Findings on Happiness and LIFE STYLE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LIFE STYLE
Subject Code: L09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L09LIFE STYLE 0
L09aaLife-style career0
L09aa01Earlier life-style1
L09aa01aEarlier life-style behavior0
L09aa01bEarlier satisfaction with life-style1
L09aa02Change in life-style0
L09aa03Later life-style0
L09abCurrent life-style3
L09ab01Current life-style pattern (life-style type)4
L09ab02Specific life-style aspects1
L09adAttitudes to one's life-style5
L09acConsumption0
L09ab02bFamly life style1
L09ab02cInternational life style5
L09ab02dModernlife style0
L09ab02aAlternative life style14
L09aa01cSatisfaction with earlier life style1
L09ad01Preferred lifestyle2
L09ad02bSatisfaction with shopping0
L09ad02Satisfaction with lifestyle1
L09ad02aSatisfaction with music making0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LIFE STYLE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-style
Subject code: L09aa01

StudyFranz & McClelland (1994a): study US 1977
TitleLives of Women and Men Active in the Social Protests of the 1960s: A Longitudinal Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994, Vol. 66, 196 - 205
Public46 of 116 children from child- rearing studies born in 1946 at age 31 years classified as participants in protest movement of the 1960th, United states, white, American
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response38
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelParental style and well-being inlater life
Page in Source 198, 201
Our classificationEarlier life-style, code L09aa01
Operationalization
Had beem involved in in the 1960s in civil righs 
protests, anti-Vietman war protests and hippy or 
alternative life style movements.

Assessed in content analysis of life review interviews 
at age 31 (in 1977), by 2 judges (in 1987).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.26
Earlier activists (in the 1960s) are less happy in 
the 1980s than peers of equal education who were 
not involved in activism in the 1960s.

Males only 
Effect among females not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with life-style
Subject code: L09aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with career pattern (lifestyle work pattern)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with life-style, code L09aa01b
Operationalization
Ss were first asked to characterize their worklife into 
one of four possible patterns;
- I have been primarily homeworker.
- I have pushed a career most of my
  adult life.
- I have pushed a career exept during
  the period when I was raising a 
  family.
- I have done considerable work needed
  for income but I would not call it a
  career.

Ss were next invited to indicate which pattern they 
would choose now. 
Satisfaction is the correspondence between 'As it was' 
and 'As I now would choose'.

Assessed in 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1972 satisfaction by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with earlier life style
Subject code: L09aa01c

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with career pattern (lifestyle work pattern)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationSatisfaction with earlier life style, code L09aa01c
Operationalization
Ss were first asked to characterize their worklife into 
one of four possible patterns;
- I have been primarily homeworker.
- I have pushed a career most of my   adult life.
- I have pushed a career except during   the period 
when I was raising a   family.
- I have done considerable work needed for income but I 
would not all it a career.

Ss were next invited to indicate which pattern they 
would choose now.

Satisfaction is the correspondence between 'As it was' 
and 'As I now would choose'.
Remarks
Assessed in 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1972 satisfaction by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style
Subject code: L09ab

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelCluster of variables associated with depression
Page in Source 29
Our classificationCurrent life-style, code L09ab
Operationalization
Factor containing:
- Female sex
- many children
- low bathing frequency
- high tobacco use
- high social mobility
- desintegration of family of origin
- many worries
- dissatisfaction with:
  - place of residence
  - lovelife
  - social economic status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.55 p < .05
Unaffected by age and sex.
Lower among medium S.E.S. 
Stronger among educational level, 
except for the highest category.
Stronger among formerly married.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style
Subject code: L09ab

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelCluster of variables associated with neurosis
Page in Source 29
Our classificationCurrent life-style, code L09ab
Operationalization
Factor containing:
- Female sexe
- many children
- low education
- low use of milk
- high use of:
  - sugar
  - tobacco
  - alcohol
- high social mobility
- desintegration of family of origin
- many worries
- dissatisfaction with:
  - place of residence
  - love life
  - socio-economic status
  - filling in the questionnaire

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.67 p < .05
Unaffected by age and sex.
Lower among medium S.E.S. 
Stronger among educational level, 
except for the highest category.
Stronger among formerly married.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style
Subject code: L09ab

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelGender and Time Use Groups
Page in Source 16, 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classificationCurrent life-style, code L09ab
Operationalization
Time Use Groups:

a FT work; PT unpaid work
b Long work; PT unpaid work
c FT unpaid work
d FT paid work; FT unpaid work
e PT paid work; PT unpaid work
f PT or no (paid) work; FT unpaid work
g Leisure rich
h FT education/training
Observed distributionMales: N= a:24512 b:12714 c:2877 d:0 e:0 f:0 g:15187 h:3393 Total:58683 Females: N= a:16370 b:6357 c:0 d:2741 e:11580 f:9356 g:20064 h:4222 Total:70690
Remarks
FT=full time   PT=part time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Males 
All: M=5.29
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.25
  c: M=5.18
  d: M=/   
  e: M=/   
  f: M=/   
  g: M=5.40
  h: M=5.38
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Females
All: M=5.28
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.18
  c: M=/
  d: M=5.15
  e: M=5.30
  f: M=5.16
  g: M=5.39
  h: M=5.29
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES   (N=58674/10085)
(reference: a)
a: reference
b: B=-.05 p<.01
c: B=-.61 p<.10
d: /
e: /
f: /
g: B=-.05 p<.05
h: B=+.17 p<.01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)
(reference: e)        
a: B=-.04 p<.10
b: B=-.05 ns
c: /
d: B=-.02 ns
e: reference
f: B=-.04 ns
g: B=-.03 ns
h: B=+.12 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style pattern (life-style type)
Subject code: L09ab01

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelNEET-Hikikomori Scale
Page in Source 53
Our classificationCurrent life-style pattern (life-style type), code L09ab01
Operationalization
Self report on 28 questions:
a: "I think that a person who does not work upon 
graduating will become lazy"
b: "Upon graduating, I don't think it is necessary to 
find a job immediately"
c: "Upon graduating, I would like to do work that comes 
with responsibilities"
d: "Upon graduating, I think that to work is to fulfill 
one's duty to society"
e: "Upon graduating, I would like to avoid getting a 
job in a very formal kind of full time position"
f: "I cannot find the meaning in working after 
graduating"
g: "Upon graduating, I don’t think it is necessary to 
pour myself into my work to the extent of sacrificing 
my private life"
h: "Upon graduating, I think it is necessary to have a 
job in order to sufficiently be able to fulfill one’s 
talents"
i: "I don’t quite know what I want to do in the future"
j: "Upon graduating, since I want to prioritize my own 
preferred lifestyle, it would be better to lead a part 
time freelance lifestyle (than to get a formal full 
time job)"
k: "Upon graduating, since I can rely on my parents to 
provide for my basic needs, I want to try to have all 
kinds of fun"
l: "Upon graduating, obtaining stability and a high 
earning is not that important to me"
m: "My impression of the work of a regular full-time 
employee is that it is intense and just seems harsh"
n: "I think that my knowledge and skills are at low 
levels"
o: "I can do just as much as anybody else and I: think 
I will be useful to society"
p: "Whether it is someone I don’t like or someone who 
is difficult to deal with, I make an effort to get 
along with people"
r: "When I have some trouble to deal with, I have 
someone I can talk to"
s: "It is necessary to study now for what may come 
after I get a job"
t: "My social skills are low, and I am not good at 
relating to others"
u: "I feel that I belong somewhere"
v: "I feel that communicating with others is hopelessly 
difficult for me"
w: "Mingling with others is exhausting for me"
x: "I don’t have confidence in myself"
y: "I feel like I don’t have a clear future prospect"
z: "I don’t have too many friends who I can go out with 
or call"
ab: "There are times when I think that I am not needed 
by society"
ac: "I think that my basic abilities are low"
ad: "My nights and days are reversed cycled; I stay up 
all night, wake up in the afternoons, and eat 
irregularly"

Rated as:
1 = completely disagree
2 = disagree
3 = neither disagree nor agree
4 = agree
5 = completely agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=-
1-2: M = 7,2
2-3: M = 6,2
3-4: M = 5,1
>4:  M = 3,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style pattern (life-style type)
Subject code: L09ab01

StudyWetsteijn (2008): study NL 2004
TitleHet Goede Leven: de Relatie tussen Geluk en Leefstijl in Nederland. (The Good Life: the Relation between Happiness and Lifestyle in the Netherlands.)
SourceMaster Thesis, 2008, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wetsteijn_j_2008.pdf
Public15-80 aged, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1693

Correlate
Author's labelLifestyle
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent life-style pattern (life-style type), code L09ab01
Operationalization
a modern citizen
b upward mobile 
c postmaterialist
d new conservatist
e traditinal citizen
f cosmopolitan
g post modern hedonist
h easy living oriented
Observed distributiona: 22,5%, b: 12,9%, c: 10,5%, d: 8,5%, e: 15,4%, f: 10,4%, g: 11,2%, h: 8,6%
Remarks
Ratings based on both written questionaire and personal 
interviews.
Data: Motivaction.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-cDM=
a M = 7,25 (SD = 1,35)
b M = 7,26 (SD = 1,30)
c M = 7,81 (SD = 0,95)
d M = 7,97 (SD = 0,82)
e M = 7,69 (SD = 1,19)
f M = 7,66 (SD = 1,23)
g M = 7,74 (SD = 1,23)
h M = 7,17 (SD = 1,46)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-cDMa=
a M = 7,30 (SD = 0,06)
b M = 7,27 (SD = 0,08)
c M = 7,75 (SD = 0,09)
d M = 7,75 (SD = 0,10)
e M = 7,76 (SD = 0,07)
f M = 7,66 (SD = 0,10)
g M = 7,68 (SD = 0,08)
h M = 7,29 (SD = 0,10)

Dma adjusted for
- social rank
- age
- sexe
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style pattern (life-style type)
Subject code: L09ab01

StudyLee (1985): study US 1979
TitleProbing Behavioral Patterns of Structuring Daily Life.
SourceHuman Relations, 1985, Vol. 38, 457 - 476
Public23-49 aged adults, USA, followed 1 year, 1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelLife space structure
Page in Source 473
Our classificationCurrent life-style pattern (life-style type), code L09ab01
Operationalization
4 Time use/enjoyment based on 9 day time use diary:
a) Home based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at home; low, average or inconsistent time spent 
at work
b) Work based: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at work but not at home
c)Conjoint: high quantity and high quality time is 
spent at both home and work 
d) Diffuse: high quantity and high quality time is 
neither spent at work nor at home, but significant time 
was spent in other types of places like other's homes, 
restaurants, or places of recreation.
Remarks
Average of sores on T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aDM=
M  Total  Men  Women    
a  5,9    6,2  5,8 
b  5,2    5,3  4,8
c  5,9    5,8  5,9
d  5,3    5,5  5,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-style pattern (life-style type)
Subject code: L09ab01

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelFamily responsibility
Page in Source 88-92
Our classificationCurrent life-style pattern (life-style type), code L09ab01
Operationalization
Factor loading on:
a: Family responsibilities: respondent score depended 
on whether or not he mentioned "family" on the 
open-ended question "What are some of the 
responsibilities you have at home, at work, and 
elsewhere?"
b: Leisure time:  measured by subjective estimates of  
the percentage of time the respondent felt he could 
spent as he wished.
C: Number of daily activities: measured by the number 
of answers to the uestion "What are some of the things 
you do every day?".
D: Requests for assistance:  how many professional 
agencies the respondent had requested help for 
"personal problems in living"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-style aspects
Subject code: L09ab02

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labellifestyle
Page in Source 2
Our classificationSpecific life-style aspects, code L09ab02
Operationalization
a: Gets enough physical excersice
b: drinks moderately
c: Does not smoke
e: Is not overweight

1: a+b+c+d only
0: all

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% happy:
1: 92,5
0: 89,0
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1: 89,7
0: 88,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelValue self-reliance
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self-rated importance of
-growing own food
-being able to make repairs on own
 property
-producing what you consume
-having a feeling of independence
-being self-reliant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelBack to the land world view
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self-rated importance of
-growing own food
-feeling part of nature
-living a simple life
-having a feeling of independence
-being self-reliant
-producing what you consume
-being able to make repairs on your 
 property

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelTechnological self-reliance
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Respondents were presented with a list of 25 
alternative technologies (gardens, windmills, 
greenhouses etc.)
They were asked, whether they employed the particular 
practises,and then requested to note the effectiveness 
of the technologies in terms of 'providing your family 
with independence or self-reliance'.
Observed distributionRange: 1-100
Error EstimatesCronbach's alfa: .72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.24 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelSelf sufficiency in food production
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Single question:
'What percentage of food your family eats do you 
estimate is produced on your property?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelSelf reliance
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self report on ingle question:
'What percentage of food your family eats do you 
estimate is produced on your property?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelValue earth care
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self-rated importance of:
-responsibility to care for the earth
-feeling a part of nature
-living a simple life

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labeltTchnical self-reliance
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
The respondents were presented with a list of 25 
alternative technologies (gardens, windmills, 
greenhouses etc) and asked, whether they employed the 
particular practises. 
They were then requested to note the effectiveness of 
the technologies they employed on a four point 
Likert-type scale from "not at all effective" to "very 
effective" in terms of 'providing your family with 
independence or self-reliance'
Observed distributionrange: 0 - 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.24 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelFamily skill index
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to rate themselves or their 
spouses from "very good" to "not at all good" on eight 
back-to-the-land skills: 
-carpentry
-plumbing
-car repairs
-electrical work
-gardening
-sewing
-spinning
-veterinary skills
Observed distributionranges from 8-32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelYears at residence
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self report of years at the property (mini-farm)
Observed distributionrange: 0 - 60, M = 6.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelValue materialism
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self-rated importance of:
-making a lot of money
-having a lot of possessions
-wearing the latest fashions
-having a stylish car
-living in a modern house

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal commitment to lifestyle
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
self-rated importance of:
-growing own food
-feeling part of nature
-living a simple life
-having a feeling of independence
-being self-reliant
-producing what you consume
-being able to make repairs on your
 property

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelValue self-reliance value
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self rated importance of:
-growing own food
-being able to make repairs on own
 property
-producing what you consume

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelValue voluntary simplicuty
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
Self-rated UNimportance of:
-making a lot of money
-having a lot of possessions
-wearing the latest fashion
-having a stylish car
-living in a modern house

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Alternative life style
Subject code: L09ab02a

StudyBrown & Kasser (2005): study US 2005 /1
TitleAre Psychological and Ecological Well-Being Compatible? The Role of Values, Mindfulness, and Lifestyle.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 349 - 368
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-004-8207-8
Public18+ aged, voluntary simplify movers and controls, USA, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response16,1
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelLifestyle
Page in Source 357
Our classificationAlternative life style, code L09ab02a
Operationalization
0 voluntary simplifiers
1 mainstream

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-7-cDM=+ p < .03
simplyfiers  M = 2.05 (1.82)
controls     M = 1.60 (2.20)
difference:    + 0.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Famly life style
Subject code: L09ab02b

StudyDuimel (2007): study NL 2005
TitleTieners en Geluk: Liever een Leven Online dan een Gezinsleven? ( Teenage Happiness: Link with Familylife and Life On-Line.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 130 - 135
PublicTeenagers, Netherlands, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelspecific activities together with at least one parent
Page in Source 132
Our classificationFamly life style, code L09ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreported activities together with parents:
-having breakfast/dinner
-watchting tv
-talking

1= less than once a week
2= at least once a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Breakfast together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Supper together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,2
2: M =        7,7
Difference   +0,5
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
TV-watching together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,4
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Talking with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Average activities together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal connection
Page in Source 216,222
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Response to 2 questions:
A respondent is able to speak english
  (1= yes; 0= no)
B number of interactions respondent has with people or 
institutions overseas:
- has a member of family or a relative that lives in 
another country
- has traveled abroad at least three times in the past 
3 years on holidays or for bussiness purposes
- has friends from other country who are in China
- often watches foreign-produced programs on TV
- often communicates with people in other countries via 
the internet or email
- own job involves contact with organizations or people 
in other countries.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.08 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.07 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.98 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelVacation abroad
Page in Source 100
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you been on holiday abroad in the past 12 months?
1 yes
2 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal life
Page in Source 370,371
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Responses to 6 questions on openness and interaction 
with others were counted to form the Global Life Index:
- have a family or relative living in another country
- have traveled at least 3 times in the past 3 years 
either for business or holiday purposes
- making friends from other countries
- exposure to foreign-produced programs on TV
- communication with people in other countries via the 
internet or email
- job related contact with organizations or people in 
other countries.
The value of the index ranges from 0 to 3+.
Observed distributionall:0:9,3%,1:17,3%,2:22,2%,3+:51,2% married subjects only: 0:9,3%,1:15,7%,2:21,4%,3+:53,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.03 ns
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.04 ns
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 ns
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.06 ns
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.02 ns
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=.00 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- digital
- spirituality
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2004): study GB 2001
TitleHolidaytaking and the Sense of Well-Being.
SourceAnnals of Tourism Research, 2004, Vol. 31, 103 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.annals.2003.06.001
PublicHolidaymakers and controls, Guildford area, UK
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelholidaymaking (vs not)
Page in Source 1
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Reponse to question about holidays: Having taking at 
least four nights or more holiday outside the UK
1 yes: holiday taking group
0 no : non-holiday group

Non-holidaymakers control group was matched on basis of 
occupation and age
Observed distributionN = 0: 240, 1:355

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW=63.6 p < .05
At T1 (pre-trip)
- Non-holidaymakers  M = 23,8  SD = 23.4
- Holidaymakers      M = 29,3  SD = 22,8
  difference              +5,5
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM= p < .05
- Non-holiday takers  M = 6,69   SD = 1,52
- Holiday takers      M = 7,00   SD = 1,22
  Difference             +0,31
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+
At T2 (post trip)
- Non-holiday takers  M = 20,5  SD = 25.2
- Holiday takers      M = 33,3  SD = 23,1
  difference             +12,8
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
- Non-holidaymakers  M = 6,35   SD = 1,41
- Holidaymakers      M = 7,11   SD = 1,20
  difference             +0,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2002): study GB 2000
TitleA Study of the Impact of the Expectation of a Holiday on an Individual 's Sense of Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Vacation Marketing, 2002, Vol. 8, 353 - 361
PublicTourists, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelHoliday making
Page in Source 357
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Reponse to question about holidays: Having taking at 
least four nights or more holiday outside the UK
1 yes: holiday makers
0 no : non-holiday makers

Non-holidaymakers control group was matched on basis of 
occupation and age
Remarks
Comparison of those waiting to go on holiday and those 
not waiting to go on holiday (holidaymakers vs. 
Non-holidaymakers)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
Holidaymakers      M = 6,99  SD = 1,23
Non-holidaymakers  M = 6,68  SD = 1,52
- difference:         +0,31      -0,29
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aMW= p < .05
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Holidaymakers      M = 29,30  SD = 22,77
Non-holidaymakers  M = 23,85  SD = 23,43
- difference:          +5,45       -0,66
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW= p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's life-style
Subject code: L09ad

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with mobility
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationAttitudes to one's life-style, code L09ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11-point scale
Single question:
All in all, how satisfied are you with the 
possibilities you have to go where you want - by feet, 
bicycle or by car?
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=7,6; SD=2,5; East Germany: M=7,7; SD=2,3; ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

Interaction with region stronger in East Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's life-style
Subject code: L09ad

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ Western Europe 1996
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 8 European nations, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEnjoyment of mundane pleasures
Page in Source 126
Our classificationAttitudes to one's life-style, code L09ad
Operationalization
Respondents were first asked how much they enjoyed 
everyday pleasures such as drinking, smoking, shopping 
and watching TV. They were also asked whether they felt 
any guilt when indulging in these activities. Average 
scores were compared across nations.
Remarks
Source: ARISE (1996) The value of pleasure and the 
question of guilt. International tabulations, Harris 
Research Centre, Richmond UK

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE enjoyment of mundane 
pleasures in 8 western nations
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Data on happiness: World Database of Happiness, 
States of Nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's life-style
Subject code: L09ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of habits and lifestyles
Our classificationAttitudes to one's life-style, code L09ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "habits and lifestyles"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,56 SD: 1,83
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.11 p < .13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's life-style
Subject code: L09ad

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003 /1
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicParents and adolescents, Spain, 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia.
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelOwn body and amusement satisfaction.
Page in Source 107
Our classificationAttitudes to one's life-style, code L09ad
Operationalization
Self report on own body and amusement satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.23 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's life-style
Subject code: L09ad

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelConsumer well-being
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAttitudes to one's life-style, code L09ad
Operationalization
Consumer well-being measure is the summation of 6 
composite indexes on satisfaction with:
a acquisition
b possessions
c consumption
d repair services
e do-it-yourself repairs
f disposition

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.63 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Preferred lifestyle
Subject code: L09ad01

StudyChhetri et al. (2009): study AU Queensland 2003
TitleWhy Bother to ''Downshift''? The Characteristics and Satisfaction of Downshifters in the Brisbane- South East Queensland Region, Australia.
SourceJournal of Population Research, 2009, Vol. 26, 57 - 64
DOIDOI:10.1007/s12546-008-9005-y
PublicDownshifters and non-downshifters, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60
Respondents N =773

Correlate
Author's labelDownshifters and non-downshifters
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationPreferred lifestyle, code L09ad01
Operationalization
In the last 10 years, have you voluntarily made a 
long-term change in your lifestyle, other than planned 
retirement, which has resulted in you earning less 
money?
  1 Yes (downshifter)
  0 No (non-downshifter)
Observed distributionDownshifter: N = 202 Non-downshifter: N = 511

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aDMa=- ns
Downshifters:     Ma = 4.18, SD = 0.67
Non-downshifters: Ma = 4.19, SD = 0.81
 -Difference: -0.01

Ma adjusted for: 
 -Sex
 -Education
 -Partner
 -Employment
 -Household type
 -Marital status
 -Dwelling status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Preferred lifestyle
Subject code: L09ad01

StudyXiao & Li (2011): study CN 2005
TitleSustainable Consmuption and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 323 -329
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/226764459_Sustainable_Consumption_and_Life_Satisfaction
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9746-9
PublicGeneral public, 14 cities, China, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response151
Respondents N =3372

Correlate
Author's labelGreen lifestyle intention
Page in Source 326-327
Our classificationPreferred lifestyle, code L09ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
In developed countries, the popularity of cars resulted 
in serious air pollution and high consumption caused 
trash disposal as a major socioeconomic issue. Then 
what lifestyle should we adopt:
1: to avoid environment pollution, do not adopt the 
lifestyle of high consumption
0: no matter what environment pollution would be, if 
having money, want to buy cars and live a life of high 
consumption

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eAoV= ns
1: M = 3.31
0: M = 3.31
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eb=-.00 ns
B controlled for:
-Green purchase intention
-Green purchase behavior
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.06 ns
B controlled for:
-Green purchase intention
-Green purchase behavior
-Gender
-Age
-Education
-Family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with lifestyle
Subject code: L09ad02

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelEnjoy daily activity
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationSatisfaction with lifestyle, code L09ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Have you recently... been able to enjoy your normal 
day-to-day activities?
1: More so than usual
2: Same as usual (reference)
3: Less so than usual
4: Much less than usual

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.08 p < .1
FEMALES
 "More so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.04 ns
 "Less so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.47 p < .01
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.00 ns
MALES
 "More so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.23 p < .01
 "Less so than usual"   (vs "Same as usual")
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.43 p < .01
 "Much less than usual" (vs "Same as usual")

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome difficulties
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-n-7-cSelfreport on 9 questions

To what degree did yiu experience each of the following emotions over the past week?
A worried/anxious
B happy
C frustrated
D pleased
E angry/hostile
F emjoyment/fun
G unhappy
H joyfull
I depressed/blue

Rated:
0 not at all
1
2
3 somewhat
4
5
6 extremely

Computation: (A+C+E+G+I0/5 - (B+D+F+H)/4
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aSelfreport on 20 questions

Over the past few week I have felt
A optimistic
B withdrawn
C enthusiastic
D good natured
E discontented
F confused
G confident
H tense
I understood
J insignificant
K satisfied
L lonely
M free-and-easy
N clear headed
O helpless
P impatient
Q usefull
R depressed
S loving
T hopeless


Rated: 1 not at all to 9 all the time

Computation: (A+C=D+G+I+K+M+N+Q+S) - (B+E+F+H+J+L+O+P+R+T)

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 2, 20 item ABS version
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aSelfrreport on single question asked twice:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
1 tremendously unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 tremendoesly happy
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eSelf report on single question:

Overall, how satisfied (content, happy) are you with your life?
1 very unsatisfied
2 unsatisfied
3 neither unsatisfied nor satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-cSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole? Please express in a school mark from 1 to 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole? Please mark a number below.
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how would you rate your own quality of life today on a scale of 1 to 10?
1 very poor
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 excellent


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + ½n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ ½n1(n1 + 1); ½n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = ½n1n2 <-> W = ½ n1(Ne + 1) « no association.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L09LIFE STYLE C09CONSUMPTION
L09LIFE STYLE W03WORK: CAREER
L09LIFE STYLE T01TIME
L09LIFE STYLE S13aaUser career
L09LIFE STYLE S12SPORTS
L09LIFE STYLE S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)
L09LIFE STYLE S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS
L09LIFE STYLE S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
L09LIFE STYLE R04ROLES
L09LIFE STYLE C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)
L09LIFE STYLE E02EMPLOYMENT
L09LIFE STYLE L03LEISURE
L09LIFE STYLE O01OCCUPATION
L09LIFE STYLE P10POSSESSIONS
L09ab02aAlternative life styleM12acAttitudes to modernity
L09ab02aAlternative life styleV02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)
L09ab02bFamly life styleF01ae01Presence of parents
L09ab02cInternational life styleP04cbOpen
L09ab02cInternational life styleM12ab02Modern behavior
L09ab02cInternational life styleL01ab01Number of languages spoken
L09ab02cInternational life styleE03ah01Ethno-centrism
L09ab02dModernlife styleM12ab02Modern behavior
L09ab02dModernlife styleN05aaCentral/peripherical in world system
L09acConsumptionC08ab02cConcern about spending
L09acConsumptionH15ab03Quality of current dwelling
L09acConsumptionP10abCurrent possessions

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings