Findings on Happiness and LIFE EVENTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LIFE EVENTS
Subject Code: L06

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L06LIFE EVENTS2
L06aaLife-event career0
L06aa01Earlier life-events4
L06aa01aBurden of earlier life-events11
L06aa01bSpecific earlier life-events12
L06aa02Change in life-event burden2
L06aa03Later life-events0
L06abCurrent life-events (past few years)3
L06ab01Burden of current life-events5
L06ab01aMajor life-change or not3
L06ab01bSummed life-events: equal weight5
L06ab01cSummed life-events: standard weights6
L06ab01dSummed life-events: weighted in context1
L06ab01eSum of negative life-events8
L06ab01fSum of positive life-events5
L06ab01gBalance of negative- and positive life-events13
L06ab02Specific current life-events9
L06acAttitudes to life-events2
L06ac01Expected life-events0
L06adClimate of change2
L06ab01hSum of negative events: weighed in context0
L06ab01iSum of positive events: weighed in context0
L06ab02aDeath of an intimate13
L06ab02bMajor financial change0
L06ab02cInjury/illness to intimate0
L06ab02dInjury/illness to oneself0
L06ab02eOneself or an intimate in jail0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LIFE EVENTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L06
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE EVENTS
Subject code: L06

StudyBalatsky & Diener (1993): study RU 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Russian Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 225 - 243
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079019
PublicStudents, Moscow and Glazov (Ural), Russia, 1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelLife-events
Page in Source 233
Our classificationLIFE EVENTS, code L06
Operationalization
Ss were asked to write down within 3 minutes as many as 
possible positive and negative life-events:
1.Number of positive events (PE)
2.Number of negative events (NE)
3.Event difference score (PE-NE)
Observed distribution1. M= 4.526; SD= 2.518 2. M=3.439; SD= 1.982

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 ns
Number of positive events
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.06 ns
Number of negative events
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
p two tailed
Event difference score
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-br=+.27 p < .01
p two tailed
Number of positive events
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-br=-.03 ns
Number of negative events
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-br=+.27 p < .01
p two tailed
Event difference score


Correlational finding on Happiness and LIFE EVENTS
Subject code: L06

StudyDanner et al. (2001): study US 1991
TitlePositive Emotions in Early Life and Longevity: Findings from the Nun Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, Vol. 80, 804 - 813.
PublicNuns who lived in cloister since early adulthood. Followed into old age, USA, 1991
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelmortality rate
Page in Source 810;809
Our classificationLIFE EVENTS, code L06
Operationalization
1: Died before 1993
0: Still alive

All nuns were born before 1917 and  joined the 
congregation between 1931 and 1943
Observed distributionN: I:23; II:30; III:13; IV:10
Remarks
Mortality of all causes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-a
Happiness in young adulthood, as apparent in 
autobiography written around age 25
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-aD%=-34
          quartiles positive words
          I(least)II       III        IV(most)

% died:   55      59       33         21
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bD%=-30
             quartiles positive sentences
         I(least)  II       III        IV(most)
% died:    54      58       35         24
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bb=-1.4 p < .00
B denotes % died per % positive sentences in 
autobiography
B controled for age and education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01

StudyBaruffol et al. (1995): study BE 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction as a Mediator between Distressing Events and Neurotic Impairment in a General Population.
SourceActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1995, Vol. 92, 56 - 62
PublicAdults, community, Belgium, 1990-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseT1- T2 attrition: 49%
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labeldistressing events and psychopathological status
Page in Source 57-59
Our classificationEarlier life-events, code L06aa01
Operationalization
Presence of distressing life events between T1 and T2
0: absence of event
1: presence of event
Observed distributionN all:184; No neurotic disorder: 64%; anxiety16%; affective:11%; somatic:9%; any:24%; N respondents with number disorders:1 disorder:41; 2 disorders:15; 3 disorders:3
Remarks
A 79-item checklist derived from the Psychiatric 
Epidemiology Research Interview Life Event 
Scale(PERI-LES) was used to appraise 1990-1992 
life-events.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aChi²=. p < .02
T1 happiness by T1-T2 distressing events
Psychological disorders between T1 and T2
A: happy at T1(above mean)               
  a: no disturbing events T1-T2:         16%
  b: one or more disturbing events T1-T2:19%
B: unhappy at T1 (below mean)            
  a: no disturbing events T1-T2         :15%
  b: one or more disturbing events T1-T2:38%
Chi square: Bb>Ab.Ba
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aOR=2.4 p < .05
Relative Risk Estimate 
Confidence Interval: 1.20-4.57
Risk Respondents (who were unhappy at T1 and 
experienced disturbing events between T1 and T2) 
has 2.4 times more chance to get a neurotic 
disorder than non-risk respondents
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aChi²=. p < .05
To determine the predictive power of each variable 
alone, the predictors were entered seperately into 
logistic equations: a simple one with 1 variable 
and the second model with 2 variables.
If one compares the simple model with the 2-term 
model results, one can see what model is the best: 
the one that produces the greatest change in 
scaled deviance(CD). Dependent is: neurotic 
disorder.
CD for overall satisfaction=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelRecent change in mother's marital status after birth
Page in Source 130
Our classificationEarlier life-events, code L06aa01
Operationalization
Recent change in mother's marital status  after birth 
as reported in medical file
a: mother married to child's father after birth
b: mother married to other after child's birth
c: mother separated/divorced after birth
Observed distributionN: a:346; b:32; c:49
Remarks
only Ss who are mothers with changed marital status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.91
b: Mt=7.35
c: Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.55
b: Mt=6.95
c: Mt=7.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
a: Mt=7.20
b: Mt=6.88
c: Mt=6.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelExposure to radiation
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationEarlier life-events, code L06aa01
Operationalization
Radiation in place of residence after the 1986 nuclear 
disaster.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=-.20 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - income
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath of intimitate long ago
Page in Source 29
Our classificationEarlier life-events, code L06aa01
Operationalization
Death 12 years or more ago of:
a: child
b: spouce
c: father
d: mother
e: friend
f: sibling

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.39 ns
child
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.18 ns
partner
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.01 ns
dad
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
mum
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.29 p < .01
friend
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
sibling

B's controlled for:
- real household income (per household member)
- mean income over time 
- death of intimitate in previous year

B's mean point happiness on a scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyGehmacher (1990a): study AT 1989
TitleStress und Stressbewältigung. ( Stress and Coping).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1990, Nr 89231, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gehmacher_e_2009A.pdf
PublicMilitary male cadres, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1296

Correlate
Author's labelStressfull life-events in childhood
Page in Source 15
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
6 item weighted index
- report of unhappy childhood (1 point)
- report of problems with parents in
  childhood and youth (1 point)
- divorce of parents (4 points)
- seruous illness of familymember (5)
- serious illness of S (4 points)
- other stressfull events (max 5) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-ar=-.17
current life-events bear less correlation to 
happiness (r=-.02). See L 1.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelStressful events in childhood
Page in Source 13
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Questions on whether or not the following events 
happened.
a. serious conflicts at home
b. conflicts in school
c. parental divorce
d. death of an intimate
e. death of a parent
f. serious illnes

1. no event      (47%)
2. one event     (35%)
3. two events    (15%)
4. three events   (3%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ar=-
a. r=-.22
b. r=-.20
c. r=-.16
d. r=-.07
e. r=-.02
f. r=+.04
   
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.25 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
1. M'=2,75
2. M'=2.25
3. M'=2.20
4. M'=1.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelTraumatic childhood experiences
Page in Source 351
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Occurrence of a traumatic experience rated by the 
interviewer as no vs yes.
Examples:
- loss of parent(s) or sibling(s)
  before age 18(24%).
- report of very shocking event in
  youth(19%).
Assessed at T1(1970)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.17 p < .01
T2 happiness by traumatic childhood-experiences, 
reported at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelLife change
Page in Source 28
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Number of life changes experienced after age 20, as 
assessed by a 15-item inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 229
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
46-item checklist of life events in the past eight to
ten months, rated as having occurred or not occured,
whether the impact was good or bad and their degree of
effect (l=none to 4=great) (adapted Life Experiences
Survey: J. Sarason, J. Johnson and J. Siegel

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-arpc=-
                   Happiness:                      
                              Tl        T2         
 T3
Stress: Tl    -.35(01)   0  (ns)    -.13(ns) 
Stress: T2              -.37(01)    -.18(ns) 
Stress: T3                          -.39(01)

rpc controlled for demographic covariates (age,
education, number of children, receipt of public
assistance, infant birth status (premature or full
term))

Tl: child 1 month, 
T2: child 8 months,
T3: child 18 months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier and current stress
Page in Source 23
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Number of events during past year as rated on a 
138-item Life Event Inventory. Sumscore weighted by 
preoccupation with event (how often S says to think of 
it).
Inventory administered three times:
-recently    (T5:1980)
-4 years ago (T4:1976)
-6 years ago (T3:1974)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=
Negative events by T5 happiness
                     Males         Females   
recent      T5:1980  r= -.36(01)   r= -.44(01)
4 years ago T4:1976  r= -.15 ns    r= -.24(05)
6 years ago T3:1974  r= -.03 ns    r=  .00(ns)

Positive events by T5 happiness
                     Males           Females
recent      T5:1980  r= + 26(05)   r= +.23(05)
4 years ago T4:1976  r= +.12 ns    r= +.07(ns)
6 years ago T3:1974  r= +.07 ns    r= -.01(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyLowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelCumulative stress
Page in Source 298
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Number of challenging life-events from birth to few 
years prior to the interview.
 
Assessed by inspection of life-graphs and focused 
questions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
positive events
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
negative events  
(positively correlated with happiness among 
middle-aged, negatively among pre-retirees)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
combined score


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyLowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived stress (preoccupation with stress)
Page in Source 298
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
Content analysis of life-history protocols 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=-.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelLife stress
Page in Source 43
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
9-item index involving:
Childhood stress (4 items)
1: broken homes in childhood (before 
   of 15)
2: evaluation of mother and father as
   parents
3: happiness of parents's marriage
   during childhood
4: illness of family members during
   childhood.
Adult stress (5 items):
1: poor interpersonal relations
2: self-evaluated comparative
   financial status
3: physical health
4: parental worries
5: marital satisfaction

Combined into a 17-point scale.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-
Married subjects only(N=2534)
      proportion happy:
low sress    0- 3       9.9%     AR= .72
             4- 7      40.8%     AR= .58
             8-11      39.3%     AR= .43
high stress 12-16      10.0%     AR= .31
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference
(N=6928)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelChildhood stress
Page in Source 43
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
4-item index containing:
1: broken homes in childhood (before 
   age of 15)
2: evaluation of mother and father as
   parents
3: happiness of parents's marriage
   during childhood
4: illness of family members during
   childhood.
Rated on a scale from 0(low stress) to
7(high stress).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-
 proportion happy:
low stress  0      13.9%     AR= .61
            1      16.4%     AR= .55
            2      14.9%     AR= .52
            3      19.8%     AR= .49
            4      20.6%     AR= .44
            5      10.7%     AR= .45
            6       3.5%     AR= .48
high stress 7       1.1%     AR= .42

The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01a

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelLife history
Page in Source 122
Our classificationBurden of earlier life-events, code L06aa01a
Operationalization
212-item inventory of past life expe- riences.
18 scores were derived, indicating good or bad past 
experiences in various life areas. Only a few scores 
were related to hedonic level. Other scores were not 
presented.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.41 p < . 05
1. Poor life experiences (total score)

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.50 p < . 05
2. Low scholarschip

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.46 p < . 10
3. Depression and insecurity

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.45 p < . 10
4. Poor peer relations

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.39 p < . 10
5. Sibling conflict

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
6. Parental treatment and relationships


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelabortion
Page in Source 240
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you ever had an abortion?"
1:no
2:yes,once
3:yes,twice
4:yes,3 or more times
Observed distributionN: 1:588, 2:116, 3:28, 4:7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 ns
  1:Ms=7.78
  2:Ms=7.68
  3:Ms=7.50
  4:Ms=6.08
All Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.10 p < .01
  1:Ms=7.50
  2:Ms=7.53
  3:Ms=6.25
  4:Ms=6.08
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.10 p < .01
  1:Ms=7.05
  2:Ms=6.99
  3:Ms=6.25
  4:Ms=5.36
All Mt=6.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelmiscarriage
Page in Source 242
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Single question:
"Have you ever had a miscarriage?"
1: No
2: Not sure
3: Yes
Observed distributionN: 1:566, 2:15, 3:133

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 ns
  1:Ms=7.75
  2:Ms=7.66
  3:Ms=7.60
All Mt=7.71
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 ns
  1:Ms=7.45
  2:Ms=6.84
  3:Ms=7.39
All Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.06 ns
  1:Ms=7.03
  2:Ms=6.84
  3:Ms=6.75
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelabortion
Page in Source 250
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Single question:
"Have you ever had an abortion?"
1: no
2: yes,once
3: yes, twice
4: yes, 3 or more times
Observed distributionN All:2437; 1:1471; 2:652; 3:237; 4:77
Remarks
women only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.83    
2: Mt=7.58  
3: Mt=7.54   
4: Mt=7.24
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.09 p < .00
1: Mt=7.59    
2: Mt=7.30      
3: Mt=7.21   
4: Mt=6.73
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.07 p < .00
1: Mt=7.19    
2: Mt=6.94      
3: Mt=6.84   
4: Mt=6.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelLoss of children
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
0: Ever had children, all still alive  (reference)
1: Had, and lost, children
   1a: Lost children but not all
   1b: Lost all children
Observed distribution0: 59 men and 48 women; 1a:15 men and 15 women 1b: 3 men and 7 women.
Remarks
respondents who ever had children only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST CHILDREN, BUT NOT ALL (vs. all still alive))
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.09 ns
Females

B's controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.14 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history.
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST ALL CHILDREN (vs. all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.24 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.25 ns
Females

B controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.22 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.27 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history.

Loss of children has a negative impact on 
happiness of older men, but not of happiness of 
older women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after widowhood
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE AFTER WIDOWHOOD (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.34 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.73 p < .05
Females

B's controlled for:
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.35 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.74 p < .05
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

Widowhood has more negative impact on women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelMaximum inflation experienced
Page in Source 60
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Highest annual inflation experienced by an individual 
during his adult life (age 18+)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.00 p < .10
OPRC (-0.0005) controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - education
  - employment status
  - marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudySturms et al. (2003): study NL 1999
TitleYoung Traffic Victims' Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life: Child Self-Reports and Parental Reports.
SourceArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 84, 431 - 436
DOIdoi:10.1053/apmr.2003.50015
Public8-15 aged, 3 year after a trafic accident, The Netherlands, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelSequale of trafic accident
Page in Source 91
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
1 Traffic accident victims
0 Reference group
Observed distributionTrafic accident victims N = 157; Reference group N = 2334
Remarks
Traffic injury victims treated at the Traumatology 
Department of Groningen University Hospital in 
1996-1997, aged 8-15 years at follow up  in June 1999.

Reference group: 2 random sample groups of children 
from the general Dutch population (n= 1131 children 
8-11 y; n= 1252 children 12-15 y).
Both sample groups were stratified by age and gender.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-3-aDM=- p < .NS
Traffic victims rating M =  1,59
Reference group rating M =  1,68
Difference            DM = -0,08
                CI [-0,95; +0,79]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelloss of children
Page in Source 123
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
1: Had children: lost a child
   a: lost one but not all
   b: lost all children
0: Has children, all still alive (ref.)
Observed distribution1a: males 13,6%, females 13,3% 1b: males 0,9%, females 1,3% 0: males 73,8%, females 69,4%
Remarks
Respondents who never had children excluded (males 
11,6%, females 15,9%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST A CHILD BUT NOT ALL (vs all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
Males: insufficient data
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST ALL CHILDREN       (vs all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.50 p < .01
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- marital history
- early retirement
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital History/single, widowed
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: EARLY WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=
Males, not enough data
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, LATE WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.13 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.12 p < .05
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudySnekkevik et al. (2003): study SE 1993
TitleIs Sense of Coherence Stable after Multiple Trauma.
SourceClinical Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 17, 443 - 453
PublicRehabilitation patients, followed 2 years after trauma, Sweden 1993-1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelinjury sequale
Page in Source 106
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: Within one week after admission (median 35 days, 
range 6-80 days after injury)
T2:  Shortly before discharge ( median 161 days, range 
73-290 days after injure)
T3: at follow up (median 24 months, range 12-41 months 
after injure)
Observed distribution% satisfied (score 5 or 6) Before T1: 85%, T2: 58%, T3: 31%
Remarks
Report at T1 concerns retrospective happiness before 
injure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cD%=- p < .05
T1: 85% satisfied before injury (retrospect)
T2: 58% satisfied shortly before discharge
T3: 31% satisfied at follow-up
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cBMCT=
T1 < T2 < T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyKemp & Krause (1999): study US California 1994 /1
TitleDepression and Life Satisfaction Among People Ageing with Post-Polio and Spinal Cord Injury.
SourceDisability and Rehabilitation, 1999, Vol. 21, 241 - 249
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/12918426_Depression_and_life_satisfaction_among_people_ageing_with_post-polio_and_spinal_cord_injury
DOIDoi: 10.1080/096382899297666
PublicSpinal cord injury patients, Southern California, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =177

Correlate
Author's labelAge at injury
Page in Source 245
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-hr=-,19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific earlier life-events
Subject code: L06aa01b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelMultiple transitions
Page in Source 710
Our classificationSpecific earlier life-events, code L06aa01b
Operationalization
Change in family situation in last 5 years.
1= change in marital status AND number of children
0= other
Observed distributionNo transitions: N = 625 ( 64,9 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.38 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.06 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in life-event burden
Subject code: L06aa02

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelChange in burdens in the last year (lowering)
Page in Source 350,235
Our classificationChange in life-event burden, code L06aa02
Operationalization
Objectieve rating by a panel of experts on the basis 
of:
a Report of life events in the last
  year(T2-T3).
b life situation and life history of
  the Ss.
Reliability between experts: _=.93.
Assessed at T3(1977).

Typical events considered by the judges:
1. Change of role like marriage,
   promotion in job or retirement.
2. Change in health. 
3. Change in contacts with important 
   others or change in place of living.
4. Crisis events like loss of property 
   or contact with police.
5. Important news about events that   
   have happened or are about to  
   happen.
6. Important decisions about job,  
   marriage, health or place of living.
7. Events that are predominantly 
   financial, like concluding a 
   mortgage or gaining a large sum in a
   lottery.
8. Other positive events.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.10 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2-T3 improvement
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.29 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2-T3 improvement self-esteem      
     low  r=+.27
                      high r=+.16
intimacy with partner fair r=+.31
                      high r=+.34
coping ability        fair r=+.29
                      high r=+.27
neuroticism           low  r=+.21
                      high r=+.40
control           external r=+.35
                  internal r=+.21
stress T2(1976)       low  r=+.19
                      high r=+.42
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.31
T3 happiness by T2-T3 improvement ßL path 
coefficient in a LISREL model, also involving T2 
happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in life-event burden
Subject code: L06aa02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier increase of workload
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationChange in life-event burden, code L06aa02
Operationalization
Selfrating of increase in responsibilities and 
workpressures. 

Assessed in 1960.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier perceived increase (1960) by present 
happiness (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-events (past few years)
Subject code: L06ab

StudyFrench et al. (1995): study CA Ontario 1990
TitleGender Differences in Relating Life Events and Well-Being in Elderly Individuals.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 35, 1 - 25
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF01079235
PublicElderly people, Ontario, Canada, 1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response93%
Respondents N =268

Correlate
Author's labelfrequency life event
Page in Source 8, 12
Our classificationCurrent life-events (past few years), code L06ab
Operationalization
Self-report on ?? questions about life events in the 
past 6 months
A whether this had happened, and if so
B degree of adjustment
C desirable vs. undesirable
D controllable vs.uncontrollable 
E expected vs. unexpected

Life Events:
a: hospitalization (overnight)
b: major improvement in your health
c: starting a new job
d: move to an old age or nursing home
e: change in closeness of family members
f: major achievement by a family member
g: gain of a new member of household
   a) child
   b) grandchild
   c) other relative
   d) non-relative

h: separation from spouse due to hospitalization
i) major change in the number of arguments with your 
children
j: child or grandchild moving away
k: change in the marital status of a child or 
grandchild:
   a) marriage
   b) divorce
   c) remarriage

l: a change in church activities
m: problem with a lady friend or gentleman friend
n: giving up driving a car
o: reaching age 65
p: Christmas
r: sold major possessions
s: relinquished financial responsibility
Observed distributionTotal life event score of males is 4.7 and of females is 4.7 -Positive events: Males Females - expected 2.3 2.4 - desirable 2.7** 2.8** - controllable 2.4 2.1 - expected-desirable 1.7 1.9* - expected-controllable 1.3 1.5 - desirable-controllable 1.9 1.8 - exp-des-con 1.2 1.3 -Negative events Males Females - unexpected 2.2 2.2 - undesirable 1.9 1.9 - uncontrollable 2.3 2.6 - ue-ud 1.3 1.4 - ue-uc 1.2 1.6 - ud-uc 1.5 1.6 - unexp-undes-uncon 1.0 1.2
Remarks
Shortened version of Recent Life Change Questionnaire 
(Rahe, 1975)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 ns
Males
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
Females
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=
Splitt-up by kind of event:
- Positive events:     Males     Females 
 -expected            +.22(05)  +.14(ns)
 -desirable           +.19(05)  +.16(ns)       
 -controllable        +.08(ns)  +.11(ns)
 -expected-desirable  +.25(01)  +.20(05)   
 -expected-con.       +.21(05)  +.18(05)
 -desirable-con.      +.14(ns)  +.19(05)
 -exp-des-con         +.24(01)  +.21(01)
- Negative events
  - unexpected        -.04(ns)  -.13(ns)
  - undesirable       -.03(ns)  -.21(01)
  - uncontrollable    -.10(ns)  -.09(ns)
  - ue-ud             -.13(ns)  -.17(05) 
  - ue-uc             -.01(ns)  -.11(ns) 
  - ud-uc             -.04(ns)  -.16(ns) 
  - unexp-undes-uncon -.06(ns)  -.12(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-events (past few years)
Subject code: L06ab

StudyJames & Hughes (1982): study GB 1977
TitlePsychological Well-Being as an Outcome Variable in the Treatment of Infertility by Clomiphine.
SourceBritish Journal of Medical Psychology, 1982, Vol. 55, 357 -377
PublicFemale fertility patients, Great Britain, 1977-80
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelsuccess of fertility treatment
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent life-events (past few years), code L06ab
Operationalization
Successfull fertility treatment
1: positive: got pregnant
0: negative: did not get pregnant
Observed distributionN= a: 18, b:9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:    M = 5.7
treatment unsuccessfull: M = 4.0
- difference                +1.7
Set Image size:   

A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:   M = 2,11 SD = 0,52
treatment unsuccesfull: M = 1,43 SD = 1,73
- difference               +0,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-events (past few years)
Subject code: L06ab

StudyBorgatta et al. (1982): study US 1978
TitleAlcohol Use and Abuse, Life Crisis Events, and the Elderly.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1982, Vol. 4, 378 - 408
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/4/3/378
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027582004003007
Public18+ aged general population USA, 1978 -1980
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2969

Correlate
Author's labelLife Crisis
Page in Source 400
Our classificationCurrent life-events (past few years), code L06ab
Operationalization
Self report of negative events that happened to self 
and relatives:
a: divorce
b: unemployment
c: hospitalization
d: death
Remarks
Hospitalization of self was removed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of current life-events
Subject code: L06ab01

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelWorries index (Anxiety index)
Page in Source 166
Our classificationBurden of current life-events, code L06ab01
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on satisfaction with:
a: the amount of pressure you are under
b: the amount you worry about things
Both items scored on 1-9 rating scale, summation by 
average.
Observed distributionM = 5.9 SD = 1.6
Remarks
Both items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.
It is assumed that worries index in "…Quality of Life…" 
is the same as anxiety index in "…Priorities, 
Satisfactions and Well-being."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of current life-events
Subject code: L06ab01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelNegative events
Page in Source 50
Our classificationBurden of current life-events, code L06ab01
Operationalization
Number of negative events in the last year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.16 p < .06
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of current life-events
Subject code: L06ab01

StudyCrnic et al. (1983): study US 1981
TitleEffects of Stress and Social Support on Mothers and Premature and Fullterm Infants.
SourceChild Development, 1983, Vol. 54, 209 - 217
Public16-42 aged mothers with newborns, Seattle, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 212, 213
Our classificationBurden of current life-events, code L06ab01
Operationalization
Self report on a series of 46 life events as
- having occurred or not occurred
- whether the impact was 'good' or 'bad
- the degree of the effect (none, some, moderate, 
great)
Remarks
Life Experience Survey (LES, Sarason, Johnson, & Siegel 
1978).

No significant differences have been found between 
mothers of premature infants and mothers of full-term 
infants .

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=-.32 p < .001
Interaction with social support:
- low support + high stress: lowest happiness 
rating
- high support + high stress: higher happiness 
rating


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of current life-events
Subject code: L06ab01

StudyChiriboga (1977): study US 1974
TitleLife Event Weighting Systems: A Comparative Analysis.
SourceJournal of Psychosomatic Research, 1977, Vol. 21, 415 - 422
DOIdoi:10.1016/0022-3999(77)90063-0
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response19%
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 420
Our classificationBurden of current life-events, code L06ab01
Operationalization
48 item list of burdening life-events similar to 
schedules Holmes & Rahe (1967) and Horowitz(l976). 
Typical events are: "new job", "got married", and "loss 
of friends"

Subjects first indicated which of these events had 
happened to them in the last 3 years and how recently. 
They next
indicated their feelings about these events by 
answering to questions on each event ( "What were your 
feelings when it occurred: very happy, somewhat happy, 
somewhat unhappy,or very  
unhappy?" "Do you still think about the event:not at 
all=1, some=3, a lot=5?") Seven scores were derived 
from the responses:

a. Summed occurrence: Holmes & Rahe       weights( f.e. 
recent marriage 50       points)
b. Summed occurrence: Horowitz weights    (f.e. recent 
marriage 21 points)
c. Summed occurrence: each event one      point
d. Negative appreciation: number of       events 
experienced as unhappy
e. Positive appreciation: number of
   events experienced as happy
f. Negative preoccupation: still          thinking of 
negatively appreciated     events (sumscores)
g. Positive preoccupation: still         thinking of 
positively appreciated     events (sumscores)



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
a.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of 2-3 years ago
                              
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of up to 3 years ago
                  
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
b.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.18 p < .05
b.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of 2-3 years ago
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.20 p < .01
          life events of up to 3 years ago
                     
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
c.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of 2-3 years ago
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events up to 3 years ago
                
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.23 p < .01
d.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.33 p < .01
d.        life events of last year
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 p < .01
          life events of 2-3 years ago
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.26 p < .01
          life events of 2-3 years ago
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.23 p < .01
          life events of up to 3 year ago
          
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.37 p < .01
          life events up to 3 years ago
                         
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
e.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of 2-3 years ago
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of up to 3 years ago
                       
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.20 p < .01
f.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.29 p < .01
f.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.22 p < .01
          life events  of 2-3 years ago
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.20 p < .01
          life events of up to 3 year ago
             
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.33 p < .01
          life events of up to 3 years ago
                
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
g.        life events of last year
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
          life events of 2-3 years ago
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 p < .01
          life events of up to 3 year ago
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.17 p < .05
          life events of up to 3 years ago


Correlational finding on Happiness and Burden of current life-events
Subject code: L06ab01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappy life history
Page in Source 104
Our classificationBurden of current life-events, code L06ab01
Operationalization
Clinical rank on 'happy - unhappy life story', 
stressing auto-biographic re- ports and information for 
three years, concerning past life experiences up to the 
time of entering college.
Remarks
Assessed 6 months after entering college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.48 p < . 05
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale: AFF 3.1) 
scored each night for the highest, lowest and 
average of the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.42
Mean daily average mood : r = +.48
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Major life-change or not
Subject code: L06ab01a

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 227
Our classificationMajor life-change or not, code L06ab01a
Operationalization
Stressful life-events reported between T1 and T2 
(8-week interval).
Assessed at T2 by means of an event checklist. Ss 
indicated whether or not such events had happened to 
them. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=-.27 p < .001
T1-T2 stress by T2 happiness, controlled for T1 
happiness.

Rpc indicates the effect of stress on CHANGE IN 
HAPPINESS.

The effect of stress on change in happiness is 
unaffected by positive or negative thinking 
(interactions ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Major life-change or not
Subject code: L06ab01a

StudyTessler & Mechanic (1975): study US 1973
TitleConsumer Satisfaction with Prepaid Group Practice: A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1975, Vol. 16, 95 -113
PublicEmployees' families, two firms, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =712

Correlate
Author's labelMajor life changes
Page in Source 103
Our classificationMajor life-change or not, code L06ab01a
Operationalization
Experience of a major life change (either positive or 
negative) in the past year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-cr=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Major life-change or not
Subject code: L06ab01a

StudyThurnher (1983): study US 1969
TitleTurning Points and Developmental Change: Subjective and 'Objective' Assessments.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1983, Vol. 53, 52 - 60
PublicPeople in transition, followed 8 years, Metropolis USA, 1969-77
Sample
Non-ResponseSample attrition: 17%
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived turning point impact in life
Page in Source 56
Our classificationMajor life-change or not, code L06ab01a
Operationalization
Open questions at T2:
"Looking back over the past eight years when we first 
interviewed you, what have been the major turning 
points in your life?"
"What effect did these turning points have on you?"
The responses were each rated on a 6-point scale and 
summed. Ss were classified as reporting positive, 
neutral or negative total impact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aAoV=+ p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 report of turning point impact.
No interaction with age and sex.
No interaction with change in happiness between
T1 and T2.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dAoV=+ ns
T2 happiness by T2 report of turning point impact.
No interaction with age and sex.
No interaction with change in happiness between T1 
and T2. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: equal weight
Subject code: L06ab01b

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelLife-events
Page in Source (21)
Our classificationSummed life-events: equal weight, code L06ab01b
Operationalization
Recent critical events. 
Number of positive and negative events mentioned. 
Some illustrative events are:
a. new lover
b. marriage
c. birth of child
d. separation
e. change of job
f. death or severe illnes of intimate
g. none of these

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.36 p < .01
a. r=-.28
b. r=-.05
c. r=-.01
d. r=-.22
e. r=-.05
f. r=-.06
g. r=+.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: equal weight
Subject code: L06ab01b

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelStress
Page in Source 34
Our classificationSummed life-events: equal weight, code L06ab01b
Operationalization
6-item index of stress
(CAMPBELL et al 1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-ar=.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: equal weight
Subject code: L06ab01b

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study US 2002
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
PublicStudents, University of Illinois, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-ResponseNot reported.
Respondents N =193

Correlate
Author's labelEvent Balance
Page in Source 352
Our classificationSummed life-events: equal weight, code L06ab01b
Operationalization
Number of 20 specific objective positive events 
experienced minus the number of objective negative 
events; scores ranging from -9 to +10. Events not 
reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aDM=-
Balance of positive and negative events among:
- very happy               1.3  (N=25)
- happy                    2.9  (N=42)
             Difference   -1.6

- moderately happy         1.5  (N=75)
- slightly happy           0.4  (N=43)
- unhappy                  0.6  (N=8)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aBeta=+.38 p < .001
Positive linear relation, but the very happy have 
a lower balance than the happy.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: equal weight
Subject code: L06ab01b

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelTotal Life Events
Page in Source 171
Our classificationSummed life-events: equal weight, code L06ab01b
Operationalization
Life events were assessed with a 65-item inventory 
developed by revising the SRRS (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) 
and adding positive life events.


Residents were asked two questions about each event 
listed on the inventory
-first, whether the event had taken place in their 
lives during the last year
-second, to rate, whether the event "turned out" 
positive,(PE), negative, (NE),
had both positive and negative outcomes,
or had no effect on them.Events rated as having both 
positive and negative outcomes were not scored for PE 
and NE (about 10%).
They were counted together with the total number of 
events reported, TE.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: equal weight
Subject code: L06ab01b

StudyLowenthal & Boler (1965): study US 1962
TitleVoluntary vs. Involuntary Social Withdrawal.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1965, Vol. 20, 363 - 371
Public60+aged, San Francisco, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response55%, 22% refusals, 9% deaths, 22% unattainable
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 367
Our classificationSummed life-events: equal weight, code L06ab01b
Operationalization
Deprivation measured by an index of:
- compulsary retirement in past 7 yrs
- widowhood in past 7 yrs
- interviewer rating of physical disability

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bG=-.55 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.64 (ns)
not withdrawn: G' = -.40 (ns)
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.70 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.65 (01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.90 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.51 (05)

Social withdrawal measured by report of reduced 
participation in organisation, and less contacts 
with family and friends.

G' based on proportion unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelLife events
Page in Source 215
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
Adapted Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview ( 
PERI, Dohrenwend 1978). This scedule involves 74 
possible life-events of which Ss indicate whether it 
happened, when and how often.                           
  Typical events are: failed exam, got new job, 
suffered injury, took up new hobby.                     
            The scores were weighted and summed.
Administered at T2. Timeframe T1-T2
(26 months) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.24 p < .01
All events
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 ns
Favourable events
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.17 p < .05
Adverse events                                 

Happiness T2 by events between T1-T2, controling 
T1 happiness.
ß's can be interpreted as indicating the effects 
of live-events on CHANGE IN HAPPINESS.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyGehmacher (1990a): study AT 1989
TitleStress und Stressbewältigung. ( Stress and Coping).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1990, Nr 89231, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gehmacher_e_2009A.pdf
PublicMilitary male cadres, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1296

Correlate
Author's labelStressfull life-events (current)
Page in Source 15
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
5 item index of recent life-events
- married (3 points)
- divorced (4 points)
- change at work (3 points)
- close relative died (2 points)
- other stressfull events (max 3) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-ar=-.02
Report of stressfull life-events in childhood is 
more sizably related to happiness (r=-.17)
See L 1.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyPayne (1975): study GB 1972
TitleRecent Life Changes and The Reporting of Psychological States.
SourceJournal of Psychosomatic Research, 1975, Vol. 19, 99 -103
DOIDOI:10.1016/0022-3999(75)90055-0
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of recentlife changes
Page in Source 101
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
Adapted Schedule of Recent Experiences
(see Holmes & Rahe, 1967), scored for the past year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.06
Index of Negative Affects: G = +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyPesznecker & McNell (1975): study US Washington 1970
TitleRelationship among Health Habits, Social Assets, Psychologic Well-Being, Life Change and Alterations in Health Status.
SourceNursing Research, 1975, Vol. 4, 442 - 447
Public18+ aged, general public, Renton, Washington, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response55%; 185 unattainable, 12 incomplete, 412 refusals.
Respondents N =536

Correlate
Author's labelLife change
Page in Source 445
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
Number of life change units during the past two years 
as assessed by a modified form of the Schedule of 
Recent Events (see Holmes & Rahe, 1967)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-cr=-.08 ns
Happiness hardly differentiates the relation 
between life change and change in health. 
Correlations among happy and unhappy are 
respectively +.27 and +.35 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyFiske & Chiriboga (1985): study US 1969
TitleThe Interweaving of Societal and Personal Change in Adulthood.
SourceMunnichs, J.M.;et al;Eds.: "Life-Span and Change in a Gerontal Perspective", Academic Press, 1985, New York, USA, 177 - 209
PublicPeople in transition, followed 5 years,USA, 1969-1974
Sample
Non-ResponseSample attrition: 12,5%
Respondents N =189

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier and current stress
Page in Source 193
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
Summed reported negative life events in the past year, 
weighted by how much one has thought of the event. 
Events reported on a 138 item checklist similar to that 
of Holmes & Rahe (1964)
Remarks
MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMs' 
                  STRESS   STRESS

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- all             M=1.74   M=1.74       0      0 
FEMALES                         
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM= ns
- all             M=1.59   M=1.76    + .17  -. 85

MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMt' 
                  STRESS   STRESS
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- young           M=1.92   M=1.68    - .26  +1.30
- old             M=1.67   M=1.90    + .23  -1.15
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- young
- old  

MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMt' 
                  STRESS   STRESS
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM= ns
- early           M=1.83   M=1.75    - .08  +0.40
- one time        M=1.71   M=1.69    - .02  + .10
- late            M=1.56   M=1.75    + .19  - .85
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- early
- on time
- late

MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMt' 
                  STRESS   STRESS
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- T1 all          M=1.95   M=1.75    - .20  +1.00
- T2 all          M=1.56   M=1.71    + .16  - .80
- T3 all          M=1.70   M=1.73    + .03  - .15
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM= ns
- T1 all          M=1.77   M=1.70    - .07  + .35
- T2 all          M=1.67   M=1.90    + .23  -1.15
- T3 all          M=1.39   M=1.85    + .46  -2.30

MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMt' 
                  STRESS   STRESS
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM= p < .05
- T1 young        M=2.58   M=1.64    - .94  +4.70
- T1 old          M=1.71   M=2.10    + .39  -1.95
- T2 young        M=1.50   M=1.68    + .18  - .90
- T2 old          M=1.58   M=1.80    + .22  -1.10
- T3 young        M=1.67   M=1.71    + .04  - .20
- T3 old          M=1.71   M=1.80    + .09  - .45
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- T1 young                              
- T1 old          
- T2 young                              
- T2 old         
- T3 young                          
- T3 old            

MALES             LOW      HIGH      DM'    DMt' 
                  STRESS   STRESS
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM= p < .05
- T1 early        M=2.35   M=1.88    - .47  +2.35
- T1 on time      M=1.64   M=1.78    + .14  - .70
- T1 late         M=1.55   M=1.68    + .13  - .65
- T2 early        M=1.55   M=1.88    + .33  -1.65
- T2 on time      M=1.64   M=1.71    + .07  - .35
- T2 late         M=1.44   M=1.63    + .19  - .85
- T3 early        M=1.60   M=1.50    - .10  + .50
- T3 on time      M=1.86   M=1.57    - .29  +1.45
- T3 late         M=1.67   M=1.95    + .28  -1.40 
FEMALES
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbDM=
- T1 early                             
- T1 on time        
- T1 late                            
- T2 early           
- T2 on time                         
- T2 late                                    
- T3 early         
- T3 on time                          
- T3 late           

-Mean happiness scores over 5 years (average  T1,
 T2, T3) and at T1, T2 and T3 separately, rated
 on a 3-point scale : 1:very happy, 2: pretty
 happy, 3:not too happy
-Blank coloms/rows indicate insignificant
 difference.
-Timeliness of transition was measured by the
 time at which the transitions,the Ss faced at
 T1, had really occurred.
-Young= high school seniors+ newly weds
 Old  = middle aged parents+ elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: standard weights
Subject code: L06ab01c

StudyLowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelRecent stress
Page in Source 298
Our classificationSummed life-events: standard weights, code L06ab01c
Operationalization
Number of challenging life-events in the last few 
years. 

Assessed by adjusted Holmes & Rahe (1967) inventory. 
Last few years were scored apart. These scores were 
added.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=+.12 ns
positive events
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
negative events
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
combined score


Correlational finding on Happiness and Summed life-events: weighted in context
Subject code: L06ab01d

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelLife-Quality
Our classificationSummed life-events: weighted in context, code L06ab01d
Operationalization
Life-quality was evaluated for burdingness by an 
expert-panel on the basis of information concerning the 

living conditions, health, social contacts, etc of the 
Ss.
The amount of burdening accompaning an condition was 
judged against what could be expected for the social 
and economic group to which the Ss belonged.
Assessed at T3(1977).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.44 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 life-quality
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.45 p < .01
T3 happiness by T3 life-quality
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.31
T3 happiness by T3 life-quality.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model also 
involving neuroticism, self esteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner and adequacy of 
coping,  
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cßL=+.33
T3 happiness by T3 life-quality.
Simplified model (ommitting intimacy and coping)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelAdverse Events
Page in Source 15+51
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Number of adverse events mentioned on a 93-item 
questionnaire on 'events and experiences in the last 
two years.
Typical items are:
- you took up a new sparetime activity
- you had a financial crisis
- you started a new job
- you failed an important exam
- you ended an extra marital affair
- you made new friends
- you were robbed
Each item rated 'yes' or 'no'
Error EstimatesEstimated validity coefficient 0.90

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.28 p < .05
1981-83 Adverse events by 1983 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=-.33 p < .05
1981-83 Adverse events by 1983 Happiness: 
disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlation were obtained assuming 
validity coefficient of 0.90 for adverse events 
and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelAdverse events
Page in Source 76
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Number of adverse events mentioned on a 93-item 
questionnaire on 'events and experiences in the last 
two years.
Typical items are:
- you took up a new sparetime activity
- you had a financial crisis
- you started a new job
- you failed an important exam
- you ended an extra marital affair
- you made new friends
- you were robbed
Each item rated 'yes' or 'no'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=-.25 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyXu & Wu (1988): study CN 1986
TitleA preliminary survey of the psychological and social situation of the elderly in Beijing.
SourceInternational Journal of Mental Health, 1988, Vol. 16, 51 - 66
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/41344468
Public55+ aged, Being China, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =175

Correlate
Author's labelstresses
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
47 item inventory of events in the following areas: 
marital and family relations (9), health and problems 
of daily living (8), work and study (10), sons and 
daughters (8), social contacts 98) and misfortunes in 
life (4). Events were rated as positive or negative by 
means of different rating scales.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aDM=-


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyFabricatore et al. (2000): study US 1995
TitlePersonal Spirituality as a Moderator of the Relationship between Stressors and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Psychology and Theology, 2000, Vol. 28, 221 - 228
PublicStudents, religious affiliated college, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelStressors ( hassles and life events)
Page in Source 223
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ):83-item index 
containing descriptions of stressors, some 
school-related and some not school-related
Observed distributionM=29,8; SD=8,6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.25 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyFromm et al. (1996): study US 1991
TitlePositive and Negative Psycholosocial Sequelae of Bone Marrow Transplantation: Implications for Quality of Life Assessment.
SourceJournal of Behavioral Medicine, 1996, Vol. 19, 221 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/ BF01857767
PublicAdult bone marrow transplantation survivors, USA. 1991
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =172

Correlate
Author's labelpositive and negative sequale
Page in Source 233
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Self-report on open questions about changes following 
treatment:
a: Self-sequelae: 
   Changes specifically related to the BMT survivor
b: Family-sequelae:
   Changes  related to the respondent's family
c: Other sequelae: 
   Changes related to outsiders

Responses within each of this three categories were 
categorized as positive or negative
Examples: 
- positive self:   more spirituality
- negative self:   isolation
- positive family: more support
- negative family: financial constrait
- positive other:  increased contacts
- negative other:  lack of empaphy
Observed distribution% statements: - positive 90%, negative 86% about self - positive 89%, negative 74% about family - positive 49%, negative 43% about others
Remarks
Greater appreciation of life mentioned by 47% (coded as 
positive self)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns
Number of positive changes
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.41 p < .01
Number of negative changes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyRichards et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleThe Influence of Serious Personal Losses or Misfortunes on Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1984, Vol. 12, 67 - 73
DOIDOI: 10.1002/1520-6629(198401)12:1<67::AID-JCOP2290120109>3.0.CO;2-B
Public25-59 aged, general public, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelSerious personal loss or misfortune
Page in Source 69
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Have you suffered a serious 
personal loss or misfortune in the past year? Zero, 
one, two or more losses."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=-.24 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-br=-.24 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-bBeta=-.19 p < .01
ß controled for physical activity, self-perceived 
health, social integration and marital status.Same 
for Blackes and Whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelNegative Events
Page in Source 175
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Selfrating:
Life events were assessed with a 65-item inventory 
developed by revising the SRRS (Holmes and Rahe 1967) 
and adding positive life event

Ss were asked two questions about each event listed on 
the directory
-first, whether the event had taken  place in their 
lives, during the past year.
-second, to rate, whether the event turned out positive 
(PE), negative, (NE), had both positive and negative 
outcomes or had no effect on them.
Events rated as having both positive and negative 
outcomes were not scored for PE and NE (about 10%).
Observed distributionM=2.52 SD=3.46
Error EstimatesInternal consistency: average intercorrelation +.83
Remarks
correlation PE & NE r=-.22  p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.26 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of negative life-events
Subject code: L06ab01e

StudyMartinson et al. (1985): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleLife Change, Health Status and Life Satisfaction: A Reconsideration.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 301 - 313
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00415128
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelNegative life change
Page in Source 309
Our classificationSum of negative life-events, code L06ab01e
Operationalization
Direct question: "Is there anything that has happened 
to you or your family recently that has unfavorably 
affected your well-being or happiness?"
0: no  
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-
r of different age groups:
under 30 : -.23          30-49   : -.24
50-64    : -.19          over 64 : -.18

Signs changed by us.
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-
ß of different age groups:
under 30 : -.15  05     30-49   : -.20  05
50-64    : -.14  05     over 64 : -.06  ns

ß controlled for: degree of disability, days lost 
due to illness, powerlessness, community 
solidarity, recent migrant, contact with friends, 
contact with relatives, organizational 
affiliation, church attendance, separated / 
divorced, sex, unemployed, family income, 
education. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01f

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelFavourable Events
Page in Source 15+51
Our classificationSum of positive life-events, code L06ab01f
Operationalization
Number of favourable events mentioned on a 93-item 
questionnaire on 'events and experiences in the last 
two years.
Typical items are:
- you took up a new sparetime activity
- you had a financial crisis
- you started a new job
- you failed an important exam
- you ended an extra marital affair
- you made new friends
- you were robbed
Each item rated 'yes' or 'no'
Error EstimatesEstimated validity coefficient 0.90

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.07 p < .05
1981-83 Favourable Events by 1983 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.08 p < .05
1981-83 Favourable Events by 1983 Happiness: 
disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlation were obtained assuming 
validity coefficient of 0.90 for favourable events 
and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01f

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelFavourable events
Page in Source 76
Our classificationSum of positive life-events, code L06ab01f
Operationalization
Number of favourable events mentioned on a 93-item 
questionnaire on 'events and experiences in the last 
two years.
Typical items are:
- you took up a new sparetime activity
- you had a financial crisis
- you started a new job
- you failed an important exam
- you ended an extra marital affair
- you made new friends
- you were robbed
Each item rated 'yes' or 'no'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01f

StudyXu & Wu (1988): study CN 1986
TitleA preliminary survey of the psychological and social situation of the elderly in Beijing.
SourceInternational Journal of Mental Health, 1988, Vol. 16, 51 - 66
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/41344468
Public55+ aged, Being China, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =175

Correlate
Author's labelHappy events
Page in Source 60
Our classificationSum of positive life-events, code L06ab01f
Operationalization
47 item inventory of events in the following areas: 
marital and family relations (9), health and problems 
of daily living (8), work and study (10), sons and 
daughters (8), social contacts (8) and misfortunes in 
life (4). Events were rated as positive or negative by 
means of different rating scales

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aDM=+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01f

StudyFromm et al. (1996): study US 1991
TitlePositive and Negative Psycholosocial Sequelae of Bone Marrow Transplantation: Implications for Quality of Life Assessment.
SourceJournal of Behavioral Medicine, 1996, Vol. 19, 221 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/ BF01857767
PublicAdult bone marrow transplantation survivors, USA. 1991
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =172

Correlate
Author's labelpositive and negative sequale
Page in Source 233
Our classificationSum of positive life-events, code L06ab01f
Operationalization
Self-report on open questions about changes following 
treatment:
a: Self-sequelae: 
   Changes specifically related to the BMT survivor
b: Family-sequelae:
   Changes  related to the respondent's family
c: Other sequelae: 
   Changes related to outsiders

Responses within each of this three categories were 
categorized as positive or negative
Examples: 
- positive self:   more spirituality
- negative self:   isolation
- positive family: more support
- negative family: financial constrait
- positive other:  increased contacts
- negative other:  lack of empaphy
Observed distribution% statements: - positive 90%, negative 86% about self - positive 89%, negative 74% about family - positive 49%, negative 43% about others
Remarks
Greater appreciation of life mentioned by 47% (coded as 
positive self)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.04 ns
Number of positive changes
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.41 p < .01
Number of negative changes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sum of positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01f

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelPositive events
Page in Source 173
Our classificationSum of positive life-events, code L06ab01f
Operationalization
Selfrating:
Life events were assessed with a 65-iteminventory 
developed by revising the SRRS (Holmes and Rahe 1967) 
and adding positive life events.

Ss were asked two questions about each event, listed on 
the directory
-whether the event had taken place in  
their lives during the past year
-to rate, whether the event turned out positive, PE, 
negative,NE, had both positive and negative outcomes or 
had no effect on them.
Events, rated as having both positive and negative 
outcomes were not scored for PE an NE.
Observed distributionM= 10,08 SD= 6,95
Error Estimatesinternal consistency: average intercorrelation +.85
Remarks
correlation PE and NE r=-.22 p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.25 p < .001
rpc controlled for negative events score (NE)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudyHeadey & Veenhoven (1989): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDoes Happiness Induce a Rosy Outlook?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.:"How Harmful is Happiness?", Universitaire Pers Rotterdam, 1989, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 106 - 127
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/89c-full.pdf
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 6 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1981-87
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T4: 31%
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier life-events
Page in Source 118
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Earlier net life-events scored on the standard life 
events inventory. (Henderson 1981).

Measure A: favorable events weighted +1 and negative 
events -1.
Measure B: Weighting was based on the Ss' own ratings 
on a 0-10 point scale. 1: extremely distressing ..
10: extremely satisfying.

Assessed over (T2-T3) and (T3-T4)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.22 p < .05
Measure A: Estimated  causal EFFECT ON LATER 
HAPPINESS of earlier life-events (bottum-up).

Happiness T3 and T4, Life events T2-T3 and T3-T4.

O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.18 p < .05
Estimated  causal EFFECT OF EARLIER HAPPINESS on 
later life-events (top-down).
Happiness assessed at T3, Life-events T3-T4.

BL is the path-coefficient in a four wave LISREL 
model. T1 sex, age, SES, extraversion and 
neuroticism are controlled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelNegative Life-events
Page in Source 89
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Over the last year, did you 
experience mainly positive or negative life-events?"
(rated on a 5 point scale)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.19
Data T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events; 3 yrs (free recall)
Page in Source 661
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to recall and list as many positive 
(or negative) life-events as they could in 3 minutes.
- T1: events in the last 3 years
- T2: events in the 3 years before T1. 
Random order of positive- and negative tests.

Assessed at T1 and T2 (11 month interval) The period in 
which the reported events took place is the same at 
both assesments.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar=+.30 p < .05
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aDM=+
positive recall     
- happy Ss:      T1: 9.5   T2: 11.3    
- unhappy Ss     T1: 7.8   T2:  8.2
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aDM=-
negative recall     
- happy Ss:      T1: 5.6   T2: 6.1    
- unhappy Ss     T1: 6.5   T2: 6.3
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.22 p < .n2
rpc controled for current mood
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aDM=+
recall balance    
- happy Ss:      T1: 4.0   T2: 5.2    
- unhappy Ss     T1: 1.2   T2: 1.9
     
Time-effect ns
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.50 p < .001
T1 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.45 p < .01
T1 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.49 p < .001
T2 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events; 3 yrs (checklist)
Page in Source 661
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss completed a checklist of 80 events on which they 
marked those that had occurred in: 
- T1: events in the last 3 years.
- T2: events in the 3 years before T1. 

Half of the events on the list were 'concrete'; f.e. 
got married or fell ill.
The other half was 'interpretative', f.e. improved 
character or received support

Half of the events were 'positive', 
the other half 'negative.

Assessed at T1 and T2 (11 month interval). 
At both assesments events in the same period were 
enumerated. 
Remarks
Balance of 'concrete' events:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.47 p < .001
- T1 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.37 p < .01
- T1 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.25 ns
- T2 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.19 ns
- T2 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events

Balance of 'evaluative' events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.65 p < .001
- T1 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.41 p < .01
- T1 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.60 p < .001
- T2 happiness with T1 balance of recalled events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.39 p < .01
- T2 happiness with T2 balance of recalled events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events; last yr(free recall)
Page in Source 661
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss were asked to recall and list as many positive (or 
negative) events as they could in 3 minutes, that had 
occurred since T1 (11 month ago).

Ramdom order of positive- or negative tests.

Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.27 ns
T1 happiness (earlier)
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.24 ns
T2 happiness (current)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events; last yr(checklist)
Page in Source 661
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss completed a checklist of 80 events on which they 
marked those that had occurred in: 
- T1: events in the last 3 years.
- T2: events in the 3 years before T1. 

Half of the events on the list were 'concrete'; f.e. 
got married or fell ill.
The other half was 'interpretative', f.e. improved 
character or received support

Half of the events were 'positive', 
the other half 'negative.

Assessed at T1 and T2 (11 month interval). 
At both assesments events in the same period were 
enumerated. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.20 ns
T1 happiness (earlier)
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.15 ns
T2 happiness (current)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelbalance of life events
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar=+.28 p < .05
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.21 ns
rpc controlled for current mood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of events
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar= ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc= ns
rpc controled for current mood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /1
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events (free recall)
Page in Source 657
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to recall and list as many positive 
and negative life-events over the last three years as 
they could in 3 minutes.

Ramdom order of positive- and negative tests. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.49 p < .001
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-arpc=+.47 p < .001
rpc controled for current mood
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.23 p < .01
ß controled for balance of events as recorded by 
means of checklist (both balance of 
'concrete'life-events and balance of 
'interpretated' life-events)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /1
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events (checklist)
Page in Source 657
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss completed a checklist of 80 events, on which they 
marked those that had occurred in three time-periods ( 
past 3 years, past year or past month).
 Half the events on the list were 'concrete' f.e.: got 
married or fell ill; the other half 'interpretative': 
f.e.: improved character or received support. 

Half the events were positive; the other half negative


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar=+.44
Balance of concrete events
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.34 p < .001
Balance of concrete events
- positive contrete events only: r= +.28 (05)
- negative concrete events only: r= -.34 (01)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.36
rpc controled for current mood
  
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.36
ß controled for interpretation of events 
(checklist) and balance of free recalled events.
       
    
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.63 p < .001
Balance of interpretated events
- positive interpretated events: r= +.51 (001)
- negative interpretated events: r= - 40 (001)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar=+.65
Balance of interpreted events
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.59
rpc controled for current mood
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.51
ß controled for incidence of concrete events 
(checklist) and balance of free recalled events.
      
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+
Amount of positive events:
- correlation with happiness among the happy
  - positive concrete events:       r = +.41
  - positive interpretative events: r = +.27
- correlation with happiness among the unhappy
  - positive concrete events:       r = +.25
  - positive interpretative events: r = +.28
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=-
Amount of negative events:
- correlation with happiness among the happy
  - negative concrete events:       r = +.00
  - negative interpretative events: r = -.02
- correlation with happiness among the unhappy
  - negative concrete events:       r = -.32
  - negative interpretative events: r = -.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology undergraduate, students, University of Illinois, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =420

Correlate
Author's labelBalance of recalled life-events (free recall)
Page in Source 655
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to recall and list as many positive 
and negative life-events as they could in 3 minutes.

The order of positive and negative recal tests was 
randomly varied across groups of Ss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ar=+.25
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.30 p < .001
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.18 p < .001
rpc controled for current mood

Regression analyses also indicate that there are 
no interactions between happiness and mood in 
predicting life-event recal (data not reported) 
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-arpc=+.18 p < .01
 rpc controled for current mood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudyArmsden & Greenberg (1987): study US 1986
TitleThe Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual Differences and their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence.
SourceJournal of Youth and Adolescence, 1987, Vol. 16, 427 - 454
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF02202939
PublicUndergraduate students, USA, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's labelLife change
Page in Source 437
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Selfreport on 47 item list of events scored for:
a) whether it occured in the past year, and if so,
b) type of impact(positive or negative) and 
c) degree of impact (some,moderate or great). The 
scores used here are impact ratings for positively and 
negatively
rated events separately.
Remarks
Life Events Checklist (Johnson & McCutcheon 1980)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=+38
Perceived impact of positively rated events
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=-33
Perceived impact of negatively rated events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Subject code: L06ab01g

StudyMagnus & Diener (1991): study US 1986
TitleA Longitudinal Analysis of Personality, Life Events, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, 1991, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/magnus_k_1991.pdf
PublicUniversity students, USA, followed 4 years 1986-1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelMemory
Page in Source 26
Our classificationBalance of negative- and positive life-events, code L06ab01g
Operationalization
Ss were asked to recall as many as positive and 
negative events in their life as possible. The 
difference between the number of positive and negative 
events was  used.
Remarks
Assesed at T1(1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=+.40 p < .05
T1 memory by T2 happiness
M-FH-g-rdp-v-10-ar=+.16 ns
T1 memory by T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelTwo or more falls in the past 12 months
Page in Source 253
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Self report on whether to experience two or more falls 
in the past 12 months or not. 
1: two or more falls 
0: less than two or no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.5 p < .05
CI95 [0.4-0.8]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelBonus amount
Page in Source 2
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
amount of bonus in $
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.18 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
- % bonus spend for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelAssaulted
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
self report of being assaulted during the last year 
yes/no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .0001
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.05 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelRobbed
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
self report of being robbed in the past year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.20 p < .001
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.19 ns
Rocheter: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.18 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977 /2
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners and non-lottery winners, Illinois, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =108

Correlate
Author's labelHaving won a major lottery
Page in Source 921
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Non-winners vs lottery winners.
1. Lottery winners: won $50.000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-response 48%.
2. Non-winners: 86 people living close
   to the lottery winners.
   N=86, non-response 56%. Consisting
   of:  - buyers of lottery tickets
          (N=59)
        - non-buyers (N=27).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aAoV=+ ns
Lottery winners:        M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Non-winners/buyers:     M=3.81  Mt'=7.62
Non-winners/non-buyers: M=4.00  Mt'=8.00

Unaffected by coverstory (lottery focus or 
everyday life focus).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners, paralyzed accident victims, and controls, Illinois USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelHaving won a major lottery
Page in Source 921
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Major lottery winners vs accident victims and controls.
1. Lottery winners: won $50.000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-response 48%.
2. Accident victims: 11 paraplegic and
   18 quadraplegic accident victims,
   drawn from the fulltime patient
   population of a rehabilitation
   institute.
   N=29, non-response 15%.
3. Controls: 22 individuals, living in
   approximately the same areas of the
   city as the lottery winners.
   N=22, non-reponse 41%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cDM=+
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Winners - control difference  ns
Winners - victim difference   s (p<.01)

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls interviewed by phone.
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cAoV=+
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Winners - control difference  ns
Winners - victim difference   s (p<.01)

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls interviewed by phone.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyBrickman et al. (1978): study US 1977
TitleLottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 36, 917 - 927
PublicLottery winners, paralyzed accident victims, and controls, Illinois USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response45.5%
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an accident victim
Page in Source 921
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Accident victims vs major lottery winners and controls. 
             
1. Accident victims: 11 paraplegic and
   18 quadraplegic accident victims,
   drawn from the fulltime patient
   population of a rehabilitation
   institute.
   N=29, non-response 15%.
2. Lottery winners: won $50000 or more
   in Illinois State Lottery.
   N=22, non-reponse 48%.
3. Controls: 22 individuals, living in
   approximately the same areas of the
   city as the lottery winners.
   N=22, non-reponse 41%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cAoV=- p < .01
Accident victims: M=2.96  Mt'=5.92
Lottery winners:  M=4.00  Mt'=8.00
Controls:         M=3.82  Mt'=7.64

Both difference with lottery winners and controls 
significant.

Accident victims interviewed face-to-face; winners 
and controls by phone.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyHetherington et al. (1976): study US 1974
TitleDivorced Fathers.
SourceThe Family Coordinator, 1976, Vol. 25, 417 - 428
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/582856
PublicParents, followed 3 years, USA, 197?-7?
Sample
Non-Response33 %
Respondents N =96

Correlate
Author's labelTime since divorced
Page in Source 423
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at T1, T2 and T3
T1: two months after divorce
T2: one year after divorce
T3: three years after divorce

Happiness assessed by focussed interviews, the tapes of 
which were rated by two independent raters.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-se-fi-?-5-aDM=+
Happiness increased steadily over the two year 
period, both in males and females.
Despite this improvement the divorced parents 
remained less happy than married parents.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific current life-events
Subject code: L06ab02

StudyGraney (1973): study US 1967
TitleThe Affect Balance Scale and Old Age.
SourcePaper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, 1973, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelGains in social status over 4 years
Page in Source 7
Our classificationSpecific current life-events, code L06ab02
Operationalization
Comparison of T1 and T2.
A significant move to a fully independent household, 
marriage, and taking paying employment were defined as 
status gains. Institutionalization, the death of 
supportive family members and friends, and recent 
geographic dispersion of supportive children were 
defined as losses. Ss classified as having experienced: 
losses / no change / gains

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.13 ns
At T1 all Ss were in good health, able to care for 
themselves and lived alone.
Happiness assessed at T2.

% happy at T2:
- losses     22%
- no change  28%
- gains      40%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelDeath of other family member than spouse in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
1 death of family member other than spouse in last year
0 not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.09  Beta=-.18
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=±
West: Beta=-.08  Beta=+.02

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelHealth
Page in Source 450
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
a) Poor health: 1 yes, 0 no
b) Poor health of other household member: 1 yes, 0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.43
a) poor health, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.43
a) poor health, women
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.15
b) poor health of other household member, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.15
b) poor health of other household member, women

All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- children
- age
- employment status
- income in region
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelDeath of an intimate
Page in Source 450
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Death in household since last interview: 1 yes, 0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.02
men only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.01
women only

All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- children
- age
- employment status
- income in region
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath of father
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of father
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 148, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.25 p < .05
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.16 ns
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income
- log personal income
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.16 ns
B controlled for
- death of intimates before 1999
- real household income per household member
- mean income over time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath mother
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of mother
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 300, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.27 p < .00
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.21 p < .00
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income
- log personal income
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.21 p < .01
B controlled for
- death of intimates before 1999
- real household income per household member
- mean income over time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath partner
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of partner
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 89, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.89 p < .00
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.67 p < .00
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income
- log personal income

Stronger when income is measured using:
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.66 p < .01
B controlled for
- death of intimates before 1999
- real household income per household member
- mean income over time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath sibling
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of sibling
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 161, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.01 ns
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 ns
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income and mean income

Stronger when income is measured using:
- log personal income
- observation of payslip and house prices

Coefficient is positive when income is measured 
using:
- household income one year ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 ns
- Controlled by death of peer before 1999, real 
household income per capita and mean income over 
time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath child
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of child
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 49, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.40 ns
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year

B's controlled for:
- real household income per capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.43 ns
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income

Weaker when income is measured using:
- log personal income
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.43 ns
- Controlled by death of peer before 1999, real 
household income per capita and mean income over 
time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath friend
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of friend
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 139, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.10 ns
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.09 ns
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income
- log personal income

Stronger when income is measured using:
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.11 ns
B controlled for
- death of intimates before 1999
- real household income per household member
- mean income over time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath of intimitate long ago
Page in Source 29
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Death 12 years or more ago of:
a: child
b: spouce
c: father
d: mother
e: friend
f: sibling

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.39 ns
child
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.18 ns
partner
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.01 ns
dad
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
mum
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.29 p < .01
friend
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
sibling

B's controlled for:
- real household income (per household member)
- mean income over time 
- death of intimitate in previous year

B's mean point happiness on a scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse death
Page in Source 11, 28, 43
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
Change of marital status reported at T1 and T2, from 
'married'  to 'widowed'.
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution2,3% yes, 97,7% no.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=-.16 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by death of spouse

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement wanted           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyLehman et al. (1987): study US 1983
TitleLong-Term Effects of Losing a Spouse or Child in a Motor Vehicle Crash.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 52, 218 - 231
PublicBereaved and controls, USA, 1983
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelLoss of spouse in traffic accident
Page in Source 223
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
1: lost spouse in a traffic accident 4 to 7 years ago.
0: control group matched for sociodemographics at time 
of accident.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eDM=- p < .00
1: M       = 2,94
0: M       = 2,27
-difference -0,67
O-V-c-oq-n-5-aDM=- p < .01
1: M       = 2,64
0: M       = 1,51
-difference -1,13
O-V-c-oq-n-5-a
Higher mean scores represent worse psychological 
well-being. Hence bereaved are less happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of an intimate
Subject code: L06ab02a

StudyLehman et al. (1987): study US 1983 /1
TitleLong-Term Effects of Losing a Spouse or Child in a Motor Vehicle Crash.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 52, 218 - 231
PublicBereaved and controls, USA, 1983
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelBereaved parent
Page in Source 223
Our classificationDeath of an intimate, code L06ab02a
Operationalization
1: lost child in a traffic accident 4 to 7 years ago
0: control group matched for sociodemographics at time 
of accident.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eDM=- p < .10
1: M       = 2,71
0: M       = 2,43
-difference -0,28
O-V-c-oq-n-5-aDM=- ns
1: M       = 1,76
0: M       = 1,63
-difference -0,13
O-V-c-oq-n-5-a
Higher mean scores represent worse psychological 
well-being. Hence bereaved are less happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to life-events
Subject code: L06ac

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelSocially desirable events
Page in Source 175
Our classificationAttitudes to life-events, code L06ac
Operationalization
Expertrating:
15 advanced clinical psychologie graduate students 
rated the social desirability of each event.
Scores were given for the number of socially desirable 
and undesirable events based on the events designated 
as such by the 15 judges. Events were coded as either 
desirable or undesirable when at least 10 of the 15 
judges agreed on their ratings and no more than 1 judge 
gave the opposite rating. In this manner, 23 events 
were coded desirable and 30 undesirable; the remainder 
were called ambiguous and not included in these scores.
Error EstimatesInterjudge reliability: r=+.79 (p<.05)
Remarks
Correlation desirable-undesirable events: r=-.33 
(p<.001)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.23
controlled for undesirable events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to life-events
Subject code: L06ac

StudyBlock & Zautra (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Distress in a Community: A Test of the Effects of Life Events.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 165 - 180
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00896365
PublicGeneral public, 3 cities, Arizona, USA, 1979
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response11 %
Respondents N =537

Correlate
Author's labelSocially undesirable events
Page in Source 175
Our classificationAttitudes to life-events, code L06ac
Operationalization
Expertrating:
15 advanced clinical psychologie graduate students 
rated the social desirability of each event.
Scores were given for the number of socially desirable 
and undesirable events based on the events designated 
as such by the 15 judges. Events were coded as either 
desirable or undesirable when at least 10 of the 15 
judges agreed on their ratings and no more than 1 judge 
gave the opposite rating. In this manner, 23 events 
were coded desirable and 30 undesirable; the remainder 
were called ambiguous and not included in these scores.
Error Estimatesinter-judge reliability +.79 p<.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.22 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.28 p < .001
controlled for desirable events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate of change
Subject code: L06ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelOrganizational change
Our classificationClimate of change, code L06ad
Operationalization
A president and council form of administration was 
replaced by team governance.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aE²=+.23 p < .01
T1 (before change)         Mt'= 8.3
T2 (2 years after change)  Mt'= 8.5
T3 (4 years after change)  Mt'= 8.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Climate of change
Subject code: L06ad

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelLiving in a period of national crisis
Page in Source 82-85
Our classificationClimate of change, code L06ad
Operationalization
Re-interview during Cuban missile crisis in October 
1962 (T2).
This crisis involved a political con- frontation 
between the USA and the USSR and might have resulted in 
a (nuclear) war. 
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.13 p < . 05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness.
Most Ss got slightly happier.
Unaffected by worrying about the crisis.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= -
Index of Positive Affects only: G' = -.23 (01)
Stronger among Ss who were worrying about the 
crisis.
No relationship with the Index of Negative 
Affects.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 18 questions:

How have things been going in the past few weeks? Please tick one of the two boxes for each of the questions below:
A Have you been anoyed with someone?
B Have you ever felt lonely or remote from people?
C Have you ever felt that things were going your way?
D Have you ever felt very worried
E Have you ever felt pleased because you've got friends?
F Have you ever been afraid of what might happen?
G Have you ever felt particularly excited or interested in something?
H Have you ever felt depressed or unhappy?
I Have you ever been full of energy?
J Have you ever felt really tired?
K Have you ever felt so restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
L Have you ever felt that you were really enjoying yourself?
M Have you ever felt really cheerfull?
N Have you ever felt like crying?
O Have you ever felt at the top of the world?
P Have you ever felt confident about the future?
Q Have you ever felt bored?
R Have you ever felt pleased about having accomplished something?

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation: (C+E+G+I+L+M+O+P+R) - (A+B+D+F+H+J+K+N+Q)

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale: extended version
A-AB-cm-mq-v-3-aSelf rating on 16 questions:

In the recent weeks, did you feel
A Joyfull
B In good spirits
C Contented
E Enthusiastic
F Relaxed
G Happy
H Confident
J Cheerfull
K Short-tempered
L Jealous
M Anxious
N Sad
O Angry
P Worried
Q Gloomy
R Aggressive

Rated:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+J) - (K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R)
Name: TACQOL Positive and Negative emotional functioning scales
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"

B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
nor unhappy)?
Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A : 0.- 10
- Question B : % happy
Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question :

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
1 low
2 both
3 good
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

"Would you say that your spirits most of the time are...?"
3 very good
2 fair
1 low
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-aNumber of positive emotion words in autobiography

Content analysis by count of words/phrases that reflected an emotional experience as either positive, neutral or negative.
Coders were instructed not to code possible elicitors of emotion (such as death of a relative) but only the words that describe the emotion that was experienced. They were also instructed not to code words like good or bad, if these did not describe an emotional experienced.
A-ASA-h-cr-n-100-bNumber of positive emotion sentences in autobiography

Content analysis by count of sentences that reflected an emotional experience as either positive, neutral or negative.
Coders were instructed not to code possible elicitors of emotion (such as death of a relative) but only the words that describe the emotion that was experienced. They were also instructed not to code words like good or bad, if these did not describe an emotional experienced.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"

A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +9

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BD2-md-mq-v-7-aSelfreport of momentary mood on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much you feel each of the emotions below. Put a number from 1 to 7 to accurately reflect how much you feel that emotion RIGHT NOW.
A worry
B affection
C anger
D joy
E sadness
F guilt
G contentment
H pride

1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 extremely intense

Computation: (B+D+G+H) - (A+C+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance' DRM format
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 96 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the wright thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last week
A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last 12 months
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-g-rdp-v-10-aPeerrating using single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DOES X USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes his/her average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item, peer rating version
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, how (much) do you feel happy? What score do you give if we put ten for 'extremely happy, zero for extremely unhappy' and five for neither happy nor unhappy'?"
10 extremely happy
9
8
7
6
5 neither happy nor unhappy
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
1 no
2 rarely
3 sometimes
4 most of the time
5 yes
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
- neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied)
- I never thought about it
- does not apply to me



Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (modified version by Michalos)
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aSelfreport on single question asked twice in interview,

"How do you feel about your life as a whole......?"
10 delightful
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 terrible

Summation: mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delightful-Terrible Scale' (modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you now (not at this moment, but at this stage of life) .....?"
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6 very much

(originally rated on horizontal line scale)
O-HL-c-sq-n-6-cSelfreport on single question:

"How happy are you now (not at this moment, but at this stage of life) .....?"
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5 very much

(originally rated on horizontal line scale)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much happiness do you find in life today....?
1 almost none
2 some but not very much
3 a good deal
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question

.. overall happiness during last 12 months..(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Scale labels not reported
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"When you take everything into consideration, your child, your adult life, etc, how would you describe your current life situation.....?'
1 things are very bad right now
2
3
4
5 things are very good
(Response options not fully reported)
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"...... how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole......?"
(Full question not reported)
1 not very satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on a single question:

satisfaction overall life (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........"
(Full question not reported)

1 very dissatisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
3 neither dissatisfied nor satisfied
4 well satisfied
5 completely satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfying

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?"
3 mostly satisfied
2 partly satisfied
1 mostly disappointed
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, are you currently satisfied with your life.....?
0 not satisfied
1
2
3
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration: how satisfied are you with your life in general at the present time.....?
1 not satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
4 very satisfied
5 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
5 pretty satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 pretty dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbSelfreport on single question

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general these days?
5 fully satisfied
4 rather satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 fully dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cSelf report on single question:

My life as a whole is ..
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 rather satisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
1 very dissatisfying
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum---mq-*-0-aSelf report on 8 items

A How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale
Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval

B a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree to 1 strongly disagree

C How do you feel usually?
0 extremely unhappy
.
.
10 extremely happy

Computation: factor
O-Sum-se-fi-?-5-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Interviews on life after divorce, in which happiness and life-satisfaction were items. Content analysis of taped records by two raters. Rated instructions not reported

Ratings made on a 5 steps scale. (Rating scale not reported)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-V-c-oq-n-5-aSelfreport on open quesntion:

Describe how your life is going, in general at the present time

Responses rated nagative/ positive taking into account intensity of positive and negative mentions as well as the ratio of positive to negative mentions.
1 negative
2
3
4
5 positive


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Beta-fREGRESSION COEFICIENT (standardized) in fixed effects analysis
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
ZZZZZKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L06LIFE EVENTSA04aa02aTimeliness of life-stage transition
L06LIFE EVENTSO01aa02bLoss of job
L06LIFE EVENTSO02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
L06LIFE EVENTSP06aa02aDeterioration of health, falling ill
L06LIFE EVENTSP11PRISON
L06LIFE EVENTSR01ae01Has spiritual experiences
L06LIFE EVENTSR03RETIREMENT
L06LIFE EVENTSS05SOCIAL MOBILITY
L06LIFE EVENTST02THERAPY
L06LIFE EVENTSV06VICTIM
L06LIFE EVENTSW01WAR
L06LIFE EVENTSW03WORK: CAREER
L06LIFE EVENTSO01aa02aEntering first job
L06LIFE EVENTSM10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
L06LIFE EVENTSM09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)
L06LIFE EVENTSC03aa02Change in parental status
L06LIFE EVENTSE02aa02aaFalling unemployed
L06LIFE EVENTSL05LIFE CHANGE
L06LIFE EVENTSL08LIFE HISTORY
L06LIFE EVENTSL11LOTTERY
L06LIFE EVENTSL12LOVE-LIFE
L06LIFE EVENTSM01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER
L06LIFE EVENTSM06MEDICAL TREATMENT
L06LIFE EVENTSM07ae03In mental hospital
L06LIFE EVENTSM08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
L06LIFE EVENTSB03ae02Pregnant
L06aaLife-event careerL08LIFE HISTORY
L06aa01Earlier life-eventsL05aa01Earlier life-change
L06aa01bSpecific earlier life-eventsC03aa02bBirth of children
L06aa01bSpecific earlier life-eventsC03aa02dDeath of children
L06abCurrent life-events (past few years)L05abCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up)
L06ab01aMajor life-change or notL05abCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up)
L06ab01hSum of negative events: weighed in contextP01PERSONALITY: HISTORY
L06ab02aDeath of an intimateC03aa02dDeath of children
L06ab02aDeath of an intimateF01ai03Death of parent
L06ab02aDeath of an intimateM01ab02bRecent widowhood
L06acAttitudes to life-eventsL05acAttitudes to life-change
L06ac01Expected life-eventsL05ac02Expected life-change

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings