Findings on Happiness and LIFE GOALS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
Subject Code: L07

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L07LIFE GOALS4
L07aaLife-goal career0
L07aa01Earlier life-goals0
L07aa01aPresence of earlier goals (life-planning)0
L07aa01bObject of earlier goals6
L07aa01cAcceptance of earlier life-goals0
L07aa02Change in life-goals2
L07aa03Later life-goals0
L07abCurrent life-goals1
L07ab01Having goals or not (life-planning)1
L07ab02Object of life-goals12
L07ab03Clarity of life-goals2
L07ab04Involvement in life-goals4
L07ab05Organization of life-goals (life-goal set)0
L07ac02Perceived realization of life-goals10
L07ac02aPerceived chances for realization8
L07ac02bPerceived realization of life-goal set6
L07ac03Perceived realization of specific life-goals10
L07ac03aChildren as planned3
L07ac03bRealization of employment goals3
L07ac03cRealization of educational goals3
L07ac03dRealization of participation goals1
L07ac04Satisfaction with goal-achievement4
L07adAttitudes to own life-goals3
L07ad01Attitudes to earlier life-goals1
L07ad02Attitudes to current life-goals4
L07aeAcceptance of one's life-goals by others2
L07ab06Diversity of lifegoals0
L07acRealization of lifegoals0
L07ac01Actual realization of lifegoals22
L07aa01dRealization of earlier goals2
L07ac03eRealization of income goals1
L07aa01eAuthenticity of earlier goals2
L07ab07Authenticity of goals2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L07
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
Subject code: L07

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2006): study HR 2003
TitleWhat makes Croats Happy? Predictors of Happiness in Representative Sample.
SourceDelle Fave, A.;Ed.: "Dimensions of Well- Being. Research and Intervention, Franco Angeli, 2006, Milan, Italy, 53 - 59
Public18+aged, general public, Croatia, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =1242

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Achievement in life
Page in Source 12
Our classificationLIFE GOALS, code L07
Operationalization
Selfreport on satisfaction with Achievement in life
1: not at all satisfied
.
.
10: extremely satisfied
Observed distributionM=6,8 SD=2,18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-standard of living, 
-health, 
-relationship with family and friends, 
-feelings of physical safety, 
-acceptance by community


Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
Subject code: L07

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelexpression of life's potentials
Page in Source 434
Our classificationLIFE GOALS, code L07
Operationalization
expression of life's potentials
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: 4585; 1:0,7; 2:6,5; 3:33,5; 4:52,9; 5:6,4
Remarks
Expression of life-potentials is calculated as weighted 
mean of 23 questions about satisfaction with 5 domains: 
partner, children and parents, friends, external 
environment and self.
See Chapter 8 of "Measuring the Quality of Life", 
Ventegodt 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.42 p < .00
1: Ms=6.25
2: Ms=5.54
3: Ms=6.99
4: Ms=8.33
5: Ms=9.20
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.47 p < .00
1: Ms=5.59
2: Ms=4.91
3: Ms=6.51
4: Ms=8.13
5: Ms=9.03
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.47 p < .00
1: Ms=5.96
2: Ms=4.99
3: Ms=6.05
4: Ms=7.70
5: Ms=8.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
Subject code: L07

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelexpression of life's potentials
Page in Source 410
Our classificationLIFE GOALS, code L07
Operationalization
Expression of life potentials
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:1456, 1:44, 2:382, 3:936, 4:94, 5:-
Remarks
Expression of life-potentials is calculated as weighted 
mean of 23 questions about satisfaction with 5 domains: 
partner, children and parents, friends, external 
environment and self.
See Chapter 8 of "Measuring the Quality of Life", 
Ventegodt 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.14
 2: Mt=6.90
 3: Mt=8.06
 4: Mt=9.13
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.37 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.68
 2: Mt=6.48
 3: Mt=7.76
 4: Mt=9.04
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.39 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00
 2: Mt=5.99
 3: Mt=7.30
 4: Mt=8.43
 5: Mt=-
All Mt=


Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE GOALS
Subject code: L07

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment to communal goals
Page in Source 502-503
Our classificationLIFE GOALS, code L07
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two communal goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their commitment to these goals on the following items:
- I fully identify myself with that goal
- No matter what happens, I will not give up this goal.
- I can hardly wait to start working on this goal
- Even if it means a lot of effort, I will try 
everything necessary to accomplish this goal

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=15.10, SD=2.52

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.24 p < .01
T1+2 commitment by T1+2 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.17 ns
T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bb=+.05 ns
Initial commitment by subsequent CHANGE in 
happiness: T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness 
controlling T1+2 happiness

B further controled for:
- predominant agentic motivation
- commitment to agentic goals
- perceived attainability of agentic goals
- perceived attainability of communal goals

Agency motivated Ss:    B = -.26 (05)
Communion motivated Ss: B = +.28 (05)

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier average priority for life-goals
Page in Source 221, 225
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on perceived importance of 
goals:
a: being able to buy things
b: fulfilling your potential
c: success in job
d: having children
e: having a good marriage
f: being involved in social and political activities
g: helping other people

Rated: 1 'very umimportant' to 4 'very important

Grouped on the basis of factor analysis
A: zero-sum goals: succes (a+b+c)
B: non-zero-sum goals; family life (d+e)
C: non-zoro-sum goals altruism (f+g)
Error EstimatesT2-T3 over-time correlation: Success goals: r = +.49, Family goals r = +.49, Altruistic goals: r = +.41
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1990), T2 (1995) and T3 (2004)
Average ratings at T1,T2, and T3, transformed to 
dummy-variables by split at the mean

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by average priority at T 
1,2,3 for life-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 ns
average priority at T 1,2,3 for family-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.13 p < .01
average priority at T 1,2,3 for altruistic goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.12 p < .01
average priority at T 1,2,3 for success goals

Beta's controlled for
-average priority for alternative life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal goals in junior years
Page in Source 96
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
Closed questions on subjective relevan- ce of each of 
the goals mentioned, ra- ted on 7-point scales ranging 
from "not at all important" to "extremely impor- tant 
goal". (Perceived Instrumentality of College Test; see 
Constantinople 1965, 1970). Assessed at T1.

a. Acquiring an appreciation of ideas
b. Establishing own personal, social    and academic 
values
c. Developing relationships with the    opposite sex
d. Contributing in a distinguished and    meaningful 
manner to some campus    group
e. Developing the ability to get along    with 
different kinds of people
f. Becoming self-confident
g. Personal indepence
h. Finding a spouse
i. Achieving academic distinction
j. Having many good friends
k. Discovering own strong points and    limitations
l. Preparing for a career which begins    right after 
graduation
m. Preparing for a career which    requires further 
study beyond the    B.A. or B.S
n. Learning how to learn from books and    teachers
Remarks
T2 happiness by T1 goals. T1 data also presented in 
CONST 1965 and CONST 1970.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
a.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
b.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
c.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
d.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
e.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
f.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
g.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
h.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
i.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
j.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
k.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= p < . s
l.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
m.
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
n.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelRetrospective importance of life- goals
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
Direct questions: "How important was each of these 
goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in 
early adulthood".
a. Occupational succes
b. Family life
c. Friendships
d. Richness of cultural life
e. Service to society
f. Joy in living
Remarks
Assessed retrospectively in 1972.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-a
1972 ratings by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-b
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of occupational succes.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of familylife
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of friendship
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of richness of culture life.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of service to society
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Importance of joy in living.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelWanted children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
Direct questions:in 1940 

a.'Did you want children?'
b. If life lived over how many children?
Remarks
Earlier wants (1940, 1950) by present happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 wanted children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 ideal number of children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier lifestyle preference
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
0 Prefers duty of housewife 
1 Other occupation.

Assessed in 1922.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier preference 1922) by present happiness 
(1972).
           
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier ambitions
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationObject of earlier goals, code L07aa01b
Operationalization
Retrospective selfrating of ambitions
- between age 30-40
- since age 40

- Excellence in work
  a. age 30-40
  b. since age 40

- Recognition
  c. age 30-40
  d. since age 40

- Vocational advancement
  e. age 30-40
  f. since age 40

- Financial gain
  g. age 30-40
  h. since age 40

Assessed in 1960
Remarks
Earlier retrospective ambitons (1960) by present 
happiness (1972).             
             
             
            

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1960 rating of ambition level exelllence at work 
at age 30-40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .00
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1960 rating of ambition level excellence at work 
since age 40 by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=- p < .00
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level recognition at work 
at age 30-40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level regognition at work 
since age 40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level vocational 
advancement at age 30-40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level vocational 
advancement at work since age 40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level financial gane at 
work at age 30-40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 rating of ambition level financial gain at 
work since age 40 by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01d

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelAdaptation
Page in Source 1722-1929
Our classificationRealization of earlier goals, code L07aa01d
Operationalization
Comparison of T1-T2 changes in
- desired changes
- observed changes
in 7 aspects of life situation

T1-T2 IMPROVEMENT OF SITUATION
A Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
B Aspiration: wants better both at T1 and T2
C Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
D Consistent: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 STABLE SITUATION
E Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
F Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
F Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
G: Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 DETERIORATION OF SITUATION
H  Consistent: wants better at T2, not at T1
I  Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
J  Resignation: does not want better either at T1 or T2 

K  Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Domains considered are; finance, living situation, 
safety, family. Physical health and mental health

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-16 p < .0001
Aspirations
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .0001
Resignation

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-46 p < .0001
Objective changes in depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in depressed by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+47 p < .0001
Objective changes in stopped depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in stopped depressed by T2 
happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 Depressed status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01d

StudyHolahan et al. (1999): study US 1960
TitleSelf Appraisel, Life Satisfaction and Retrospective Life Choices Across One and Three Decades.
SourcePsychology and Aying, 1999, Vol. 14, 238 - 244
PublicGifted (IQ>135) followed unto old age, USA, 1960-1992
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =383

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent satisfaction with things wanted earlier
Page in Source 234
Our classificationRealization of earlier goals, code L07aa01d
Operationalization
Discrepancy between recalled goals in early adulthood 
and current satisfaction in goal fields.
Participants were asked to rate the importance of their 
life-goals in the plans they made in early adulthood 
for: 'occupational succes', 'family life' and 'joy in 
living'. They were also asked to rate their current 
(age 61) satisfaction in these domains. Next scores 
were subtracted.
Assessed at T2 (1972)
Remarks
T1: 1960, T2: 1972, T3: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-aßL=+.58 p < .01
T2 goal realization by T3 happiness
Controled for T1 appraisal of 'having lived up to 
ones intellectual abilities' (which is linked to 
T2 goal realization, but not to T3 happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Authenticity of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01e

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 491
Our classificationAuthenticity of earlier goals, code L07aa01e
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at".

Reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 
statements:
- "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
- "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this rason) to 9 (completely 
because of this reason)

To form an composite value external and introjected 
ratings were averaged and subtracted from the summed 
averages of intrinsic and identified ratings
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=4.22
Error Estimates? = .72
Remarks
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 selfconcordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester goal attainment
- interaction between self-concordance and goal 
attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T11: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Authenticity of earlier goals
Subject code: L07aa01e

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 486, 487
Our classificationAuthenticity of earlier goals, code L07aa01e
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving 
on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely 
for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=3.47
Error Estimates?=.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.19 p < .05
T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in 
happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and 
self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Positive when going together with goal attainment


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in life-goals
Subject code: L07aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelAdaptation
Page in Source 1722-1929
Our classificationChange in life-goals, code L07aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of T1-T2 changes in
- desired changes
- observed changes
in 7 aspects of life situation

T1-T2 IMPROVEMENT OF SITUATION
A Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
B Aspiration: wants better both at T1 and T2
C Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
D Consistent: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 STABLE SITUATION
E Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
F Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
F Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
G: Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 DETERIORATION OF SITUATION
H  Consistent: wants better at T2, not at T1
I  Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
J  Resignation: does not want better either at T1 or T2 

K  Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Domains considered are; finance, living situation, 
safety, family. Physical health and mental health

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-16 p < .0001
Aspirations
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .0001
Resignation

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-46 p < .0001
Objective changes in depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in depressed by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+47 p < .0001
Objective changes in stopped depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in stopped depressed by T2 
happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 Depressed status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in life-goals
Subject code: L07aa02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier change in ambitions
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationChange in life-goals, code L07aa02
Operationalization
Ss were asked to rate retrospectively their ambitions 
in two periods. Change in importance was computed 
afterwards.
- age 30-40
- after age 40

a. Excellence
b. Recognition
c. Vocational advancement
d. Financial gain

Assessed in 1960
Remarks
Earlier perceived change (1960) by present happiness 
(1972).
         
          
         
             

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 change in earlier ambition for excellence by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 change in earlier ambition for recognition by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 change in earlier ambition for vocational 
advancement  by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 change in earlier ambition for financial gain 
by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-goals
Subject code: L07ab

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent priority for life-goals
Page in Source 222, 227
Our classificationCurrent life-goals, code L07ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on perceived importance of 
goals:
a: being able to buy things
b: fulfilling your potential
c: success in job
d: having children
e: having a good marriage
f: being involved in social and political activities
g: helping other people

Rated: 1 'very umimportant' to 4 'very important

Grouped on the basis of factor analysis
A: zero-sum goals: succes (a+b+c)
B: non-zero-sum goals; family life (d+e)
C: non-zero-sum goals altruism (f+g)
Error EstimatesT2-T3 over-time correlation: Success goals: r = +.49, Family goals r = +.49, Altruistic goals: r = +.41
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
Assessed at T3. Average importance of ratings, 
transformed to dummy-variable by split at the mean

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T3 Happiness by T3 priority life-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
Priority for family-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.26 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.15
Priority for altruistic-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.07
Priority for succes-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.09 p < .05

Beta's controlled for
-current priorities for the alternative goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-having a partner
-years of education
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta's very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Having goals or not (life-planning)
Subject code: L07ab01

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelHaving unfulfilled aspirations
Page in Source 210
Our classificationHaving goals or not (life-planning), code L07ab01
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0 Not any mentioned 
1 One or more mentioned
Observed distribution0: 29%, 1: 69% no opinion: 2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
not mentioned         M = 2,06 
one or more mentioned M = 2,30
- difference             +0,24
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.23 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelWork orientations
Page in Source 32-33
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Self report on how important in life the respondent 
thinks it is 
- to have children
- to have success in a job
Ranging from 1 very important to 4 very unimportant

a:home centered: having children important, work 
unimportant 
b:work centered: having children unimportant, work 
important: 
c:adaptive: children as well as succes in work 
important in life:
d:drifters: without strong preferences
Remarks
Questions were only asked in 1990, 1992, 1995 and 2004. 
Missing values on work orientations were imputed for 
the other years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
WORK CENTERED (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
ADAPTIVE (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.09 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
DRIFTERS (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.09 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
CONTROL VARIABLES
Set A:
- number of hours per week working and caring
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- marital status
- age 
- age squared/100
- number of children 0-15 years
- unemployment rate
- born in east-Germany
- foreigner status
- education
- age youngest child
- objective health

Set B: (N = 70859)
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- extraversion
- openness to experience

Set C:
- birth cohort

Set D: 
- interaction: hours match*work orientation

Set E:
- interaction: hours match*work-care combinations

Interaction effect with fit between preferred and 
actual working hours: only overworked women who 
value work as important score significantly lower 
on happiness than women satisfied with their 
working hours, while being home centered.

Fixed effects analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier average priority for life-goals
Page in Source 221, 225
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on perceived importance of 
goals:
a: being able to buy things
b: fulfilling your potential
c: success in job
d: having children
e: having a good marriage
f: being involved in social and political activities
g: helping other people

Rated: 1 'very umimportant' to 4 'very important

Grouped on the basis of factor analysis
A: zero-sum goals: succes (a+b+c)
B: non-zero-sum goals; family life (d+e)
C: non-zoro-sum goals altruism (f+g)
Error EstimatesT2-T3 over-time correlation: Success goals: r = +.49, Family goals r = +.49, Altruistic goals: r = +.41
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1990), T2 (1995) and T3 (2004)
Average ratings at T1,T2, and T3, transformed to 
dummy-variables by split at the mean

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by average priority at T 
1,2,3 for life-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 ns
average priority at T 1,2,3 for family-goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.13 p < .01
average priority at T 1,2,3 for altruistic goals
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.12 p < .01
average priority at T 1,2,3 for success goals

Beta's controlled for
-average priority for alternative life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /1
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Bhopalpani, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response108
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 263
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 1,72; 1: 12,8; 2:24,8; 3: 39,4; M: 22,9;
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.04 ns
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelexpression of individualistic values
Page in Source 277, 278, 284, 290
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions on importance of
- reaching a high material standard of living
- be oneself in any role one holds
- encounter challenges and develop initiatives
- have a job that demands a lot of responsibility

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=.81
Error Estimates?=.71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=-.04 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz Life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- satisfaction with Kibbutz realization of 
social/ideology values
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
Beta additonally controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
- gender
- years of formal education
- holding central office during the last five 
years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyMinyard Frost & Frost (2000): study ZZ Various nation sets 1995
TitleRomanian and American Life Aspirations in Relation to Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2000, Vol. 31, 726 - 751
DOIdoi:10.1177/0022022100031006004
Public21-22 aged, college students Romania and USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =418

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of aspirations
Page in Source 741 + 742
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 22 questions about major life aspirations 
on:
a: self acceptance
   e.g. You will be in charge of your life
b: affiliation
   e.g. You will have good friends that you can count 
on
c: community feeling
   e.g. You will work to make the world a better place
d: Financial success
   e.g. You will have a job that pays well

Importance rated
1  not at all
.
.
5 very important
Observed distributiona: US: M=4.58, SD=0.54; Romenia: M=4.50, SD=0.57 b: US: M=4.63, SD=0.53; Romenia: M=4.29, SD=0.64 c; US: M=3.62, SD=0.90; Romenia: M=3.54, SD=0.80 d: US: M=3.67, SD=0.89; Romenia: M=3.96, SD=0.79
Error EstimatesInter item correlation a: US +.61, Romenia +.51 b: US +.70, Romenia +.60 c: US +.88, Romenia +.73 d: US +.79, Romenia +.68 Total importance: US +.85, Romenia: +.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= ns
Importance of self acceptance aspirations 
- US students        r = +.04
- Romanian students  r = +.07
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= ns
Importance of affiliation aspirations
- US students        r = +.05
- Romanian students  r = -.09
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar=+ s
Importance of comminity related aspirations
- US students        r = +.16 (05)
- Romanian students  r = +.19 (01)
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar=- p < .01
Importance of financial success aspirations
- US students        r = -.17
- Romanian students  r = -.12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ±1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal hopes and aspirations
Page in Source 263
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Content-analysis of an open-ended ques- tion on 
personal wishes and hopes for the future. Responses 
rated for refe-
rence to:                              1.  Values and 
character:
    Emotional stability and maturity;
    be a normal, decent person; self-
    development or improvement; accept-
    ance by others; achieve sense of 
    own personal worth; resolution of
    own religious, spiritual or ethical
    problems; lead a disciplined life;
    etc.

2.  Economic conditions:
    Improved or decent standard of 
    living for self or family; have own
    business, own land, own farm; have
    own house; have modern convenience;
    have wealth; etc.

3.  Job or work situation:
    Good job, congenial work, employ-
    ment, success in one's work, etc.,
    for self, spouse, or other family
    members.

4.  Health of self or family:
    Concerning one's own health and
    health of family.

5.  Family matters:
    Happy family life; con-
    cern and hopes for relatives, 
    children; etc.

6.  Political matters:
    Freedom and other aspiration having
    to do with the political situation.

7.  Social problems:
    Social justice; future generations;
    social security; etc.

8.  International situations:
    Peace; a better world, etc.

9.  Want status quo:
    Happiness with things as they are
    now.
Remarks




Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.21 p < . 01









C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.27 p < . 01






C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=-.01 ns





C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.29 p < . 01



C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.11 p < . 01




C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.07 ns



C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.06 p < . 05



C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.44 p < . 05


C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.49 p < . 05




Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for entrepreneurship in retirement
Page in Source 653
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.21 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.15 p < .01
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Voluntary retirement
- More active person
- No pension income
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard income
- Community elder
- Satisfied with job while working
- Enjoys aspects of retirement
- Retired suddenly
- Is  happy as grandparents were
- Agrees:planning is key to success
- Higher modernity score


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyPerkins (1991): study US 1987
TitleReligious Commitment, Yuppie Values, and Well-Being in Post-Collegiate Life.
SourceReview of Religious Research, 1991, vol. 32, 3.
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3511209
PublicCollege-educated (liberal arts) adults, USA, 1988
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =860

Correlate
Author's labelYuppie Orientation
Page in Source 249, 250
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
The importance of financial and occupational success 
relative to family and social relationships. Index 
scores ranged from 1-9.  Anyone above 5 or higher on 
this index was classified as having a high yuppie 
orientation.
Observed distribution42,5 % high yuppie orientation, 57,5 % low yuppie orientation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- p < .001
                           % unhappy    
All                       
-high yuppie orientation    10.7%
-low yuppie orientation      4.3%
Difference                  +6.4%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- ns
Females
-high yuppie orientation   8.6%
-low yuppie orientation    4.4%
Difference                +4.2%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- p < .01
Males
-high yuppie orientation    12.1%
-low yuppie orientation      4.2%
Difference                   7.9%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- ns
High religious commitment
-high yuppie orientation 5.5%
-low yuppie orientation  4.1%
Difference              +1.1%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- p < .05
Low religious commitment
-high yuppie orientation 13.6%
-low yuppie orientation   4.5%
Difference               +9.1%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- ns
High religious commitment, males
-high yuppie orientation   6.8%
-low yuppie orientation    3.5%
Difference                +3.3%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- ns
High religious commitment, females
-high yuppie orientation   3.7%
-low yuppie orientation    4.4%
Difference                +0.7%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- p < .05
Low religious commitment,males
-high yuppie orientation    14.6%
-low yuppie orientation      4.7%
Difference                  +9.9%
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aD%=- p < .05
Low religious commitment, females
-high yuppie orientation   12.0%   
-low yuppie orientation     4.4%
Difference                 +7.6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal goals in senior years
Page in Source 96
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Closed question on subjective relevance of each of the 
goals mentioned, rated on 7-points scales ranging from 
"not at all important" to "extremely important goal". 
Perceived instrumentality of College Test: see 
Constantinople 1965, 1970).
Assessed at T2
Remarks
T2 happiness by T2 goals.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
Finding a spouse
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
Achieving academic distinction
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
Preparing for a career which begins right after 
graduation
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar= ns
Preparing for a career which requires further 
study beyond the B.A. or B.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: more education
Page in Source 211
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes 
1: more education mentioned
0: other desired changes mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire life change only (N = 
1591).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: money
Page in Source 210
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: financial aspirations mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Object of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationObject of life-goals, code L07ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Clarity of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab03

StudyRyff & Keyes (1995): study US 1990
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 719 - 727
Public25+ aged, USA, 199?
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1108

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in life
Page in Source 724
Our classificationClarity of life-goals, code L07ab03
Operationalization
Self report on 3 items rated on a 6-point scale ranging 
from completely disagree to completely agree.
-High scorers: have goals in life and a sense of 
directedness; feel there is meaning to present and past 
life; hold beliefs that give life purpose; have aims 
and objectives for living.
-Low scorers: lack a sense of meaning in life; have few 
goals or aims, lack sense of direction; do not see 
purpose of past life; have no outlook or beliefs that 
give life meaning.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-4-br=+.13 p < .00
C-BW-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.10 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Clarity of life-goals
Subject code: L07ab03

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelPurpose in life
Page in Source 1073
Our classificationClarity of life-goals, code L07ab03
Operationalization
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. 
Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly 
agree to disagree. 
High scorers have goals in life and a sense of 
directedness; feel there is meaning to present and past 
life; hold beliefs that give life purpose; have aims 
and objectives for living.
Low scorers lack a sense of meaning in life; have few 
goals or aims, lack sense of direction; do not see 
purpose of past life; have no outlook or beliefs that 
give life meaning.
Observed distributionYoung adults: women (m=94.92, sd=13.38), men (m=94.80, sd=11.93) Middle aged adults: women (m=95.47, sd=17.18), men (m=97.68, sd=16.20) Older adults: women (m=88.58, sd=16.14), men (m=92.92, sd=14.84)
Error Estimatesalpha=.90 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.42 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in life-goals
Subject code: L07ab04

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment to agentic goals
Page in Source 502
Our classificationInvolvement in life-goals, code L07ab04
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two agentic goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their commitment to these goals on the following items:
- I fully identify myself with that goal
- No matter what happens, I will not give up this goal
- I can hardly wait to start working on this goal
- Even if it means a lot of effort, I will try 
everything necessary to accomplish this goal

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM= 15.81, SD=2.28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.12 ns
T1+2 commitment by T1+2 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=-.04 ns
T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bb=-.15 p < .05
Initial commitment by subsequent CHANGE in 
happiness: T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness 
controlling T1+2 happiness

B further controled for:
- predominant agentic motivation
- commitment to communal goals
- perceived attainability of agentic goals
- perceived attainability of communal goals

Agency motivated Ss:    B = +.06 (ns)
Communion motivated Ss: B = -.31 (05)

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in life-goals
Subject code: L07ab04

StudyBrunstein (1993): study DE 1988
TitlePersonal Goals and Subjective Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 65, 1061 - 1070
PublicStudents, Germany, 1988, followed 14 weeks
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response9
Respondents N =97

Correlate
Author's labelCommitment to personal goals
Page in Source 1065
Our classificationInvolvement in life-goals, code L07ab04
Operationalization
Participants were to list six personal goals they 
considered to be most important for them in the next 
few months. Next they rated their commitment per goal.
a) Determination:
   - No matter what happens, I will not give up this 
goal.
   - I sometimes doubt whether I shall definitely 
accomplish this goal.
b) Urgency:
   - I have the urgent feeling to immediately start 
working on this goal.
   - I think I will wait awhile until I begin working 
on this goal.
c) Willingness
   - Even if it means a lot of effort I will do 
everything necessary to accomplish this goal.
   - If this goal implies lots of difficulties, I am 
willing to postphone it for a while.

Rating
7-point scale
1: completely disagree
:
7: completely agree

Summation: 
For the different questions a mean was calculated by 
averaging scores across students' assessments of the 
questions on the six personal goals.
Remarks
Rated at T1 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.10 ns
T1 goal commitment by T1 happiness
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.20 ns
T1 goal commitment by T2 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.13 ns
T1 goal commitment by T3 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.09 ns
T1 goal commitment by T4 happiness (14 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.16 ns
T3 goal commitment by T1 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.33 p < .01
T3 goal commitment by T2 happiness (6 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.30 p < .01
T3 goal commitment by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.21 ns
T3 goal commitment by T4 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in life-goals
Subject code: L07ab04

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSemester effort
Page in Source 490,491
Our classificationInvolvement in life-goals, code L07ab04
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at"

8 times during semester participants answered for all 3 
goals the question "How hard are you trying in pursuing 
this striving?"

Rated 1 (not at all hard) to 7 (very hard)

semester effort variable was formed by averaging the 12 
ratings
Observed distributionM=4.32, SD=.96
Error Estimates? = .75
Remarks
T2-T5 + T7-T10: Assessed 8 times during 3 month 
semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.25 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated effort
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.42 p < .05
T6 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated effort


Happiness assessed at T1: at beginning of 
semester, T6: 6 weeks later, T11: another 6 weeks 
later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in life-goals
Subject code: L07ab04

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSemester effort
Page in Source 486,487
Our classificationInvolvement in life-goals, code L07ab04
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

3 times during semester participants answered for all 
10 goals the question "How hard are you trying in 
pursuing this striving?"

Rated 1 (not at all hard) to 9 (very hard)

Semester effort variable was formed by averaging the 30 
ratings
Observed distributionM=5.72, SD=1.33
Error Estimates?=.93
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.34 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T4 effort
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.40 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 effort

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Authenticity of goals
Subject code: L07ab07

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 491
Our classificationAuthenticity of goals, code L07ab07
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at".

Reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 
statements:
- "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
- "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this rason) to 9 (completely 
because of this reason)

To form an composite value external and introjected 
ratings were averaged and subtracted from the summed 
averages of intrinsic and identified ratings
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=4.22
Error Estimates? = .72
Remarks
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 selfconcordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.39 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester goal attainment
- interaction between self-concordance and goal 
attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T11: 3 months later
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Authenticity of goals
Subject code: L07ab07

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-concordance
Page in Source 486, 487
Our classificationAuthenticity of goals, code L07ab07
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving 
on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants 
you to or because the situation demands it." (external 
reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel 
ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected 
reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe 
it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and 
enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely 
for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)
Observed distributionM=3.89, SD=3.47
Error Estimates?=.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.29 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.19 p < .05
T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in 
happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and 
self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Positive when going together with goal attainment


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 months later
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with self realisation.
Page in Source 360
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when you can realize 
lifegoals.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:1%, 4:2%, 5:4%, 6:6%, 7:12%, 8:24%, 9:21%, 10:23%,DKNA:5%
Remarks
N=1943

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.8  M = 7.8             +1.0
top 3:  M = 8.6  M = 7.4             +1.2 
top 5:  M = 8.3  M = 7.0             +1.3
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 473, Others: 8-0 N=1471
Top 3: 10-8 N=1021, Others: 7-0 N= 922
Top 5: 10-6 N=1571, Others: 5-0 N= 373


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelAdaptation
Page in Source 1722-1929
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Comparison of T1-T2 changes in
- desired changes
- observed changes
in 7 aspects of life situation

T1-T2 IMPROVEMENT OF SITUATION
A Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
B Aspiration: wants better both at T1 and T2
C Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
D Consistent: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 STABLE SITUATION
E Aspiration: wants better at T2, not at T1
F Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
F Consistent: does not want better either at T1 or T2
G: Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2

T1-T2 DETERIORATION OF SITUATION
H  Consistent: wants better at T2, not at T1
I  Consistent: wants better both at T1 and T2
J  Resignation: does not want better either at T1 or T2 

K  Resignation: wanted better at T1, but not at T2
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Domains considered are; finance, living situation, 
safety, family. Physical health and mental health

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-16 p < .0001
Aspirations
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .0001
Resignation

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-46 p < .0001
Objective changes in depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in depressed by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+47 p < .0001
Objective changes in stopped depressed
T1-T2 INCREASE in stopped depressed by T2 
happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 Depressed status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: TSR-CA gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual use of technology and 
the selfrated importance of country ascetism

TSR: Selfreport on which degree the technologies 
provided their family with self-reliance or 
independence
Respondents were presented with 25 soft-technologies 
and asked whether they possessed or used the 
technologies, for example:
   - garden
   - goats
   - greenhouse
   - composting toilets
   - photo voltaic
Rated 1 (not at all effective) to 4 (very effective)
TSR is calculated by multiplying each technology 
possessed by the efficiency rating claimed for the 
particular technology
theoretical range from 0 - 100

CA: Selfreport on degree of country asceticism
Items include importance of:
- having a gas or electric clothes dryer
- having an indoor tilet or bathroom
- living in a modern house
- having electricity in your home
- having a microwave oven
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: TSR-HP gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual use of technology and 
the selfrated importance of homestead production

TSR: Selfreport on which degree the technologies 
provided their family with self-reliance or 
independence
Respondents were presented with 25 soft-technologies 
and asked whether they possessed or used the 
technologies, for example:
   - garden
   - goats
   - greenhouse
   - composting toilets
   - photo voltaic
Rated 1 (not at all effective) to 4 (very effective)
TSR is calculated by multiplying each technology 
possessed by the efficiency rating claimed for the 
particular technology
theoretical range from 0 - 100

HP: Selfreport on the importance of homestead 
production:
- growing your own food
- cutting energy consumption
- growing/eating organic food
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=-.21 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.04 ns
Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of homestead food production / 
actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual use of technology
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of cultural ascetism / actual 
homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: TSR-ES gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual use of technology and 
the selfrated importance of ecological sensitivity

TSR: Selfreport on which degree the technologies 
provided their family with self-reliance or 
independence
Respondents were presented with 25 soft-technologies 
and asked whether they possessed or used the 
technologies, for example:
   - garden
   - goats
   - greenhouse
   - composting toilets
   - photo voltaic
Rated 1 (not at all effective) to 4 (very effective)
TSR is calculated by multiplying each technology 
possessed by the efficiency rating claimed for the 
particular technology
theoretical range from 0 - 100

ES:  Selfreport on importance of:
- the expanion of wilderness areas
- preserving old growth forests
- providing habitat for endangered species
- recycling newspapers
- reducing personal energy consumption
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=+.24 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
homestead food production
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
technology use
- gap: importance of cultural asceticism / actual 
homestead food production
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for
- mindfulness
- relationships
- time for self
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
homestead food production
- age
- homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: HFP-CA gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual homestead food 
production and the selfrated importance of country 
ascetism

HFP:percentage of a family's food that the respondents 
reported was produced on ther mini-homesteads

CA: Selfreport on degree of country asceticism
Items include importance of:
- having a gas or electric clothes dryer
- having an indoor tilet or bathroom
- living in a modern house
- having electricity in your home
- having a microwave oven
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=-.13 p < .05
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.01 p < .05
Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
homestead food production
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual use of technology
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
use of technology


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: HFP-HP gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual homestead food 
production and the selfrated importance of homestead 
production

HFP: percentage of a family's food that the respondents 
reported was produced on ther mini-homesteads

HP: Selfreport on the importance of homestead 
production:
- growing your own food
- cutting energy consumption
- growing/eating organic food
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=-.25 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.20 p < .005
Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual use of technology
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
use of technology
- gap: importance of cultural asceticism / actual 
use of homestead food production
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.14 p < .05
Beta controlled for
- mindfulness
- relationships
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual use of technology
- time for self
- age
- homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy: HFP-ES gap
Page in Source 358
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between the actual homestead food 
production and the selfrated importance ecological 
sensitivity

HFP: percentage of a family's food that the respondents 
reported was produced on ther mini-homesteads

ES: Selfreport on Ecological Sensitivity, rated 
importance of:
- the expanion of wilderness areas
- preserving old growth forests
- providing habitat for endangered species
- recycling newspapers
- reducing personal energy consumption
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)


GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were 
dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and 
then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey 
respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) 
low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high 
values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high 
performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high 
performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) 
are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR 
Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales 
(Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity). 
The first step to the comparability of the variables is 
to normalize each indicator and then place the 
respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as 
t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 
10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for 
each of the key indicators which constitute the 
values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for 
each value-performance pair was calculated by 
subtracting normalized performance scores from 
normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample 
with values higher than the median for Technological 
Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), 
Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity 
(ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=-.28 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.05 ns
Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
homestead food production
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / 
actual use of technology
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual 
use of technology
- gap: importance of cultual ascetiscism / actual 
homestead food production


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelRealized homestead production
Page in Source 187
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between valued and achieved homestead 
production

VALUE of Homestead Production(HPF)
Reported importance of 1.growing own food, 2.wearing 
clothes, made in your own home, 3.growing, eating 
organic food.
 
PERFORMANCE: Technological Self
Reliance(TSR)
Index calculated by multiplying tools or technology, 
possessed by a respondent by the efficiency rating 
claimed for the particular technology, resulting in the 
sum of the efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.
The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 
4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood 
stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.
Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range 
between 0-100

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low values-low TSR
b. gap,    high values-low TSR 
c. gap,    low values-high TSR
d. no gap, high values-high TSR.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aDM=+
a. M=3.21
b. M=3.17
c. M=3.28
d. M=3.37

b-c difference not significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelRealized Ecological Sensitivity
Page in Source 187
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancies between valued and achieved ecological 
sensitivity

VALUE of Ecological Sensitivity (VES)
Reported importance of: the expansion of wlderness 
area, 2. Preserving old growth forests, 3.providing 
habitat for endangered species, 4.recycling newspapers, 
5.reducing personal energy consumption.

PERFORMANCE : Technological Self
Reliance(TSR)
Index calculated by multiplying tools or technology, 
possessed by a respondent by the efficiency rating 
claimed for the particular technology, resulting in the 
sum of the efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.
The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 
4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood 
stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.
Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range 
between 0-100

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low values-low TSR
b. gap,    high values-low TSR 
c. gap,    low values-high TSR
d. no gap, high values-high TSR.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aDM=+
a. M=3.20
b. M=3.16
c. M=3.34
d. M=3.36

b-c difference not significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelRealized Country Asceticism
Page in Source 188
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between valued and achieved country 
asceticism.

VALUE of country asceticism:
Reported importance of not having: 1.gas or electric 
clothesdryer, 2.indoor toilet or bathroom, 
3.electricity in your own home, 4.micro-wave oven, 
5.not living in an modern house 

PERFORMANCE: Home Food Production(HFP)
Index calculated by measuring the percentage of 
family's food that the respondents claimed was produced 
from their smallholding.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low values-low TSR
b. gap, high values-low TSR 
c. gap, low values-high TSR
d. no gap, high values-high TSR.
Observed distributionHFP: M=35.96 Med=30.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aDM=+
a. M=3.22
b. M=3.05
c. M=3.30
d. M=3.50

b-c difference significant p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelRealized Homestead Production
Page in Source 188
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between valued and achieved Homestead 
Production.

VALUE of homestead production
Reported importance of: 1.growing own food, 2.wearing 
clothes, made in your own home, 3.growing/eating 
organic food.

PERFORMANCE
Percentage of a family's food, that the respondents 
claimed was produced for their smallholding. The 
Homestaed Food Production(HFP) index has a range 
between 0 and 100 per cent.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and the performance 
indexes at their repective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a.No gap low values-low HFP
b.gap    high values-low HFP
c.gap    low values-high HFP
d.no gap high values-high HFP
Observed distributionHFP M=35.96 Med=30.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-a
a.M=3.15
b.M=3.13
c.M=3.31
d.M=3.43

b-c difference not significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelHFP-Ecological sensitivity gap
Page in Source 192
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between Homestead Food Production and 
Ecological Sensitivity

VALUE
Ecological sensitivity is importance of: 1. The 
expansion of wilderness areas; 2.preserving old growth 
forests; 3. Providing habitat for endangered species; 
4. Recycling newspapers; 5. Reducing personal energy 
consumption.

PERFORMANCE is the percentage
of a family's food, that the respondents claimed was 
produced for their smallholding. The Homestaed Food 
Production index has a range between 0 and 100 per 
cent.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and the performance 
indexes at their repective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a.No gap low values-low HFP
b.gap    high values-low HFP
c.gap    low values-high HFP
d.no gap high values-high HFP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=-
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.29 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.24 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.27 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.30 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.25 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.28 p<.00-


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTSR -country asceticism gap
Page in Source 192
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between Technical Self Reliance(TSR) and 
Country Asceticism(CA)

TECHNOLOGICAL SELF RELIANCE (TSR) Calculated by 
multiplying tools or technology, possessed by a
respondent by the efficiency rating claimed for the 
particular technology, resulting in the sum of the 
efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.
The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 
4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood 
stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.
Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range 
betwee 0-100

COUNTRY ASCETISM(CA)
Reported importance of not having: 1.a gas or electric 
clothes dryer; 2.an indoor toilet or bathroom; 3 not 
living in a modern house; 4. electricity in your home; 
a microwave oven.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low CA-low TSR
b. gap,    high CA-low TSR 
c. gap,    low CA-high TSR
d. no gap, high CA-high TSR.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-a
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.22 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.18 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.08 ns

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.24 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.20 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTSR-homestead production gap
Page in Source 193
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between valued and realized self-reliance

VALUE
Reported importance of: 1. Growing your own food; 2. 
Wearing clothes made in your own home; 3.growing/eating 
organic food.

TECNOLOGICAL SELF RELIANCE (TSR)
Performance index is calculated by multiplying tools or 
technology, possessed by a respondent by the efficiency 
rating claimed for the particular technology, resulting 
in the sum of the efficiency rating for each of the 25 
tools.The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root 
cellar, 4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 
8.wood stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting 
privy, 11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste 
water) 13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 
16.beef cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.
Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range 
between 0-100

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low values-low TSR
b. gap,    high values-low TSR 
c. gap,    low values-high TSR
d. no gap, high values-high TSR.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-a
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.25 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.23 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.21 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.30 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.27 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.21 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTSR-Ecological Sensitivity Gap
Page in Source 192
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between Technological Self Reliance and 
Ecological Sensitivity

PERFORMANCE
Technological Self Reliance. The index is calculated by 
multiplying tools or technology, possessed by a
respondent by the efficiency rating claimed for the 
particular technology, resulting in the sum of the 
efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.The tools 
are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 4.fish 
pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood stove 
heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.
Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range 
betwee 0-100

VALUE
Ecological Sensitivity is importance of: 1. The 
expansion of wilderness areas; 2.preserving old growth 
forests; 3. Providing habitat for endangered species; 
4. Recycling newspapers; 5. Reducing personal energy 
consumption.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and performance indexes 
at their respective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a. No gap, low values-low TSR
b. gap,    high values-low TSR 
c. gap,    low values-high TSR
d. no gap, high values-high TSR.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-a
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.22 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.25 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.18 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.29 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.28 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.24 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelHFP-homestead production gap
Page in Source 192
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between Homestead Food Production and 
Homestead Production Value

VALUE of homestead production
Reported importance of: 1.growing own food, 2.wearing 
clothes, made in your own home, 3.growing/eating 
organic food.

PERFORMANCE 
% family's food, that the respondents claimed was 
produced for their smallholding. The Homestaed Food 
Production index has a range between 0 and 100 per 
cent.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and the performance 
indexes at their repective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a.No gap low values-low HFP
b.gap    high values-low HFP
c.gap    low values-high HFP
d.no gap high values-high HFP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=-
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.32 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.22 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.25 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.33 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.23 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.25 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelHFP- country asceticism gap
Page in Source 192
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Discrepancy between Homestead food production and 
country asceticism

VALUE
Country Asceticism is importance of not having: 1.a gas 
or electric clothes dryer; 2.an indoor toilet or 
bathroom; 3. Not living in a modern house; 4. 
Electricity in your home; 5. A microwave oven.

PERFORMANCE is the percentage
of a family's food, that the respondents claimed was 
produced for their smallholding. The Homestaed Food 
Production index has a range between 0 and 100 per 
cent.

GAP between value and performance is constructed by 
dichotomizing the value scale and the performance 
indexes at their repective medians and to cross these 
indicators with each other. The respondents will fall 
in one of the four categories: 
a.No gap low values-low HFP
b.gap    high values-low HFP
c.gap    low values-high HFP
d.no gap high values-high HFP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=-
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.26 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.17 p<.01
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.12 ns

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=-.28 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=-.18 p<.01
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.13 p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in family area
Page in Source 566, 567
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend with 
family
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend with family
Remarks
T1-T2 1 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.25 p < .001
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.23 p < .002
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more hours 
with family than expected became less happy.

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Unaffected by age, income, health, SES and 
retirement duration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations: associations
Page in Source 567
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in 
voluntary associations
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in voluntary 
associations
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.06 p < .221
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .464
Direction of difference: Ss that spend more time 
with voluntary associations than expected did not 
get happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness

Negative in poor health category (r=-.21) and aged 
in poor health (r=-.39)
No correlation among healthy (r=.+.03)and older 
(r=+.08) Ss 
Positive in healthy and recent retired Ss (r=.23)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in community area
Page in Source 567
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in the 
community
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in the 
community
Remarks
T1-T2 difference: 1 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.12 ns
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .221
Direction of difference; Ss with spend more time 
than expected became slightly less happy

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual realization of lifegoals
Subject code: L07ac01

StudyDeJong et al. (1984): study US 1947
TitleChildless and One Child, but Not by Choice: A Note on Some Long-Term Consequences for Life Satisfaction of Rural-Reared Married Women.
SourceRural Sociology, 1984, Vol. 49, 441 - 451
PublicRural-reared married women, Pennsylvania, USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response19,7%
Respondents N =812

Correlate
Author's labelFertility status
Page in Source 443, 446
Our classificationActual realization of lifegoals, code L07ac01
Operationalization
0: Childless at T3, but had intended to have children 
at T2
1: Only one child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
2: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
fewer children at T2
3: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
more children at T2
4: Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended at 
T2
Observed distributionN:0=33; 1=50; 2=181; 3=151; 4=237
Remarks
T1: 1947 school age, T2: 1957 mid twenty, T3: 1973, 
around age 40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aMa=+2.5
DEVIATION FROM average happiness: M = 2,45
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.14 ns
Childless at T3 but intended to have children at 
T3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.20 p < .05
One child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.07 ns
Two or more children at T3 but had intended to 
have fewer children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.02 ns
Two or more children  at T3 but had intended to 
have more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=.00 ns
Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended 
at T2

Ma adjusted for:
- T1 background and family formation factors
- T3 family structure and socioeconomic factors 
including adult perceptions of home-work roles


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-progress
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and expected 3 years ago to have
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.59 SD: 1.17 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.59 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.61 p < .01
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.60 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-best
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and the best you ever had
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.43 SD: 1.26 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.59 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.64 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.61 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with achievements in life
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your achievements in life?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.12 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta= ns
Beta's controlled for:
- mental health
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - future society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelProgress in communal goals
Page in Source 498/9
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
OBJECT OF GOALS:
Ss were asked to list one goal within each of four 
striving areas: a) striving for intimacy and 
interpersonal closeness b) affiliation and friendly 
social contacts c) achivement and mastery experiences 
d) independence, social influence, and self-reliance


PROGRESS IN COMMUNAL GOALS: 
Average rating of progress in the striving areas a and 
b

Ss were asked to  progress made in each goal during the 
past week on four aspects. Rating are made on 5-point 
scales(1=disagree strongly, 2=disagree somewhat, 
3=neither agree nor disagree, 4= agree somewhat, 
5=agree strongly)

1.Advancement: I have made a great deal pf progress in 
the attempt of advancing this goal
2.Stagnation: I have hardly made any progress in 
accomplishing this goal(Revese scoring)
3.Success: I have quite a lot of success in pursuing 
this goal
4.Failure: Many of my efforts in realizing this goal 
have failed(Reverse scoring)
Observed distributionM=12.75, SD=3.03
Remarks
Two raters independently inspected the goals listed by 
Ss and examined how well the content of these goals 
matched the striving areas specified in the 
instructions. For 98 Ss the two raters agreed that the 
goals listed fitted the specified categories perfectly. 
Six Ss were itentified by at least one rater to have 
confounded agebntic and communal concerns with one area 
of striving. These cases were excluded from the 
analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=+31 p < .01
Correlation with initial mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ar=+31 p < .01
Correlation with 2 weeks average daily mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ab=+
Correlation with CHANGE in mood, 2 weeks average 
daily mood, controling initial mood
- positive among communal motivated Ss 
  (B = +.42 (01)
- no correlation among agentic motivated Ss

All relations unaffected by gender
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aDM=
Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on progress in communal goals (1 SD above 
or below mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-progress Ss high on communal motivation
  feel better
- low-progress Ss high on communal motivation
  feel worse
- little difference in mood among Ss low in
  communal motivation, irrespective of progress
  in communal goals

All results similar for males and females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelProgress in agentic goals
Page in Source 498
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
OBJECT OF GOALS:
Ss were asked to list one goal within each of four 
striving areas: a) striving for intimacy and 
interpersonal closeness b) affiliation and friendly 
social contacts c) achivement and mastery experiences 
d) independence, social influence, and self-reliance


PROGRESS IN AGENTIC GOALS: 
Average rating of progress in the striving areas c and 
d

Ss were asked to  progress made in each goal during the 
past week on four aspects. Rating are made on 5-point 
scales(1=disagree strongly, 2=disagree somewhat, 
3=neither agree nor disagree, 4= agree somewhat, 
5=agree strongly)

1.Advancement: I have made a great deal pf progress in 
the attempt of advancing this goal
2.Stagnation: I have hardly made any progress in 
accomplishing this goal(Revese scoring)
3.Success: I have quite a lot of success in pursuing 
this goal
4.Failure: Many of my efforts in realizing this goal 
have failed(Reverse scoring)
Observed distributionM=12..83, SD=2.80
Remarks
Two raters independently inspected the goals listed by 
Ss and examined how well the content of these goals 
matched the striving areas specified in the 
instructions. For 98 Ss the two raters agreed that the 
goals listed fitted the specified categories perfectly. 
Six Ss were itentified by at least one rater to have 
confounded agebntic and communal concerns with one area 
of striving. These cases were excluded from the 
analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=+.42 p < .001
Correlation with initial mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ar=+.32 p < .01
Correlation with 2 weeks average daily mood
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-ab=+
Correlation with CHANGE in mood, 2 weeks daily 
mood, controling initial mood
- positive among agentic motivated Ss
  (B = +.45 (01)
- no correlation among communal motivated Ss
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aDM=
Difference in average daily mood between Ss high 
and low on progress in agentic goals (1 SD above 
or below mean, means expressed in z-scores)
- high-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel better
- low-progress Ss high on agentic motivation
  feel worse
- little difference in mood among Ss low in
  agentic motivation, irrespective of progress
  in agentic goals

All results similar for males and females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyBrunstein (1993): study DE 1988
TitlePersonal Goals and Subjective Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 65, 1061 - 1070
PublicStudents, Germany, 1988, followed 14 weeks
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response9
Respondents N =97

Correlate
Author's labelProgress in goal achievement
Page in Source 1065
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Self report on questions about degree of progress
a) Advancement:
   - I have made a great deal of progress concerning 
this goal.
   - I have hardly made any progress in the attempt of 
advancing in this goal.
b) Outcome:
   - I have had quite a lot of success in pursuing this 
goal.
   - Many of my efforts in carrying out this goal have 
failed.
c) Obstacles: 
   - Many things happened that have obstructed this 
goal.
   - It is much harder than I thought to materialize 
this goal.

Rating
7-point scale
1: completely disagree
7: completely agree

Summation:
For the different questions a mean was calculated by 
averaging scores across students' assessments of the 
questions on the six personal goals.
Remarks
Rated at T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.26 ns
T2 goal progress by T1 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.46 p < .001
T2 goal progress by T2 happiness
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.54 p < .001
T2 goal progress by T3 happiness (6 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.47 p < .001
T2 goal progress by T4 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.22 ns
T3 goal progress by T1 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.34 p < .01
T3 goal progress by T2 happiness (6 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.55 p < .001
T3 goal progress by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.55 p < .001
T3 goal progress by T4 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.16 ns
T4 goal progress by T1 happiness (14 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.28 p < .01
T4 goal progress by T2 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.43 p < .001
T4 goal progress by T3 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.61 p < .001
T4 goal progress by T4 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudyShmotkin & Hadari (1996): study IL 1991
TitleAn Outlook on Subjective Well-Being in Older Israeli Adults: A Unified Formulation.
SourceThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1996, Vol. 42, 271 - 289
Public60+ aged, Israel, 1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =830

Correlate
Author's labelPast self fullfillment
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
a: I have gotten prety much of what I expected from 
life
b: As I look back on my life, I am fairly satisfied
c: I would not changemy p[ast life, even if I could
d:I have gotten more of the breaks in life than most of 
the people I know
e: When I think back over my life, I didn't get most of 
the important things I wanted
Remarks
tems that load high on a factor derived from responses 
to several  geriatric adjustment scales

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.33 p < .0001
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.35 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.37 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelcompetence need satisfaction
Page in Source 574, 581, 582
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions about their feeling of 
competence in general, f.e.
- most days, I feel a sense of accomplishment from what 
I do
- that I was successfully completing difficult tasks 
and projects
- that I was taking on and mastering hard challenges
- very capable in what I did

Aggregate measures were computed by standardizing and 
averaging the twom measures
Observed distributionAll M = 3.64, SD = .66; USA M = 3.77; Singapore M = 3.46
Error EstimatesAll ?=. 79; USA ? = .77; Singapore ? = .73
Remarks
subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs scale (BPNS; 
Deci et al., 2001) with 7 items
subscale of the need-satisfaction scale (Sheldon et 
al., 2001) with 3 items

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.26 p < .01
Entire sample

Beta controlled for
- autonomy need satisfaction
- competence need satisfaction
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.30 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- cultural membership
- gender
- neuroticism
- goal progress (Selfreport on sucess at most 
important personal goals)
- self-esteem
- social support (Selfreport on satisfaction with 
overall social support)
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.28 p < .01
USA
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.28 p < .01
Singapore

Beta's controlled for
- gender
- neuroticism
- goal progress
- self-esteem
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelSemester attainment
Page in Source 490,491
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 
goals "that we tthink about, plan for, carry out, and 
sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at"

8 times during semester participants answered for all 3 
goals the question how effective they felt in goal 
pursuing

Rated 1 (not well at all) to 7 (very much)

semester attainment variable was formed by averaging 
the 12 ratings
Observed distributionM=4.10, SD=1.07
Error Estimates? = .79
Remarks
T2-T5 + T7-T10: Assessed 8 times during 3 month 
semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.36 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated 
attainment
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.46 p < .05
T6 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated 
attainment
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.28 p < .01
T11 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated 
attainment
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- Self-concordance
- Interaction between self-concordance and 
semester-attainment
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .056
T11 happiness by T2-T5 + T7-T10 aggregated 
attainment
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- need satisfaction


Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T6: 6 weeks later, T11: another 6 weeks 
later
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.23 p < .01
T6 happiness by interaction of T2-T5 + T7-T10 
aggregated goal attainment and self-concordance of 
that goal

Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness
- self-concordance
- goal attainment
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goals
Subject code: L07ac02

StudySheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994
TitleGoal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497
Public18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =169

Correlate
Author's labelSemester attainment
Page in Source 486,487
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goals, code L07ac02
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they 
would be "typically or characteristically trying to do 
in daily life"

3 times during semester participants answered for all 
10 goals the question "How well are you doing?"

Rated 1 (not well at all) to 9 (very well)

semester attainment variable was formed by averaging 
the 30 ratings
Observed distributionM=5.34, SD=1.18
Error Estimates?=.90
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.48 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2-T4 attainment
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-ar=+.57 p < .05
T5 happiness by T2-T4 attainment
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aBeta=+.34 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T2-T4 change in 
happiness)
- self-concordance
- interaction between self-concordance and 
semester attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of 
semester, T5: 3 month later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-future
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and expect to have in 5 years
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.76 SD: 0.98 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.34 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .01
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of chance to succeed
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he has chances to 
succeed.4-point scale ranging from "wholly agree" to 
"not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.29
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequencu 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of chance tosucceed
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he has chances to 
succeed.4-point scale ranging from "wholly agree" to 
"not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.19
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequencu 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, lonelyness, feelings of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived attainability of agentic goals
Page in Source 502-503
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two agentic goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their attainability to these goals on the following 
items:
-I have many opportunities in my everyday life to work 
on this goal
-My everyday life is rich with incentives stimulating 
me to try for this goal
-The accomplishment of this goal depends on 
circumstances that are not under my personal 
control(Reverse scoring)
-I can manage my life situation in such a way that it 
promotes the accomplishment of this goal
-Other people encourage me to work on this goal
-Other people give me valuable ideas of how I can 
proceed with this goal

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=17.27, SD=2.38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.15 ns
at T1+T2
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.21 p < .05
at T3+T4
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bb=+.12 ns
Initial commitment by subsequent CHANGE in 
happiness: T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness 
controlling T1+2 happiness

B further controled for:
- predominant agentic motivation
- commitment to agentic goals
- commitment to communal goals
- perceived attainability of communal goals

Agency motivated Ss:    B = +.14 (ns)
Communion motivated Ss: B = -.20 (ns)

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived attainability of communal goals
Page in Source 502-503
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two agentic goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their attainability to these goals on the following 
items:
-I have many opportunities in my everyday life to work 
on this goal
-My everyday life is rich with incentives stimulating 
me to try for this goal
-The accomplishment of this goal depends on 
circumstances that are not under my personal 
control(Reverse scoring)
-I can manage my life situation in such a way that it 
promotes the accomplishment of this goal
-Other people encourage me to work on this goal
-Other people give me valuable ideas of how I can 
proceed with this goal

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=16.24, SD=2.53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.20 p < .05
at T1+T2
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.29 p < .01
at T3+T4
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bb=+.15 ns
Initial commitment by subsequent CHANGE in 
happiness: T1+2 commitment by T3+4 happiness 
controlling T1+2 happiness

B further controled for:
- predominant agentic motivation
- commitment to agentic goals
- commitment to communal goals
- perceived attainability of communal goals

Agency motivated Ss:    B = +.07 (ns)
Communion motivated Ss: B = +.18 (ns)

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyBrunstein (1993): study DE 1988
TitlePersonal Goals and Subjective Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 65, 1061 - 1070
PublicStudents, Germany, 1988, followed 14 weeks
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response9
Respondents N =97

Correlate
Author's labelAttainability of personal goals
Page in Source 1065
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Self report on questions about degree of attainability
a) Opportunity:
   - I have many opportunities in my everyday life to 
work on this goal.
   - I don't have much time in my everyday life to work 
on this goal.
b) Control:
   - It depends totally on me whether this goal is 
fulfilled or not.
   - Whether this goal is accomlished or not 
substantially depends on external factors that are not 
under my personal control.
c) Support:
   - Concerning this goal, I can definitely rely on 
support of those close to me.
   - Those close to me have no understanding for this 
goal.

Rating
1: completely disagree
 :
7: completely agree

Summation:
For the different questions a mean was calculated by 
averaging scores across students' assessments of the 
questions on the six personal goals
Remarks
Rated at T1 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.19 ns
T1 goal attainability by T1 happiness
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.39 p < .001
T1 goal attainability by T2 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.28 ns
T1 goal attainability by T3 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.27 ns
T1 goal attainability by T4 happiness (14 weeks 
interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.26 ns
T3 goal attainability by T1 happiness (10 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.50 p < .001
T3 goal attainability by T2 happiness (6 weeks 
interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.37 p < .001
T3 goal attainability by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.38 p < .001
T3 goal attainability by T4 happiness (4 weeks 
interval)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of chance tosucceed
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he has chances to 
succeed.4-point scale ranging from "wholly agree" to 
"not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.15
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived chances for realization
Subject code: L07ac02a

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling of chance tosucceed
Our classificationPerceived chances for realization, code L07ac02a
Operationalization
Question if the respondent feels he has chances to 
succeed.4-point scale ranging from "wholly agree" to 
"not important"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.28
Controlled for: Income, housing density, 
education, social status, chronic illness, 
anxiety, opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, no. of friends, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, gets sufficient attention, 
satisfaction with income, gender, age, no. of 
communities in which lived, freq. of meetings with 
relatives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudyHeadey & Veenhoven (1989): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDoes Happiness Induce a Rosy Outlook?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.:"How Harmful is Happiness?", Universitaire Pers Rotterdam, 1989, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 106 - 127
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/89c-full.pdf
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 6 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1981-87
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T4: 31%
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelPercieved unfulfilled aspirations
Page in Source 118
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Two indentical indices consisting of four closed 
identical questions concerning the life the Ss 
expectated(1), aspired(2), deserved(3) and the actual 
present life(4), all rated on a 20 step ladder-scale. 
0: the worst possible life you could imagine, 20: the 
best possible life.
The score on question 4 was then subtracted from the 
mean of questions 1+2+3.
Indices assessed at 20 minutes intervals at T1(1981), 
T2(1983), T3(1985) and T4(1987). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=-.06 ns
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT ON HAPPINESS of 
percieved unfulfilled aspirations (bottum-up).


O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.17 p < .05
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT OF HAPPINESS on 
percieved unfulfilled aspirations (top-down).

Effect assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4.     
Effects assumed to be identical at all times. 
ßL is the path-coefficient in a four wave LISREL 
model. T1 sex, age, SES, extraversion and 
neuroticism are controlled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelAspirarion achievement discrepancies
Page in Source 153
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Perceived difference between what one has in life and 
what..
a other people have
b one deserves
c one needs
d one had in the past
e one will have in the future
f best possible
g one wants

Each rated on 7 step scale
1 much difference (great gap)
2
3
4
5
6
7 no difference (no gap)
Remarks
Core 'gaps' in Michalos' Multiple Discrepacies Theory 
MDT

Gap g self-wants is an indicator of happiness type C-W

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gR²=38
a: self-others    Beta = +.21 (05)
b: self-deserved  Beta =      (ns)
c: self-needs     Beta = +.14 (05)
d: self-progress  Beta =      (ns)
e: self-future    Beta =      (ns)
f: self-best      Beta =      (ns)
g: self-wants     Beta = +.36 (05)
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bR²=44
a: self-others    Beta = +.14 (05)
b: self-deserved  Beta =      (ns)
c: self-needs     Beta = +.20 (05)
d: self-progress  Beta =      (ns)
e: self-future    Beta =      (ns)
f: self-best      Beta = +.10 (05)
g: self-wants     Beta = +.34 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fR²=41
a: self-others    Beta = +.15 (05)
b: self-deserved  Beta =      (ns)
c: self-needs     Beta = +.19 (05)
d: self-progress  Beta =      (ns)
e: self-future    Beta =      (ns)
f: self-best      Beta = +.09 (05)
g: self-wants     Beta = +.33 (05)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bR²=47
a: self-others    Beta = +.14 (05)
b: self-deserved  Beta =      (ns)
c: self-needs     Beta = +.15 (05)
d: self-progress  Beta = +.10 (05)
e: self-future    Beta = -.07 (05)
f: self-best      Beta = +.22 (05)
g: self-wants     Beta = +.28 (05)
C-W-g-sq-v-7-aR²=49
a: self-others    Beta = +.26 (05)
b: self-deserved  Beta = +.18 (05)
c: self-needs     Beta = +.13 (05)
d: self-progress  Beta =      (ns)
e: self-future    Beta = +.08 (05)
f: self-best      Beta = +.21 (05)

Self-wants is dependent variable in this analysis

Beta's controled for:
- income
- other gaps


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudySheldon & Kasser (1998): study US 1998
TitlePursuing Personal Goals: Skills Enable Progress, but not all Progress is Benefical.
SourcePersonality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1998, Vol. 24, 1319 - 1331
PublicStudents, USA, 1998
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59%
Respondents N =154

Correlate
Author's labelgoal progress
Page in Source 5,8
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Participants had to list as many projects as they had 
at that moment concerning the time of the next 
semester, where project was defined as "goals and 
concerns that people think abour, plan for, carry out, 
and sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed 
at."

Then they selected the 5 most relevant projects.

12 times through the semester they were asked: "how 
much progress did you make during the five days since 
the last report?"

Rated 1(none) to 9(very much).

The ratings of all 5 projects were averaged per time 
period.
Error EstimatesAlpha .47
Remarks
Wellbeing was measured twelve times during semester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD1-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.33 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- person (dummy-coded)
- time of semester
- previous report's well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with achieving goals
Page in Source 234
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Single direct questions on both satisfaction and 
dissatisfaction with achieving goals.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.36 p < .00
satisfaction
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.41 p < .00
dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelHaving unfulfilled aspirations
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0 Not any mentioned 
1 One or more mentioned
Observed distribution0: 29%, 1: 69% no opinion: 2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
not mentioned         M = 2,06 
one or more mentioned M = 2,30
- difference             +0,24
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.23 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of life-goal set
Subject code: L07ac02b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with attainment of life-goals
Our classificationPerceived realization of life-goal set, code L07ac02b
Operationalization
Sumscore Ss were asked to indicate how succesfull they 
have been in attaining goals they made for themselves 
in early adulthood in the following six areas.
a. Occupational succes
b. Family life
c. Friendships
d. Richness of cultural life
e. Service to society
f. Joy in living

Assessed retrospectively in 1972.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bAoV=+ p < .00
1972 satisfaction with attainment by 1972 
happiness

The happiness indicator used here is part of this 
measures Joy-in-living satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelAgentic goal progress
Page in Source 502
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two agentic goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their attainability to these goals on the following 
items:
-I have made a great deal of progress in the attempt of 
advancing this goal
-I have hardly made any progress in accomplishing this 
goal(Revese scoring)
-I have quite a lot of success in pursuing this goal
-Many of my efforts in realizing this goal have 
failed(Reverse scoring)

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM= 12.81, SD=2.23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.22 p < .05
at T1+T2
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.40 p < .001
at T3+T4

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyMinyard Frost & Frost (2000): study ZZ Various nation sets 1995
TitleRomanian and American Life Aspirations in Relation to Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2000, Vol. 31, 726 - 751
DOIdoi:10.1177/0022022100031006004
Public21-22 aged, college students Romania and USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =418

Correlate
Author's labelLikelihood that aspirations are met
Page in Source 741 + 742
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on 22 questions about major life aspirations 
on:
a: self acceptance
   e.g. You will be in charge of your life
b: affiliation
   e.g. You will have good friends that you can count 
on
c: community feeling
   e.g. You will work to make the world a better place
d: Financial success
   e.g. You will have a job that pays well

Likelyhood of meeting rated
1  very low
.
.
5 very high
Observed distributiona: US: M=4.24, SD=.67; Romenia: M=3.95, SD=.70 b: US: M=4.39, SD=.59; Romenia: M=3.81, SD=.74 c: US: M=3.58, SD=.81; Romenia: M=2.98, SD=.91 d: US: M=3.72, SD=.81; Romenia: M=3.50, SD=.81
Error EstimatesInter item correlation a: US +.73, Romenia +.62 b: US +.71, Romenia +.67 c: US +.84, Romenia +.83 d: US +.74, Romenia +.72 Total Likelihood: US +.87, Romenia +.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= s
Likelihood of self-acceptance aspirations
- US students        r = +.19 (01)
- Romanian students  r = +.02 (ns)
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= ns
Likelihood of affiliation aspirations
- US students        r = +.04
- Romanian students  r = -.10
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= ns
Likelihood of community related aspirations
- US students        r = +.05
- Romanian students  r = +.10
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-ar= s
Likelihood of financial succes aspirations
- US students        r = -.22 (01)
- Romanian students  r = -.03 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelCongruence aspirations/ achievements
Page in Source 632
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Here are some things that are important to many 
workers. Which of these things:
4. you have accompished
3. you want and are confident to
   accomplish
2. you want but are not confident to
   accomplish 
1. you do not want
         (4+3 positive outcome)
a. Paying enough lobola (bride wealth)
b. Educating  your children properly
c. Building a solid house for yourself
d. Building up a herd of cattle
e. Becoming a man of sufficient money
f. Being able to stop work in town and 
   go home to rest while you are still 
   in good health
g. Securing a good plot of land to 
   cultivate when you are older
h  Starting a small business of your
   own
Remarks
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. 
Sign in table is negative, but text indicates positive 
relationship. Present version approved by author.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 p < .01
a
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.17 p < .01
a.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.35 p < .01
b.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .01
b
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.32 p < .01
c
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.31 p < .01
c
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .01
d
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.16 p < .01
d.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.49 p < .01
e
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.33 p < .01
e.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .01
f
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.36 p < .01
f       
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.27 p < .01
g
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.22 p < .01
g.            
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=-.14 p < .05
h
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.22 p < .01
h


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelAchieved/confident of becoming wealthy
Page in Source 653
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Here are some things that are important to many 
workers. Which of these things:
4. have you accomplished in your life
3. are you confident that you will
   accomplish
2. are you not confident that you will
   accomplish
1. you do not want
  
e Becoming a man of sufficient money
(one item from a longer list)
(4+3 vs 2+1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.14 p < .05
Durection of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates postive relationship. Present version
approved by author.

-65 years old
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Higher monthly income
- Religious traditionalist
- Grows cash crop   
- Feels land is secure
- Retired for many years
- Worked  for many years in jobs
- No desire to return to work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelDivergence real and ideal sex- role
Page in Source 238
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
The Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) was administered 
twice to each repondent. In the first instance the 
respondent was asked to describe him/herself as he/she 
is now. In the second instance the respondent was asked 
to describe him/herself as he/she would like to be.
0 Small divergence.
1 Big divergence.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.15 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: marriage, children, husband
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: marriage, children or husband mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: money
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: financial aspirations mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: new job, own business
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: new job, own business mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Subject code: L07ac03

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: move to country, become farmer
Page in Source 210
Our classificationPerceived realization of specific life-goals, code L07ac03
Operationalization
Open ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: move to other country, become farmer mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children as planned
Subject code: L07ac03a

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelCommunal goals progress
Page in Source 502
Our classificationChildren as planned, code L07ac03a
Operationalization
At T1+2 Ss listed two communal goals they intended to 
pursue during the current semester. They then rated 
their attainability to these goals on the following 
items:
-I have made a great deal pf progress in the attempt of 
advancing this goal
-I have hardly made any progress in accomplishing this 
goal(Revese scoring)
-I have quite a lot of success in pursuing this goal
-Many of my efforts in realizing this goal have 
failed(Reverse scoring)

Rated: 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree
Observed distributionM=12.78, SD=2.53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.11 ns
at T1+T2
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.47 p < .001
at T3+T4

No gender difference in any finding


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children as planned
Subject code: L07ac03a

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: marriage, children, husband
Page in Source 210
Our classificationChildren as planned, code L07ac03a
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: marriage, children or husband mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children as planned
Subject code: L07ac03a

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationChildren as planned, code L07ac03a
Operationalization
a. Actual number in 1972 (including
adopted and stephchildren).

b. Same as planned (Assessed in 1950).

c. Number wanted if life lived over
(Assessed in 1950).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1972 number by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier congruence (1950) by present happiness 
(1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier wish (1950) by present happiness
   (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of employment goals
Subject code: L07ac03b

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelDivergence between actual and preferred workstatus
Page in Source 236
Our classificationRealization of employment goals, code L07ac03b
Operationalization
0 Small divergence.
1 Big devergence.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSNR= ns
The special structure of the sample - composed 
mainly of working students - limits the analysis 
and generalizability of the findings.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of employment goals
Subject code: L07ac03b

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with achieving success
Page in Source 112
Our classificationRealization of employment goals, code L07ac03b
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the extent to 
which you are achieving success and getting ahead?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of employment goals
Subject code: L07ac03b

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with accomplishment
Page in Source 112
Our classificationRealization of employment goals, code L07ac03b
Operationalization
3-item index of questions "How do you feel about 
.....?"
a the extent of achieving succes and getting ahead
b what you are accomplishing
c the extent of developing yourself and broadening your 
life.
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/
unhappy/ mostly dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ 
pleased/ delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.63
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.41
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.42
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.68
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of educational goals
Subject code: L07ac03c

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with developing oneself
Page in Source 141
Our classificationRealization of educational goals, code L07ac03c
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the extent to 
which you are developing yourself and broadening your 
life?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.47
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08
ß controlled for 7 criterion satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.10
ß additionally controlled for sociodemographic 
variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of educational goals
Subject code: L07ac03c

StudyHolahan et al. (1999): study US 1960
TitleSelf Appraisel, Life Satisfaction and Retrospective Life Choices Across One and Three Decades.
SourcePsychology and Aying, 1999, Vol. 14, 238 - 244
PublicGifted (IQ>135) followed unto old age, USA, 1960-1992
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =383

Correlate
Author's labelLived up to ability
Page in Source 239/243
Our classificationRealization of educational goals, code L07ac03c
Operationalization
Self-appraisal of having lived up to abilities.
Participants were asked "On the whole, how well do you 
think you have lived up to your intellectual 
abilities?" Responses were coded in two categories
1: did not live-up
2: lived-up
Assessed at T1 (1960)
Observed distributionT2 N: 1=115, 2=223
Remarks
T1:1960, T2:1972, T3:1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=+
T1 lived up by T2 happiness
Men   1.M=3.71 SD=0.89
      2.M=4.15 SD=0.85
Women 1.M=3.76 SD=1.08
In univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) 
there was a significant lived-up effect: 
F(1,332)= 13.85, MSE=.82 p<0.001
      2.M=4.19 SD=0.92
M-AC-h-mq-v-8-aDM=+
T1 lived up by T2 happiness
In univariate analyses of covariance(ANCOVAs) 
there was a significant lived-up effect:
F(1,310)=10,65, MSE=.84, p<.05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-aDM=+
T1 lived up by T3 happiness
Univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) was 
significant for lived-up:
F(1,355)=10.71, MSE=2,25, p<.001
LISREL analysis showed no direct link when T2 
perceid goal relization was controled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of educational goals
Subject code: L07ac03c

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: education, follow a talent
Page in Source 210
Our classificationRealization of educational goals, code L07ac03c
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: education, follow a talent mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of participation goals
Subject code: L07ac03d

StudyGraney & Graney (1973): study US 1971
TitleScaling Adjustment in Older People.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1973, Vol. 4, 351 - 359
Public62-89 aged females, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal adjustment.
Page in Source 357
Our classificationRealization of participation goals, code L07ac03d
Operationalization
Degree of correspondence between orientation towards 
social participation and actual social participation 
mode.

1. Orientation towards social  
   participation was measured by the 
   adapted Dye (1963) Localism - 
   Cosmopolitan Scale (see S 4.5, GRANE
   1973A).

2. Actual social participation was 
   measured by 9 social communications 
   activities, which were arrayed  
   according to their degree of 'cosmo-
   politan characteristics of the
   people who are (in)active in them:
   -'cosmopolitan' mode of social
    participation defined as: visiting
    neighbours, friends and relatives
    and reading.
   -'intermediate' mode of social
    participation defined as: church
    attendance, television viewing,
    and number of memberships in
    voluntary associations.
   -'local' mode of social
    participation defined as: radio-
    listening, telephone use, and
    participation in voluntary
    associations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Realization of income goals
Subject code: L07ac03e

StudyStutzer (2004): study CH 1992
TitleThe Role of Income Aspirations in Individual Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2004, Vol. 54, 89 - 109
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.04.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1992-94
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =4462

Correlate
Author's labelDiscrepancy between aspirations (self reported) and income
Page in Source 98
Our classificationRealization of income goals, code L07ac03e
Operationalization
Difference in response to two questions:

A What income would you indicate as good or bad in your 
circumstances? Please try to state what income per 
month (before taxes) for your entire household to be 
sufficient.

B Self report on a question about household income in 
SFr. per month on a scale of 13 categories
Remarks
Household income is approximated by taking the mean of 
the selected class.

Natural logarithms of the two questions were subtracted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-Ib=-.41 p < .00
B's controled for:
- household size
- household composition
- socio-demographic characteristics
- language differences
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-Ib=-.38 p < .00
B additionaly controled for:
- household income

B means that if aspiration level increases by 100 
%, happiness decreases by .41 points (4,6 %) on 
the happiness scale 1-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with goal-achievement
Subject code: L07ac04

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelAccomplishing in life now
Page in Source 258, 262, 264
Our classificationSatisfaction with goal-achievement, code L07ac04
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.15
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
 - Present age
 - Self-esteem
 - Friendships
 - Health
 - Family relations
 - Religion/spiritual fulfillment
 - Neighbourhood
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.17
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
 - Friendships
 - Present age
 - Self-esteem
 - Local government officials
 - Family relations
 - Opportunities to socialize
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.21
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
 - Present age
 - Self-esteem
 - Local government officials
 - Health
 - Recreational opportunities
 - Financial security
 - Neighbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with goal-achievement
Subject code: L07ac04

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2006): study HR 2003
TitleWhat makes Croats Happy? Predictors of Happiness in Representative Sample.
SourceDelle Fave, A.;Ed.: "Dimensions of Well- Being. Research and Intervention, Franco Angeli, 2006, Milan, Italy, 53 - 59
Public18+aged, general public, Croatia, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =1242

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Achievement in life
Page in Source 12
Our classificationSatisfaction with goal-achievement, code L07ac04
Operationalization
Selfreport on satisfaction with Achievement in life
1: not at all satisfied
.
.
10: extremely satisfied
Observed distributionM=6,8 SD=2,18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-standard of living, 
-health, 
-relationship with family and friends, 
-feelings of physical safety, 
-acceptance by community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with goal-achievement
Subject code: L07ac04

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelMood when you are thankful for what you have achieved
Page in Source 397
Our classificationSatisfaction with goal-achievement, code L07ac04
Operationalization
Single question: How happy do you usually feel on a 
scale of 0 to 10 when you are thankful for what you 
have and have achieved in life?
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:2%, 4:2%, 5:5%, 6:7%, 7:14%, 8:24%, 9:23%, 10:20%,DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2051

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.0  M = 7.6             +1.4
top 3:  M = 8.6  M = 7.2             +1.4 
top 5:  M = 8.3  M = 6.6             +1.7
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 495, Others: 8-0 N=1556
Top 3: 10-8 N=1060, Others: 7-0 N= 990
Top 5: 10-6 N=1637, Others: 5-0 N= 414


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with goal-achievement
Subject code: L07ac04

StudyEstwing-Ferrans & Powers (1992): study US 1987
TitlePsychometric Assessment of the Quality of Life Index.
SourceResearch in Nursing & Health, 1992, Vol. 15, 29 - 38
PublicRenal patients, USA 199?
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response54%
Respondents N =349

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with achievements of personal goals.
Our classificationSatisfaction with goal-achievement, code L07ac04
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How satisfied are you with achievements of your 
personal goals? 
1 very dissatisfied
.
.
6 very satisfied
Remarks
It is not clear if this score is weighted with its 
importance by the individual.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.65


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own life-goals
Subject code: L07ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to own life-goals, code L07ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,51 SD: 1,52, Non-exercisers: M: 7,19 SD: 2,06
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.30 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own life-goals
Subject code: L07ad

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to own life-goals, code L07ad
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 5,74 SD: 2,41
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.07 p < .31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own life-goals
Subject code: L07ad

StudyWozniak et al. (1993): study US 1985
TitleDomains of Subjective Well-Being in Farm Men and Women.
SourceJournal of Family and Economic Issues, 1993, Vol. 14, 97 - 114
Public18-65 aged farm-couples, USA, 1985
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1110

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with retirement-plans
Page in Source 105-106
Our classificationAttitudes to own life-goals, code L07ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering everything about your life at the present 
time, how would you rate your overall satisfaction with 
your plans for retirement?
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionM=3.27 SD=1,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mr=+.48 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-control of life
-standard of living
-farm plans
-children
-farm income
-household
-farm tasks

Satisfaction with retirement plans is more 
strongly related to overall happiness for men than 
for women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to earlier life-goals
Subject code: L07ad01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with career pattern (lifestyle work pattern)
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationAttitudes to earlier life-goals, code L07ad01
Operationalization
Ss were first asked to characterize their worklife into 
one of four possible patterns;
- I have been primarily homeworker.
- I have pushed a career most of my   adult life.
- I have pushed a career except during   the period 
when I was raising a   family.
- I have done considerable work needed for income but I 
would not all it a career.

Ss were next invited to indicate which pattern they 
would choose now.

Satisfaction is the correspondence between 'As it was' 
and 'As I now would choose'.
Remarks
Assessed in 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1972 satisfaction by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to current life-goals
Subject code: L07ad02

StudyBarcena Martin et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe role of Proximity and Social Comparisons on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThE Papers, 2013, No. 13/10, Granada, Spain
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/gra/wpaper/13-10.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1994-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162167

Correlate
Author's labelCultural capital
Page in Source 34
Our classificationAttitudes to current life-goals, code L07ad02
Operationalization
a) Risk: takes values between 0 (no willingness to take 
risk) and 10 (very willing to take risk)

b) Importance of (rated between 1: very important to 3: 
not important):
1) economic goals (such as job succes, owning a home, 
etc.)
2) family goals (importance of having children of a 
partner)
3) social goals (political activity, travel, good 
relationships with friends, etc.)

c) Worries: the extend to what an individual is 
concerned about economic development, finances and the 
environment (1 not at all concerned - 3 very concerned)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 p < .05
a) willingness to take risk
Beta (0.005)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.03 ns
b) importance of economic goals
Beta (0.034)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.21 p < .01
b) importance of family goals
Beta (-0.209)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.31 p < .01
b) importance of social goals
Beta (-0.313)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.93 p < .01
c) Worries

Beta (0.931) controlled for:
- household income
- relative income
- social capital (memberships in associations, 
organisations, groups)
- cultural capital (attitute towards risk and life 
goals)
- interaction effects
- socio-economic characteristics (age, sexe, 
marital status, type of household, years of 
education)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to current life-goals
Subject code: L07ad02

StudyFaver (1982): study US 1977
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Life-Cycle: The Effects of Values and Roles on Women's Well-Being.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1982, Vol. 66, 435 - 452
Public22-64 aged women, USA, 1977
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1120

Correlate
Author's labelCareer Value Orientation
Page in Source 441,443,445,447
Our classificationAttitudes to current life-goals, code L07ad02
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions:
a  For me, it is (would be) more important to help my 
husband in his career than to have a career of my 
own.(reverse scored)
b Seriously pursuing a career involves costs in other 
areas of my life that I am not willing to 
accept.(reverse scored)
c I can't picture having a fully satisfying a fully 
satisfying life without a career on my own.
Rated on a 5 point scale: 1 = disagree, 2 = mostly 
disagree, 4 = mostly agree, 5 = agree

From these scales a dichotomous variable was created 
measuring:
0 = Low career values
1 = High career values
Observed distributionN= 0:702, 1:406

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
All
- High career values  M = 4,15 SD = 0,07
- Low  career values  M = 4,05 SD = 0,24
  Difference             +0,10
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Singles only
- High career values M = 4,05 N = 219
- Low  career values M = 3,43 N =  53
  Difference            +0,62
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Married only
- High career values M = 4,20 N=483
- Low career values  M = 4,14 N=353
  Difference            +0,06
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
age cohort 22-34, high career values 
a) Single childless women  M = 3,94 N = 83
b) Married childless women M = 4,39 N = 59
c) Married mothers of preschool 
   children                M = 3,83 N = 77 
d) Married mothers of elementary 
   school children         M = 4,29 N = 42
e) Single mothers          M = 4,11 N = 27
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=3,03 p < .02
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
age cohort 22-34 low career values 
a) Single childless women  M = 3,40 N = 5
b) Married childless women M = 4,33 N = 6 
c) Married mothers of preschool 
   children                M = 3,98 N = 53 
d) Married mothers of elementary 
   school children         M = 4,11 N = 9 
e) Single mothers          M = 3 83 N = 6
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=,69 p < .03
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Not employed only
- High career values M = 3,67 SD =  ,05 N = 125
- Low  career values M = 3,95 SD = 0,12 N = 138
  Difference           =-0,28
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
parttime workers only
- High career values M = 4,11 SD = 0,06 N = 178
- Low Career values  M = 4,06 SD = 0,42 N = 117
  Difference         M =+0,05
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
fulltime workers only
- High career values M = 4,34 SD = 0,21 N = 380
- Low Career values  M = 4,13 SD = 0,27 N = 104
  Difference         M =+0,21
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
single, not employed workers only
- High career values M = 3,77 N =  30
- Low career values  M = 3,55 N =  11
  Difference            +0,22
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
married, not employed workers only
- High career values M = 3,65 N =  95
- Low career values  M = 3,98 N = 127
  Difference            -0,33
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
single, parttime workers only
- High career values M = 4,24 N =  34
- Low career values  M = 2,93 N =  14
  Difference            +1,31
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
married, parttime workers only
- High career values M = 4,08 N =  144
- Low career values  M = 4,21 N =  103
  Difference            -0,13
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
single, fulltime workers only
- High career values M = 4,08 N =  148
- Low career values  M = 3,67 N =   27
  Difference            +0,41
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Married, fulltime workers only
- High career values M = 4,50 N =  232
- Low career values  M = 4,29 N =   77
  Difference            +0,21
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, single childless women only
- High career values  M = 3,94 N = 83
- Low  career values  M = 3,40 N =  5   
  Difference             +0,54
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, among married childless women
- High career values  M = 4,39 N = 59
- Low  career values  M = 4,33 N =  6   
  Difference             +0,06
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Age group 22-34, married mothers of preschool 
children only
- High career values  M = 3,83 N = 77
- Low  career values  M = 3,98 N = 53   
  Difference             -0,15
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, married mothers with 
elementary school children only
- High career values  M = 4,29 N = 42
- Low  career values  M = 4,11 N =  9   
  Difference             +0,19
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, single mothers only
- High career values  M = 4,11 N = 27
- Low  career values  M = 3,83 N =  6   
  Difference             +0,19
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, singles only
- High career values  M = 4,11 N = 27
- Low  career values  M = 3,83 N =  6
  Difference             +0,19
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, married only
- High career values  M = 4,34 N = 184
- Low  career values  M = 4,09 N =  88
  Difference             +0,25
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Age group 22-34, not employed only
- High career values  M = 3,41 N = 22
- Low  career values  M = 4,06 N = 48
  Difference             -0,65
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Age group 22-34, parttime only
- High career values  M = 4,25 N = 28
- Low  career values  M = 4,32 N = 47
  Difference             -0,07
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 22-34, fulltime only
- High career values  M = 4,54 N = 85
- Low  career values  M = 4,33 N = 39
  Difference             +0,21
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Age group 45-64
- High career values  M = 4,25 N = 180
- Low  career values  M = 4,06 N = 173
  Difference             +0,19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to current life-goals
Subject code: L07ad02

StudyGreenhaus (1974): study US 1970
TitleCareer Salience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Satisfaction with Occupational Preference and with Life in General.
SourceJournal of Psychology, 1974, Vol. 86, 53 - 55
PublicCollege students, East USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =203

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with occupational preference
Page in Source 54
Our classificationAttitudes to current life-goals, code L07ad02
Operationalization
5-item index reflecting satisfaction with the 
appropriateness of stated occupational preference.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-v-5-cr=+.26 p < .05
Males:
- priority of work and career
  - low                            r = +.13 (ns)
  - high                           r = +.39 (01)
- general attitude to work
  - low                            r = +.22 (ns)
  - high                           r = +.30 (05)
- career advancement and planning
  - low                            r = +.04 (ns)
  - high                           r = +.40 (01)
                                              
M-AO-u-mq-v-5-cr=+.30 p < .01
Females:
- priority of work and career.
  - low                            r = +.18 (ns)
  - high                           r = +.31 (05)
- general attitude to work.
  - low                            r = +.36 (01)
  - high                           r = +.13 (ns)
- career advancement and planning
  - low                            r = +.17 (ns)
  - high                           r = +.53 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to current life-goals
Subject code: L07ad02

StudyPorter (1967): study US 1965
TitleSex-Role Concepts, Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being and to Future Plans of Female College Seniors.
SourceDissertation, University of Rochester, 1967, USA
PublicFemale students college seniors, followed two months, Rochester, USA, 1965-66
Sample
Non-Response8%; unaffected by place of residence
Respondents N =162

Correlate
Author's labelSatis. with next year's plans in terms of achievement needs
Page in Source 101
Our classificationAttitudes to current life-goals, code L07ad02
Operationalization
Closed question: on "the extent to which S's present 
plans for further education, career, or job fulfill her 
need to achieve, to fully utilize her capacities" rated 
on a 7-point scale, ranging from "highly 
unsatisfactory" to "highly satisfactory".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-ar=+.17 p < . 05
Both variables assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Acceptance of one's life-goals by others
Subject code: L07ae

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelCognitive dissonance
Page in Source 63
Our classificationAcceptance of one's life-goals by others, code L07ae
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How did your family 
accept your entrance into religious life?
5: strongly opposed, 
4: somewhat opposed 
3: mixed reaction 
2: approved 
1: strongly approved

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=-.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Acceptance of one's life-goals by others
Subject code: L07ae

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelConsonance with parents in career-orientation
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationAcceptance of one's life-goals by others, code L07ae
Operationalization
Direct questions:           
a. Becoming more like father(or mother).
b. Fathers choice of vocation for subject.
c. Mothers choice of vocation for subject.
d. Conflict with father regarding career choice.
e. Conflict with mother regarding career choice.

Assessed retrospectively in 1950.
Remarks
Earlier retrospective rating (1950) by present 
happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 becoming like father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 fathers choice by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers choice by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 conflict with father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 conflict with mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bSelfreport on 12 questions:

..how frequent one experienced moods in the past week..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E pleasant
F elated
G frustrated
H sad
I depressed
J dissatisfied
K gloomy
L dejected

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D+ E+ F) - (G+H+I+J+K+L)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AB-mp-mqr-n-5-aSelfreport on 8 questions repeated every second day during 2 weeks:

..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AOL-cq-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Mood is usually applied to states lasting for minutes or hours, but most people can estimate their average or typical mood over a long period of time. Using the following scale, please indicate which statement best describes your typical mood for the current spring semester. Draw a circle around the number of the statement which best describes your average level of happiness or unhappiness during this semester.
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue"
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely "blue"
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BD1-md-mq-v-7-aSelfreport of daily mood on 9 questions

'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt today
A happy
B depressed, blue
C joyful
D pleased
E frustrated
F angry, hostile
G enjoyment, fun
H worried, anxious
I unhappy

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 very slight
3 somewhat
4 moderate amount
5 much
6 very much
7 extremely much
Options presented horizontally

Computation: (A+C+D+G)-(B+E+F+H+I)

Name: Diener's 'Daily Mood scale'
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-ASG-u-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 22 questions:

22 statement on major life aspirations in 4 content areas:
- self-acceptance; e.g. "You will be in charge of your life"
- affiliation: e.g." You will have good friends that you can count on"
- community feeling: e.g. 'You will work to make the world a better place"
- financial succes: e.g. "You will have a job that pays well"

Each statement rated for likelyhood of future attainment
1 very low
2
3
4
5 very high
C-BW-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

…how things are going in your life.. (full item not reported)
0 the worst possible life you could imagine
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 the best possible life you could imagine
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
C-W-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how does it measure up to your general aspirations or what you want out of life/, Generally does life provide of what you want
1 nothing
2
3
4 half
5
6
7 all
M-AC-h-mq-v-8-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A
"How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
-
-
- joy in living


4 of prime importance to me
3
2
1 less important to me than to most people

B.
"How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 little satisfaction in this area

Computation: Life satisfaction score = Perceived success in achieving joy in living now (B) minus remembered importance of joy in living in early adulthood (A)
M-AO---mq-*-124-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing
Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS

Computation: A+B
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

A 8 questions about current mood
… extent to which moods were experienced during the past few days (full text not reported}
a happy
b joyful
c pleased
d confident
e sad
f depressed
g frustrated
h anxious
Rated: 1 not at all … 7 very frequently

B 2 questions on life satisfaction
a At present I am completely satisfied with my life
b In the near future a lot of things will have to change before I feel satisfied with my life
Rated: 1 completely disagree .. 7 completelt agree

Computation: (A+B)/2
M-AO-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

In terms of general happiness and sen se of wellbeing, how would you usually describe yourself today
1 very unhappy
2 fairly unhappy
3 fairly happy
4 very happy
M-AO-cm-mq-*-10-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on mood on 20 questions
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answered: 1 not at all …… 7 very frequently
(Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS)

Summation: First computation of z-scores of A (life-satisfaction), Ba-k (negative affect) and Bl-t (positive affect). Next zA + zBl-t -zBa-k

Answer options:
a 1 very slightly or not at all
b 2 a little
c 3 moderately
d 4 quite a bit
e 5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
M-AO-u-mq-v-5-cSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all aspects of yourself and your life into account, which of the following best describes your own feelings of satisfaction with your life......?"
5 I am extremely satisfied with my life.
4 I am satisfied with my life.
3 I am somewhat satisfied with my life.
2 I am only slightly satisfied with my life.
1 I am not at all satisfied with my life.

B " In very general terms, about what proportion of the time do you feel satisfied with your life.....?"
4 all of the time
3 most of the time
2 some of the time
1 never

Summation: not reported
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
M-TH-cm-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question

Felt happy during the past month.. (full item not reported)
3 all of the time
2 most of the time
2 some of the time
0 none of the time
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aSelfreport on single question asked twice in interview,

"How do you feel about your life as a whole......?"
10 delightful
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 terrible

Summation: mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delightful-Terrible Scale' (modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2. unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you
are these days.....?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general my present quality of life is:
1 as bad as it could possibly be
2
3
4 neither good nor bad
5
6
7 as good as it could possibly be

Response options labeled as: +3 (as good as it could possibly be), 0 (neither good nor bad) and -3 (as bad as it could possibly be).

Item in ADDQoL (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life)
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A At present I am completely satisfied with my life
B In the near future a lot of things will have to change before I feel satisfied with my life

Rated
1 completely disagree
2
3
4
5
6
7 completelt agree

Computation: (A+B)/2, B reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ISelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

'All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life these days?'
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life at present? Choose one of the following:
5 satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 cannot decide
2 not so satisfied
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aSelfrepiort on single question:

I think of my life as interesting and satisfying
1 disagree
2 mostly agree
3 neither agree or disagree
4 mostly agree
5 agree


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MaMEAN , ADJUSTED
Type: descriptive statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
If one correlate is of the nominal level of measurement (subgroups) and (at least0 one other correlate is of the metric level, the happiness means of all the subgroups can be 'adjusted' by shifting the group mean values along the regression line of that subgroup towards the grand average value of the metric correlate, resulting in 'adjusted' means for that subgroup. In that way, effects of differences between mean values of the metric correlate for the different subgroups are eliminated.
Reference: Neter, J. & Wasserman, W. Applied Linear statistical models, R.D. Erwin Inc., Homewood Ill. USA, 1974, p. 712
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
ZZZZZKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L07LIFE GOALSH12HOPE
L07LIFE GOALSM14MOTIVATION
L07LIFE GOALSP12PROBLEMS
L07LIFE GOALSW07WORRIES
L07aaLife-goal careerM14aaMotivation career
L07aa01Earlier life-goalsM14aa01Earlier motivantion
L07aa01Earlier life-goalsL07ad01Attitudes to earlier life-goals
L07aa01Earlier life-goalsL01LANGUAGE
L07aa01cAcceptance of earlier life-goalsF01ad02cAgreement with parents
L07aa01dRealization of earlier goalsL07acRealization of lifegoals
L07aa01eAuthenticity of earlier goalsP01ab13Earlier genuiness
L07aa01eAuthenticity of earlier goalsL07ab07Authenticity of goals
L07aa02Change in life-goalsM14aa02Change in motivation
L07aa03Later life-goalsM14aa03Later motivation
L07abCurrent life-goalsM14abCurrent motivation
L07ab01Having goals or not (life-planning)P07ab01Planning mindedness
L07ab02Object of life-goalsH12HOPE
L07ab02Object of life-goalsV01VALUES: CAREER
L07ab02Object of life-goalsV02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)
L07ab05Organization of life-goals (life-goal set)V02adValue set
L07ab06Diversity of lifegoalsV02ad01Diversity of values
L07ab07Authenticity of goalsL07aa01eAuthenticity of earlier goals
L07ab07Authenticity of goalsP04bdGenuine
L07acRealization of lifegoalsL07aa01dRealization of earlier goals
L07ac01Actual realization of lifegoalsV01VALUES: CAREER
L07ac02Perceived realization of life-goalsH07acContentment
L07ac02Perceived realization of life-goalsL04ae01aLife compared with one's wants
L07ac02bPerceived realization of life-goal setH07acContentment
L07ac03aChildren as plannedC03ad02aNumber of children as planned
L07ac03bRealization of employment goalsR03ae02Compulsory retirement (vs free choice)
L07ac03cRealization of educational goalsE01ad02Satisfaction with education
L07ac03dRealization of participation goalsS06acAttitudes to personal contacts
L07ac03dRealization of participation goalsS07acAttitudes to organizational participation
L07ac03dRealization of participation goalsS08acAttitudes to total social participation
L07ac03eRealization of income goalsI01af02Income aspirations
L07ac03eRealization of income goalsI01af05Satisfaction with income\finances
L07ac04Satisfaction with goal-achievementL04ac01pSuccessful (vs failure)
L07ad02Attitudes to current life-goalsM14acAttitudes to ones motivation
L07aeAcceptance of one's life-goals by othersF01ad02cAgreement with parents
L07aeAcceptance of one's life-goals by othersV04acSocial acceptance of own values

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings