Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject Code: M01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER5
M01aaEarlier marital states4
M01aa01Earlier marital states0
M01aa01aEver lived as married2
M01aa01bEver married before1
M01aa02Earlier marital transitions3
M01aa02aEver divorced/separated9
M01aa02bEver widowed4
M01aa02cEver remarried3
M01abRecent change in marital status4
M01ab01Recent entering of marriage6
M01ab01aRecent start of living as married3
M01ab01bRecent marriage8
M01ab01cRecent re-marriage9
M01ab02Recent dissolution of marriage2
M01ab02aRecent divorce/separation21
M01ab02bRecent widowhood8
M01acLater marriage0
M01ac01Later entering of marriage1
M01ac01aLater living as married0
M01ac01bLater marriage1
M01ac01cLater re-marriage2
M01ac02Later dissolution of marriage1
M01ac02aLater divorce/separation0
M01ac02bLater widowhood0
M01adAttitudes to marital status career0
M01ad01Attitudes to earlier marital status0
M01ad02Attitudes to recent change in marital status0
M01ad02aAttitudes to entering marriage1
M01ad02bAttitudes to dissolution of marriage0
M01ad03Attitudes to later marriage0
M01ad03aAspired change in marital status1
M01ad03bExpected change in marital status2
M01aa02dStill with first spouse4
M01aa01cLife-long single3
M01ab01dRecent reconciliation with spouse0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject code: M01

StudyLee (1998): study KR 1996
TitleMarital Status, Gender, and Subjective Quality of Life in Korea.
SourceDevelopment and Society, 1998, Vol. 27, 35 - 49
Public20-60 aged, general public, South Korea, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4,5%
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 44-45
Our classificationMARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER, code M01
Operationalization
1 married
0 never married
Observed distribution1: 78,7%; 2: 21,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fb=-.05 ns
interaction gender-marital status
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fDM=+
all M=3,26
married M=3,29
- men   M=3,30
- women M=3,29
never married M=3,14
- men   M=3,21
- women M=3,05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fb=+.14 p < .001
B controlled for
- age
- gender
- subjective class
- household income
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject code: M01

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER, code M01
Operationalization
1    Married people  (reference)
0a Divorced
0b Separated
0c Widowed
0d Not married,living with partner
0e Not married,living without partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.59 p < .01
Divorced
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.89 p < .01
Separated
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.60 p < .01
Widowed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.24 ns
Not married,living with partner
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .01
Not married,living without partner

B's controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employment
  - education
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject code: M01

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 nations, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =9605

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationMARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER, code M01
Operationalization
a.married
b.never married
c.living as married
d.divorced
e.Widowed
Observed distributiona.N= 6233; b. N= 1953; c. N= 111; d. N= 192; e. N=797

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
(D,E)<(B,A,C)


Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject code: M01

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelAgeing
Page in Source 76,77
Our classificationMARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER, code M01
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1 (1987)
T2 (1991)
T3 (1995)
T4 (1999
12 year interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
Positive among people with a partner
Negative among singles
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
Subject code: M01

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelAge at first marriage
Page in Source 29
Our classificationMARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER, code M01
Operationalization
Years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= - ns
Unrelated to level of happiness at T1 and T2.   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= - ns
Unrelated to change in happiness between T1 and 
T2.
     
b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, 
workstatus, income, occupational status, and
family history. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital states
Subject code: M01aa

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelpartner
Page in Source 286
Our classificationEarlier marital states, code M01aa
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have a partner?"
1: no, and I have never had one
2: no, but I have had one
3: not sure
4: yes
Observed distributionN: 1:59, 2:264, 3:41, 4:1105
Remarks
It is likely that the original sign of the correlation 
was wrong: this was adjusted here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.38
 2: Mt=7.13
 3: Mt=6.89
 4: Mt=7.96
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.98
 2: Mt=6.68
 3: Mt=6.23
 4: Mt=7.69
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.25 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.40
 2: Mt=6.00
 3: Mt=5.68
 4: Mt=7.24
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital states
Subject code: M01aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelhaving a partner
Page in Source 304
Our classificationEarlier marital states, code M01aa
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have a partner?"
1: no, and I never had one
2: no, but I have had one
3: not sure
4: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4604; %:1:1,9; 2:14,5; 3:2,5; 4:81,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=7.13
2: Mt=6.80
3: Mt=6.63
4: Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.23 p < .00
1: Mt=6.45
2: Mt=6.28
3: Mt=6.16
4: Mt=7.69
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.31 p < .00
1: Mt=5.99
2: Mt=5.60
3: Mt=5.35
4: Mt=5.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital states
Subject code: M01aa

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelRelation history of the single
Page in Source 76
Our classificationEarlier marital states, code M01aa
Operationalization
the last relation of the single:

A No earlier relation
B ex-Living apart together (LAT)
C ex-living together
Remarks
Currently single subjects only. Assessed at T1 + T2 
(merged file)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
No earlier relation           M= 6,8
ex-living apart together (LAT)M= 6,8
ex-living together            M= 5,8
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital states
Subject code: M01aa

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 443-447
Our classificationEarlier marital states, code M01aa
Operationalization
0 = other
1 = married
Observed distributionM = 0,62 SD = 0,49
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.14 p < .05
T1 marital status by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.41 p < .05
B (+.406)controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.17 ns
B (+0,172) controlled for
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.02 ns
B (+020) additionally controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever lived as married
Subject code: M01aa01a

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelLiving together/marriage first partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationEver lived as married, code M01aa01a
Operationalization
1 Married or living as married with first partner
0 Other (mostly singles)
Observed distributionN in this situation at: T1= 412, T1-T3=297, T3-T4=127, T3-T5 or T4-T5=74, Total=910
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who had 
been married during this 12 year period and Ss who 
did not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.85 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteritstics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
- extraversion
and life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.87 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition 
(happened or not):
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring the above years of 
transition variables

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever lived as married
Subject code: M01aa01a

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelCohabited
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEver lived as married, code M01aa01a
Operationalization
1 If Ss lived with their spouses before marriage
0 other
Observed distributionM=.14, SD=.35, Range 0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.06 ns
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.08 p < .01
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=-.03 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever married before
Subject code: M01aa01b

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelRemarried
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEver married before, code M01aa01b
Operationalization
1 married before T1
0 other
Observed distributionM=.12, SD=.33, Range 0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.01 ns
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.06 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=-.10 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-long single
Subject code: M01aa01c

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single vs in first marriage
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationLife-long single, code M01aa01c
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, NEVER MARRIED (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.45 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.32 ns
Females

B's controlled for
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.44 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.58 ns
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-long single
Subject code: M01aa01c

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationLife-long single, code M01aa01c
Operationalization
a: widowed (reference)
b: never married
c: divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.29 p < .10
NEVER MARRIED (vs widowed)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.31 p < .10
OR additionally controlled for country
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.00 ns
divorced (vs widowed)


OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
-country

OR not change for the variable
not satisfied and satisfied vs very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.66 p < .05
OR additionally controlled for country

 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-long single
Subject code: M01aa01c

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single never married
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationLife-long single, code M01aa01c
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: NEVER MARRIED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.19 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.05 ns
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital transitions
Subject code: M01aa02

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after several marriages
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEarlier marital transitions, code M01aa02
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE AFTER SEVERAL MARRIAGES (vs in first 
marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.37 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.84 p < .01
Females

B' controlled for
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.38 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.84 p < .01
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital transitions
Subject code: M01aa02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelSeperated/divorced
Page in Source 12
Our classificationEarlier marital transitions, code M01aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
1: Single
0: Seperated/divorced
Remarks
Order reversed by World Databse of Happiness team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.51 p < .001
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT marital status

B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Immigrant status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.00 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in marital status

B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Employed
- Immigrant

Unaffected by additional control for

- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier marital transitions
Subject code: M01aa02

StudyGubrium (1974): study US 1972
TitleMarital Desolation and the Evaluation of Everyday Life in Old Age.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1974, Vol. 38, 107 -113
PublicAged persons, Detroit, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelContinuity in marital status
Page in Source 110-111
Our classificationEarlier marital transitions, code M01aa02
Operationalization
0 Incontinuity (widowed / divorced)    1 Continuity 
(never married / married)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bbG=+.24 ns
Unaffected by age
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-bG=+.11 ns
Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of separations
Page in Source 419, 422
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIRS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ ns
Beta's controlled for:
- currently in partnership

Females
- aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)
- aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.02 (ns)
Males
- aged 25-45 years: Beta = -.01 (ns)
- aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.01 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
ALL SUBJECTS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regression across all subjects yields similar 
results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after divorce
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, AFTER DIVORCE (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.35 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.99 p < .01
Females

B's controlled for:
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.32 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-1.0 p < .01
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

Divorce has more negative impact on women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
a: widowed (reference)
b: never married
c: divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.29 p < .10
NEVER MARRIED (vs widowed)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.31 p < .10
OR additionally controlled for country
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.00 ns
divorced (vs widowed)


OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
-country

OR not change for the variable
not satisfied and satisfied vs very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.66 p < .05
OR additionally controlled for country

 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single, divorced
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: DIVORCED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.16 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelDivorce/separation from first partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
1 Divorced after marriage or separation after living 
together
0 other
Observed distributionN in this situation at: T1= 25, T1-T3=19, T3-T4=18, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=80
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who 
divorced during this 12 year period and Ss who did 
not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-1.5 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
and life course transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-2.0 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition :
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring the above years of 
transition variables

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyBrewer & Nandi (2014): study GB 1991
TitlePartnership Dissolution: How Does it Affect Income, Employment and Well-being?
SourceInstitute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) Research Paper, 2014, No. 30, Essex, United Kingdom
URLhttps://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2014-30
PublicDivorced, United Kingdom, followed 1991-2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =1560

Correlate
Author's labelRecovery from separation
Page in Source 34,35,106
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
Change in happiness after divorce
Remarks
T-1:  1 Year before separartion
T0:   Year of separation
T1:   1 Year after separation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
CHANGE happiness
T-1 to T0: DM = -
T0  to T1: DM = +
T1  to T2: DM = +
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyKahneman & Krueger (2006): study US 2004
TitleDevelopments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 3 - 24
DOIDOI:10.1257/089533006776526030
PublicEmployed females, USA , 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =909

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced
Page in Source 17
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
1 Divorced
0 Married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=-,12
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-ar=+.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyCargan & Whitehurst (1990): study US 1985
TitleAdjustment Differences in the Divorced and the Redivorced.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1990, Vol. 14, 49 - 78
DOIDOI:10.1300/J087v14n02_03
PublicDivorced, members of singles organization Dayton, Ohio, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =249

Correlate
Author's labelRedivorced
Page in Source 72
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
0: Divorced
1: Redivorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-eG=-.15 p < .01
Males: G=-.07 (ns), females G=-.18 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-etc=-.05 ns
Males: tc=-.03 (ns), Females tc=-.04 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelContinuously married
Page in Source 458-460
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
1 married to the same spouse at T1(1980), T2(1983) and 
T3(1988)
0 other
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M=0.71, SD=0.46,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.29 p < .001
T1 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.26 p < .001
T4 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.39 p < .001
T4 happiness (1992) by T1-T3 married to the same 
spouse, controlling for: 
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.30 p < .001
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness (12 year interval)
T4 happiness by 1-T3 married to same spouse 
controlling:
- T1 happiness (for capturing change)
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.29 p < .001
additionally control for:
- Age
- Gender
- Race
- T4 years of education
- T4 family income
- T1-T4 number of children in household
- T1-T4 stepchild in household
- T1 religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever widowed
Subject code: M01aa02b

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after widowhood
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEver widowed, code M01aa02b
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE AFTER WIDOWHOOD (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.34 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.73 p < .05
Females

B's controlled for:
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.35 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.74 p < .05
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

Widowhood has more negative impact on women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever widowed
Subject code: M01aa02b

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationEver widowed, code M01aa02b
Operationalization
a: widowed (reference)
b: never married
c: divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.29 p < .10
NEVER MARRIED (vs widowed)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.31 p < .10
OR additionally controlled for country
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.00 ns
divorced (vs widowed)


OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
-country

OR not change for the variable
not satisfied and satisfied vs very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=0.66 p < .05
OR additionally controlled for country

 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever widowed
Subject code: M01aa02b

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital History/single, widowed
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEver widowed, code M01aa02b
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: EARLY WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=
Males, not enough data
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, LATE WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.13 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.12 p < .05
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever widowed
Subject code: M01aa02b

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse death
Page in Source 11, 28, 43
Our classificationEver widowed, code M01aa02b
Operationalization
Change of marital status reported at T1 and T2, from 
'married'  to 'widowed'.
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution2,3% yes, 97,7% no.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=-.16 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by death of spouse

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement wanted           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever remarried
Subject code: M01aa02c

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced/Remarried
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEver remarried, code M01aa02c
Operationalization
1 Ss who divorced in T2 or T3 and then remarried T3 or 
T4.
0 other
Observed distributionM=.05, SD=.23, Range 0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.04 ns
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.24 p < .01
T4 happiness
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.19 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.20 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever remarried
Subject code: M01aa02c

StudyWhite (1979): study US 1977
TitleSex Differentials in the Effect of Remarriage on Global Happiness.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1979, Vol. 41, 869 -876
PublicAdult, general public,, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1085

Correlate
Author's labelRemarriage
Page in Source 873
Our classificationEver remarried, code M01aa02c
Operationalization
0 First marrieds
1 Remarrieds

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adDM= +
males:
first marriage          M = 2.35  Mt' = 6.7   
remarriage              M = 2.54  Mt' = 7.7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adDM= -
females:
first marriage          M = 2.45  Mt' = 7.3
remarriage              M = 2.29  Mt' = 6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever remarried
Subject code: M01aa02c

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelMarried before
Page in Source 225
Our classificationEver remarried, code M01aa02c
Operationalization
Direct question;"Where you ever married before?" 
0=first marriage,1=  previous marriage  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire) 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=-.28 p < .?
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=-.28
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Other miners' wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in 
 mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire) 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Still with first spouse
Subject code: M01aa02d

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelremaining with the first partner as for first child
Page in Source 428, 429
Our classificationStill with first spouse, code M01aa02d
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ ns
Beta’s controlled for:
- at least one child
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = -.07 (ns)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)

Regression analysis additoonally controlled for 
the following variables yield similar results:
- number of stepchildren
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regression analysis across all subjects yield 
similiar results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Still with first spouse
Subject code: M01aa02d

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/first, second, third marriage
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationStill with first spouse, code M01aa02d
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages
Observed distributionMen/women: 0: 31/ 4; 1a: 21/2; 1b : 3/12; 1c : 3/9; 1d: 33/57; 1e: 9/15

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
IN SECOND OR THIRD MARRIAGE (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.56 ns
Females

B's controlled for
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.10 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.60 ns
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

First divorce has a negative impact on the 
happiness of women but not on the happiness of 
men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Still with first spouse
Subject code: M01aa02d

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history, single after more marriages
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationStill with first spouse, code M01aa02d
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: AFTER MORE MARRIAGES (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.15 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.20 p < .05
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Still with first spouse
Subject code: M01aa02d

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelmarital history/in second marriage
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationStill with first spouse, code M01aa02d
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage
Observed distribution1: males 68,0%, females 44,1% 0a: males 9,7%, females 3,5% 0b: males 4,2%, females 6,7% 0c: males 2,3%, females 4,2% 0d: males 0,8%, females 8,7% 0e: males 11,8%, females 27,6% 0f: males 3,1%, females 5,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
IN 2nd MARRIAGE (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.02 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility

Divorce has more negative impact on happiness of 
women than on happiness of men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in marital status
Subject code: M01ab

StudyAsendorpf (2008): study 2000
TitleLiving Apart Together: Eine eigenständige Lebensform? (LAT: A Independent Way of Life?)
SourceWorking Paper 78, SOEP, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/78210/diw_sp0078.pdf
Public18+ aged, Germany, followed 6 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13541

Correlate
Author's labelChange in living situation
Page in Source 19, 20, 38
Our classificationRecent change in marital status, code M01ab
Operationalization
T1-T2 change into
a living alone and being single
b living apart together (LAT)
c cohabiting with partner
d married and living together
Remarks
T1-T2 6 year period, 2000-2006

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T2 CHANGE of happiness by CHANGE to:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .01
Living alone and being single
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
Living apart together
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
Cohabiting with partner
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
Married and living together

B's controlled for:
- number of children
- education
- prestige of profession
- personality
- age
- gender
- size of city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in marital status
Subject code: M01ab

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 328
Our classificationRecent change in marital status, code M01ab
Operationalization
Change in last 10 years from
0 never married
to:
1 Married 
1 Divorced 
1 Widowed
Observed distributionMean age <30 30-49 >49 M F M F M F never married .63 .57 .11 .07 .04 .04 (?) married .26 .41 .82 .82 .88 .74 divorced .01 .02 .06 .08 .04 .07 widowed .00 .00 .01 .03 .04 .15
Remarks
Subjects with at least two observations, so not all 
followed 10 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
B with CHANGE in happiness
Married      age <30     30-49    >49

- women        +.25(01)  +.19(ns) -.65(ns)
- men          +.21(05)  +.13(ns) -.31(ns)

Widowed      age <30     30-49    >49
- women       -1.32(ns)  -.42(ns) +.11(ns)
- men          -.01(ns)  -.48(ns) -.63(ns)

Divorced     age <30     30-49    >49
- women        +.29(ns)  +.38(ns) -.33(ns)
- men          -.03(ns)  +.23(ns) +.17(ns)

B's controled for CHANGE in:
- labour market position
- household income
- self perceived disability
- self perceived health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in marital status
Subject code: M01ab

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 331
Our classificationRecent change in marital status, code M01ab
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in marital status
a: got married
b: got divorced
c: stayed married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.38 ns
Got married (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.57 p < .001
got divorced (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.19 ns
stayed married (vs not)


Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  -age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking) 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in marital status
Subject code: M01ab

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelContinuity in marital status
Page in Source 476
Our classificationRecent change in marital status, code M01ab
Operationalization
Continually unmarried (vs continually married) during 
the last 3 to 4 years
a: never married
b: divorced or separated
c: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.20 p < .05
a: never married         (vs continually married)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.48 p < .001
b: divorced or separated (vs continually married)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.31 p < .001
c: widowed               (vs continually married)

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Similar for males and females

Reversed among low harmony couples: both men and 
woman who remained married in spite of low marital 
harmony at T1 report significantly less happiness 
at T2 than the continuously unmarried.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudyZimmermann & Easterlin (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleHappily ever After? Cohabition, Marriage, Divorce, and Happines in Germany.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2006, Vol. 32, 511 - 528
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2006.00135.x
PublicFirst married, followed 7 years, Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1582

Correlate
Author's labeladded life satisfaction before and after marriage
Page in Source 517
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 4 years before marriage
T2: 2 years before marriage
T3: in year of marriage
T4: 2 years after marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .10
T1 baseline
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .00
T2 cohabitation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.37 p < .00
T3 reaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .00
T4 adaptation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta denotes difference from average population 
mean in the same year.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
Change in marital status 1998-2009
as registered in civil registration
a: going to be/got married
b: going to be/got divorced
c: going to be/got widowed
Observed distributiona: 0,11%; b: 0,30%; c: 0,09%; No event: 99.50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers civil 
registration data. Survey participants identified using 
their (encrypted) civil service number

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in marital status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting married is followed by a slight uplift 
of happiness that lasts several years 
b+c: Getting widowed or divorce is preceeded by a 
sharp drop in happiness, followed by a recovery 
which does not reach pre-event level.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on mutations in marital status.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
Tick the option best fitting your condition:
1: No relationship
1a: Single/No partnership
1b: Separated/divorced
1c: Widow/ed
2: In a non-stable relationship (<3 yr)
3: In a stable relationship (>3 yr)
Observed distribution1a: 36,1% 1b: 1,5% 1c: 3,4% 2: 10,2% 3: 48,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .05
1a: M= 7,30 SD= 1,89
1b: M= 5,00 SD= 5,00
1c: M= 6,14 SD= 3,02
2: M= 8,05 SD= 1,40
3: M= 7,01 SD= 1,57
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBMCT= p < .05
Games-Howell posthoc comparisons: 2 > 3
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
1a: M= 7,34 SD= 1,41
1b: M= 4,33 SD= 4,04
1c: M= 7,29 SD= 1,50
2: M= 7,71 SD= 1,31
3: M= 7,51 SD= 1,19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in married status
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
1: Married
0: Single (reference category)
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.19 p < .001
CURRENTLY married (vs single) by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.06 p < .05
CURRENTLY married (vs single) by CHANGE in 
happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- income
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.09 p < .05
BECAME married by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ab01

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 476-479
Our classificationRecent entering of marriage, code M01ab01
Operationalization
During the last 3 to 4 years
A: Change out of marriage (vs continually married)
   a: divorced
   b: widowed
B: Change into first marriage (vs continually never 
married)
C: Change into remarriage (vs continually separated or 
divorced)
Observed distributionN = A: 2805, B: 474, C: 1317

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I
T1-T2 CHANGE in marital status by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.34 p < .05
Aa: Divorced
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.40 p < .001
Ab: Widowed 
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.52 p < .001
B: married for first time
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.19 ns
C: Remarried

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Negative effect of widowhood stronger among 
females
No gender difference in effect of divorce, first 
marriage and remarriage

Change out of marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent start of living as married
Subject code: M01ab01a

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a partner or not
Page in Source 76
Our classificationRecent start of living as married, code M01ab01a
Operationalization
0 single
1 having a partner
Remarks
Assessed at T1 + T2 (merged file)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=+
Single           M = 6,7
Having a partner M = 7,7
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent start of living as married
Subject code: M01ab01a

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot married to first partner
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationRecent start of living as married, code M01ab01a
Operationalization
Change in marital status: got married (or started 
living together)
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 412, T1-T3=297, T3-T4=127, T3-T5 or T4-T5=74, Total=910
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE 
from single to married status in individuals 
(fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.67 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.66 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.65 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.58 p < .001
B additionally control for above years since 
transition squared
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent start of living as married
Subject code: M01ab01a

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 546, 552
Our classificationRecent start of living as married, code M01ab01a
Operationalization
Marital status
1 Married (reference)
0 Unmarried
  a-single/never married
  b-divorced,seperated, widowed
Observed distribution1:72%, 0a:5%, 0b:23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.42 p < .01
single/never married             (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.40 p < .01
divorced, seprated, widowed      (vs married)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.86 p < .01
single/never married             (vs married)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.70 p < .01
divorced, separated, widowed     (vs married)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that single never 
married are the least happy and married the most 
happy.Comparison is only possible across 
associations with the same happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelYears before and after marriage
Page in Source 30-33
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
Number of years before and after year of marriage.
Follow-up over 17 years.
Remarks
Only Ss who got married in this 17 year period. N = 
1.991, number of observations 21.809.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Reverted-U shaped pattern; happiness rises in the 
10 years before marriage and drops in the 10 years 
after. 

Years before/after  Mean
-10  7.50
 -9  7.57
 -8  7.54
 -7  7.43
 -6  7.57  
 -5  7.58
 -4  7.61
 -3  7.59
 -2  7.67
 -1  7.78
 +1   7.83
 +2  7.65
 +3  7.56
 +4  7.61
 +5  7.63
 +6  7.56
 +7  7.47
 +8  7.41
 +9  7.43
 +10 7.37

* -4,-3,-2,-1, +1,+2 years mean happiness are 
higher than the reference group. T(p)= 2.06(0.04), 
1.96(0.05), 3(0.00), 4.38(0.00), 4,75(0.00), 
2.47(0.01)

The reference person captured in -7 years is a 
person with mean age, mean household income, mean 
years of education, mean household size, employed, 
head of household or spouse, has no children, 
lives in Western Germany and is national.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
The reversed-U shape pattern is partly produced by 
Ss who also got divorced in this 17 year period. 
When steadily marrieds and divorcees are 
considered separately the shape is flatter, but 
still exists in both categories.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
The reverted-U pattern is somewhat more pronounced 
among Ss who differ in wage rate.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
The reverted-U pattern exists both among Ss who 
differ much in education with their spouce and Ss 
who do not.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
The reverted-U pattern is hardly affected by 
devision of labor between spouces.

Ma's controled for:
- age
- education
- parenthood
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
The reverted-U pattern does not exist in marriages 
without children and without labor specialization 
between spouces. People in these marriages stayed 
about equally happy in the 10 years after 
marriage.

The reverted-U pattern is most pronounced in 
marriages with children and labor specialization 
between spouces (indicative of traditional 
marriage)
 

Ss in marriages with children and without 
specialisation are less happy in te 10 years after 
marriage, especially in the first 5 years.

Ma's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since Living together/marriage first partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
Years since first marriage
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.01 ns
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
and years since transition
- no job
- leaving parental home
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring transition variables


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot married to first partner
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
Change in marital status: got married (or started 
living together)
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 412, T1-T3=297, T3-T4=127, T3-T5 or T4-T5=74, Total=910
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE 
from single to married status in individuals 
(fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.67 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.66 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.65 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.58 p < .001
B additionally control for above years since 
transition squared
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 331
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in marital status
a: got married
b: got divorced
c: stayed married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.38 ns
Got married (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.57 p < .001
got divorced (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.19 ns
stayed married (vs not)


Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  -age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking) 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyFernandez Ballesteros et al. (2001): study ES 1996
TitleThe Contribution of Socio-Demographic and Psychological Factors to Life Satisfaction.
SourceAgeing and Society, 2001, Vol. 21, 25 - 43
Public65+ aged, Spain, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =507

Correlate
Author's labelMarital Status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
a: single 
b: married
c: divorced
d: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-gDM=
Single   M=2.66 SD=0.81
Married  M=2.96 SD=0.74
Divorced M=2.00 SD=0.63
Widowed  M=2.65 SD=0.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 546, 552
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
Marital status
1 Married (reference)
0 Unmarried
  a-single/never married
  b-divorced,seperated, widowed
Observed distribution1:72%, 0a:5%, 0b:23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.42 p < .01
single/never married             (vs married)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.40 p < .01
divorced, seprated, widowed      (vs married)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.86 p < .01
single/never married             (vs married)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.70 p < .01
divorced, separated, widowed     (vs married)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that single never 
married are the least happy and married the most 
happy.Comparison is only possible across 
associations with the same happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelFirst marriage
Page in Source 710
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
First marriage in last 5 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1: N = 41( 8,20%)
Remarks
Percents are based on sample size, not total number of 
transition events

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.21 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.20 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent marriage
Subject code: M01ab01b

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelStage of life
Page in Source 87
Our classificationRecent marriage, code M01ab01b
Operationalization
Four groups facing major life-change: 
a: high school seniors (facing work, marriage)
b: newly-married (facing parenthood)
c: middle aged (facing empty nest) 
d: preretired (facing retirement)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 5.3  females: Ms'= 5.3
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 5.9  females: Ms'= 6.1
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 5.7  females: Ms'= 5.9
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 6.0  females: Ms'= 6.2
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 6.2  females: Ms'= 7.1
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 8.0  females: Ms'= 7.8
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 7.5  females: Ms'= 7.0
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 7.9  females: Ms'= 7.6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% very happy:                        
a: hs seniors  males: = 25%  females: = 26 %
b: newly weds  males: = 48%  females: = 52 %
c: middle aged males: = 37%  females: = 33 %
d: preretired  males: = 52%  females: = 37 %
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMt=+
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 5.6  females Mt'= 5.7
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 5.9  females Mt'= 6.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
youngest (a+b) males = 37%   females = 39%
oldest   (c+d) males = 45%   females = 35%
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
men only 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.00 ns
women only
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMt=
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 7.1  females Mt'= 7.5
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 7.7  females Mt'= 7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since living together/marriage second partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
Years living together/marriage second partner
Remarks
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
Marital status assessed at:
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.05 ns
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
and years since transition
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.07
B additionally controlled for above transition 
variables squared


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelLiving with a second partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
1 living together/marriage with a second partner
0 other
Observed distributionN in this situation: T1= 15, T1-T3=12, T3-T4=17, T3-T5 or T4-T5=20, Total=64
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who 
re,arried during this 12 year period and Ss who 
did not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.2 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
life course transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+2.0 p < .001
additional controlled for years since transition :
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring the above years of 
transition variables

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelRemarried to second partner
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
Went trough CHANGE from married/divorced to second 
marriage
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 15, T1-T3=12, T3-T4=17, T3-T5 or T4-T5=20, Total=64
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
marital status in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.1 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.1 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.7 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.6 p < .001
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 476-479
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
During the last 3 to 4 years
A: Change out of marriage (vs continually married)
   a: divorced
   b: widowed
B: Change into first marriage (vs continually never 
married)
C: Change into remarriage (vs continually separated or 
divorced)
Observed distributionN = A: 2805, B: 474, C: 1317

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I
T1-T2 CHANGE in marital status by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.34 p < .05
Aa: Divorced
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.40 p < .001
Ab: Widowed 
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.52 p < .001
B: married for first time
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.19 ns
C: Remarried

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Negative effect of widowhood stronger among 
females
No gender difference in effect of divorce, first 
marriage and remarriage

Change out of marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced/Remarried
Page in Source 458
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
1 Ss who divorced in T2 or T3 and then remarried T3 or 
T4.
0 other
Observed distributionM=.05, SD=.23, Range 0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.04 ns
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.24 p < .01
T4 happiness
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.19 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.20 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudySpanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977
TitleRemarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 709 -720
PublicSeparated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 %, T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelLength of Remarriage
Page in Source 718
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
0 Just remarried at T2 
1 Married one or two years earlier

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N=62)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N = 62 )
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N = 62)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N=62)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N = 62 )
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-ar= ns
Remarried persons only (N = 62)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyWeingarten (1985): study US 1976
TitleMarital Status and Well-Being: A National Study Comparing First-Married, Currently Divorced and Remarried Adults.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 653 - 662
Public21+ aged whites, first married; divorced and remarried, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =1452

Correlate
Author's labelRemarriage after divorce
Page in Source 657
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
0 Currently divorced 
1 Remarried after divorce

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aG=+.20 p < .01
% not very satisfied:
  - currently divorced       17
  - remarried after divorce  12
                                      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.49 p < .01
% not too happy:
  - currently divorced      18
  - remarried after divorce  7
                                      
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 ns
Differences not significant after control for 
education, time since divorce and sex.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.18 p < .0001
Differences significant after control for 
education, time since divorce and sex.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyHetherington et al. (1976): study US 1974
TitleDivorced Fathers.
SourceThe Family Coordinator, 1976, Vol. 25, 417 - 428
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/582856
PublicParents, followed 3 years, USA, 197?-7?
Sample
Non-Response33 %
Respondents N =96

Correlate
Author's labelRemarriage
Page in Source 423
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
1 Divorced remarried within two years  0 divorced not 
remarried



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-se-fi-?-5-aDM= +
Divorced parents who remarried are equally happy 
as married parents and happier than divorced 
parents who remained single.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent re-marriage
Subject code: M01ab01c

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelRemarriage
Page in Source 710
Our classificationRecent re-marriage, code M01ab01c
Operationalization
Remarriage following divorce or widowhood in the last 5 
years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1: N = 25 ( 2,60 %)
Remarks
Some respondents who were remarried, were divorced and 
remarried during the study. This is not shown in the 
data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.22 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.02 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent dissolution of marriage
Subject code: M01ab02

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced since last interview
Page in Source 450
Our classificationRecent dissolution of marriage, code M01ab02
Operationalization
Marital status: divorced since last interview

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.52
men only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=.54
women only

All beta's controlled for:
- children
- health
- age
- employment status
- household income
- income in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent dissolution of marriage
Subject code: M01ab02

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelContinuously married
Page in Source 458-460
Our classificationRecent dissolution of marriage, code M01ab02
Operationalization
1 married to the same spouse at T1(1980), T2(1983) and 
T3(1988)
0 other
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M=0.71, SD=0.46,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.29 p < .001
T1 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.26 p < .001
T4 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.39 p < .001
T4 happiness (1992) by T1-T3 married to the same 
spouse, controlling for: 
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.30 p < .001
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness (12 year interval)
T4 happiness by 1-T3 married to same spouse 
controlling:
- T1 happiness (for capturing change)
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.29 p < .001
additionally control for:
- Age
- Gender
- Race
- T4 years of education
- T4 family income
- T1-T4 number of children in household
- T1-T4 stepchild in household
- T1 religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelOwn divorce/separation
Page in Source 261
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Have you experienced own divorce/ separation
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2001 Ever in your life: N = 449

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.75
95% CI for difference:   [0.04 ; 0.22]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelSeparated in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
1 separated
0 other (married, divorced, widowed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.11  Beta=-.21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.35  Beta=-.24

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Other marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
1 divorced
0 other (married, separated, widowed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=±
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.11  Beta=-.21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.11  Beta=-.01

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Other marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Change in marital status 1998-2009
as registered in civil registration
a: going to be/got married
b: going to be/got divorced
c: going to be/got widowed
Observed distributiona: 0,11%; b: 0,30%; c: 0,09%; No event: 99.50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers civil 
registration data. Survey participants identified using 
their (encrypted) civil service number

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in marital status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting married is followed by a slight uplift 
of happiness that lasts several years 
b+c: Getting widowed or divorce is preceeded by a 
sharp drop in happiness, followed by a recovery 
which does not reach pre-event level.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on mutations in marital status.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since divorce/separation from first partner
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Years since divorce or separation from first partner
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.24 p < .001
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
and years since transition
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.28 p < .001
B additionally controled for above transition 
variables squared


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot divorced from first partner
Page in Source 67,68,74
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Change in marital situation: divorced
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 25, T1-T3=19, T3-T4=18, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=80
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
marital status in individuals (Fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-1.2 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-1.2 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-2.0 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-2.0 p < .001
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Effect (negative) Stronger for men.Longterm 
satisfaction increases stronger for men than for 
wmen.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 331
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in marital status
a: got married
b: got divorced
c: stayed married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.38 ns
Got married (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.57 p < .001
got divorced (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.19 ns
stayed married (vs not)


Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  -age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking) 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in separated
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
1: Separated 
0: Single (reference category)
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.24 p < .001
CURRENTLY separated (vs single) by CURRENT 
happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.12 p < .05
CURRENTLY separated (vs single) by CHANGE in 
happiness
b-fix controled for CUNRRENT
- employment status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 ns
BECAME separated by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in divorced
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
1: Divorced 
0: Single (reference category)
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.10 p < .001
CURRENTLY divorced (vs single) by CURRENT 
happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- income
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.06 ns
CURRENTLY divorced (vs single) by CHANGE in 
happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- income
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.05 ns
BECAME divorced by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyBrewer & Nandi (2014): study GB 1991
TitlePartnership Dissolution: How Does it Affect Income, Employment and Well-being?
SourceInstitute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) Research Paper, 2014, No. 30, Essex, United Kingdom
URLhttps://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2014-30
PublicDivorced, United Kingdom, followed 1991-2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =1560

Correlate
Author's labelRecovery from separation
Page in Source 34,35,106
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Change in happiness after divorce
Remarks
T-1:  1 Year before separartion
T0:   Year of separation
T1:   1 Year after separation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
CHANGE happiness
T-1 to T0: DM = -
T0  to T1: DM = +
T1  to T2: DM = +
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 476-479
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
During the last 3 to 4 years
A: Change out of marriage (vs continually married)
   a: divorced
   b: widowed
B: Change into first marriage (vs continually never 
married)
C: Change into remarriage (vs continually separated or 
divorced)
Observed distributionN = A: 2805, B: 474, C: 1317

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I
T1-T2 CHANGE in marital status by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.34 p < .05
Aa: Divorced
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.40 p < .001
Ab: Widowed 
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.52 p < .001
B: married for first time
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.19 ns
C: Remarried

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Negative effect of widowhood stronger among 
females
No gender difference in effect of divorce, first 
marriage and remarriage

Change out of marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced/Unmarried
Page in Source 458
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
1 Divorced in T2,T3 or T4 and remained single.
0 other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.11 p < .001
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.12 p < .001
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.09 ns
T4 happiness
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Remarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.05 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Remarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.05 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyNelson (1981): study US 1978 /1
TitleModerators of Womens and Childrens Adjustment Following Parental Divorce.
SourceJournal of Divorce, 1981, Vol. 4, 71 - 83
DOIDOI: 10.1300/J279v04n03_05
PublicChildren, living with divorced mothers, Manitoba, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelTime since separation
Page in Source 78
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
In months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 29
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
0 Separated at T1                      
1 Divorced at T1  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= + ns
Unrelated to level of happiness at T1:
-divorced happier            

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+
Unrelated to level of happiness at T1:
-divorced happier
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= - ns
Unrelated to change in happiness between T1 and 
T2:
-negative among divorced     

b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, 
workstatus, income, occupational status, and
family history. 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-
Unrelated to change in happiness between T1 and 
T2:
-negative among divorced     

b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, 
workstatus, income, occupational status, and
family history. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelLength of separation
Page in Source 29
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Month separated at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= + ns
Unrelated to level of happiness at T1 and T2.      

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= + ns
Unrelated to change in happiness between T1 and 
T2.
     
b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, 
workstatus, income, occupational status, and
family history. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudySpanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977
TitleRemarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 709 -720
PublicSeparated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 %, T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelPresence of childrenin the household
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Presence of children in the household at T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-a
Change in well-being between T1 and T2:
Ss with children got less happy.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Change in well-being  between T1 and T2:
Ss with children got more happy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=+ ns
Change in well-being  between T1 and T2:
Ss with children got more happy
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aD%=- ns
Change in well-being between T1 and T2:
Ss with children got less happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudySpanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977
TitleRemarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 709 -720
PublicSeparated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 %, T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelSeparation aftermath
Page in Source 715-717
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Change in happiness between T1 and T2  
(2,5 years)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Increase 42 %, no change 11 %, decrease 46 %
Mean happiness simular at T1 and T2. S.D. slightly 
simular                       
Change in happiness unaffected by :
-children (presence in the house and, number of)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of 
separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled dyadic 
adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not since 
T1
-S.E.S. (former spouses occupational status, own
 occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role (households tasks at T1)
-age
-gender
Change in happiness positively affected by:
-employment at T1
-age of oldest child at T1

Results partly drawn from HANSO 83 who treats same 
data differently and does not involve 
AFF 2.3

O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-a
Increase 32 %, no change 50 %, decrease 19 %

Though gains in happiness are more frequent than
losses, they are less great.
HANSO 83:37 reports means of HAPP 2.1 to be 
simular at T1 and T2
More gain in happiness among those;
-satisfied with work
-oldest at first marriage
Change in happiness unaffected by:
-children (presence in the house, number, age of
 oldest)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of    
separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled       
dyadic adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not       
since T1     
-S.E.S.( former spouses occupational status, own   
occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role
-age
-gender

Results partly drawn from HANSO 83 who treats same 
data differently and does not involve 
Happ 2.1 
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aD%= +
Increase 42 %, no change 25 %, decrease 33 %

Change in happiness unaffected by:
-children ( presence in the house, number, age of  
oldest)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of    
separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled
 dyadic adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not       
since T1
-S.E.S. (former spouses occupational status, own
 occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role
-age
-gender

Results partly drawn from HANSO 83 who treats
same data differently and does not involve HAPP 
3.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=-
Increase 42 %, no change 11 %, decrease 46 %
Mean happiness similar at T1 and T2. 
Change in happiness unaffected by :
-children (presence in the house and, number of)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of
 separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled
 dyadic adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not
 since T1
-S.E.S. (former spouses occupational status, own
 occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role (households tasks at T1)
-age
-gender

Change in happiness positively affected by:
-employment at T1
-age of oldest child at T1

Results partly drawn from HANSO 1983 who treats 
same data differently.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aD%=+
Increase 42 %, no change 25 %, decrease 33 %

Change in happiness unaffected by:
-children ( presence in the house, number, age of  
oldest)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of   
separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled
 dyadic adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not      
since T1
-S.E.S. (former spouses occupational status, own
 occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role
-age
-gender
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aD%=+
Increase 32 %, no change 50 %, decrease 19 %

Though gains in happiness are more frequent than
losses, they are less great.
HANSO 1983:37 reports means of HAPP 2.1 to be 
similar at T1 and T2

More gain in happiness among those;
-satisfied with work
-oldest at first marriage

Change in happiness unaffected by:
-children (presence in the house, number, age of
 oldest)
-former marriage (length of marriage, length of  
separation, divorced or not at T1, recalled     
dyadic adjustment prior to separation)
-remarriage and entering cohabitation or not     
since T1     
-S.E.S.( former spouses occupational status, own 
occupational status, family income, education)
-sex role
-age
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelDivorce
Page in Source 710
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Divorced in the last 5 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1: N = 79 ( 8,20 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.48 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness.Correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled for T1 happiness.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.13 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in satisfaction. Correlation with T2 
satisfaction, controlled for T1 satisfaction.

B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age

Two stage least-square procedure in which T1 
happiness is first regressed on all exogenous 
variables in order to free this variable of 
autocorrelated error.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyErbes & Hedderson (1985): study US 1968
TitleA Longitudinal Examination of the Separation/Divorce Proces.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 11, 937 - 941
PublicMale heads of households, followed 4 years, USA, 1968-72
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5060

Correlate
Author's labelMarried
Page in Source 939
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
0 stably separated/divorced between T1 
  and T5 (N =40)
1 stably married between T1 and T5
  (N= 2550)

0 experienced separation or divorce
  between T1 and T5 (N= 150)
1 stably married between T1 and T5
  (N= 2550)
Remarks
    Stably           Stably
    married          separated/divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T1: 6.5              2.5
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T2: 7.5              4.8
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T3: 7.3              4.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T4: 7.0              4.5
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T5: 7.0             3.3

    Stably         Divorced separated at
    married        T1   T2   T3   T4   T5
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T1: 6.5            4.5* 5.3  6.5  3.8  2.8
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T2: 7.5            3.8  6.3* 4.5  6.5  6.5
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T3: 7.3            1.8  3.3  8.5* 4.0  7.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T4: 7.0            4.5  4.5  8.0  4.3* 5.8
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T5: 7.0            5.0  4.0  5.8  3.0  3.8*

* = year of divorce

Contentment rated on 0-4 point scale. Means 
transformed to 0-10 point scale (Ms', difference 
DMt')

There are no clear differences between men married 
for the first time or in a subsequent marriage.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyErbes & Hedderson (1985): study US 1968
TitleA Longitudinal Examination of the Separation/Divorce Proces.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 11, 937 - 941
PublicMale heads of households, followed 4 years, USA, 1968-72
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5060

Correlate
Author's labelSeparation sequale
Page in Source 939
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed before, during and after separation 
or divorce

Both happiness and marital status assessed during five 
consecutive years: T1: 1968, T2: 1969, T3: 1970, T4: 
1971, T5: 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Only respondents who separated/divorced between T1 
and T5 (N= 365)              

Mean happiness at different time lags from 
separation/divorce
- 2 years before        M= 2.6      Mt'= 6.5
- 2 years before        M= 2.4      Mt'= 6.0
- year of               M= 2.4      Mt'= 6.0
- 1 year after          M= 2.5      Mt'= 6.3
- 2 years after         M= 2.4      Mt'= 6.0     
Contentment rated on 0-4 point scale. (M) Means 
transformed to 0-10 point scale (Ms', difference 
DMt')

There are no clear differences between men 
experiencing separation/divorce for he first time 
and those experiencing separation/divorce more 
than once when their scores from two years before 
to two years after separation/divorc are examined


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent divorce/separation
Subject code: M01ab02a

StudyErbes & Hedderson (1985): study US 1968
TitleA Longitudinal Examination of the Separation/Divorce Proces.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 11, 937 - 941
PublicMale heads of households, followed 4 years, USA, 1968-72
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5060

Correlate
Author's labelRecent separation/ divorce
Page in Source 939
Our classificationRecent divorce/separation, code M01ab02a
Operationalization
0 stably married
1 experienced separation or divorce  
  between T1 and T5 (N= 150)





0 stably separated
1 experienced separation or divorce  
  between T1 and T5 (N= 150)
Remarks
    Stably          Divorced/separated at
    married         T1   T2   T3   T4   T5    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
T1: 6.5             6.0* 6.3  5.3  5.8  7.3
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
T2: 7.5             6.0  6.8* 6.5  6.5  6.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
T3: 7.3             7.0  6.8  7.3* 7.5  6.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
T4: 7.0             4.0  6.3  5.5  4.3* 5.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
T5: 7.0             5.5  6.3  6.0  6.3  5.3*

    Stably          Divorced/separated at
    separated       T1   T2   T3   T4   T5
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T1: 5.0             6.0* 6.3  5.3  5.8  7.3
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T2: 5.3             6.0  6.8* 6.5  6.5  6.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T3: 5.3             7.0  6.8  7.3* 7.5  6.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T4: 5.5             4.0  6.3  5.5  4.3* 5.0
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
T5: 5.5             5.5  6.3  6.0  6.3  5.3*

* = year of divorce

Contentment rated on 0-4 point scale. (M) Means 
transformed to 0-10 point scale (Ms', difference 
DMt')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse died in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
1 spouse died in last year
0 other (married, separated, divorced)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.80  Beta=-.45
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.88  Beta=-.93

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Other marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelWidowed
Page in Source 12
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your marital status?
0: Single
1: Widowed
Remarks
Order reversed by World Database of Happiness team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.25 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT widowhood (vs single)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.75 p < .001
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in marital status

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Employed
- Migrant

Dtronger after additional control for

- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity
- Parental education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
Change in marital status 1998-2009
as registered in civil registration
a: going to be/got married
b: going to be/got divorced
c: going to be/got widowed
Observed distributiona: 0,11%; b: 0,30%; c: 0,09%; No event: 99.50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers civil 
registration data. Survey participants identified using 
their (encrypted) civil service number

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in marital status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting married is followed by a slight uplift 
of happiness that lasts several years 
b+c: Getting widowed or divorce is preceeded by a 
sharp drop in happiness, followed by a recovery 
which does not reach pre-event level.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on mutations in marital status.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath partner
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of partner
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 89, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.89 p < .00
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.67 p < .00
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income
- log personal income

Stronger when income is measured using:
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.66 p < .01
B controlled for
- death of intimates before 1999
- real household income per household member
- mean income over time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in widowed
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
1: Widowed 
0: Single (reference category)
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.08 p < .05
CURRENTLY widowed (vs single) by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.20 p < .01
CURRENTLY widowed (vs single) by CHANGE in 
happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- income
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.10 ns
BECAME widowed by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyWilliams (2003): study US 1986
TitleHas the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, Vol. 44, 470 - 487
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038144
Public24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Respondents N =2348

Correlate
Author's labelChange in marital status
Page in Source 476-479
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
During the last 3 to 4 years
A: Change out of marriage (vs continually married)
   a: divorced
   b: widowed
B: Change into first marriage (vs continually never 
married)
C: Change into remarriage (vs continually separated or 
divorced)
Observed distributionN = A: 2805, B: 474, C: 1317

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I
T1-T2 CHANGE in marital status by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.34 p < .05
Aa: Divorced
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=-.40 p < .001
Ab: Widowed 
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at 
T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.52 p < .001
B: married for first time
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.19 ns
C: Remarried

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Negative effect of widowhood stronger among 
females
No gender difference in effect of divorce, first 
marriage and remarriage

Change out of marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelWidowhood
Page in Source 710
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
Widowed in the last 5 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1: N= 11 ( 1,14 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.82 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.46 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent widowhood
Subject code: M01ab02b

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHusband died in mineaccident 6 months ago
Our classificationRecent widowhood, code M01ab02b
Operationalization
1 Widows (N=44)
0 Non-widow controls (wives of   survivors and other 
miner wives,   N=178)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acD%=-
% not too happy
- widows            56%
- survivor wives    12%
- other miner wives 9%
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDMo=-
Modus on range 1-10
- widows            5
- survivor wives    8
- other miner wives 8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later entering of marriage
Subject code: M01ac01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater marital status
Our classificationLater entering of marriage, code M01ac01
Operationalization
0 Unmarried, divorced or separated 
1 Married 
Assessed at T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
T1 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.06  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.10  (01)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.12  (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later marriage
Subject code: M01ac01b

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelMarriage later in life
Page in Source 27
Our classificationLater marriage, code M01ac01b
Operationalization
Follow-up of people who over a period of 17 years:
a: remained married
b: remained single (never married)
c: got married for the first time
Marital status assessed every year
Remarks
Not all Ss are followed all 17 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
People who marry later in life were initially more 
happy than never marrieds who remain single.

This difference in initial happiness varies with 
age. It is largest around age 25 does not appear 
around age 30.

Ma controled for:
- sex
- age
- education level
- parenthood
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship status (migrant or not)

Happiness in the first 3 years of marriage left 
out from this analysis, in order to avoid a 
'honeymoon effect'.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later re-marriage
Subject code: M01ac01c

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelDivorced/Remarried
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater re-marriage, code M01ac01c
Operationalization
1 Ss who divorced in T2 or T3 and then remarried T3 or 
T4.
0 other
Observed distributionM=.05, SD=.23, Range 0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.04 ns
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.24 p < .01
T4 happiness
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.19 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.20 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later re-marriage
Subject code: M01ac01c

StudySpanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977
TitleRemarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 709 -720
PublicSeparated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 %, T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelRemarriage
Page in Source 718
Our classificationLater re-marriage, code M01ac01c
Operationalization
0 Remained single 
1 Remarried 2.5 years later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aChi²=
Level of happiness at T1:                        
higher among those to remarry later (p<.01)
Change in happiness between T1 and T2:       
negative among remarried (ns)
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aSNR= +
Level of happiness at T1:                  higher 
among those to remarry later (p<.05)
Change in happiness between T1 and T2:        not 
greater among the remarried (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSNR= +
Level of happiness at T1: higher among those to 
remarry later (p<.05).
Change in happiness between T1 and T2:       
positive among remarried (ns)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aChi²=
Level of happiness at T1: higher among those to 
remarry later (p<.01)

Change in happiness between T1 and T2: negative 
among remarried (ns)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
Level of happiness at T1: higher among those to 
remarry later (p<.05).

Change in happiness between T1 and T2: positive 
among remarried (ns)
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Level of happiness at T1: higher among those to 
remarry later (p<.05)

Change in happiness between T1 and T2: not greater 
among the remarried (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later dissolution of marriage
Subject code: M01ac02

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelContinuously married
Page in Source 458-460
Our classificationLater dissolution of marriage, code M01ac02
Operationalization
1 married to the same spouse at T1(1980), T2(1983) and 
T3(1988)
0 other
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M=0.71, SD=0.46,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.29 p < .001
T1 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.26 p < .001
T4 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.39 p < .001
T4 happiness (1992) by T1-T3 married to the same 
spouse, controlling for: 
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.30 p < .001
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness (12 year interval)
T4 happiness by 1-T3 married to same spouse 
controlling:
- T1 happiness (for capturing change)
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.29 p < .001
additionally control for:
- Age
- Gender
- Race
- T4 years of education
- T4 family income
- T1-T4 number of children in household
- T1-T4 stepchild in household
- T1 religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to entering marriage
Subject code: M01ad02a

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationAttitudes to entering marriage, code M01ad02a
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Aspired change in marital status
Subject code: M01ad03a

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to maintain dating pattern or marital status)
Page in Source 109/18/19
Our classificationAspired change in marital status, code M01ad03a
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a 2-point scale: Would 
you change your present dating pattern or marital 
status if you could: 
0 yes 
1 no 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.41
ALL Ss (married (including not formally married 
cohabitating Ss (considered as married) and 
non-married):

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.04
ß. controlled for: 
gender, age, household income, marital status, 
being in love, locus of control, social support 
(1. instrumental: problems managing money, 
deciding how to spend money, not enough money to 
do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to 
get by on; 2. expressive: no close companions, no 
one to depend on, unsatisfactory sex liofe, 
problems communicating, dissatisfied with marital 
status, not enough close friends, no one to show 
love/affection, too dependent on others, not 
having children, no one to understand problems;
3. interpersonal demands: too many 
responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many 
demands on time, problems communicating, problems 
with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, 
conflicts with those who are close) and 
satisfaction with: job and financial situation, 
friendships, love relationships and living 
situation.

NON-MARRIED Ss ONLY:

- desire to change:           Mt = 6.7
- maintain present situation: Mt = 8.1
Difference significant (001)

- males:    r = -.28        ß = -.02
- females:  r = -.24        ß = -.02
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above
except gender and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected change in marital status
Subject code: M01ad03b

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status the same in next five years
Page in Source 222
Our classificationExpected change in marital status, code M01ad03b
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a 5-point scale: Do you 
think your marital status will be the same five years 
hence: yes, definitely / yes, probably / maybe / 
probably not / definitely not.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.13 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected change in marital status
Subject code: M01ad03b

StudyBray & Howard (1983): study US 1956
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelStability of marriage
Page in Source 302
Our classificationExpected change in marital status, code M01ad03b
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction: "How likely is it that this person 
will stay married to the same mate?".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=
T5 stability of marriage by T5 happiness.

Analysis showed a significantly positive  
correlation.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on yesterday's activities using a diary format.

Nine affects were rated for each episode:
A happy
B warm, friendly
C enjoying myself
D frustrated, annoyed
E depressed, blue
F hassled, puushed around
G angry, hostile
H worried, anxious
I criticized, put down

Rating: 0 'not at all' to 6 'very much'

Computation: (A+B+C)/3 - (D+E+F+H+H+I)/6

Name: Kahneman's Net Affect
.
.
6
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-W-cy-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on open question:

Have you usually felt pretty sure your life would work out the way you want it to, or have there been times when you haven't been sure about it?

Responses scored afterwards on the following scale;
5 usually pretty sure
4 pretty sure, qualified
3 pro-con, sure sometimes, not sure of the times
2 (more) times when haven't been sure, qualified
1 (more) times when not very sure

This same question was asked every year 1968 - 1972
(American Panel Study on Income Dynamics)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are....?
1 not too happy
2 relatively happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bbSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much UNhappiness would you say you find in life today? Would you say…?
3 almost none
2 some unhappiness
1 great unhappiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, do you feel happy these days....?
5 very happy
4 somewhat happy
3 so so
2 somewhat not happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-eSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together ( the work you do, where you live, your way of life, the things you do for enjoyment, your health ) how would you say things are these days ...?"
1 very good
2 pretty good
3 so-so
4 not too good
5 not good at all
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfying

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life at present?
1 not at all
2
3
4 very much
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life, all things considered?
1 not satisfied at all
2 not particularly satisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
5 pretty satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 pretty dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-ISelfreport on single question:

Now please think about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with it? Are you..
5 completely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of the following statements applies for you in the last 18 months.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 applies completely
6 apllies
5 apllies slightly
4 neither applies nor does not apply
3 slightly not applicable
2 not applicable
1 applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), last years version
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
O-Sum-se-fi-?-5-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Interviews on life after divorce, in which happiness and life-satisfaction were items. Content analysis of taped records by two raters. Rated instructions not reported

Ratings made on a 5 steps scale. (Rating scale not reported)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMoDIFFERNCE IN MODUS (D= difference, Mo=modal score)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
DMsSTANDARDIZED DIFFERENCE of MEANS (CRITICAL RATIO)
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning: DMs is the ratio of the difference of the, either untransformed or transformed, means and its standard error.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREERL10ao01Marital status in neighbourhood
M01aa01Earlier marital statesM02ab01Never married
M01aa01aEver lived as marriedM02acLiving as married
M01aa01bEver married beforeM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
M01aa01cLife-long singleM02aa01Married vs never married
M01aa02Earlier marital transitionsL06aa01Earlier life-events
M01aa02aEver divorced/separatedM02ab04Separated
M01aa02aEver divorced/separatedM02ab03Divorced or separated
M01aa02bEver widowedM02ab02Widowed
M01aa02cEver remarriedM02adRemarried
M01aa02dStill with first spouseM01aa02aEver divorced/separated
M01abRecent change in marital statusC06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)
M01abRecent change in marital statusL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
M01ab01cRecent re-marriageC03ab03Non-biological children
M01ab01cRecent re-marriageM02adRemarried
M01ab02Recent dissolution of marriageM02aa05Still-married vs broken marriage (widowed+separated+divorced)
M01ab02aRecent divorce/separationC10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhood
M01ab02aRecent divorce/separationM02ab03Divorced or separated
M01ab02aRecent divorce/separationM02ab04Separated
M01ab02bRecent widowhoodC10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhood
M01ab02bRecent widowhoodL06ab02aDeath of an intimate
M01ab02bRecent widowhoodM02ab02Widowed
M01ac01aLater living as marriedM02acLiving as married
M01ac01bLater marriageM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
M01ac01cLater re-marriageM02adRemarried
M01ac02aLater divorce/separationM02ab03Divorced or separated
M01ac02aLater divorce/separationM02ab04Separated
M01ac02bLater widowhoodM02ab02Widowed
M01adAttitudes to marital status careerM02agAttitudes to marital status
M01ad02bAttitudes to dissolution of marriageC10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhood
M01ad03aAspired change in marital statusL07ab02Object of life-goals

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings