Findings on Happiness and LIFE HISTORY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LIFE HISTORY
Subject Code: L08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L08LIFE HISTORY1
L08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)10
L08abChange in life0
L08acLater life (consequences of happiness)0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LIFE HISTORY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE HISTORY
Subject code: L08

StudyDanner et al. (2001): study US 1991
TitlePositive Emotions in Early Life and Longevity: Findings from the Nun Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, Vol. 80, 804 - 813.
PublicNuns who lived in cloister since early adulthood. Followed into old age, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelmortality rate
Page in Source 810;809
Our classificationLIFE HISTORY, code L08
Operationalization
1: Died before 1993
0: Still alive

All nuns were born before 1917 and  joined the 
congregation between 1931 and 1943
Observed distributionN: I:23; II:30; III:13; IV:10
Remarks
Mortality of all causes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-a
Happiness in young adulthood, as apparent in 
autobiography written around age 25
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-aD%=-34
          quartiles positive words
          I(least)II       III        IV(most)

% died:   55      59       33         21
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bD%=-30
             quartiles positive sentences
         I(least)  II       III        IV(most)
% died:    54      58       35         24
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bb=-1.4 p < .00
B denotes % died per % positive sentences in 
autobiography
B controled for age and education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelFirst birth at or before age 21
Page in Source 428, 429
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ s
Beta’s controlled for:
- at least one child
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = -.23 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield similar 
results, except
- females Beta = -.17 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelLife History
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
a. Current age
b: Parental history
c: Marital history
d: Age of retirement
e: Occupational mobility

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=-.01
MALES 
a+b
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=+.01
a+b+c
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=.00
a+b+c+d+e
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=+.01
FEMALES
a+b
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=+.01
a+b+c
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=+.02
a+b+c+d+e

Explanation of variation in happiness is low.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelMaximum inflation experienced
Page in Source 60
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
Highest annual inflation experienced by an individual 
during his adult life (age 18+)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.00 p < .10
OPRC (-0.0005) controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - employment status
  - marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labellife history
Page in Source 123
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
a Current age
b Parental history
c Marital history
d Age of retirement
e Occupational mobility

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=.01
a+b
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aRaČ=.01
a+b+c+d+e

Same for males and females

Explanation of variation in current happiness is 
low.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
A: In education
   2:Tertiary education
   1:Primary education or less

B: Reason for not contiuing education:
   a: No money for fees for education
   b: Education useless
   c: Failed examinations
   d: Cites problem with schooling
   e: Lack of books
   f: School fees too high
   g: Poor facilities
Observed distributiona:7%, b:44%, c:19%, d:4%, e:1%, f:3%, g:2%, h:1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=
                      % happy %neutral %unhappy
Tertiary education         65      12     23
Primary education or less  49      12     39

No money for fees          45      12     43
Education useless          45      12     43
Failed examinations        47      10     43
Lack of books              58      14     38
School fees too high       61      10     29
Poor facilities            62      10     29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelExposure to radiation
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
Radiation in place of residence after the 1986 nuclear 
disaster.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - income
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelUS born
Page in Source 172, 175
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
1: born in the United States
0: born outside the United States
Observed distributionN = 1: 38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.23 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.22 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.16 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- human capital
  - education
  - income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.18 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- human capital
  - bilingual
  - English fluent
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.20 p < .10
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- social capital: child
  - get on nerves
  - makes too many demands
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.23 p < .10
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- social capital: spouse
  - get on nerves
  - makes too many demands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyKemp & Krause (1999): study US California 1994 /1
TitleDepression and Life Satisfaction Among People Ageing with Post-Polio and Spinal Cord Injury.
SourceDisability and Rehabilitation, 1999, Vol. 21, 241 - 249
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/12918426_Depression_and_life_satisfaction_among_people_ageing_with_post-polio_and_spinal_cord_injury
DOIDoi: 10.1080/096382899297666
PublicSpinal cord injury patients, Southern California, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =177

Correlate
Author's labelAge at injury
Page in Source 245
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-hr=-,19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelresult all variables
Page in Source 179
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
a lived with both parents
b lived with mother only
c lived with mother and other adult(s)
d lived with mother and stepfather
e lived with mother, father and other adult(s)
f lived with grandparents
g mother's education
h education
i family income
j sex
k married
l age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bRČ=.065
a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k+l


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life (antecedents of happiness)
Subject code: L08aa

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelLife history
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier life (antecedents of happiness), code L08aa
Operationalization
A : Earlier demographic characteristics (11 years ago 
T5:1969)
  a Stage of life
  b Religious participation
  c Income
  d Socioeconomic status
B : Earlier psychosocial characteristics (11 years ago 
T5:1969)
  a: Psychiatric symptoms 
  b: Happiness
  c: Self criticism
  d: Future extension
  e: Number of drs visits
  f: Activity scope
C : Earlier stress (6 years ago T3:1974)
  a: Negative events
  b: Positive events
  c: Transitional status 
D : Earlier stress (4 years ago T4:1976)
  a: Negative events
  b: Positive events
E : Current stress (T5:1980)
  a: Positive events
  b: Negative events

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbRČ=
                Male         Female     
            RČ    RaČ    RČ   RaČ
----------------------------------------
A          .09   .03    .06  .00
A+B        .23   .09    .26  .15 
A+B+C      .28   .10    .32  .19   
A+B+C+D    .31   .10    .36  .20  
A+B+C+D+E  .45   .25    .50  .35 
________________________________________
Happiness assessed at  T5(1980)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-aNumber of positive emotion words in autobiography

Content analysis by count of words/phrases that reflected an emotional experience as either positive, neutral or negative.
Coders were instructed not to code possible elicitors of emotion (such as death of a relative) but only the words that describe the emotion that was experienced. They were also instructed not to code words like good or bad, if these did not describe an emotional experienced.
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bNumber of positive emotion sentences in autobiography

Content analysis by count of sentences that reflected an emotional experience as either positive, neutral or negative.
Coders were instructed not to code possible elicitors of emotion (such as death of a relative) but only the words that describe the emotion that was experienced. They were also instructed not to code words like good or bad, if these did not describe an emotional experienced.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on a single question:

satisfaction overall life (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life, all things considered?
1 not satisfied at all
2 not particularly satisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbSelfreport on single question

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general these days?
5 fully satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 fully dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
RaČADJUSTED COEFFICIENT OF MULTIPLE CORRELATION
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0 ; 1]

Meaning:
Ra = 0 « not any association
Ra = 1 « strongest possible association
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
RČ = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
RČ = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L08LIFE HISTORYM01adAttitudes to marital status career
L08LIFE HISTORYP01ab19Earlier optimism
L08LIFE HISTORYP01ab24Earlier self-confidence
L08LIFE HISTORYP06aaHealth career
L08LIFE HISTORYP07aaPlanning career
L08LIFE HISTORYP08aaBehavioral career
L08LIFE HISTORYP09aaPopularity career
L08LIFE HISTORYP10aaCareer of assets
L08LIFE HISTORYP11aaPrison career
L08LIFE HISTORYP12aaProblem career
L08LIFE HISTORYP13aaPsycho-somatic career
L08LIFE HISTORYP14aaPets career
L08LIFE HISTORYR01aaReligious career
L08LIFE HISTORYR02aaResource career
L08LIFE HISTORYP01ab03Earlier anxiety
L08LIFE HISTORYO01aaOccupational career
L08LIFE HISTORYN06aaAttitudinal career
L08LIFE HISTORYM03aaRelationship career
L08LIFE HISTORYM04aaSpouse career
L08LIFE HISTORYM05aaMeaning career
L08LIFE HISTORYM06aaMedical career
L08LIFE HISTORYM07aaMental-health career
L08LIFE HISTORYM08aaMigration career
L08LIFE HISTORYM09aaMoving career
L08LIFE HISTORYM10aaMigrant work career
L08LIFE HISTORYM11aaMilitary career
L08LIFE HISTORYM12aaModernity career
L08LIFE HISTORYM13aaMood career
L08LIFE HISTORYM14aaMotivation career
L08LIFE HISTORYN01aaNationality career
L08LIFE HISTORYR03RETIREMENT
L08LIFE HISTORYR03aaRetirement career
L08LIFE HISTORYS15aaSummed effects of life-career conditions
L08LIFE HISTORYT01aaTime-behavior career
L08LIFE HISTORYT02aaTherapeutical career
L08LIFE HISTORYT03aaTolerance career
L08LIFE HISTORYV01VALUES: CAREER
L08LIFE HISTORYV06aaVictim career
L08LIFE HISTORYW01aaWar-involvement career
L08LIFE HISTORYW02aaWisdom career
L08LIFE HISTORYW03WORK: CAREER
L08LIFE HISTORYW03aaWork-conditions career
L08LIFE HISTORYW04aaWork conditins career
L08LIFE HISTORYW05aaWork-attitude career
L08LIFE HISTORYW06aaWork-performance career
L08LIFE HISTORYS14aaSuicidal career
L08LIFE HISTORYS13aaUser career
L08LIFE HISTORYS12aaSports career
L08LIFE HISTORYR04aaRole career
L08LIFE HISTORYS01aaSchool career
L08LIFE HISTORYS02aaSelf-image career
L08LIFE HISTORYS03aaSex-life career
L08LIFE HISTORYS04aaSleep career
L08LIFE HISTORYS05SOCIAL MOBILITY
L08LIFE HISTORYS05aaMobility career
L08LIFE HISTORYS06aaContact career
L08LIFE HISTORYS07aaParticipation career
L08LIFE HISTORYS08aaParticipation career
L08LIFE HISTORYS09aaStatus career
L08LIFE HISTORYS10aaSupport career
L08LIFE HISTORYS11aaSupport career
L08LIFE HISTORYW07aaWorry career
L08LIFE HISTORYM01ac02aLater divorce/separation
L08LIFE HISTORYA01aaActivity career
L08LIFE HISTORYC11aaCreativeness career
L08LIFE HISTORYC13aaParticipation career
L08LIFE HISTORYE01aaEducational career
L08LIFE HISTORYE02aaEmployment career
L08LIFE HISTORYE04aaBehavioral career
L08LIFE HISTORYF01aaFamily career
L08LIFE HISTORYF02aaFamily career (family life-cycle)
L08LIFE HISTORYF03aaFamily-life career
L08LIFE HISTORYF04aaFarming career
L08LIFE HISTORYF05aaFreedom career
L08LIFE HISTORYF06aaFriendship career
L08LIFE HISTORYH01aaHabit career
L08LIFE HISTORYH02aaHandicap career
L08LIFE HISTORYC10aaCoping career
L08LIFE HISTORYC08aaConcern career
L08LIFE HISTORYC06aaParental behavior career
L08LIFE HISTORYA02aaActivity career
L08LIFE HISTORYA03aaAffective career
L08LIFE HISTORYA04aaAge career
L08LIFE HISTORYA05aaAggression career
L08LIFE HISTORYA06aaAnomia career
L08LIFE HISTORYA07aaAppearance career
L08LIFE HISTORYA08aaAttitudinal career
L08LIFE HISTORYA09aaCareer of authoritarianism
L08LIFE HISTORYB01aaBirth control career
L08LIFE HISTORYC02aaIntentional career
L08LIFE HISTORYC03aaParental career
L08LIFE HISTORYC04aaDevelopmental career of children
L08LIFE HISTORYC05aaRelational career (development of relation)
L08LIFE HISTORYH03aaHappiness-attitude career
L08LIFE HISTORYH05HAPPINESS: CAREER
L08LIFE HISTORYL02aaLeadership career
L08LIFE HISTORYL03aaLeisure career
L08LIFE HISTORYL04aaLife-appraisal career
L08LIFE HISTORYL05LIFE CHANGE
L08LIFE HISTORYL05aaLife-change career
L08LIFE HISTORYL06LIFE EVENTS
L08LIFE HISTORYL06aaLife-event career
L08LIFE HISTORYL07aaLife-goal career
L08LIFE HISTORYL09aaLife-style career
L08LIFE HISTORYL10aaResidential career
L08LIFE HISTORYL11aaCareer of lottery involvement
L08LIFE HISTORYL12aaLove-career
L08LIFE HISTORYM01aa02Earlier marital transitions
L08LIFE HISTORYM01ab02Recent dissolution of marriage
L08LIFE HISTORYL01aaLanguage career
L08LIFE HISTORYI06aaIntimate career
L08LIFE HISTORYH05aaPerceived happiness career
L08LIFE HISTORYH05abActual happiness-career (assessed in follow-up)
L08LIFE HISTORYH05acAttitudes to happiness career
L08LIFE HISTORYH09aaReputation of happiness career
L08LIFE HISTORYH10aaHealth-behavior career
L08LIFE HISTORYH11aaHelping career
L08LIFE HISTORYH12aaHope-career
L08LIFE HISTORYH13aaHousehold-composition career
L08LIFE HISTORYI04aaInterest career
L08LIFE HISTORYI03aaDevelopment of intelligence (career)
L08LIFE HISTORYI02aaInstitutional career
L08LIFE HISTORYI01aaIncome career
L08LIFE HISTORYH15aaHousing-career
L08LIFE HISTORYH14aaHousehold-work career
L08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)A04adGeneration
L08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)
L08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)S15aa01Summed effect of earlier conditions
L08abChange in lifeL05LIFE CHANGE
L08acLater life (consequences of happiness)S15aa03Summed later-life conditions

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings