Findings on Happiness and LIFE CHANGE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LIFE CHANGE
Subject Code: L05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L05LIFE CHANGE0
L05aaLife-change career2
L05aa01Earlier life-change11
L05aa02Change in change-level0
L05aa03Later life-change1
L05abCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up)2
L05ab01Overall degree of life-change3
L05ab02Specific life-changes16
L05acAttitudes to life-change0
L05ac01Aspired life-change0
L05ac01aWish to change life10
L05ac01bSpecific changes wanted24
L05ac02Expected life-change0
L05ac03Satisfaction with life-change1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LIFE CHANGE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-change career
Subject code: L05aa

StudyGubrium (1974): study US 1972
TitleMarital Desolation and the Evaluation of Everyday Life in Old Age.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1974, Vol. 38, 107 -113
PublicAged persons, Detroit, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelContinuity in marital status
Page in Source 110-111
Our classificationLife-change career, code L05aa
Operationalization
0 Incontinuity (widowed / divorced)    1 Continuity 
(never married / married)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bbG=+.24 ns
Unaffected by age
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-bG=+.11 ns
Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-change career
Subject code: L05aa

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelLater marital status
Our classificationLife-change career, code L05aa
Operationalization
0 Unmarried, divorced or separated
1 Married
Assessed at T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+
T1 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.06  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.10  (01)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.12  (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/first, second, third marriage
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages
Observed distributionMen/women: 0: 31/ 4; 1a: 21/2; 1b : 3/12; 1c : 3/9; 1d: 33/57; 1e: 9/15

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
IN SECOND OR THIRD MARRIAGE (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.56 ns
Females

B's controlled for
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.10 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.60 ns
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

First divorce has a negative impact on the 
happiness of women but not on the happiness of 
men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelNever had children
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
0: Never had children
1: Ever had children, all still alive (reference)
Observed distribution0: N=23 men and 30 women; 1: N=59 men and 48 women
Remarks
Order changed by WDH-team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
NEVER HAD CHILDREN (vs ever had children, all 
alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.02 ns
Females

B's controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.08 ns
Females 

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after divorce
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, AFTER DIVORCE (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.35 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.99 p < .01
Females

B's controlled for:
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.32 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-1.0 p < .01
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

Divorce has more negative impact on women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after widowhood
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE AFTER WIDOWHOOD (vs in first marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.34 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.73 p < .05
Females

B's controlled for:
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.35 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.74 p < .05
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history

Widowhood has more negative impact on women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single after several marriages
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
0:  In first marriage (reference)
1:  Not in first mariage
    1a: In second or third marriage
    1b: Single, never married
    1c: Single, divorced
    1d: Single, after widowed
    1e: Single after several marriages

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE AFTER SEVERAL MARRIAGES (vs in first 
marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.37 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.84 p < .01
Females

B' controlled for
-age
-parental history
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.38 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.84 p < .01
Females

B's additionally controlled for occupational 
history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelmarital history/in second marriage
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage
Observed distribution1: males 68,0%, females 44,1% 0a: males 9,7%, females 3,5% 0b: males 4,2%, females 6,7% 0c: males 2,3%, females 4,2% 0d: males 0,8%, females 8,7% 0e: males 11,8%, females 27,6% 0f: males 3,1%, females 5,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
IN 2nd MARRIAGE (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.02 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility

Divorce has more negative impact on happiness of 
women than on happiness of men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelparental history
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
1: Ever had children, all still alive
0: Never had children (ref.)
Observed distribution1: males 73,8%, females 69,4% 0: males 11,6%, females 15,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
EVER HAD CHILDREN, ALL STILL ALIVE (vs never had 
children)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.21 p < .01
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.15 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.07 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for: 
- marital history
- early retirement
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital History/single, widowed
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: EARLY WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=
Males, not enough data
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE, LATE WIDOWED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.13 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.12 p < .05
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history/single, divorced
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: DIVORCED (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.16 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelMarital history, single after more marriages
Page in Source 114, 123
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
1: In first marriage (reference group)
0: Not in first marriage 
   a: in second mariage
   b: single, never married
   c: single, divorced
   d: single, early widowed 
      (males before age 70, females before age 65)
   e: single, late widowed
      (males after age 70, females after age 65)
   f: single, after more than one marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
SINGLE: AFTER MORE MARRIAGES (vs in 1st marriage)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.15 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.20 p < .05
Females

B's controled for
-current age
-parental history

B's unaffected by additional control for
-early retirement
-occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier life-change
Subject code: L05aa01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelLife change
Page in Source 28
Our classificationEarlier life-change, code L05aa01
Operationalization
Number of life changes experienced after age 20, as 
assessed by a 15-item inventory.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later life-change
Subject code: L05aa03

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelStage of life
Page in Source 87
Our classificationLater life-change, code L05aa03
Operationalization
Four groups facing major life-change: 
a: high school seniors (facing work, marriage)
b: newly-married (facing parenthood)
c: middle aged (facing empty nest) 
d: preretired (facing retirement)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 5.3  females: Ms'= 5.3
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 5.9  females: Ms'= 6.1
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 5.7  females: Ms'= 5.9
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 6.0  females: Ms'= 6.2
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMs=
a: hs seniors  males: Ms'= 6.2  females: Ms'= 7.1
b: newly weds  males: Ms'= 8.0  females: Ms'= 7.8
c: middle aged males: Ms'= 7.5  females: Ms'= 7.0
d: preretired  males: Ms'= 7.9  females: Ms'= 7.6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% very happy:                        
a: hs seniors  males: = 25%  females: = 26 %
b: newly weds  males: = 48%  females: = 52 %
c: middle aged males: = 37%  females: = 33 %
d: preretired  males: = 52%  females: = 37 %
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMt=+
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 5.6  females Mt'= 5.7
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 5.9  females Mt'= 6.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
youngest (a+b) males = 37%   females = 39%
oldest   (c+d) males = 45%   females = 35%
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.00 ns
women only
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.01 ns
men only 
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aDMt=
youngest(a+b) males Mt'= 7.1  females Mt'= 7.5
oldest  (c+d) males Mt'= 7.7  females Mt'= 7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-change (assessed by follow up)
Subject code: L05ab

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelSummed effects of changes in the determinants
Page in Source 331
Our classificationCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up), code L05ab
Operationalization
Static variables:
- age
- gender
- ethnic minority
T1-T2 Changes in status variables:
- income
- educational level
- educational participation
- health problems
- drinking
- smoking
- marital status
- employment
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naR²=.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current life-change (assessed by follow up)
Subject code: L05ab

StudyJames & Hughes (1982): study GB 1977
TitlePsychological Well-Being as an Outcome Variable in the Treatment of Infertility by Clomiphine.
SourceBritish Journal of Medical Psychology, 1982, Vol. 55, 357 -377
PublicFemale fertility patients, Great Britain, 1977-80
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelsuccess of fertility treatment
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up), code L05ab
Operationalization
Successfull fertility treatment
1: positive: got pregnant
0: negative: did not get pregnant
Observed distributionN= a: 18, b:9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:    M = 5.7
treatment unsuccessfull: M = 4.0
- difference                +1.7
Set Image size:   

A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:   M = 2,11 SD = 0,52
treatment unsuccesfull: M = 1,43 SD = 1,73
- difference               +0,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall degree of life-change
Subject code: L05ab01

StudyBaruffol et al. (1995): study BE 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction as a Mediator between Distressing Events and Neurotic Impairment in a General Population.
SourceActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1995, Vol. 92, 56 - 62
PublicAdults, community, Belgium, 1990-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseT1- T2 attrition: 49%
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labeldistressing events and psychopathological status
Page in Source 57-59
Our classificationOverall degree of life-change, code L05ab01
Operationalization
Presence of distressing life events between T1 and T2
0: absence of event
1: presence of event
Observed distributionN all:184; No neurotic disorder: 64%; anxiety16%; affective:11%; somatic:9%; any:24%; N respondents with number disorders:1 disorder:41; 2 disorders:15; 3 disorders:3
Remarks
A 79-item checklist derived from the Psychiatric 
Epidemiology Research Interview Life Event 
Scale(PERI-LES) was used to appraise 1990-1992 
life-events.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aChi²=. p < .02
T1 happiness by T1-T2 distressing events
Psychological disorders between T1 and T2
A: happy at T1(above mean)               
  a: no disturbing events T1-T2:         16%
  b: one or more disturbing events T1-T2:19%
B: unhappy at T1 (below mean)            
  a: no disturbing events T1-T2         :15%
  b: one or more disturbing events T1-T2:38%
Chi square: Bb>Ab.Ba
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aOR=2.4 p < .05
Relative Risk Estimate 
Confidence Interval: 1.20-4.57
Risk Respondents (who were unhappy at T1 and 
experienced disturbing events between T1 and T2) 
has 2.4 times more chance to get a neurotic 
disorder than non-risk respondents
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aChi²=. p < .05
To determine the predictive power of each variable 
alone, the predictors were entered seperately into 
logistic equations: a simple one with 1 variable 
and the second model with 2 variables.
If one compares the simple model with the 2-term 
model results, one can see what model is the best: 
the one that produces the greatest change in 
scaled deviance(CD). Dependent is: neurotic 
disorder.
CD for overall satisfaction=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall degree of life-change
Subject code: L05ab01

StudySheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006a): study US 2001
TitleAchieving Sustainable Gains in Happiness: Change Your Actions not Your Circumstances.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol.7, 55 - 86
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-0868-8
PublicPsychology students, USA, followed 12 weeks, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =669

Correlate
Author's labelcircumstantial change
Page in Source 70
Our classificationOverall degree of life-change, code L05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of circumstantial change over last 6 weeks 
on a 5-point-scale ranging from 1 (no positive change) 
to 5 (much positive change)
Observed distributionmean 2.92 (1.10)
Remarks
Assessed at T2
T1: at beginning of semester
T2: 6 weeks later
T3: 12 weeks later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aDM=
Set Image size:   

M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
T1 - T2 retrospective change in circumstances by 
T2 happiness
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.01 ns
T1 - T2 retrospective change in circumstances by 
T3 happiness

Beta's controlled for
- T1 happiness (indicating change in happiness)
- retrospective T1-T2 change in activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Overall degree of life-change
Subject code: L05ab01

StudySheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006a): study US 2001 /1
TitleAchieving Sustainable Gains in Happiness: Change Your Actions not Your Circumstances.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol.7, 55 - 86
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-0868-8
PublicPsychology students, USA, followed 12 weeks, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =204

Correlate
Author's labelcircumstantial change
Page in Source 77
Our classificationOverall degree of life-change, code L05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on changes during the last 6 weeks:
a the extent to with they have experienced 
circumstancial change
b extent the monetary situation changed
c extent the living arrangements changed
d extent the relationship status changed

Computation: average a, b, c and d

Classification
Group1: activity change above 1 SD, circumstancial 
change at the sample mean
Group2: activity change at the sample mean, 
circumstancial change above 1 SD
Error Estimateseach item loaded on the factor at .56, no cross-loading greater than .24 ?=.47
Remarks
Assessed at T2
T1: at the beginning of the semester
T2: 6 weeks later
T3: 12 weeks late

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aDM=
Set Image size:   

M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
T2 retrospective circumstancial change by T2 
happiness
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.03 ns
T2 retrospective circumstancial change by T3 
happiness

Beta's controlled for
- T1 SWB (indicating change in happiness)
- retrospective T1-T2 change in activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelLiving years
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Number of  years the respondent has resided at their 
current address
Observed distributionMean=7.8111; SD=9.7892

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.00 ns
OPRC) controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelResidential mobility
Page in Source 9, 11,15
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your residential location 
which continued at lease one year? (Full question was 
not reported, assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 2.3, 1: 14%; 2: 18%; 3: 23%; 4: 15%; 5: 30% Average duration: 7.7 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.01 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment mobility
Page in Source 10-11, 15
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your job which continued 
at least one year? (Full question was not reported, 
assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 2.5, 1: 15%; 2: 17%; 3: 13%; 4: 14%; 5: 42% Average duration of employment/education: 7.3 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.04 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold structure mobility
Page in Source 10-11, 15
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your household structure 
which continued at least one year? (Full question was 
not reported, assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 2.1, 1: 16%; 2: 22%; 3: 19%; 4: 17%; 5: 26% Average duration of household structure: 8.2 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.08 p < .01
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelCar ownership mobility/Car number
Page in Source 9, 11, 15
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your car (including sell 
or buy) which continued at least one year? (Full 
question was not reported, assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 1.6, 1: 36%; 2: 21%; 3: 11%; 4: 9%; 5: 23% Average duration of car ownership: 9.7 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.00 ns
TIMES CAR CHANGED
OPRC = -.004
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.01 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.02 ns
NUMBER OF CARS IN HOUSEHOLD
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.02 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot one's first paid job
Page in Source 40,62,67,72,73
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in employment situation: got one's first paid 
job
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 625, T1-T3=180, T3-T4=45, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=868
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
employment in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.30 p < .05
B controlled for other life course transitions:
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.26 p < .05
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.13 ns
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelFell unemployed
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in employment situation: fell unemployed
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 135, T1-T3=128, T3-T4=59, T3-T5 or T4-T5=24, Total=346
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE to 
unemployment within individuals (fixed effect)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.15 p < .10
B controlled for life course transitions:
- first paid job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.10 ns
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.39 p < .05
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelLeft parental home
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in housing situation: left parental home
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 693, T1-T3=403, T3-T4=56, T3-T5 or T4-T5=34, Total=1226
Remarks
Housing situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
housing in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.11 ns
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.11 ns
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.09 ns
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.09
B additionally controled for above transition 
variables squared


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot married to first partner
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in marital status: got married (or started 
living together)
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 412, T1-T3=297, T3-T4=127, T3-T5 or T4-T5=74, Total=910
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE 
from single to married status in individuals 
(fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.67 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.66 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.65 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.58 p < .001
B additionally control for above years since 
transition squared
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot divorced from first partner
Page in Source 67,68,74
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in marital situation: divorced
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 25, T1-T3=19, T3-T4=18, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=80
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
marital status in individuals (Fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-1.2 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-1.2 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-2.0 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-2.0 p < .001
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Effect (negative) Stronger for men.Longterm 
satisfaction increases stronger for men than for 
wmen.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelRemarried to second partner
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Went trough CHANGE from married/divorced to second 
marriage
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 15, T1-T3=12, T3-T4=17, T3-T5 or T4-T5=20, Total=64
Remarks
Marital status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
marital status in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.1 p < .001
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.1 p < .001
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.7 p < .001
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+1.6 p < .001
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot first child
Page in Source 67,68,
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in parental status: got first child
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 135, T1-T3=176, T3-T4=167, T3-T5 or T4-T5=165, Total=643
Remarks
Parental status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
parental status in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.09 ns
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.14 ns
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.26 p < .01
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.37 p < .01
B additionally controlled for above years since 
transition squared

Stronger positive for women. Also in the long run.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyBrooks & McKinlay (1983): study GB 1980
TitlePersonality and Behavioral Change after Severe Blunt Head Injury - A Relative`s View.
SourceJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1983, Vol. 46, 336 - 340
DOIDOI:10.1136/jnnp.46.4.336
PublicSeverely head injured patients, Glasgow UK, 1980-82
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelchange happiness after injury
Page in Source 337
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Rating happiness by close relatives
a before injury (retropectively)
b 12 months after injury

This rating was part of an 'personality adjective 
checklist which intimate informats rated as the patient 
was BEFORE injury and NOW at the time of the interview
Remarks
Only Ss whose personality had changed after injury (N 
=33)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aD%=- p < .01
% rated happy by close relative
Before injury   85%
After injury    50%
-difference    -35%
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelSpouse death
Page in Source 11, 28, 43
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change of marital status reported at T1 and T2, from 
'married'  to 'widowed'.
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution2,3% yes, 97,7% no.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=-.16 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by death of spouse

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement wanted           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelMultiple transitions
Page in Source 710
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
Change in family situation in last 5 years.
1= change in marital status AND number of children
0= other
Observed distributionNo transitions: N = 625 ( 64,9 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.38 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.06 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific life-changes
Subject code: L05ab02

StudyHarkins (1978): study US 1973
TitleEffects of Empty Nest Transition on Self-report of Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 549 -556
PublicEmpty Nest mothers, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =475

Correlate
Author's label Empty Nest
Page in Source 552, 553, 554
Our classificationSpecific life-changes, code L05ab02
Operationalization
A: Objective: schoolstage youngest child 
   1: Pre-empty nest: still in high school
   2: Empty nest in transition: graduated 6-18 months 
ago
   3: Post-empty nest: graduated more than 2 years ago

B: Subjective: mothers definition of empty nest as 
youngest child
   1: graduated from high school
   2: going away to school
   3: having first job
   4: moving out
   5: gets married
   6: gets children
Observed distributionN: A:1+ 3:=203, 2=115; B:1=4, 2=130, 3=3, 4=124, 5=54, 6=0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+.52 ns
A: Objective empty nest stage
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+1.8 p < .05
B: Subjective empty nest stage
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-2.8 p < .05
A-B difference: empty nest in objective sense, but 
not in subjective definition of mother
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-1.5 p < .05
In transition: A2 (vs A1 and A3)

B's controlled for:
- age
- menopausel phase


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelConservatism
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Single direct question:
1   'I like to try out something new'
2   'I had better keep everything it is now.'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      -.09       -.15       -.09       +.05
1980      -.08       -.16       -.08       +.05
1984                                       
1988      -.03       -.05       -.03       +.03

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class
and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      -.11       -.02       -.05       +.07
1980      -.04       -.02       -.02       +.05
1984
1988      -.01       -.01       -.01       +.04
   
ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1967
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1967
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 217
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: Sind sie im allgemeinen mit 
Ihrem jetzigen Leben zufrieden, oder wünschen Sie sich 
manches anders?
In general, are you satisfied with your present life, 
or do you wish things different?
Satisfied (2)
Something else (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-bG=+.63
% very happy:
- satisfied      23%
- not satisfied   5%

% not happy + % fifty-fifty
- satisfied 34%
- not satisfied 38%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelWant life-change
Page in Source 75
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"I wish I could change some parts of my life"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=-.50 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=-.51 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelChange orientation
Page in Source 233
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
2-item index of closed questions on optimism about the 
future, and yearning for change.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=-.12
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar= ±0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelWish to change life.
Page in Source 17
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Closed question: like to continue in much the same way 
/ change some parts /
change many parts.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=-
Index of Positive Affects: G = -.07
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelWish to change life
Page in Source 21
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Closed question: like to continue in much the same way 
/ change some parts /
change many parts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelWish to change life
Page in Source 92
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Closed question: "Considering how your life is going, 
would you like to continue much the same way, change 
some parts of it, or change may parts of it?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.20
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.40
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.20
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.40
Index of positive affects: r=-.20
Index of negative affects: r=+.30
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.30
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.40
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.37
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:  
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=-.40
O-DT asked second: r=-.30
O-DT asked third : r=-.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelWish to change life
Page in Source 85
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Closed question: "Considering how your life is going, 
would you like to continue much the same way, change 
some parts of it, or change many parts of it?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-amr=-.42
O-DT asked first: r=-.44
O-DT asked last : r=-.39
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-ar=-.36
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.40
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.44
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.35
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.37
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelWish to change life
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Think of how your life is 
going now: do you whish you could change some parts of 
it?"
1. like to continue in much the same 
   way.
2. change some parts.
3. change many parts.
Remarks
Data T1. Results T3 similar. 
Not computed for summed ABS.
                      

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.33 p < .05
Index of Positive Affects: G= -.16 (05)
Index of Negative Affects: G= +.34 (05)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-
Males  : G= -.66
Females: G= -.71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Wish to change life
Subject code: L05ac01a

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to change
Page in Source 211
Our classificationWish to change life, code L05ac01a
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes 
0: No change mentioned
1: One or more desired changes mentioned

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.17 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975): study IL 1973
TitleOn the Multivariate Structure of Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1975, Vol. 2, 361 - 388
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00293253
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1940

Correlate
Author's labelWant to continue living in one's town
Page in Source 372
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Closed question ranging from 'definite- ly no' to 
'definitely yes'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=+.12
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-amc=+.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975): study IL 1973
TitleOn the Multivariate Structure of Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1975, Vol. 2, 361 - 388
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00293253
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1940

Correlate
Author's labelWant to move to another town
Page in Source 372
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Closed question ranging from 'definite- ly no' to 
'definitely yes'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-amc=-.14
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=-.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelPrefer to change jobwhen possible
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Question: no / perhaps / yes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-
Never married males  : r = -.08   
Married males        : r = -.09   
Never married females: r = -.33   
Married females      : r = -.03   


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyMakarczyk (1962): study PL 1960
TitleFactors affecting Life Satisfaction among People in Poland.
SourcePolish Sociological Bulletin, 1962, Vol. 1, 105 - 116
PublicAdults, general public, students and peasants excluded, Poland, 1960
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =2387

Correlate
Author's labelPrefer to change job
Page in Source 110
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Single question: 'If you had the
choice, would you change your present 
job in agriculture for another 
occupation?' 
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aT=.10 p < .001
Computed for farm owners and family only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelConsidering depature from the convent
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: During the past six 
months, which of the following would best describe 
feelings or thoughts you have had about leaving 
religious life?
1: I have not considered leaving
2: I have considered leaving but not seriously 
3: I have seriously considered leaving but have decided 
against it 
4: I have seriously considered leaving and may do so 
5. I will probably leave
Observed distribution1=60%< 2=23%, 3=10%, 4=5%, 5=2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=-.47 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelDesire for longer schooling
Page in Source 17
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= - p < . 05
Among women 76 % of the relatively dissatisfied 
believe that further schooling would be desire-
ble, whereas this is true of only 61 % of the 
very satisfied.
Among men the comparable figures are 73 % and 55 % 
respectively.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelDesire for having more amusement
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Whether on would like to go out more
often in the evening for entertainment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= - p < . 05
33 % of the relatively dissatisfied and 26 % of
the satisfied would like to go out more often.
Stronger among males
Unaffected by going out with spouse or not


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelWant to spend more time in work around the house
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= + p < . 05
Unaffected by sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelWant to spend less time in work around the house
Page in Source 18
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= - p < . 05
Among females 44 % of the dissatisfied and 27 %
of the satisfied want to spend less time in work
around the house.
No relationship among males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on desired life changses:
1: Mentioned
0: Not mentioned

a: Character changes (worry less)
b: Physical appearance, weight, size, looks
c: Health
d: Age
e: More education
f: Better social relationships
g: Better work and attitudes towards it
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N = 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.12 p < . 05
a: Character
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns
b: Appearance
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.12 p < . 05
c: Health
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.09 ns
d: Age
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.14 ns
e: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
f: Relationships
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.39 p < . 01
g: Work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with community
Page in Source 200
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Closed question: 
0 Would rather live somewhere else 
1 Like living in this community

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.34 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with friends
Page in Source 201
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Selfreport: 
0: Wish to move to a 'different circle'
1: Satisfied."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.43 p < . 01
Stronger among those who are not getting along 
well with their family and/or are dissatisified 
with their job.

Unaffected by
- sexe
- education
- age
- income
- S.E.S
- marital status
- race


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesire: character changes (worry less)
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal 0 Changes other 
changes 
1: worry less mentioned
0: other chances mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N= 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.12 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesire: better social relationships
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes
1: social relationships mentioned
0: other changes mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N = 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesire: better work and attitudes towards it
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes: 
1: better work and work attitude mentioned
0: other changes mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N = 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.39 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: move to country, become farmer
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: move to other country, become farmer mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: education, follow a talent
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: education, follow a talent mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: more education
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes 
1: more education mentioned
0: other desired changes mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire life change only (N = 
1591).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: marriage, children, husband
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: marriage, children or husband mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: health
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes: 
1: health mentioned
0: other desired changes mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N = 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.12 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: money
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: financial aspirations mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: physical: appearance
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes: 
0: not mentioned
1: mentioned (weight, size, looks)
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N= 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific changes wanted
Subject code: L05ac01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: new job, own business
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific changes wanted, code L05ac01b
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: new job, own business mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with life-change
Subject code: L05ac03

StudyLough et al. (1985): study US 1980
TitleLife Satisfaction Following Heart Transplantation.
SourceHeart Transplantation, 1985, Vol. 4, 446 - 449
PublicHeart transplantation recipients, 7 month to 14 years after transplant, USA, 198?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived changes in life since heart-transplantation
Page in Source 447
Our classificationSatisfaction with life-change, code L05ac03
Operationalization
Questions on changes in various aspects of life, such 
as health, physical endurence, accomplishments, future 
outlook, social support and independance. (Precise 
questions not reported).
1  change to the worse
2  change to the better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-?-5-aAoV=+ p < .0001
O-QL?-c-sq-v-6-aAoV=+ p < .009
the 26% who reported change to the worse rated 
their QOL lower


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aFamily rating on single question:

… personality of the patient now .. (full lead question not reported)
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5 happy

Item in longer adjective checklist
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single closed question:

"How is your mood these days....?"
4 very good all the time
3
2
1 not good almost all the time
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last 12 months
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A 20-item PANAS
To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life?
Aa nervous
Ab distressed
Ac afraid
Ad jittery
Ae irritable
Af upset
Ag scared
Ah exiled
Ai ashamed
Aj guilty
Ak hostile
Al active
Am determined
An inspired
Ao enthusiastic
Ap alert
Aq attentive
Ar proud
As strong
At interested

B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener)
Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal
Bb The conditions of my life are excellent
Bc I am satisfied with my life
Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question

Currently, how happy are you feeling?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-aSelfreport on single question :
Where would you put your life as a whole on a feeling thermometer?
Rated on 'thermometer scale' (in grades)
0 degrees: very cold, negative
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 very warm, positive
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, are you happy these days......?"
6 very happy
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
(Response options not fully reported)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bbSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much UNhappiness would you say you find in life today? Would you say…?
3 almost none
2 some unhappiness
1 great unhappiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question

.. overall happiness during last 12 months..(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Scale labels not reported
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

When somebody would say about you, 'this person is very happy', is he right or wrong......?
3 right
2 fifty-fifty
1 wrong
- difficult to say.
O-QL?-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... current quality of life"
(full lead items not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
(response options not reported)
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfying

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-aSelf report on single question:

Taken all together, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SQL-c-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with current quality of life ...."
(Full question not reported.)
1
2
3
4
+
(Response options: not reported)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of the following statements applies for you in the last 18 months.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 applies completely
6 apllies
5 apllies slightly
4 neither applies nor does not apply
3 slightly not applicable
2 not applicable
1 applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), last years version
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMsSTANDARDIZED DIFFERENCE of MEANS (CRITICAL RATIO)
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning: DMs is the ratio of the difference of the, either untransformed or transformed, means and its standard error.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mcGuttman's monotonicy coefficient.
Range: [-1, +1].
Measurement level: Both correlate and happiness ordinal or interval
Based on the multiplication of signed differences within one variable with the corresponding difference in the second variable and summation over all possible differences.
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L05LIFE CHANGEM10aa02Change in migrant work
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa02dChange in control orientation
L05LIFE CHANGEP06aa02Change in physical health
L05LIFE CHANGEP08aa02Change in political behavior
L05LIFE CHANGEP09aa02Change in popularity
L05LIFE CHANGEP10aa02Change in possessions
L05LIFE CHANGEP11aa02Change in imprisonment
L05LIFE CHANGEP12aa02Change in problems
L05LIFE CHANGEP13aa02Change in psycho-somatic complaints
L05LIFE CHANGER01aa02Change in religion
L05LIFE CHANGER02aa02Change in resources
L05LIFE CHANGER03aa02Change in retirement status
L05LIFE CHANGER04aa02Change in roles
L05LIFE CHANGES01aa02Change in schooling
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa02cChange in dominance
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa02bChange in approval seeking
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa02aChange in ambitiousness
L05LIFE CHANGEM11aa02Change in military life
L05LIFE CHANGEM11ad03Perceived effects of change in militairy life
L05LIFE CHANGEM12aa02Change in modernity
L05LIFE CHANGEM13aa02Recent change in mood-pattern
L05LIFE CHANGEM13aa02aChange in anxiety
L05LIFE CHANGEM14aa02Change in motivation
L05LIFE CHANGEN01aa02Change of nationality
L05LIFE CHANGEN04ac02Economic growth/decline
L05LIFE CHANGEN06aa02Change in attitudes to one's nation
L05LIFE CHANGEO01aa02Recent change in occupation
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aaChange in personality
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa01Change in personality organization
L05LIFE CHANGEP02aa02Change in personality traits
L05LIFE CHANGES01aa02aChange in school-behavior
L05LIFE CHANGES01aa02bChange in school-environment
L05LIFE CHANGES14aa02Change in suicidal behavior
L05LIFE CHANGET01aa02Change in time-behavior
L05LIFE CHANGET02aa02Change in therapy
L05LIFE CHANGEV01aa03Earlier value-similarity
L05LIFE CHANGEV01abChange in values
L05LIFE CHANGEV01ab01Change in value-preferences
L05LIFE CHANGEV01ab02Change in value-climate
L05LIFE CHANGEV06aa02Change: recently victimized
L05LIFE CHANGEW01aa02Change in involvement with war
L05LIFE CHANGEW04aa02Change in work-conditions
L05LIFE CHANGEW05aa02Change in work-attitudes
L05LIFE CHANGEW05aa02aChange in motivation to work
L05LIFE CHANGEW06aa02Change in work-performance
L05LIFE CHANGES13aa02Change in use of stimulants
L05LIFE CHANGES12aa02Change involvement in sports
L05LIFE CHANGES11aa02Change in support behavior
L05LIFE CHANGES01aa02cChange in attitudes to school
L05LIFE CHANGES02aa02Change in self-image
L05LIFE CHANGES03aa02Change in sex-life
L05LIFE CHANGES03aa02aChange in sexual behavior
L05LIFE CHANGES04aa02Change in sleep
L05LIFE CHANGES05SOCIAL MOBILITY
L05LIFE CHANGES05aa02Change in social mobility
L05LIFE CHANGES06aa02Change in personal contacts
L05LIFE CHANGES06aa02aChange in amount of personal contacts
L05LIFE CHANGES07aa02Change in organizational participation
L05LIFE CHANGES07aa02aChange in amount of organizational participation
L05LIFE CHANGES08aa02Change in total social participation
L05LIFE CHANGES10aa02Change in support received
L05LIFE CHANGEW07aa02Change in worries
L05LIFE CHANGEA01aa02Change in activity level
L05LIFE CHANGEE01aa02Change in education
L05LIFE CHANGEE02aa02Change in employment
L05LIFE CHANGEE04aa02Change in expressiveness
L05LIFE CHANGEF01aa02Recent change in family situation
L05LIFE CHANGEF02ac02Change in family-climate
L05LIFE CHANGEF03aa02Change in family-life
L05LIFE CHANGEF05aa02Change in freedom
L05LIFE CHANGEF06aa02Change in friendships
L05LIFE CHANGEH01aa02Change in habits
L05LIFE CHANGEH02aa02Change in handicap
L05LIFE CHANGEH03aa02Change in happiness-attitudes
L05LIFE CHANGEH10aa02Change in health-behavior
L05LIFE CHANGEH11aa02Change in helping
L05LIFE CHANGEC13aa02Change in participation
L05LIFE CHANGEC11aa02Change in creativeness
L05LIFE CHANGEC10aa02Change in coping
L05LIFE CHANGEA02aa02Change in activity pattern
L05LIFE CHANGEA03aa02Change in affective life
L05LIFE CHANGEA05aa02Change in aggression
L05LIFE CHANGEA06aa02Change in anomy
L05LIFE CHANGEA07aa02Change in appearance
L05LIFE CHANGEA08aa02Change in attitudes
L05LIFE CHANGEB01aa02Change in birth control
L05LIFE CHANGEB03ab02Change in body
L05LIFE CHANGEC02aa02Change in want for children
L05LIFE CHANGEC03aa02Change in parental status
L05LIFE CHANGEC04aa02Change in characteristics of one's children
L05LIFE CHANGEC05aa02Change in relation with one's children
L05LIFE CHANGEC06aa02Change in parental behavior
L05LIFE CHANGEH12aa02Change in hope
L05LIFE CHANGEM07aa02Change in mental health
L05LIFE CHANGEL06aa02Change in life-event burden
L05LIFE CHANGEL07LIFE GOALS
L05LIFE CHANGEL07aa02Change in life-goals
L05LIFE CHANGEL08LIFE HISTORY
L05LIFE CHANGEL08abChange in life
L05LIFE CHANGEL09aa02Change in life-style
L05LIFE CHANGEL10aa02Change in residence
L05LIFE CHANGEL10ab01eChange of city size
L05LIFE CHANGEL12aa02Change in love-life
L05LIFE CHANGEM01abRecent change in marital status
L05LIFE CHANGEM03aa02Change in marriage relationship
L05LIFE CHANGEM03aa02aChange in characteristics of marriage
L05LIFE CHANGEM04aa02Change in characteristics of spouse
L05LIFE CHANGEL06LIFE EVENTS
L05LIFE CHANGEL04aa02Change in life-appraisals
L05LIFE CHANGEL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities
L05LIFE CHANGEH14aa02Change in household-work
L05LIFE CHANGEH15aa02Change in housing
L05LIFE CHANGEI01aa02Change in income
L05LIFE CHANGEI01aa02aChange in income level
L05LIFE CHANGEI01aa02bChange in income sufficiency
L05LIFE CHANGEI01aa02dChange in source of income
L05LIFE CHANGEI01aa02eChange in attitude to income
L05LIFE CHANGEI02aa02Change in institutional living
L05LIFE CHANGEI03aa02Change in intelligence
L05LIFE CHANGEI06aa02Change in intimacy
L05LIFE CHANGEL01aa02Change in language
L05LIFE CHANGEL02aa02Change in leadership
L05LIFE CHANGEL03aa02Change in leisure
L05LIFE CHANGEL03aa02aChange in leisure activity-level
L05aaLife-change careerS15aa02Summed effects of changes in life
L05aaLife-change careerL06aaLife-event career
L05abCurrent life-change (assessed by follow up)L06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
L05ab02Specific life-changesL08abChange in life
L05acAttitudes to life-changeL06acAttitudes to life-events
L05ac01aWish to change lifeL04ab01Wished other life
L05ac01bSpecific changes wantedH12abCurrent hope
L05ac01bSpecific changes wantedL07ab02Object of life-goals
L05ac02Expected life-changeH05aa04Expected change in happiness (period unspecified)
L05ac03Satisfaction with life-changeC10ab04Coping with specific life-events

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings