmarried  34.7% very happy
difference  -26.9%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGlenn & McLanahan (1981): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Offspring on the Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 409-421
Public50+ aged, with no children under age 18 at home, USA,1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2465

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 417
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married (never married, divorced,
  and widowed)                         1 Married   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Males  : r = +.44
Females: r = +.47
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+
Males  : ß = +.27  (01)
Females: ß = +.27  (01)
ß controled for age, family income, years of 
school completed, church attendence and employment 
status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 330
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 not married
1 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.69 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.45 p < .05
% very happy
married  41
widow    23
single   22
divorced 19
The relationship remains sizable after control for 
recent financial change, race, household size and 
social participation (memberships, frequency of 
social contacts and visits to bars and taverns). 
The lower happiness of the ex-married is partly 
explained by recent decrease in income. Change in 
average happiness in the USA from 1973 to 1982 can 
partly be explained by a drop in % marrieds and a 
consequent rise in % decrease in income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1979): study US 1972
TitleA Note on Family Situation and Global Happiness.
SourceSocial Forces, 1979, Vol. 57, 960 - 967
Public18-59 aged whites, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-75
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelMarried state
Page in Source 962
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not-married / divorced and widowed
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+ p < .01
ß controlled for: presence of children in home, 
age of children, own age, family income, 
occupational prestige (males only), frequency of 
attendance of religious services, employment 
outside home (females only) and years of school 
completed:
          
          1972   1973   1974   1975   All years  
males     +.18   +.15   +.19   +.16   +.16
females   +.08   +.23   +.31   +.20   +.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelFamily life cycle
Page in Source 331
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a. Unmarried, under forty-five years of age, no 
children at home
b. Married, under forty-five years of age, no children 
at home
c. Married, any age, youngest child under five years of 
age
d. Married, any age, youngest child five-fourteen years 
old
e. Married, any age, youngest child fifteen-seventeen 
years old
f. Married, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
g. Unmarried, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
h. Unmarried, any age, children of any age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
a. M=1.1   Mt'=6.1         
b. M=2.0   Mt'=7.0
c. M=1.9   Mt'=6.9
d. M=1.9   Mt'=6.9
e. M=2.1   Mt'=7.1
f. M=1.7   Mt'=6.7
g. M=1.1   Mt'=6.1
h. M=0.1   Mt'=5.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
a. M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
b. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
c. M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
d. M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
e. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
f. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
g. M=2.9   Mt'=4.8
h. M=2.8   Mt'=4.5
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=±
a.  M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
b.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
c.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
d.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
e.  M=3.5   Mt'=6.3
f.  M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
g.  M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
h.  M=2.7   Mt'=4.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=-
a. M=5.1    Mt'=6.8
b. M=5.5    Mt'=7.5
c.  M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
d.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
e.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
f.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
g.  M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
h.  M=4.9   Mt'=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
a. M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b. M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
c. M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
d. M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
e. M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
f. M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
g. M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
h. M=5.1   Mt'=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelFamily life cycle
Page in Source 139
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a  Unmarried, under forty-five years of age, no 
children at home
b  Married, under forty-five years of age, no children 
at home
c   Married, any age, youngest child under five years 
of age
d  Married, any age, youngest child five-fourteen years 
old
e  Married, any age, youngest child fifteen-seventeen 
years old
f   Married, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
g  Unmarried, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
h  Unmarried, of any age, children of any age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.20
a      M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b      M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
c      M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
d      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
e      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
f      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5

g      M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
h      M=5.1   Mt'=6.8
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.19
ß controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
- sexe
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.13
ß additionmally controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- Spare-time activities
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyGraham (2005): study US 1972
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =24128

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 218
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Are you current1y: married, widowed, divorced, 
separated; or have you never
been married?
1 currently married
2 widowed
3 divorced
4 separated
5 never married"

converted to the dichotomy:
1 married
0 other (single, widowed, separated, divorced)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.78
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Log income
- Years of education
- Race
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyAldous & Ganey (1999): study US 1972
TitleFamily Life and the Pursuit of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1999, Vol. 20, 155 - 180
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101630

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 6, 12, 14
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1. married; 
    1a ever divorced
    1b never divorced
2. unmarried
    2a never married
    2b divorced
    2c widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
                    Whites         Blacks
                 males-females   males-females
1. MARRIED        
1a ever divorced  2,34  2,35      2,07  2,05
1b never divorced 2,32  2,37**    2,15  2,11

2. UNMARRIED
2a never married  2,08  2,18**    1,91  1,91
2b divorced       1,93  2,03*     1,86  1,85
2c widowed        1,91  2,10**    2,00  2,00

* p<.05; ** p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyTownsend & Gurin (1981): study US 1972
TitleRe-examining the frustrated homemaker hypothesis: Role fit, personal dissatisfaction, and collective discontent.
SourceSociology of Work and Occupations, 1981, Vol. 8, 464 - 488
URLhttp://wox.sagepub.com/content/8/4/464.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, white women, USA, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =946

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 477
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a: married
b: single (including never married and divorced)
c: widowed
Observed distributionN = a: 654, b: 138, c: 146)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bDMa=
          raw mean   adjusted mean
Married   M = 1,94   Ma = 1.94
Single    M = 1,82   Ma = 1.81
Widowed   M = 1,82   Ma = 1.83

O-Slu recoded 1-2
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bE²=+.03 ns
(raw)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bBeta=+.04 p < .001
(adjusted)
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aDMa=
          raw mean   adjusted mean
Married   M = 1,73   Ma = 1.73
Single    M = 1,54   Ma = 1.52
Widowed   M = 1,59   Ma = 1.62

Ma's adjusted for
- role fit
  - employed
  - career oriented home maker
  - home oriented home maker
- education
- age
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aE²=+.02 ns
(raw)
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 p < .001
(adjusted)

Happiness reversed (in original presented as 'life 
dissatisfaction')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyWard (1979): study US 1972
TitleThe Never-Married in Later Life.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1979, Vol. 34, 861 - 869
Public50+ aged, USA, 1972-1977
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3557

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 867
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
a Married
b Widowed
c Divorced / seperated
d Never married
Observed distributionN = a: 6747, b: 854, c: 720, d: 554

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agE²=+.23 p < .001
                   Raw mean
Married            M = 1,33
Widowed            M = 1.01
Divorced separated M = 0,93
Never married      M = 1,11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agBeta=+.20 p < .001
                   Mean adjusted for income
Married            M = 1,32
Widowed            M = 1.06
Divorced separated M = 0,94
Never married      M = 1,16
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agBeta=+.23 p < .001
                   Mean adjusted for
                   satisfaction with friends
Married            M = 1,32
Widowed            M = 1.01
Divorced separated M = 0,93
Never married      M = 1,11
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agBeta=+.16 p < .001
                   Mean adjusted for
                   satisfaction with family
Married            M = 1,33
Widowed            M = 1.09
Divorced separated M = 1,08
Never married      M = 1,24
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-agBeta=+.16 p < .001
                   Mean adjusted for all above
Married            M = 1,32
Widowed            M = 1.09
Divorced separated M = 1,07
Never married      M = 1,25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1971
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs not married
Page in Source 56
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried 
1 Married
Remarks
DATASETS:
1: 1972,      N=1955, SI study, see ANDRE 1976
2: 1972-1978, N=9151, Pooled General Social Surv. 3: 
1973-1975, N=3222, Pooled Omnibus Surveys
4: 1976,      N= 707, Omnibus Survey
5: 1974-1975, N=1077, S.I. study, Detroit Area
6: 1971,      N=1822, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1975
7: 1978,      N=3141, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1981
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.16 p < .05
DATASET 1: ß identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97). ß controlled for gender, race, family 
income, education and employment status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.19 p < .05
DATASET 2: ß identical across age (25-44/45-64/ 
65-97).ß controlled for gender, race, family 
income, education, employment status and health.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
DATASET 1: ß  higher among 25-44 and 45-64 than 
among 65-97 aged (p<.05). ß controlled for gender, 
race, family income, education and employment 
status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
DATASET 5: ß identical across age. ß controlled 
for gender, race, family income, education and  
employment status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.25 p < .05
DATASET 6: ß identical across age. ß controlled 
for gender, race, family income, education, 
employment status and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.17 p < .05
DATASET 6: ß identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97). ß controlled for gender, race, family 
income, education, employment status and health.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
DATASET 3: ß identical across age. ß controlled 
for gender, family income, education, race and 
employment status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.19 p < .05
DATASET 5: ß identical across age 25-44/45-64/ 
65-97).ß controlled for gender, race, family 
income, education and employment status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
DATASET 7: ß identical across age. ß controlled 
for gender, race, family income, education, 
employment status and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.18 p < .05
DATASET 7: ß identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97). ß controlled for gender, race, family 
income, education, employment status and health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status: married vs. all not married
Page in Source 451
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Single and divorced-separated
1 Married and widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBendo & Feldman (1974): study US 1970
TitleA Comparison of the Self-Concept of Low Income Women with and without Husbands Present.
SourceThe Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 1974, Vol. 9, 53 - 85
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bendo_aa_1974.pdf
PublicLow-income women with children, small cities and rural areas, New York State, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1325

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 74/78
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Husband-absent                       1 Husband 
present

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-5-cDM= + p < . 001
Stronger among unemployed females.
Stronger among formerly welfare status females.
O-SLS-?-sq-l-10-aDM= + p < . 001
Stronger among unemployed females.
Stronger among formerly welfare status females.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelMarried.
Page in Source 70
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
1 married persons living with spouse
0 all others
Observed distributionM= 0.9 SD=0.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 not married
1 married with spouce present

Assessed at T2
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=+.19 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=+.16 p < .001
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income

Same for blacks and whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 44
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Widowed / divorced / never married / married 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.06
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelMarried status vs not married
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 Not married
1 Married
Remarks
Assessed in 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1972 marital status by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelPartner
Page in Source 47
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1 - Partner (married or not married)
0 - No partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=+.35 p < ..01
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- workaholic
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B=+.35
Nonworkers: B=+.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
A: widow
B: divorced
C: married

Rated as:
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.40 ns
WIDOW    (vs Not)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.30 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)

Negative when B and OPRC additionally controlled 
for:
- credit cycle (instead of microfinance loan)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.13 ns
DIVORCED (vs Not)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.04 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.50 p < .05
MARRIED  (vs Not)

B controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.55 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present and past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.64 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle (instead of microfinance loan)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.70 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle for dropouts
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.40 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.64 p < .01
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle (instead of microfinance loan)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 168
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
I am going to ask about your marital status.Please 
indicate which of the following categories that apply 
to you at the present time:
a: Married
b: De-Facto/Living Together
c: Never Married
d: Separated/Not divorced
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a: 1116, b: 141, c: 326

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=-
a+b Mt = 7,95; SD = 1,52
c   Mt = 7,32; SD = 1,72
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .040
a>c
b>c
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=-
a+b Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,34
c   Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,37
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .000
a>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source B93
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: Married
b: De-facto/Living Together
c: Never Married
d: Separated/Not divorced
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a+b: 1258, c: 338

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a+b Mt = 7,68; SD = 1,02
c   Mt = 7,27; SD = 1,78
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
a>c  p<.000
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=-
a+b Mt = 7,70; SD = 1,64
c   Mt = 6,96; SD = 2,03
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
a>c  p<.000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Satus
Page in Source B96
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: Married
b: De-facto/Living Together
c: Never Married
d: Separated/Not divorced
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a+b: 3730, c: 988
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .000
a+b Mt = 7,99; SD = 1,52
c   Mt = 7,29; SD = 1,70
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .000
a+b Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,50
c   Mt = 7,26; SD = 1,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelRelationships
Page in Source 125
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: Never Married
b: Married
Observed distributionN= a: 308, b: 1158

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a: Mt = 7,49, SD = 1,63
b: Mt = 8,00, SD = 1,53
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a, p< .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source B86
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
I am going to ask about your marital status.Please 
indicate which of the following categories that apply 
to you at the present time:
1 Never married
2 Married
 a: married
 b: de-facto/living together
Observed distributionN=a+b:5038, c:1260
Remarks
Combined Surveys (9-12)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDMt=+ p < .000
2 Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,54
1 Mt = 7,34; SD = 1,69
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aAoV=
a>(b,1); p<.000
b>1;     P<.000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelMarried state
Page in Source 140
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
I am going to ask about marital status.
Please indicate which of the following categories that 
apply to you at the present time:
a: Married
b: De-facto/ Living
c: Never Married
d: Separated/ Not divorced
e: Divorced
f: Widowed
Observed distributionN = a: 1074, b: 141, c: 324, d: 67, e: 120, f: 123

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=+
a+b  Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,55
c    Mt = 7,30; SD = 1,59
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cAoV=
a>C; p< .000
a>d; p< .002
a>e; p< .000
b>c; p< .003
b>d; p< .030
b>e: p< .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2002a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 3, Report 3.2. The Impact of Personal Relationships and Household Structure on the Wellbeing of Australians.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =2110

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status, never married vs married
Page in Source 21 + 64
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married
1 married
Observed distributionN=: 0: 342, 1: 1200

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
Never married: Mt = 7,22
Married:       Mt = 8,11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT= p < .05
1>0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1: Married
0: Single without children
Observed distributionMales: 55.2%; Females: 52.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.20 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 905
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Marital status:
a) married
b) seperated
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) never married (reference group)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.28 p < .05
a) married (vs never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.23 p < .05
b) seperated (vs never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.17 p < .05
c) divorced (vs never married)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.07 ns
d) widowed (vs never married)

OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Past household income
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Observed distributionMarried 57.1%; Defacto 11.2%; Separated 2.7%; Divorced 9.4%; Widow 2.8%; Single: 16.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.36 p < .01
Married (vs Single)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.22 ns
Defacto (vs Single)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.04 ns
Separated (vs Single)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.15 ns
Divorced (vs Single)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.73 p < .001
Widow (vs Single)

OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs never married
Page in Source T21
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aG=+.04 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.04 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-atc=+.01 ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 42
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 
This question is about your legal marital status not 
about who you may or may not be living with. Which one 
of the descriptions on this card describes your legal 
marital status now?
1: Legally married
0: Never married
Remarks
Scale is reversed by World Database of Happiness team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .001
B's controlled for:
- Region in Belgium
- Language spoken at home
- Age and age squared
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Household income
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study BE 1995
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1513

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 6.65 CI95 [6.46 - 6.841]
b: n.a.      
c: M = 6.45 CI95 [6.12 - 6.771]
d: M = 4.27 CI95 [3.04 - 5.49]
e: M = 4.64 CI95 [4.11 - 5.17]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
a > c > e > d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study BE 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1555

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelMarried (vs. never married)
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 Married
0 Never married
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.25 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.26 p < .01
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyJones (2002): study CA 2000
TitleSatisfaction with Life in Canada.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02 - 09, Christian Commitment Research Institute, 2002, Canada
Public15+ aged, general public, Canada, 1997, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelmarried
Page in Source 5
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 never married
1 married or common law

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-dD%=
             very happy    somewhat happy
never married    41%           50%
married          48%           46%
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.20 p < .000
women
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-db=+.15 p < .000
men

B controlled for:
- age
- region
- religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 249, 273
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 married and living with spouce
0 other
Observed distribution0: 39% 1: 61%
Remarks
Sign reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.12 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er=+.14 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status1
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 married
0 single

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+
married:   M=?
single:    M=?
- difference 0.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelSingle (vs married)
Page in Source 7
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Your current marital status is:
1: Married
0: Single
Remarks
Order reversed by World Database of Happiness team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.07 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.11 p < .01
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.09 p < .01
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.08 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 1194, 1195
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question abour marriage:
1: Married
0: Never married
Observed distribution1: 92.5% SD: 0.26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.12 p < .05
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSingle (never married)
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question on marital status:
1: Married
0: Never married
Observed distribution2.9% never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.41 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Household income
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Unemployed
- Sociability
- Dependent relatives
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelmarital status
Page in Source 62
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
marital status
1. Living as married
1b: living with someone
1c: married
2. Living without partner
2a: single
2d: separated
2e: divorced
2f: widowed
Observed distributionN all:4679, 1a:28,8%, 1b::44,7%, 2a:17,9%, 2b:2,9%, 2c::5,4%, 2d:0,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.84
1b: Mt=8.06
2a: Mt=7.03
2b: Mt=7.04
2c: Mt=7.34
2d: Mt=7.16
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.54
1b: Mt=7.83
2a: Mt=6.46
2b: Mt=6.70
2c: Mt=6.94
2d: Mt=7.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1a: Mt=7.21
1b: Mt=7.48
2a: Mt=5.89
2b: Mt=6.26
2c: Mt=6.53
2d: Mt=6.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study DK 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1039

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married 
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.22 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study DK 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =991

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 7.10 CI95 [6.89 - 7.31]
b: M = 6.50 CI95 [5.76 - 7.24]
c: M = 6.30 CI95 [5.79 - 6.81]
d: M = 4.38 CI95 [2.81 - 5.94]
e: M = 5.38 CI95 [4.65 - 6.12]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
a > b > c > e > d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyWilken & Kemmler (1997): study XZ Germany West 1985
TitleLedige Frauen der Kriegsgeneration: Eine explorative Studie zu ihrer Lebenszielen und ihrer Lebenszufriedenheit. (Never-Married Women of the World War II Generation: An Explorative Study of Their Life Goals and Their Life Satisfaction).
SourceZeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 1997, Vol. 30, 34 - 45
Public66-80 aged women, Germany,1985
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =63

Correlate
Author's labelmarital status
Page in Source 40
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 unmarried 
2 married
Observed distributionN = 1:43, 2:20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-bD%=- p < .05
% very satisfied:
unmarried     70%
married       35%
- difference -35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelmarried vs never married
Page in Source 27
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Follow-up over 17 years
1 married all years
0 never married all years
Marital status and happiness assessed every years
Remarks
Mixed cross-sectional and panel analysis, since average 
happiness in age groups (Ma) refelcts both difference 
in age when Ss entered the investigation and the number 
of years Ss participate differences in happiness among 
Ss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
steadily marrieds Ma =
steadily singles  Ma =

Ma's controled for:
- age
- education
- parenthood
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study XZ Germany West 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1039

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married                        
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study XZ Germany West 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =966

Correlate
Author's labelMaritall staus
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 4.85 CI95 [4.63 - 5.07]
b: M = 4.55 CI95 [2.19 - 6.90]
c: M = 4.42 CI95 [4.03 - 4.81]
d: M = 3.51 CI95 [2.56 - 4.47]
e: M = 2.98 CI95 [2.43 - 3.53]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
a > b > c > d > e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study FR 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1196

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married                        1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study FR 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public15+ aged, general public, France, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1163

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 4.55 CI95 [4.34 - 4.71]
b: M = 5.31 CI95 [3.26 - 7.37]
c: M = 4.25 CI95 [3.75 - 4.76]
d: M = 2.27 CI95 [1.09 - 3.45]
e: M = 3.45 CI95 [2.68 - 4.21]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
b > a > c > d > e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Individual is:
a) married
b) separated
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) single (reference group)
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) married: 0.63 (0.48) b) Separated: 0.02 (0.13) c) divorced: 0.08 (0.27) d) widowed: 0.06 (0.24)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.05 ns
a) married (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.09 ns
b) separated (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.14 p < .05
c) divorced (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.43 p < .01
d) widowed (vs single)

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Monthly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Similar results for pooled OLS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelSingle (vs married)
Page in Source 508
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
1: Married
0: Single
Remarks
Re-ordered by World Database of Happiness team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.36 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) gender
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelNever married/Widow/Divorced
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
A: Never married
B: Widow
C: Divorced

Rated as:
1: Yes
2: No
Observed distributionA: M = 0,155 SD = 0,362; B: M = 0,091 SD = 0,287; C: M = 0,137 SD = 0,344

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.26 ns
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Never married (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.07 ns
Widow         (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.39 p < .05
Divorced      (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.11 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Never married (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
Widow         (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.13 ns
Divorced      (vs not)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - household size
  - employment
  - education
- health
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Marital status:
1: married
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 60.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.20 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in marital status

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a car and telephone
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- relative income
- cultural participation
- religious participation
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged general public, Germany, followed 7 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27249

Correlate
Author's labelSingle (vs married)
Page in Source 510
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
1: Married
0: Single
Remarks
Re-ordered by World Database of Happiness team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.20 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 ns
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a)rate of people moving out the neighbourhood
  b)status of neighbourhood
- status relative to others in neighbourhood
- nationality
- status of neighbourhood
- income
- education
- age and age squared
- having children
- health
- city size
- survey year

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily and household forms
Page in Source 513
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a with partner, no children
   b with partner and children
   c with others (communal)
   d other family household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=
Living alone                    West     East
a single                        7,7       7,1*
b divorced                      7,0       4,6*
c widowed                       7,6       6,6
Living together
a. with partner, no child       8,0       7,0
b. with partner and children    8,0       7,1
c. with others                  8,0       6,9
a with partner, no children     7,9       6,4
b with partner and children     -         6,9
c with others (communal)        8,0        -
d other family houhold          8,0       6,9

* N<20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 295
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a) separated
b) single
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) married (reference group)
Observed distributiona) M=0.015; SD=0.123 b) M=0.200; SD= 0.400 c) M=0.070; SD=0.255 d) M= 0.063; SD=0.243 e) Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.40 p < .01
a) separated (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.11 p < .01
b) single (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
c) divorced (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.42 p < .01
d) widowed (vs married)

b's controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 735
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Marital status:
a) Married
b) Separated
c) Divorced
d) Widowed
e) Never married (reference group)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.27
Married, males   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04
Married, females (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07
Separated, males (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.13
Separated, women (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.30
Divorced, men   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.21
Divorced, women (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.47
Widowed, men   (vs. never married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.19
Widowed, women  (vs. never married)

Beta's controlled for:
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- household income
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 8+17
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Marital status:
a) married
b) separated
c) divorced
d) widowed
e) single (reference group)
Observed distributionMean (SD) a) married: 0.657 (0.475) b) separated: 0.015 (0.121) c) divorced (0.071 (0.257) d) widowed: 0.060 (0.238) e) single: 0.197 (0.398)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.17 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by CHANGE 
in marital status 
(a) married   (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.12 p < .10
(b) separated  (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.16 p < .01
(c) divorced  (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.67 p < .01
(d) widowed   (vs single)

b controlled for:
- Household income
- Household size
- Years of education
- Home owner
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
1: Married
0: Single
Observed distribution1: 59%
Remarks
Oversampling of immigrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.18 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in marital status

b's controlled for:
- Age
- gender
- Years of education
- Employed
- Immigrant

Change insignificant after additional control for:
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyKousha & Mohseni (2000): study IR 1995
TitleAre Iranians Happy? A Comparative Study between Iran and the United States.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 52, 259 - 289
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1007061431186
PublicResidents big city (Tehran), Iran, 1995-97
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response4,8%
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 275/276
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a. Married
b. Single
Observed distribution 1995: a= 329, b=193 1997: a= 548, b=442
Remarks
actual numbers, revised by author

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= ns
            
            1995    M     S.D.
             a=   1,84   0,34
             b=   1,73   0,30
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= p < .01
            1997    M     S.D.
             a=   1,88   0,36
             b=   1,78   0,41
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= ns
            1995
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             a=    10,3    63,6     26,2 
             b=     5,2    62,8     31,9
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= p < .01
            1997
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             a=    12,6    62,8     24,6 
             b=    11,9    54,4     33,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study IE 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married                        
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study IE 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =993

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 4.30 CI95 [4.03 - 4.58]
b: n.a.
c: M = 4.45 CI95 [4.09 - 4.80]
d: M = 2.50 CI95 [-0.37 - 5.37]
e: M = 4.10 CI95 [3.35 - 4.84]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT=05
c > a > e > d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 10115-1016
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you:
1: married
0: never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.12 ns
JEWS
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.30 p < .05
ARABS

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- health
- (parents') country of origin
- years residing in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at teh International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 22
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1: Married
0: Not married 
a: Never married 
b: Divorced 
c:Widowed
Observed distributionSingle: M=0,1565 SD=0,36343 Divorced: M=0,1105 SD=0,31362 Widow/widower: M=0,0387 SD=0,19298

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.46 p < .000
Single(versus married)
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=-.67 p < .000
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.15 p < .000
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.61 p < .000
Divorced/separated (versus married)
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=-.91 p < .000
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.18 p < .000
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.74 p < .000
Widow/widower (versus married)
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=-1.2 p < .000
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.14 p < .000
Regressions controls for:
-age
-income
-schooling*creativity index
-gender
-educational level
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income
-area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study IT 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, Italy, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1022

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 3.10 CI95 [2.87 - 3.32]
b: M = 0.00 CI95 [0.00 - 0.00]
c: M = 3.16 CI95 [2.82 - 3.50]
d: M = 1.00 CI95 [-0.51 - +2.51]
e: M = 2.32 CI95 [1.56 - 3.08]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
c > a > e > d > b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study IT 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1043

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married                        
1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyOshio (2011): study JP 2007
TitleGender Differences among Elderly Japanese: Importance of Family and Social Relations for Life Satisfaction.
SourceRIETI Discussion Paper Series 11-E-051, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, JAA, (RIETI), Hitotsubashi University, 2011, Japan
URLhttp://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/11e051.pdf
Public50-75 aged, Japan, 2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3063

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status (reference=married)
Page in Source 7, 22
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1: married (reference)
0: not married
   a: never married
   b: divorced
  c: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.68 ns
MEN:
never married           (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.41 p < .001
divorced                (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.55 p < .05
widowed                 (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.70 ns
WOMEN 
never married           (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=1.02 ns
divorced                (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-acOR=0.81 ns
widowed                 (vs married)

OR controlled for:
-age
-educational attainment
-house ownership
-occupational status
-survey areas


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSingle
Page in Source 55,56
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 single
1 married
Remarks
Sign reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.18 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education level
- work status
- household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study LU 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =324

Correlate
Author's labelMarried vs. never married
Page in Source 155
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 Never married                        1 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVeenhoven (1983): study LU 1975
TitleThe Growing Impact of Marriage.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 12, 49 - 63
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16128
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00428860
Public16+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1975
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =306

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: living as married
c: never married
d: separated divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
a: M = 5.50 CI95 [5.01 - 5.99]
b: n.a.
c: M = 5.06 CI95 [4.35 - 5.77]
d: M = 6.00 CI95 [-0.80 - 12.80]
e: M = 3.10 CI95 [1.92 - 4.29]
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBMCT= p < .05
d > a > c > e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 18, 17, 14, 9
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: Married
b: Widowed
c: Divorced
d: Separated
e: Registered partner
f: Single (reference)
Observed distributiona: M = 0.71, SD = 0.45; b: M = 0.15, SD = 0.35; c: M = 0.07, SD = 0.25; d: M = 0.01, SD = 0.11; e: M = 0.01, SD = 0.12;

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.48 p < .01
Married (vs single)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.08 ns
Widowed (vs single)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.01 ns
Divorced (vs single)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.10 ns
Separated (vs single)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.53 p < .01
Registered partner (vs single)

b's controlled for:
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyOlgiati et al. (2013): study ZZ Western nations 2006
TitleAre Migrants Going Up a Blind Alley? Economic Migration and Life Satisfaction around the World: Cross-National Evidence from Europe, North America and Australia
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 383 - 404
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0151-4
Public15+ aged general public, 16 Western countries, 2006-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =51004

Correlate
Author's labelIn a union
Page in Source 392, 395
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your current marital status?
1: Married/domestic partner
0: Never married/single
Observed distribution1: 58.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.28 p < .001
B controlled for:
- ln income
- foreign born
- ln income*foreign born
- age and age squared
- gender
- household size
- religion
- satisfaction with health
- country of residence
- survey round
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.07 p < .1
B additionally controlled for:
- being unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+aged intra-European migrants, 13 EU nations, 2004-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =2560

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 40
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 
This question is about your legal marital status not 
about who you may or may not be living with. Which one 
of the descriptions on this card describes your legal 
marital status now?
1: Legally married
0: Never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.35 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Being unemployed
- Country of origin
- Year-fixed effects
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.34 p < .001
B when additionally controlled for:
- Country of residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelMarital situation
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 Single
0 Maried (reference married man)
Remarks
Reference; Married man

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.53
Single Man           (VS married men)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.34
Single Woman         (VS married men)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.07
Married Woman         (VS married men)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.33
Single Man            (VS married men)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.18
Single Woman          (VS married men)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.09
Married Woman         (VS married men)
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.53
Single Man            (VS married men)
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=-.34
Single Woman          (VS married men)
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.07
Married woman         (VS married men)
OPRC's controled for:
- Income
- log workhours
- log income
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- 20 job characterisitcs
- Personal characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelSingle, never married
Page in Source 24
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
0 = Married/living with partner (ref.)
1 = Single, never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.19 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.46 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-class/occupation
-education
-rooms per person
-accomodation problems
-separated/divorced
-widowed
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.45 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.34 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a married or in civil partnership
b separated, divorced
c widowed
d never married nor in civil partnership (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.42 p < .001
married or in civil partnership (vs never married 
nor in civil partnership)
	b(0.417) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.38 p < .001
married or in civil partnership (vs never married 
nor in civil partnership)
	b(0.376) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.14 p < .001
separated, divorced (vs never married nor in civil 
partnership)
	b(-.136) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.16 p < .001
separated, divorced (vs never married nor in civil 
partnership)
	b(-.156) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.06 ns
widowed (vs never married nor in civil 
partnership)
	b(-0.0601) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.05 ns
widowed (vs never married nor in civil 
partnership)
	b(-0.0464) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5094

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 38
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 
This question is about your legal marital status not 
about who you may or may not be living with. Which one 
of the descriptions on this card describes your legal 
marital status now?
1: Legally married
0: Never married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .001
ALL
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.39 p < .01
<30 YEARS OLDS

B's controlled for:
- Gender
- Age and age squared
- Household income
- Country of residence
- Migration at young age
- Region of origin
- Year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 8
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
A: Single (reference)
B: Married
C: Widower, divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.05 p < .01
MARRIED           (vs Single)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.03 p < .01
WIDOWER, DIVORCED (vs Single)

OLRCs controlled for:
- GDP per capita
- country 
- year
- size of city
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - gender
  - education
  - age
  - employment status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 18
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: never married (reference)
b: maried
c: widowed
d: separated (=seperated or divorced)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
b: married:   OLRC = +.67 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC = +.43 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC = -.02 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
b: married:   OLRC= +.79 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.42 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.28 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
b: married:   OLRC= +.36 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.33 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.66 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
b: married:   OLRC= +.08 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.30 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.75 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
b: married:   OLRC= +.12 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.49 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.56 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
b: married:   OLRC= +.53 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.25 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.39 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
b: married:   OLRC= +1.40 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +1.19 (05)
d: separated: OLRC= +.67 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
b: married:   OLRC= -.19 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.89 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.90 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
b: married:   OLRC= +.33 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.46 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.73 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
b: married:   OLRC= +.58 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.33 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.43 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
b: married:   OLRC= +.69  (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -1.02 (05)
d: separated: OLRC= -.65  (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
b: married:   OLRC= +.55 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.84 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.78 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
b: married:   OLRC= -.21 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.91 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.63 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
b: married:   OLRC= +.88 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.23 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.07 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
b: married:   OLRC= +.22 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.45 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.06 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
b: married:   OLRC= +.50 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.40 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= +.15 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
b: married:   OLRC= +.72 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.21 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.35 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
b: married:   OLRC= +.45 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.22 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.15 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
b: married:   OLRC= -.02 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.52 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.23 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic )
b: married:   OLRC= +.31 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.46 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.11 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
b: married:   OLRC= +.24 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.04 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.24 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
b: married:   OLRC= +.46 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.85 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.21 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
b: married:   OLRC= +.26 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.67 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.31 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
b: married:   OLRC= +.55 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.22 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
b: married:   OLRC= +.06 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.21 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.35 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
b: married:   OLRC= +.50 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.39 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.14 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden 
b: married:   OLRC= +.15 (05)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.05 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.77 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan to never married)
b: married:   OLRC= +.46 (ns)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.55 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.22 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
b: married:   OLRC= +.77 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= -.09 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= -.29 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
b: married:   OLRC= +.41 (01)
c: widowed:   OLRC= +.51 (ns)
d: separated: OLRC= +.15 (ns)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-number of children
-size of town
-education
-labor market status
-income.

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive. E.g.  correlations between 
being married and happiness are usually positive, 
but there are differences: the positive 
correlations are higher in Australia than in 
Finland or Chile.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 207,210
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
1 never married (single)
0 ever married
  a currently married 
  b widowed
  c divorced
Observed distribution1: M=0,13, SD=0,33; 0a: M=0,75, SD=0,43; 0b; M=0,09, SD=0,28; 0c: M=0,04, SD=0,20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
1 never married (single)   r=-0,03
0 ever married
  a currently married      r=+0,09
  b widowed                r=-0,05
  c divorced               r=-0,08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.35 p < .01
never married (vs married)    SE=.09
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.74 p < .01
Divorced (vs married)            SE = .14
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=-.34 ns
Widowed (vs married)             SE = .12

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- education
- type of employment
- income
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: divorced
c: single
d: widowed

rated: 1:yes, 2:no (dummy)
Observed distributiona: M=0.64, SD=0.48, b: M=0.05, SD=0.22, c: M=0.24, SD=0.43, d: M=0.07, SD=0.25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.49 p < .01
MARRIED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.81 p < .01
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.12 ns
DIVORCED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=07 ns
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.32 p < .01
SINGLE
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.06 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile


Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: married
b: single (reference)
c: separated
d: divorced
e: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.09 p < .001
Married (vs single)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.24 p < .001
Separated (vs single)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.16 p < .001
Divorced (vs single)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.0 p < .001
Widowed (vs single)

b's  controled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urba