Findings on Happiness and LOTTERY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LOTTERY
Subject Code: L11

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L11LOTTERY0
L11aaCareer of lottery involvement0
L11abCurrent involvement in gambling1
L11ab01Lottery playing4
L11ab02Lottery winning8
L11acAttitudes to own involvement in gambling1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LOTTERY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L11
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in gambling
Subject code: L11ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelInvestment behavior (risk averseness)
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCurrent involvement in gambling, code L11ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question.
"I would never consider investments in shares because I 
find this too risky"
1 = totally disagree
.
.
7 = totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.02
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab-iv=+4.5
Instrument for happiness:
- yearly cloud cover average

Bs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - schooling
  - income
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery playing
Subject code: L11ab01

StudyKuhn et al. (2011): study NL 2003
TitleThe Effects of Lottery Prizes on Winners and their Neighbors: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery.
SourceIZA DP, 2011, No. 4950, Tilburg, The Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/36917
PublicLottery winners, players and controls, Netherlands, 2003-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response32.7 %
Respondents N =2011

Correlate
Author's labelLottery playing
Page in Source 30
Our classificationLottery playing, code L11ab01
Operationalization
1: player
0: non-player
Observed distributionIn winning postcode: N = 1: 223 0: 477 In non-winning postcode: N = 1: 301 0: 878

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
in winning postcode
- player (winner) M = 7.06
- non-player      M = 6.87
difference           +0.23
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
in non-winning postcode
- player          M = 7.02
- non-player      M = 6.82
difference           +0.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery playing
Subject code: L11ab01

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelBetting or gambling
Page in Source 234
Our classificationLottery playing, code L11ab01
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency in the past week: not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = -.03
Females : G = +.28
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = -.05
Females : G = +.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery playing
Subject code: L11ab01

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977 /2
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners and non-lottery winners, Illinois, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =108

Correlate
Author's labelLottery playing
Page in Source 921
Our classificationLottery playing, code L11ab01
Operationalization
Non-winners vs lottery winners.
1. Lottery winners: won $50.000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-response 48%.
2. Non-winners: 86 people living close
   to the lottery winners.
   N=86, non-response 56%. Consisting
   of:  - buyers of lottery tickets
          (N=59)
        - non-buyers (N=27).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aAoV=+ ns
Lottery winners:        M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Non-winners/buyers:     M=3.81  Mt'=7.62
Non-winners/non-buyers: M=4.00  Mt'=8.00

Unaffected by coverstory (lottery focus or 
everyday life focus).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery playing
Subject code: L11ab01

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977 /1
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery players, USA and non-player controls, Illinois, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response56%
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's labelLottery playing
Page in Source 923
Our classificationLottery playing, code L11ab01
Operationalization
Direct question on 'how often' and 'how recently' 
respondent has bought a lottery ticket.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aDM=- ns
Buyers:     M=3.81  Mt'=7.62
Non-buyers: M=4.00  Mt'=8.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyOswald & Winkelmann (2008): study DE 2000 /1
TitleDelay and Deservingness after Winning the Lottery.
SourceEconStor Working Paper, 2008, no. 0815, Zurich, Switserland.
URLhttp://www.econ.uzh.ch/static/workingpapers.php?id=639
PublicLottery winners, Germany, followed 3 years, 2000-2007
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =198

Correlate
Author's labelSubstantial win
Page in Source 24
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
0 Small wins  < 3633
1 Large wins >= 3633

T0 = year before the win
T1 = on average 6 months after the win
T2 = on average 18 months after the win
T3 = third year after the win
Observed distributionM= 0: 1668 1:31.539

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/- ns
CHANGE in happiness after winning

        Without controls      With controls   
T0-T1       DM = -0.24         DMs = -0.23
T0-T2       DM = -0.28         DMs = -0.20
TO-T3       DM = +0.20         DMs = +0.35 

DMs controls for T0: 
- employment
- household size
- male
- age, age squared
- german
- married, never married (excluded category: 
separated, divorced or widowed
- years of education
- logarithmic household income
- health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyOswald & Winkelmann (2008): study DE 2000
TitleDelay and Deservingness after Winning the Lottery.
SourceEconStor Working Paper, 2008, no. 0815, Zurich, Switserland.
URLhttp://www.econ.uzh.ch/static/workingpapers.php?id=639
PublicLottery winners, Germany, followed 3 years, 2000-2007
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =198

Correlate
Author's labelsubstantial win
Page in Source 24
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
0 Small win (<3633 euro)
1 Large win
Only significant prizes are taken into account, ranging 
between 446 and 681,202 Euros. Wins below 3633 Euros 
are 'small wins'. This control group has an average win 
of 1668 Euros. Data provided relate to the group of 
large winners, averaging 31,539 Euros.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/- ns
CHANGE in happiness after winning

        Without controls      With controls   
T0-T1       DM = -0.242         DMs = -0.225
T0-T2       DM = -0.275         DMs = -0.203
TO-T3       DM = +0.197         DMs = +0.352 

DMs controls for T0: 
- employment
- household size
- male
- age, age squared
- german
- married, never married (excluded category: 
separated, divorced or widowed
- years of education
- logarithmic household income
- health satisfaction
T0 = year before the win
T1 = on average 6 months after the win
T2 = on average 18 months after the win
T3 = third year after the win


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyKuhn et al. (2011): study NL 2003
TitleThe Effects of Lottery Prizes on Winners and their Neighbors: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery.
SourceIZA DP, 2011, No. 4950, Tilburg, The Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/36917
PublicLottery winners, players and controls, Netherlands, 2003-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response32.7 %
Respondents N =2011

Correlate
Author's labelLottery winning
Page in Source 28,30
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
1: winners (participants in winning postcode)
0: non-winners
Observed distributionN = 1: 223, 0: 301
Remarks
Players (participants only)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Winners      M = 7.06
Non-winners  M = 7.02
- difference    +0.04
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 ns
B controled for:
- Car consumption
  - bought a car after lottery
  - number of cars
  - age of cars
- Monthly expenditures
  - food at home
  - food away
  - transport
  - other
- Occasional expenditures
  - exterior renovations
  - other renovations
  - vacation
  - non-car durables
- Other factors
  - PostCodeLottery (player)now
  - Charity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyTunney (2006): study GB 2001
TitleThe Effects of Winning the Lottery on Happiness, Life Satisfaction, and Mood.
SourceSurvey Report for Camelot Group, University of Nottingham, School of Psychology, 2006, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/tunney_rj_2006.pdf
PublicLottery winners and matched controls, Great Britain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =34

Correlate
Author's labelLottery winning
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
1: Lottery winners
0: Matched controls of non-winners
Observed distributionN: Winners 34, controls 40
Remarks
The 34 lotterywinners were selected by Camelot; the 
operatort of the national lottery.
The 40 controls (non-winners) were selected by the UK 
University collaborative subject pools.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDMt=+ p < .03
Winners:    Mt = 8,25   SDt = 1,65
Controls:   Mt = 7,17   SDt = 2,52
Difference DMt = 1,08   CI95[0,11-2,05]
A-AB-cm-mq-v-4-aaDM=+
Winners:  Affect Balance M = +9,70 (15,00-5,30)
Controls: Affect Balance M = +6,18 (13,10-6,92)
Difference:             DM = +3,52 
(ABS on scale -12 to +12)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudySmith & Razzell (1975): study GB 1972
TitleThe Pools Winners.
SourceCaliban Books, 1975, London, UK
PublicPools winners, UK, 1972
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =89

Correlate
Author's labelpools winners
Page in Source 225
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
1. Pool winners 
0. Non-winner controls( also pools players, matched by 
age, sexe and social background).
Remarks
See SMITH 1975/2 for data control-group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caDM=+.30
1. Winners     M= 3.38;  SD= 0.37
0. Non-winners M= 3.08;  SD= 0.12
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caG=+.50 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-catc=+.26 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caD%=
Very happy  %          
Winners     42        
Non-winners 20 

77% of the winners indicate they are happier as a 
result of the win.
M-AC-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+.36
1. Winners     M= 3.19;   SD= 0.12
0. Non-winners M= 2.83;   SD= 0.12
M-AC-u-sq-v-4-aG=+.29 p < .01
M-AC-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.19 p < .01
M-AC-u-sq-v-4-aD%=
Never disappointed   %
1. Winners          59
0. Non-winners      37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudySmith & Razzell (1975): study GB 1972 /1
TitleThe Pools Winners.
SourceCaliban Books, 1975, London, UK
PublicPools players (non -winning) UK,1972
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =89

Correlate
Author's labelPools winners
Page in Source 225
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
1. Pools winners
0. Controls (also pools players, matched by age, sexe 
and social background).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caDM=+.30
See for further measures SMITH 1975/1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners, paralyzed accident victims, and controls, Illinois USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelHaving won a major lottery
Page in Source 921
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
Major lottery winners vs accident victims and controls.
1. Lottery winners: won $50.000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-response 48%.
2. Accident victims: 11 paraplegic and
   18 quadraplegic accident victims,
   drawn from the fulltime patient
   population of a rehabilitation
   institute.
   N=29, non-response 15%.
3. Controls: 22 individuals, living in
   approximately the same areas of the
   city as the lottery winners.
   N=22, non-reponse 41%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cDM=+
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Winners - control difference  ns
Winners - victim difference   s (p<.01)

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls interviewed by phone.
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cAoV=+
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Winners - control difference  ns
Winners - victim difference   s (p<.01)

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls interviewed by phone.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Lottery winning
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977 /2
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners and non-lottery winners, Illinois, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =108

Correlate
Author's labelHaving won a major lottery
Page in Source 921
Our classificationLottery winning, code L11ab02
Operationalization
Non-winners vs lottery winners.
1. Lottery winners: won $50.000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-response 48%.
2. Non-winners: 86 people living close
   to the lottery winners.
   N=86, non-response 56%. Consisting
   of:  - buyers of lottery tickets
          (N=59)
        - non-buyers (N=27).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aAoV=+ ns
Lottery winners:        M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Non-winners/buyers:     M=3.81  Mt'=7.62
Non-winners/non-buyers: M=4.00  Mt'=8.00

Unaffected by coverstory (lottery focus or 
everyday life focus).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own involvement in gambling
Subject code: L11ac

StudyDohmen et al. (2005): study DE
TitleIndividual Risk Attitudes: New Evidence from a Large, Representative, Experimentally-Validated Survey
SourceIZA Discussion Paper no. 1730, 2005, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/dohmen_t_2005.pdf
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =22019

Correlate
Author's labelPositive amount invested in hypothetical asset
Page in Source 8, 15, 18, 29, 44, 54, 55, 56
Our classificationAttitudes to own involvement in gambling, code L11ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Imagine you had won 100000Euros in a lottery. Almost 
immediately after you collect, you receive the 
following financial offer from a reputable bank, the 
conditions of which are as follows> There is the chance 
to double the money within two years. It is equally 
possible that you could lose half of the amount 
invested.
What share of your lottery winnings would you be 
prepared to invest in this financially risky, yet 
lucrative investment?"
1      0 Euro
2  20000 Euros
3  40000 Euros
4  60000 Euros
5  80000 Euros
6 100000 Euros

converted to the dichotomy:
0 no positive investment
1 positive investment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.13 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Gender
- Age
- Height
- Parental education
- Log household wealth
- Log household debt
- Log of current gross monthly household income
- Location of residence in 1989
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
(+516.80)

OPRC controlled for:
- Gender
- Age
- Education of Parents
- Height (in cm)
- Weight (in kg)
- Marital status
- Number of Children born after 1987
- Religion
- Location of Residence in 1989
- Current Location of Residence
- Nationality
- Education
- Subjective Health Status
- Smoker
- Enrollment in School or University
- Domain in Public Sector
- Domain in Private Sector
- Self-employment
- Occupation Status
- Log (Household Wealth in 2002)
- Log (Household Dept in 2002)
- Log (Household Income 2004)
- Month of Interview


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-4-aaSelfreport on 8 questions:

..how frequent one experienced in the past few weeks..
A happy
B satisfied
C contented
D cheerful
E sorry
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated for applicability:
4 definitively
3 slightly
2 slightly not
1 definitively not

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: Hedonic Tone (HT) subscale of UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-AC-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"Do you sometimes feel disappointed with life....?"
4 never
3 rarely
2 sometimes
1 often
- don't know
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question

.. Expres in a schoolmark how happy you are.. (full text not reported
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you now (not at this moment, but at this stage of life) .....?"
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6 very much

(originally rated on horizontal line scale)
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you now (not at this moment, but at this stage of life) .....?"
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5 very much

(originally rated on horizontal line scale)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caSelfreport on single question:

Would you say your life at the moment is ....?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 happy
4 very happy
- don't know
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for correlation of happiness with a variable that is unrelated to the independent variable, e.g. for b of happiness with body length in an analysis of the relation between happiness and lottery playing, assuming that there is no relation between body length and lottery playing. Aims to eliminate reversed causality and spurious correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_variable
http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Christine.Zulehner/iv.pdf
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 no rank correlation
tc = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L11ab02Lottery winningI01ad03fWindfall income

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings