Findings on Happiness and LEISURE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LEISURE
Subject Code: L03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L03LEISURE1
L03aaLeisure career0
L03aa01Earlier leisure4
L03aa02Change in leisure1
L03aa02aChange in leisure activity-level1
L03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities9
L03aa02cChange in satisfaction with leisure2
L03aa03Later leisure3
L03abCurrent leisure time10
L03acCurrent leisure activity12
L03ac01Leisure activity level23
L03ac02Specific leisure activities22
L03ac02aPersonal care2
L03ac02bEating/drinking out6
L03ac02eHobbies6
L03ac02gReading12
L03ac02hShopping2
L03ac02iTheater/movies2
L03ac02jTraveling16
L03ac02kTv watching, radio listening17
L03ac02lVoluntary work3
L03adAttitudes to leisure7
L03ad01Concern about leisure8
L03ad02Leisure aspirations4
L03ad03Satisfaction with leisure55
L03ad03aSatisfaction with time for leisure13
L03ad03bSatisfaction with leisure activities59
L03ac03Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)5
L03aa01bEarlier satisfaction with leisure4
L03aa03aLater satisfaction with leisure4
L03ac02dGaming1
L03ac02fInternet7
L03ac02cGardening1
L03ad03cSatisfaction with leisure services3
L03aa01aEarlier travel1
L03ac02mMusic listening2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LEISURE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and LEISURE
Subject code: L03

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 70 countries, mid 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of leisure time
Page in Source 131
Our classificationLEISURE, code L03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by perceived importance of 
leisure time in 63 nations mid 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier leisure
Subject code: L03aa01

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2004): study GB 2001
TitleHolidaytaking and the Sense of Well-Being.
SourceAnnals of Tourism Research, 2004, Vol. 31, 103 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.annals.2003.06.001
PublicHolidaymakers and controls, Guildford area, UK
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelhaving had a holiday
Page in Source 113/4
Our classificationEarlier leisure, code L03aa01
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: Pre-trip
T2: Post-trip

T1-T2 within one year period
Remarks
Holiday takers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+
CHANGE in happiness after holiday trip
T1: pre-trip happiness  M = 29,30  SD = 22,8
T2: post-trip happiness M = 33,30  SD = 23,1
    difference              +6,00
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW= p < .00`1
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aE²=.063

Happiness declined slightly among non-holidy 
taking controls
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+
T1: pre-trip happiness  M = 6,99   SD = 1,22
T2: post-trip happiness M = 7,11   SD = 1,20
    difference             +0,12
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aMW= p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier leisure
Subject code: L03aa01

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with vacation as a whole
Page in Source 132,134, 137
Our classificationEarlier leisure, code L03aa01
Operationalization
Self report of satisfaction with vacation as a whole

Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=123 M=-.01 SD = 4.19
Error Estimatesalpha=.80
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.28
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with vacation as a whole (during 
vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.34 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T3 
satisfaction with vacation as a whole
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aRa²=.03
T2 satisfaction with vacation explains 3% T1-T3 
CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier leisure
Subject code: L03aa01

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationEarlier leisure, code L03aa01
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or football 
games; attending church or other meetings; lectures or 
concerts; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertaining".
Observed distributionM =5,2 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.11 p < .05
T1 leisure by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 leisure by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.12 p < .05
T1 leisure by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.09 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- self rated health
- satisfaction with sexlife
- organizational activity
- productive hours
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social, activity hours by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social activity hours by T2-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier leisure
Subject code: L03aa01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure pattern factors
Page in Source 250
Our classificationEarlier leisure, code L03aa01
Operationalization
List of 74 asked activities at T1 (1947) high school 
students did in their leisure:

a: play the radio, collect coins, read stories, collect 
autographs, Go to movies, collect pictures, read comic 
strips, use a camera, work problems , sew or knit, 
study history, repair things, study science, make boats 


b: study literature, make airplanes, do crossword 
putties, make a radio, study trees, work with tools, 
study birds, Have a garden, study animals, drive an 
automobile, study butterflies, play with pets, draw or 
paint, raise animals, work in laboratory.

c: go fishing, make models or designs, climb or hike, 
do housework, skate, sing, ride a bicycle, play piano, 
ride a horse, make a scrapbook, practice first aid, 
keep a diary, play cards, write poems,play dominoes, 
speak pieces

d: play checkers, play an instrument, play chess, visit 
museums, collect stamps, go to church, go to Sunday 
school, belong to a club, belong to YMCA or YWCA, go to 
parks, engage in sports, go to a circus, sing in a 
chorus, sing in a glee club

e: belong to a gang, play ping pong, play croquet, play 
baseball, play tennis, go hunting, go riding with 
others, play in a band, play in an orchestra, go to 
church socials, go to parties, go to dances, be an 
officer of a club, be a class officer, go camping, play 
in an orchestra, go to church socials, go to parties.

Factors extracted:
 
A: Socializing
Activities which loaded heavily on this factor were 
peer group activities, probably engaged in outside of 
the family or adult-organised youth group settings. 

B: Social performance-achievement. 
This factor focused on activities which emphasised 
achieving performance goals, working with others, and 
participating in leadership roles. These activities 
generally required groups of young people and needed 
adult instruction or direction. Playing a musical 
instrument, being in a band, orchestra, or chorus, and 
being a club officer were important components. 

C: Order and independence
Activities concerned with study of the natural 
environment and youths' interest in the order of the 
world around them were key to this factor. Study of 
birds, trees, animals, and butterflies, and engaging in 
labwork were included.

D: General knowledge
Information-seeking activities which were concerned 
with learning about the world were dominant in this 
factor. Major elements related to solitary activities 
of study and reading (study literature, history, 
science, read stories) that may have given youth access 
to a broad range of information. 

E: Opposite-gender orientation
Items which presented the highest factor loadings here 
were activities which appeared to fit gender 
stereotypes for the opposite sex. Thus, for the males, 
the following items received the highest loadings: sew 
or knit, write poems, play chess, speak pieces, keep a 
diary, collect autographs, and play dominces. For the 
females, the items with the heaviest loadings were: 
make a radio, make boats, make airpianes, and work with 
tools. The level of participation in the most heavily 
loaded items of opposite gender orientation was not 
common for either
males or females. 

F: Home-based and outdoor recreation
This factor emphasised activities that were likely to 
occur in the home or outdoor envi
ronment and required little organisation or leadership. 
Items dealing with raising animals, playing with pets, 
working with tools, going fishing and going hunting, 
climbing or hiking, and repairing things loaded highly. 


G: Play
A seventh factor, unique to the girls, focused on games 
and play activities including playing checkers, 
dominoes, cardi,
chess, and working crossword puitlet.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: A:. Males .86; females .76 B: Males .78; females .62 C: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.06 ns
T1 (1947) leisure activity by T2 (1971) happiness
                     males           females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=
Socializing       r = +.06 (ns)    r = +.13 (01)
               Beta = +.09 (ns) Beta = +.13 (01)

Social            r = +.00 (ns)    r = +.06 (ns)
Performeance   Beta = -.00 (ns) Beta = +.00 (ns)
achievement    

Order and         r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.04 (ns)
independence   Beta = -.03 (ns) Beta = +.04 (ns)

General knowledge r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.00 (ns)
               Beta = -.04 (ns) Beta = -.01 (ns)

Opposite-gender   r = -.01 (ns)    r = -.05 (ns)
orientation    Beta = +.00 (ns) Beta = -.00 (ns)

Home based and    r = +.02 (ns)    r = +.02 (ns)
outdoor        Beta = +.01 (ns) Beta = -.07 (ns)

Play              r = x            r = +.07 (ns)
               Beta = x        Beta  = +.05 (ns)

Beta's controlled for T1:
- fathers occupational prestige
- father’s and mother’s years of formal schooling
- number of siblings
- highschool grade point average


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier travel
Subject code: L03aa01a

StudyMilman (1998): study US 1993
TitleThe Impact of Tourism and Travel Experience on Senior Travelers' Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Travel Research, 1998, Vol. 37. 166 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1177/004728759803700208
Public50+ aged, before and after holiday trip, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59%
Respondents N =124

Correlate
Author's labelBefore/after trip
Page in Source 168
Our classificationEarlier travel, code L03aa01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: first day of trip
T2: last day of trip

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-aDM=0- ns
T1 first day: PA = 1,46, NA = 0,11, ABS = 1,35
T2 last day : PA = 1,45, NA = 0,12, ABS = 1,33
difference                               -0.02
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bDM== ns
T1 first day: M = 1,86
T2 last day : M = 1,87
difference       +0.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa01b

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa01b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and enjoyment you have
- the way you spend your spare time
- the amount of free time you have
- the amount of relaxation in your life
- your own health and physical condition
- the amount of pep and energy you have
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 deligted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN= 125 M= 3,25 SD=0,84
Error Estimatesalpha=0,83
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.67 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with leisure by T3 life 
satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa01b

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure during vacation
Page in Source 132,133, 134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa01b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and relaxation experienced
- engaging in favorite and new leisure activities.
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...terrible
Observed distributionN=123 M=2,41 SD=1,02
Error Estimatesalpha=.94
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.30 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with leisure (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T2 Satisfaction with leisure (during vacation) by 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa01b

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nature during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa01b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the scenery
- the weather
- opportunities for being close to nature
- opportunities for escape
during vacation

Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=2,13 SD=,99
Error Estimatesalpha=.74
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.18 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with nature (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.26 ns
T2 Satisfaction with nature (during vacation) and 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa01b

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with food/lodging during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa01b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- food
- socializing with other people
- being alone
- getting away from it all
during vacation
Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=122 M=3,52 SD=,69
Error Estimatesalpha = .60
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with food/lodging (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.14 ns
T2 life satisfaction food/lodging (during 
vacation)and T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in leisure
Subject code: L03aa02

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelchange trip frequency
Page in Source 658
Our classificationChange in leisure, code L03aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in 
A: frequency of trips
B: number of days spent in holiday
Remarks
Leisure behavior reported every 3 months during 2 years
T1: 2007, T2: 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.02 ns
T1-T2 change in trip frequency by T2 happiness
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.03 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in number of days spend by T2 
happiness
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in leisure activity-level
Subject code: L03aa02a

StudyRitter et al. (1999): study US 1998
TitleCurrent Concepts Review: Retirement from Orthopaedic Surgery.
SourceThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1999, Vol. 81, 414 - 418
PublicRetired orthopaedic surgeons, United States, 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1293

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in travel or vacation activity since retirement
Page in Source 415
Our classificationChange in leisure activity-level, code L03aa02a
Operationalization
Selfreport of travel or vacation activities after 
retirement. Full text not reported
1: increased
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aOR=2.36 p < .0001
CI95: [1.74-3.20]
OR controlled for:
- Excellent health at present time 
- Better health now than before retirement
- Better relationship with spouse
- Personal or family reasons for retirement as 
opposed to health reasons


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyPayne (1974): study GB 1972
TitleN.M. Bradburn's Measures of Psychological Well-Being: An Attempt at Replication.
SourceM.C.R. Social and Applied Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, 1974, UK
PublicEmployed males, supervising jobs, England, 197?
Sample
Non-Response4% incomplete.
Respondents N =192

Correlate
Author's labelNew activities or hobbies engaged in.
Page in Source 17
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Closed question; during the last few weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aG=
Index of Positive Affects: G = +.30
Index of Negative AFfects: G = +.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelWatching more television
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Direct question on number of hours daily. Difference 
between T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.10 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelListening more to the radio
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Direct  question on number of hours daily. Difference 
between T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.23 p < .05
Happiness assessed at T2.

Age 66-75: tb = +.00 (ns)
Age 82-92: tb = +.53 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelReading more
Page in Source 703
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Direct question on number of hours daily. Difference 
between T1 and T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=-.07 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelNew other-oriented activities engaged in
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
2 open-ended questions on new activities engaged in 
during the past few weeks, and on type of activities; 
coded for activities one did with others.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.
Index of Positive Affects: G= +.36
Index of Negative Affects: G= +.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelNew activities engaged in
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Direct question on new activities; during the past few 
weeks.
0 No
1 Yes
Remarks
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Index of Positive Affects: G'= +.36
Index of Negative Affects: G'= +.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelNew ego-oriented activities engaged in
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
2 direct questions on new activities engaged in during 
the past few weeks, and type of activities; coded for 
those activities one engaged in alone.
Remarks
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Index of Positive Affects: G'= +.37
Index of Negative Affects: G'= +.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelGone to new places
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
Closed question on activity: during the past few weeks.
0 No
1 Yes
Remarks
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Index of Positive Affects: G'= +.25
Index of Negative Affects: G'= +.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03aa02b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelNovelty
Our classificationChange in specific leisure activities, code L03aa02b
Operationalization
3-item index of direct questions on acitivities engaged 
in during the past few weeks. Each rated yes/no.
- met new people
- gone to new places
- engaged in new activities
Remarks
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Index of Positive Affects:             G= +.34
- When controlled for S.E.S.:          G= +.30
- Unaffected by sociability
- Stronger among those who are 
  not satisfied with their social life:G= +.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa02c

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978 /1
TitleAustralians' Priorities, Satisfaction and Well-Being.
SourceMonograph in Public Policy Studies, nr. 4, University of Melbourne, 1981, Australia
PublicAdults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, followed 25 months 1978-1981
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 53
Our classificationChange in satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa02c
Operationalization
Single question on satisfaction with the amount of fun 
and enjoyment you have, scored on a 1-9 D-T rating 
scale.
Remarks
Both Happiness (ABS) and satisfaction with leisure were 
assessed at T1 and T2 (25 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.27 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with leisure
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with leisure
Beta controlled for satisfaction with
- sex life
- health
- house
- friends
- self-fulfillment
- standard of living


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa02c

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 211
Our classificationChange in satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa02c
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9- point scale (delighted 
...  terrible) Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.27 p < .01
Happiness T2 by satisfaction T2, controlling for 
happiness T1 and satisfaction T1.

ß can be interpreted as regression between CHANGE 
OF HAPPINESS and CHANGE OF SATISFACTION in time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later leisure
Subject code: L03aa03

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labellenght of travel
Page in Source 657
Our classificationLater leisure, code L03aa03
Operationalization
Number of days traveled in 2008

Travel behavior assessed every 3 months
Remarks
T1: 2007, T2: 2008 2 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.00 ns
T1 happiness ny T2 trip frequency
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later leisure
Subject code: L03aa03

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with vacation as a whole
Page in Source 132,134, 137
Our classificationLater leisure, code L03aa03
Operationalization
Self report of satisfaction with vacation as a whole

Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=123 M=-.01 SD = 4.19
Error Estimatesalpha=.80
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.28
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with vacation as a whole (during 
vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.34 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T3 
satisfaction with vacation as a whole
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aRa²=.03
T2 satisfaction with vacation explains 3% T1-T3 
CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later leisure
Subject code: L03aa03

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labellater social activity hours
Page in Source 106
Our classificationLater leisure, code L03aa03
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or foorball 
games; attending church or other meetings;lectures or 
concerts; doing vollunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertainiang.".
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.16 p < .05
Men. T2 Social activity hours by T1 life 
satisfaction.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=ns
Women. T2 Social activity hours by T1 life 
satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa03a

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and enjoyment you have
- the way you spend your spare time
- the amount of free time you have
- the amount of relaxation in your life
- your own health and physical condition
- the amount of pep and energy you have
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 deligted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN= 125 M= 3,25 SD=0,84
Error Estimatesalpha=0,83
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.67 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with leisure by T3 life 
satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa03a

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nature during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the scenery
- the weather
- opportunities for being close to nature
- opportunities for escape
during vacation

Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=2,13 SD=,99
Error Estimatesalpha=.74
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.18 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with nature (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.26 ns
T2 Satisfaction with nature (during vacation) and 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa03a

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure during vacation
Page in Source 132,133, 134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and relaxation experienced
- engaging in favorite and new leisure activities.
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...terrible
Observed distributionN=123 M=2,41 SD=1,02
Error Estimatesalpha=.94
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.30 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with leisure (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T2 Satisfaction with leisure (during vacation) by 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03aa03a

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with food/lodging during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with leisure, code L03aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- food
- socializing with other people
- being alone
- getting away from it all
during vacation
Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=122 M=3,52 SD=,69
Error Estimatesalpha = .60
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with food/lodging (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.14 ns
T2 life satisfaction food/lodging (during 
vacation)and T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyMollenkopf (2002): study DE 1995
TitleMobilität und Lebensqualität im Alter. Objektive Voraussetzungen und subjektive Bedeutung in der mobilen Gesellschaft. (Mobility and Quality of Life in Old Age).
SourceGlatzer,W.; et al; Eds.: "Sozialen Wandel und gesellschaftliche Dauerbeobachtung", Leske & Budrich, 2002, Germany, 255 - 271
Public55+ aged, East and West Germany, 1995 and 1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1216

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with leisure possibilities
Page in Source 268
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: All in all, how 
satisfied are you with your leisure possibilities?
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionA: N=400; B:N=404; C: N=205; D:N=207

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.15 p < .01
Mannheim (big city West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.08 ns
Chemnitz (big city  East Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.19 p < .05
Hunsrück (rural region West Germany)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.05 ns
Lausitz (rural area East Germany)

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
- financial situation
- health
- local environment
- living area
- housing
- travelling possibilities
- mobility possibilities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyEriksson et al. (2007): study DE 1995
TitleTemporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 80, 511 - 533
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13919

Correlate
Author's labelSpare time
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Logarithm of spare time

Spare time is hours in a week (168) left after 
subtracting hours people actually SPEND on: a) paid 
labour, b) unpaid household labour and c) personal care

Based on whole-day recall of time spent on pre-coded 
activities.
Remarks
Different from discretionairy time, which is the time 
left after subtracting hours stricktly NEEDED for these 
activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=0.16 p < .01
B (+.160)controlled for:
- log household income
- log wage rate
- socio-demographic characteristics
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.17 p < .01
B (+.166) additionally controlled for: 
- log discretionary time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyEriksson et al. (2007): study DE 1995
TitleTemporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 80, 511 - 533
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13919

Correlate
Author's labelDiscretionary time
Page in Source 523
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Logarithm of discretionary time

Discretionairy time is hours in a week (168) left after 
subtracting hours people strictly NEED to devote to: a) 
paid labour, b) unpaid household labour and c) personal 
care.

Hours SPENT assessed using whole-day recall of time 
spent on pre-coded activities

Hours strictkly NEEDED estimated from general 
population
- Work hours required for earning poverty level income
- Half median hours spend on household work
- Mean hours spent on personal care minus ine standard 
deviation
Remarks
Different from 'spare time', which is the time left 
after subtracting hours actually SPENT on these 
activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .05
B (+.288) controlled for: 
- log household income
- log wage rate
- socio-demographic characteristics
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .05
B (+.288) additionally controlled for
- log spare time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyLee (2003): study KR 2000
TitleDaily Contextual Variations in Levels of Adolescent Happiness.
SourceThe Korean Journal of Development Psychology, 2003, Vol. 16, 193 - 209
PublicMiddle school students, South Korea, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response24
Respondents N =134

Correlate
Author's labeldaily activity
Page in Source 200
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Time spend on activities:
A study 
B active leisure
C passive leisure
D interpersonal relationship
E living maintenance

Assessed using experience sampling during one week. 
When beeped Ss answered the open question:'What do you 
do right now'. Responses were later classified in these 
5 categories.
Higher scores mean more time spend on this activity

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aDM=
     M     SD
A   1.06   .87
B   1.91   .98
C   1.69   .99
D   1.66  1.05
E   1.27   .96
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aBMCT= p < .05
B>C,D>E>A


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelTime for leisure
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Self reported amount of leisure time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of free time
Page in Source 36
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
(full question not reported)
1 Little 
2 Average (reference category) 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Much    1,32    0,94       1,09       0,93 
Average 1       1          1          1 
Little  0,90    1,05       1,23       1,31*

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelGender and Time Use Groups
Page in Source 16, 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Time Use Groups:

a FT work; PT unpaid work
b Long work; PT unpaid work
c FT unpaid work
d FT paid work; FT unpaid work
e PT paid work; PT unpaid work
f PT or no (paid) work; FT unpaid work
g Leisure rich
h FT education/training
Observed distributionMales: N= a:24512 b:12714 c:2877 d:0 e:0 f:0 g:15187 h:3393 Total:58683 Females: N= a:16370 b:6357 c:0 d:2741 e:11580 f:9356 g:20064 h:4222 Total:70690
Remarks
FT=full time   PT=part time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Males 
All: M=5.29
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.25
  c: M=5.18
  d: M=/   
  e: M=/   
  f: M=/   
  g: M=5.40
  h: M=5.38
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
     Females
All: M=5.28
  a: M=5.25
  b: M=5.18
  c: M=/
  d: M=5.15
  e: M=5.30
  f: M=5.16
  g: M=5.39
  h: M=5.29
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES   (N=58674/10085)
(reference: a)
a: reference
b: B=-.05 p<.01
c: B=-.61 p<.10
d: /
e: /
f: /
g: B=-.05 p<.05
h: B=+.17 p<.01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)
(reference: e)        
a: B=-.04 p<.10
b: B=-.05 ns
c: /
d: B=-.02 ns
e: reference
f: B=-.04 ns
g: B=-.03 ns
h: B=+.12 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyTan & Tan (1986): study US 1984
TitleTelevision Use and Mental Health.
SourceJournalism Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 63, 106 - 113
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1984
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =446

Correlate
Author's labelMass media use
Page in Source 112
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Mass media use:
- TV hours/day
- Movies/month
- Newspaper read days/week
- Magazines read hours/week
- Books read hours/week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
TV
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
Movies
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Newspaper
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=-.18 ns
Magazines
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Books

Betas controlled for age and income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of vacation days in past year
Page in Source 833
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Self reported number of vacation days in the past year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.16 p < .02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure time
Subject code: L03ab

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelHours of leisure
Page in Source 18,47
Our classificationCurrent leisure time, code L03ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on the hours of leisure in the last weekend: 
loglinear function.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=-.03 ns
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- years education
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- workaholic
- practice sports
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Workers: B= -.04
Nonworkers: B= +.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Singing alone
Page in Source 36, 53
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week singing alone.
Respondents who never sing alone were asked to write 
'0'.
Observed distributionaverage 4.27 hours
Remarks
Only people who sing alone (N=121)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=-.22 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Singing in a group
Page in Source 36, 53
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week singing in a 
group.
Respondents who never sing in a group  were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionaverage 2.27 hours
Remarks
Only people singing in a group (N=30)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=-.40 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Reading to others
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week reading to others.
Respondents who never read to others were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 3.26 hours
Remarks
Only people who read to others (N=92)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities:Going to amateur live theatr
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year going to amateur live 
theatre
Respondents who never go to amateur live theatre were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.61 per year
Remarks
Only people who go to amateur live theatre (N=166)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.24 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Going to other museums
Page in Source 36, 55
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year going to other museums 
than art galleries
Respondents who never go to other museums were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.66 per year
Remarks
Only people who go to other museums (N=137)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.21 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.17 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Buying works of art
Page in Source 36, 55
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year buying work of arts
Respondents who never buy works of art were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAvergae 2.09 times per year
Remarks
Only people who buy works of art (N=116)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.20 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Visiting historic sites
Page in Source 36, 56
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year visiting historic, 
heritage sites
Respondents who never visit historic, heritage sites 
were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.42 times per year
Remarks
Only people who visit historic, heritage sites (N=210)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelDo nothing and relax
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Measurement not reported
1 Not 
2 Well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Well   1,18     1,12       0,82*      0,81*
Not    1        1          1          1

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelStrenuous exercise
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
a: None (reference)
b: <3 h per week
c: >= 3 h per week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=+ p < .01
<3h per week (vs.none):   OR= 1.1 
CI99[1.103-1.145] 
>=3h per week (vs. none): OR= 1.3 
CI99[1.269-1.325] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyFranklin et al. (1986): study US 1985
TitleAssessing Quality of Life of the Mentally Ill. A Three Dimensional Model.
SourceEvaluation & The Health Professions, 1986, Vol. 9, 376 -388
Public18-65 aged, mentally ill, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =220

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 383
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoV=6,75 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17
Beta controlled for satisfaction with leisure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelEase-contentment activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled ease-contentment activities (simple comforts, 
security, relaxation).  
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=-.60 (01)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leisure activity
Subject code: L03ac

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity hours
Page in Source 313
Our classificationCurrent leisure activity, code L03ac
Operationalization
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
"attending a sports event such as baseball or football 
games; attending church or other meetings; lectures or 
concerts; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations or relatives; visiting, telephoning or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating or 
entertaining".
Observed distributionM =5,2 (at T1)
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.11 p < .05
T1 leisure by T1 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09 ns
T1 leisure by T2 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.12 p < .05
T1 leisure by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.09 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- self rated health
- satisfaction with sexlife
- organizational activity
- productive hours
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social, activity hours by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T1 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta= ns
T1 social activity hours by T2-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness, change happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure time activity
Page in Source 100,114
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Five item index of direct questions  on leisure time 
activities, i.e. going for a walk, physical training, 
trekking/trips, frequency of visits to cultural 
institutions, and intensity of hobby and sports 
activities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelActive leisure time
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Single direct question: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.58 p < . 000
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.58 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of leisure activities
Page in Source questions 92 - 96
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
How often do you:
a go to concerts, dance clubs
b go to cinema
c go to the theatre, museums,    exibitions
d visit library
e visit your friends

1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Remarks
Frequency of leisure activities is computed as a sum of 
scores (from 1 to 4) given by an individual for each 
activity (a - e).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.20 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelVariety of leisure activities
Page in Source questions 92-96
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
How often do you:
a go to concerts, dance clubs
b go to cinema
c go to the theatre, museums,    exibitions
d visit library
e visit your friends

1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Remarks
To measure variety of leisure activities only frequent 
activities performed by an individual were chosen 
(points 3 and 4 on the scale). Then, the number of such 
activities performed by a person was computed and put 
into correlation analysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.18 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of leisure activities
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of participation in 28 
activities. Ss checked using the following list
a: Going to concents, teatre, cinema, plays or musuems
b: Going to church
c: Visiting friends
d: Visiting relatives
e: Communicating by phone with friends
f: Communicating by phone with relatives
g: Going out with friends to have lunch, coffee, etc.
h: Going out with relatives to have lunch, coffee, etc.
i: Watching educational television
j: Watching entertainment television
k: Reading newspapers and magazines
l: Reading books
m: Listening to the radio
n: Home repair and maintenance
o: Looking after plants
p: Looking after pets
q: Taking care for a sick relative
r: Looking after kids
s: Attending a leisure group - playing with a musical 
group, a theatre group, going on trips-
t: Writing, painting, sculpture, playing a musical 
instrument
u: Listening to music
v: Doing physical exercise
w: To do unpaid work for others
x: Taking courses or lessons
y: Going shopping (not include buying food or things 
for the house)
z: Collaboration with an NGO
aa: To play solitary games and card  
ab: Board games with others

Rating:
1: never
2: sometimes
3: once a month
4: several times a month
5: one a week
6: several times a week
7: every day

Number of activiteit not rated 'never'
Observed distributionRange: 0-28, M = 19.67 SD = 3.90
Remarks
Grouped in eight categories:
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.17 p < .01
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of leisure activities
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of participation in 28 
activities. Ss checked using the following list
a: Going to concents, teatre, cinema, plays or musuems
b: Going to church
c: Visiting friends
d: Visiting relatives
e: Communicating by phone with friends
f: Communicating by phone with relatives
g: Going out with friends to have lunch, coffee, etc.
h: Going out with relatives to have lunch, coffee, etc.
i: Watching educational television
j: Watching entertainment television
k: Reading newspapers and magazines
l: Reading books
m: Listening to the radio
n: Home repair and maintenance
o: Looking after plants
p: Looking after pets
q: Taking care for a sick relative
r: Looking after kids
s: Attending a leisure group - playing with a musical 
group, a theatre group, going on trips-
t: Writing, painting, sculpture, playing a musical 
instrument
u: Listening to music
v: Doing physical exercise
w: To do unpaid work for others
x: Taking courses or lessons
y: Going shopping (not include buying food or things 
for the house)
z: Collaboration with an NGO
aa: To play solitary games and card  
ab: Board games with others

Rating:
1: never
2: sometimes
3: once a month
4: several times a month
5: one a week
6: several times a week
7: every day
Observed distributionM = 99.05 SD = 18.62
Remarks
Grouped in eight categories:
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.24 p < .01
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 262
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on the following questions:
-I visit friends or relatives for a meal at least once 
a month
-I go to a cafe or restaurant for a meal at least once 
a month
-I do some sport at leat once a month
-I go to a local club, class or meeting  at least once 
a month
-I go to the cinema or theatre at least once a month
-I go out to meet friends or relatives at least once a 
week
-I go away on holiday for at least two weeks each year
-I go to church (or some place) at least once a month
-I have a hoby or interst
-There is lots for me to do at home
Remarks
Subscale of Life Experience Checklist(LEC) [Ager 1990]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.34 p < .008
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.39 p < .005
rpc controled for depression as measured with Beck 
Depression Investertory


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDegree of bodily activity in pursuit of pleasures
Page in Source 26
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon pleasures (games, etc.)
Page in Source 26
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelMental work bestowedupon pleasures (games, etc.)
Page in Source 27
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure Activities
Page in Source 57
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
self report: 0= none 16 = maximum

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.13 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.10 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelActive leisure
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "active leisure" such 
as playing games, going for a walk and doing crafts.

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.12 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.12 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta= .00 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.06 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelPassive leisure
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "passive leisure" 
such as watching TV, reading and writing.

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.04 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.22 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.06 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.22 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.16 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.04 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.04 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyBahr & Harvey (1980): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Morale Among the Newly Widowed.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 110, 219 - 233
PublicRecently widowed miner`s wives and controls,USA, 1972
Sample
Non-ResponseWidows 39% ,survivor wives 19% ,other miners wives 48%
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 226
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Direct question;"Approximately how much time did you 
spend in other leisure activities yesterday besides 
t.v. and reading?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire) 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Widows(husband died six months ago in mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Survivor wives(husband survived mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)    
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Survivor wives (husband survived mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acr= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in  
mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
-Other miners wives (husband was not involved in
 mine fire)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=? ns
Other miners wives(husband was not involved in 
mine fire)  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyGarrity (1973): study US NorthDakota 1970
TitleSocial Involvement and Activeness as Predictors of Morale Six Months after First Myocardial Infarction.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1973, Vol. 7, 199 - 207
PublicWhite males, heart-attack survivors, Durham, North-Carolina, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of non- associational leisure activity
Page in Source 201
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Average number of hours per week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.28 p < .05
The relationship disappears when controlled for 
self-perceived health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelEase-contentment activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled ease- contentment activities (simple 
comforts, security, relaxation).  They were also asked 
what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Newlyweds: men
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=-.60 p < .01
Newlyweds: women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyChiriboga (1975): study US 1969
TitlePerceptions of Well-Being.
SourceLowenthal, M.F.;et al;Eds.: "Four Stages of Life", Jossey Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA, 84 - 98
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelHedonistic activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled hedonic activities. They were also asked what 
they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br= ns
Newlyweds: men
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.38 p < .10
Newlyweds: women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelEase-contentment activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled ease-contentment activities (simple comforts, 
security, relaxation).  
They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=-.60 (01)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelSocial activity.
Page in Source 70-72
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport.
Number of hours spent during the last typical week 
attending a sport event; attending church, lectures, 
concerts ect.; doing volunteer work for church, other 
organizations, or relatives; visiting, telephoning, or 
writing friends or relatives; parties, eating out, or 
entertaining.
Observed distributionActual range 0-34 M= 9.9 SD=6.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.09
All
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.17 p < .05
Men.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.03 p < .05
Men. Step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.44
org. activity        B1=+.46
confident            B2=+.48
performance status   B3=+.49
employment           B4=+.50
social activity      B5=+.51   

All variables p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of extra-curricular activities taken part in
Page in Source 108/318
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question 0 / 1-2 / 3+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.16
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .35 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .10 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelParticipation in extracurricular activities
Page in Source 108/124 -
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
2-item index of open-ended questions on number of 
extracurricular activities taken part in, and number of 
hours spent on these activities in an average week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.24
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.21
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.21
- sensitivity to failure            : Gs = +.24
- educational level of mother       : Gs = +.22
- school social class               : Gs = +.23
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- having faith in people, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.17
- having faith in people, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.18
- educational level of mother, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.19
- educational level of mother, and
  tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.19
- educational level of mother, and
  having faith in people            : Gs = +.18
- school social class, and having 
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.19
- school social class, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.20
- school social class, and having
  faith in people                   : Gs = +.21
- school social class, and educa-
  tional level of mother            : Gs = +.21

Medium and high stability of self-
image                               : G  = +.27
Low stability of self-image         : G  = +.21

Spent no time on working for pay
spend                               : G  = +.27
Spent some hours on work for pay    : G  = +.22

Lower class                         : G  = -.13
Middle and upper class              : G  = +.21

Unaffected by school social class

  
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.10
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.10
- sensitivity to failure            : Gs = +.14
- educational level of mother       : Gs = +.12
- school social class               : Gs = +.12
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.12
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- having faith in people, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.04
- having faith in people, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.06
- educational level of mother, and
  having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- educational level of mother, and
  tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.08
- educational level of mother, and
  having faith in people            : Gs = +.09
- school social class, and having
  fun in life                       : Gs = +.06
- school social class, and tending
  to be a lonely person             : Gs = +.08
- school social class, and having
  faith in people                   : Gs = +.08
- school social class, and educa-
  tional level of mother            : Gs = +.11

Unaffected by stability of self-image
Unaffected by hours spent on work for pay
Positive in middle and upper class  : G  = +.14
After control for                   : Gs = +.10
Negative in lower class             : G  = -.29
After control for                   : Gs = -.24
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .11 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on extra-curricular activities
Page in Source 108/314
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question: 0 / 1-4 / 5 hours or more 
in a average week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.14
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .09 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelCampus activity level
Page in Source 283
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Non-required campus activities of any sort. 
0 No activities 
1 Activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= ±0 ns
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=±0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /4
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =855

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure interests
Page in Source 232
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Ss were invited to choose some main interests from a 
list of 19 activities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
The cheerfull choose the following activities 
slightly more:
- Gardening and flowers
- Sport
- Animals
- Old building and architecture
- Religious questions
- Theatre interior and furniture
- Puzzles
- Cooking recepts
- Educating children/ helping with schoolproblems

This pattern is similar among the young (16 - 29) 
and pensioners.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /5
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =890

Correlate
Author's labelActivity interests
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Ss were invited to choose some main interests from a 
list of 24 activities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
The cheerfull choose the following activities 
slightly more:
- Being home
- Gardening+flowers
- Reading
- Walking
- Music
- Going out by car
- Inviting people or making invitations
- Playing with children
- Helping other people
- Being busy with animals
- Playing cards, chess etc.
- To go out
- Sports (watching and visiting)
- Hobbies
- Writing letters

This pattern is similar among the young (16 - 29) 
and pensioners. Exceptions are: 
- watching television: pensioners 76%, young 78%;
- plain leasure: the young 45%, pensioners 50%
- handycraft: the young 33%, pensioners 44%  and   
pensioners 28%, the young 31%
- hobbies: the young 28%, pensioners 29%
- writing letters: the young 11%, penioners 14%
 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly at cinema, pop concerts and similar
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
1 go at least once a month to the cinema
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=215769 M=0.53 sd=0.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.06 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending other events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyShamir (1985a): study IL 1983
TitleUnemployment and 'Free Time'. The Role of Protestant Work Ethic and Work Involvement.
SourceLeisure Studies, 1985, Vol. 4, 333 - 345
Public27-47 aged unemployed male academics, Israel, 1983
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =59

Correlate
Author's labelStudy as a leisure activity
Page in Source 340
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Self report of in involvement in non-work study
Remarks
Item in a wider questionnaire on involvement in 
non-work activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.60 s
a High protestant work ethic
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.00 ns
b Low protestant work ethic

Protestant Work Ethic measured using Mirels and 
Garret (1971) scale. PWE unrelated to study 
activity (r = +.05 ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyDuimel (2007): study NL 2005
TitleTieners en Geluk: Liever een Leven Online dan een Gezinsleven? ( Teenage Happiness: Link with Familylife and Life On-Line.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 130 - 135
PublicTeenagers, Netherlands, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelspecific activities together with at least one parent
Page in Source 132
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Selfreported activities together with parents:
-having breakfast/dinner
-watchting tv
-talking

1= less than once a week
2= at least once a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Breakfast together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Supper together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,2
2: M =        7,7
Difference   +0,5
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
TV-watching together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,4
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Talking with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Average activities together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyVanDenBroek (2007): study NL 2004
TitleMeer Mens met Vitamine C. ( On Culture and Happiness).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", SCP, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 94 - 98
Public15-65 aged natives, living in big cities, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =800

Correlate
Author's labelcultural activities
Page in Source 96
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of participation in
a. official culture 
b. popculture:      
c. informal culture 
d. amateur culture  
Rated yes (1) or no (0)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+ ns
Official culture
-non-participants:                Mt=8,0
-participants:                    Mt=8,1
-Difference                      DMt=0,1
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+ ns
Average for cultural activities
-average non-participants:        Mt=8,0
-average participants:            Mt=8,1
-Difference                      DMt=0,1

Happiness means transformed from 
range 1-5 to 1-10.
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+ ns
Pop-culture
-non-participants:                Mt=8,0
-participants:                    Mt=8,1
-Difference                      DMt=0,1
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+ ns
Informal culture
-non-participants:                Mt=7,9
-participants:                    Mt=8,2
-Difference                      DMt=0,3
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dDMt= ns
Amateur culture
-non-participants:                Mt=8,1
-participants:                    Mt=8,1
-Difference                      DMt=0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelRecent holiday trip
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Recent holiday trip during last 12 months?
1 no
2 one holiday
3 more than one holidays

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.21 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of non-domestic entertainment activities
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Number of non-domestic entertainment activities
1 no activities
2 one activity
3 two activities
4 three activities
5 four activities
6 five activities
7 six or seven activities
8 eight or more activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.07 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of leisure activities
Page in Source questions 92 - 96
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you:
a go to concerts, dance clubs
b go to cinema
c go to the theatre, museums,    exibitions
d visit library
e visit your friends

1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Remarks
Frequency of leisure activities is computed as a sum of 
scores (from 1 to 4) given by an individual for each 
activity (a - e).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.20 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelAttending concerts and dance clubs
Page in Source question 92
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you go to concerts, dance clubs? 
1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 72% 2: 20,4% 3: 5,2% 4: 1,7% DK/NA: 0,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,46
2: M = 2,68
3: M = 2,72
4: M = 2,81
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.13 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelAttending cinema
Page in Source question 93
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you go to cinema? 
1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 51,5% 2: 33,6% 3: 12,6% 4: 1,8% DK/NA: 0,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,44
2: M = 2,55
3: M = 2,71
4: M = 2,94
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.12 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelAttending theatre, museums and exibitions
Page in Source question 94
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you go to theatre, museums, exibitions? 
1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 66,9% 2: 26,4% 3: 5,2% 4: 0,7% DK/NA: 0,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,43
2: M = 2,69
3: M = 2,81
4: M = 2,93
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.16 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelAttending library
Page in Source question 95
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you go to library? 
1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 63,7% 2: 16,7% 3: 13,1% 4: 5,7% DK/NA: 0,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,49
2: M = 2,55
3: M = 2,61
4: M = 2,66
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.06 p < .013


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelVisiting friends
Page in Source question 96
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you visit your friends? 
1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 11,1% 2: 32,2% 3: 38,6% 4: 17,7% DK/NA: 0,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,15
2: M = 2,43
3: M = 2,59
4: M = 2,77
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.21 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelVariety of leisure activities
Page in Source questions 92-96
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you:
a go to concerts, dance clubs
b go to cinema
c go to the theatre, museums,    exibitions
d visit library
e visit your friends

1 never
2 one or several times per year
3 1-2 times per month
4 every week
- DK/NA
Remarks
To measure variety of leisure activities only frequent 
activities performed by an individual were chosen 
(points 3 and 4 on the scale). Then, the number of such 
activities performed by a person was computed and put 
into correlation analysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.18 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelKind of leisure activities
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of participation in 28 
activities. Ss checked using the following list
a: Going to concents, teatre, cinema, plays or musuems
b: Going to church
c: Visiting friends
d: Visiting relatives
e: Communicating by phone with friends
f: Communicating by phone with relatives
g: Going out with friends to have lunch, coffee, etc.
h: Going out with relatives to have lunch, coffee, etc.
i: Watching educational television
j: Watching entertainment television
k: Reading newspapers and magazines
l: Reading books
m: Listening to the radio
n: Home repair and maintenance
o: Looking after plants
p: Looking after pets
q: Taking care for a sick relative
r: Looking after kids
s: Attending a leisure group - playing with a musical 
group, a theatre group, going on trips-
t: Writing, painting, sculpture, playing a musical 
instrument
u: Listening to music
v: Doing physical exercise
w: To do unpaid work for others
x: Taking courses or lessons
y: Going shopping (not include buying food or things 
for the house)
z: Collaboration with an NGO
aa: To play solitary games and card  
ab: Board games with others

Rating:
1: never
2: sometimes
3: once a month
4: several times a month
5: one a week
6: several times a week
7: every day
Observed distributionA) social activities (M = 3.09; SD = 0.56); B) mass communication use (M = 3.37; SD = 0.42) C) building knowledge (M = 2.76; SD = 0.80); D) home activities and hobbies (M = 2.90; SD = 0.90); E) creative activities (M = 1.58; SD = 0.75); F) activities outside home (M = 1.83; SD = 0.42); G) community service activities (M = 2.26; SD = 0.84); H) games (M = 2.32; SD = 0.92).
Remarks
Grouped in eight categories:
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aDM=
                                Happiness
A: Social activities            M = 
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-a
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyFerrer-i-Carbonell & Gowdy (2007): study GB 1996
TitleEnvironmental Degradation and Happiness.
SourceEcological Economics, 2007, Vol. 60, 509 - 516
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, Great Britain, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsena
Respondents N =9000

Correlate
Author's labelGardening
Page in Source 513, 515
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
How often do you work in the garden?
0 several times a year, once a year or less, 
never/almost never
1 at least once a week, at least once a month
Observed distribution48 % of the respondents works often in the garden

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+ p < .00
OPRC (+.13) controlled for:
- socio-economic variables
- demographic variables
- perceived environmental problems at accomodation

Unaffected by additional control for:
- psychological traits

OPRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size. OPRC denotes only that gardening corresponds 
to higher happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelActive leisure
Page in Source 251
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
single direct question; in leisure time prefer to: 
relax/be active/both

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
relax                  M = 1.0   Mt' = 6.0
be active                  1.6         6.6
both                       1.7         6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelVacation
Page in Source 136,137
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Three or more days off from work
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: one week before vacation
T3: The week after vacation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+ p < .05
T1 = one week before  M=5,30
T3 = one week after   M=5,43
Difference =            +0,13, t=3.29

Vacation satisfaction explains 3% extra variance 
in T3 happiness in addition to T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSocializing
Page in Source 834
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviours in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Attending plays, movies or concert
- Going out for dinner in a restayrant with friends or 
family
- Visiting friends or familr in their homes
- Talking on the telephone with friends about non-work 
related activities
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Attending plays etc 2.98, Going out etc 3.77, Visiting etc 3.03, Talking etc 3.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelHedonistic activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled hedonic activities. They were also asked what 
they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r=+.38 (ns)
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific leisure activities
Subject code: L03ac02

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of going out evenings with spouse
Page in Source 17
Our classificationSpecific leisure activities, code L03ac02
Operationalization
0: 2 or less evenings a month 
1: more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%=+ p < .05
33 % of the very satisfied and satisfied, and 40% 
of the relatively dissatisfied women go out 2 or
fewer evenings a month with their husband 
Among the men 29 % of the very satisfied, 37 % of
the satisfied and 39 % of the relatively dis-
satisfied report going out 2 or fewer evenings
a month with their wives


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal care
Subject code: L03ac02a

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal care activity
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationPersonal care, code L03ac02a
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "personal care" 
including sleeping and napping.

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar= .00 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.05 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.19 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.04 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.18 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal care
Subject code: L03ac02a

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelNon-goal directed activities
Page in Source 93
Our classificationPersonal care, code L03ac02a
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to list their regular or 
scheduled non-goal directed activities (routine 
maintenance such as getting up, eating, bathing, etc.). 

They were also asked what they did "yesterday".
The number of mentions was recorded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r=+.43 (05)
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns    females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns    females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns    females: r=-.41 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelGo out
Page in Source 45
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Go out: restaurants and bars
Precise measure not reported
1 Little
2 Average (reference category) 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Much    0,91    1,10       1,04       0,92 
Average 1       1          1          1
Litlle  1,49*   1,32       1,06       0,91

Control variables are:
- culturele participation 
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelVacation abroad
Page in Source 100
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Have you been on holiday abroad in the past 12 months?
1 yes
2 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelEating in restaurants
Page in Source 234
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency in the past week not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.12
Females : G = +.46
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.42
Females : G = +.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudySiösteen et al. (1990): study SE 1985
TitleThe Quality of Life of Three Functional Spinal Cord Injury Subgroups in a Swedish Community.
SourceParaplegia, 1990, Vol. 28, 476 -- 488
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2263404
PublicSpinal Cord Injury, Swedish, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelSocial and recreational activities
Page in Source Table VI
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Taking part in given social activities e. g. cinema, 
restaurant, visiting friends over the past month was 
noted. 
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.39 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelVisiting bars, taverns
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
How often do you go to a bar or tavern?
0 never
1 once or several times a year
2 once or several times a month
3 once a week or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=-.62 p < .01
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=-.37 p < .01
% very happy
0      39
1      32
2      29
3      26
The relationship disappears after control for 
marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Eating/drinking out
Subject code: L03ac02b

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelEating in restaurants
Page in Source 48
Our classificationEating/drinking out, code L03ac02b
Operationalization
Closed question: not at all / once / several times or 
more during last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = +.23 (01)
- Unaffected by S.E.S.                          
- Males                         : G' = +.30 (01)
- Females                       : G' = +.23 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gardening
Subject code: L03ac02c

StudyKullberg (2007): study NL 1975
TitleMet Mijn Tuin in de Wolken.( Happy with my Garden).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 99 - 105
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1975-2005
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response245
Respondents N =2229

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a garden
Page in Source 100
Our classificationGardening, code L03ac02c
Operationalization
1: no garden
2: garden connected to home or elsewhere
3: hobby-garden, away from home
Observed distributionN = 2229 (respondents) 1: 575 2: 1637 (1593 at home, 44 elsewhere) 3: 17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1:       M = 2,04
2:       M = 2,76
3:       M = 3,06
Difference  +1,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gaming
Subject code: L03ac02d

StudyDuimel (2007): study NL 2005
TitleTieners en Geluk: Liever een Leven Online dan een Gezinsleven? ( Teenage Happiness: Link with Familylife and Life On-Line.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 130 - 135
PublicTeenagers, Netherlands, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelinternet, msn, gamen
Page in Source 133
Our classificationGaming, code L03ac02d
Operationalization
Internet,msn, gaming;
1= less than daily
2= daily

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=0 ns
1: M =       7,7
2: M =       7,7
- difference 0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelHaving hobbies
Page in Source 235
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization
Direct question on number of hobbies Weighted score 
based on number of hobbies and amount of skill 
involved.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ar=
Index of Positive Affects: r = +.16 (05)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.30 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelHobbies and leisure
Page in Source 270,278,279,287,288,296
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization
Selfreport of hours spent on hobbies and leisure
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 9%, 1: 28%, 2: 28%, 3: 14%, 4: 10%, 5: 5%, 6-10: 5%, 11-16: 1%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 7%, 1: 13%, 2: 19%, 3: 14%, 4: 14%, 5: 11%, 6-10: 15%, 11-16: 4%, 17-24: *, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 6%, 1: 7%, 2: 14%, 3: 13%, 4: 14%, 5: 12%, 6-10: 24%, 11-16: 6%, 17-24: *, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0/-
On working days
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 2.2  M = 2.3 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 2.2  M = 2.3 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 4:  M = 2.3  M = 2.1 hrs         -0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On Saturdays
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 3.9  M = 3.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 3.9  M = 3.9 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 4:  M = 3.8  M = 3.9 hrs         -0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On Sundays
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 4.9  M = 4.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 4.9  M = 4.8 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 4:  M = 4.8  M = 4.9 hrs         -0.1 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 4: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelIndoor activity
Page in Source 306-309
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization
Self report on how often participants performed  in his 
or her home the following indoor activities during last 
week:
a: listening to radio
b: watching television
c: reading a newspaper or book
d: writing letters
e: doing any physical training
f: studying (alone) the Bible languages etc
g: doing any handwork (such as knitting)
h: performing any housekeeping duties
i: doing any hobby
j: cooking and baking
k: speaking on the telephone
l: performing special works at home such as gardening, 
repairing etc
m: any other indoor activity that participant wished to 
add

Rated:
1: never
2: seldom
3: often
4: constantly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=-.08 ns
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.33 p < .05
Males
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.24 ns
rpc's controled for satisfaction with indoor 
activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of hours of active hobbies
Page in Source 39
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization
Measure not reported
1 Little (reference category) 
2 Average 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled  observed  controlled
Much    0,91    0,84       0,81       0,72*
Average 0,97    1          0,93       0,89
Little  1       1          1          1

Control variables are:
- sport 
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of hobby activities
Page in Source 62
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization
Number of hobby activities
1 no activities
2 one activity
3 two activities
4 three or more activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.11 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.13 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hobbies
Subject code: L03ac02e

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelEngaging in hobbies
Page in Source 17
Our classificationHobbies, code L03ac02e
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= + p < . 05
Unaffected by sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelAccess to resources: modern telecommuncation
Page in Source 216,221
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions:
A How often do you view Internet web pages by computer?
B How often do you read or write emails by computers? 
C How often do you read of write messages by mobile 
phone?
Each ratedated:
5: almost every day
4: several times a week
3: several times a month
2: seldom
1: never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.01 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.99 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.00 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=-.01 ns
OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- unemployed
- rural residency
- life domain satisfaction
- value priorities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelScreen-based media use
Page in Source 191,192,195
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
Self report of hours spend per day on:
A: Using a computer during free time (excluding time 
spent doing homework)
B: Watching television (including videos)

Computation: average hours per day on A and B

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.03 p < .01
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.06 p < .0001
Southern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= p < .0001
North America < westernEurope < Eastern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelInternet use
Page in Source 24
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
0 = no internet user (reference)
1 = internet user

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.58 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.18 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
-church attendance
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.19 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness
-health satisafaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelUse of computer and internet
Page in Source 42
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
1 Little
2 Average 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Much    0,89    0,76       0,82       0,78
Average 1       1          1          1 
Little  1,20    0,83       1,06       1,00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyDuimel (2007): study NL 2005
TitleTieners en Geluk: Liever een Leven Online dan een Gezinsleven? ( Teenage Happiness: Link with Familylife and Life On-Line.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 130 - 135
PublicTeenagers, Netherlands, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelinternet, msn, gamen
Page in Source 133
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
Internet,msn, gaming;
1= less than daily
2= daily

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=0 ns
1: M =       7,7
2: M =       7,7
- difference 0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelDigital life
Page in Source 346,370,371
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
A digital life index was computed by counting the 
response to 3 questions:
- how often respondents view webpages
- read emails
- send messages on their mobile phones.
Value of index ranges from 0 to 3.
Observed distributionall: 0:29,4%,1:20,5%,2:6,6%,3:43,5% married subjects only: 0:33,0%,1:22,0%,2:6,8%,3:38,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=-.03 ns
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=-.02 ns
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.08 ns
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.06 ns
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.09 p < .05
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.11 p < .05
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- global
- spirituality
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Internet
Subject code: L03ac02f

StudyKross et al. (2013): study US Michigan 2012
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Michigan, United States, 2012
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelFacebook use
Page in Source 2
Our classificationInternet, code L03ac02f
Operationalization
Sellf report on repeated question: " How much have you 
used facebook since the last time we asked?"
Rated on 0-100 scale ranging from 0= not at all to 
100=a lot.
Observed distributionMean= 33.9, s.d.=30.5.
Remarks
Assessed daily during 14 days T1 to T14. Participants 
were text-messaged 5 times per day between 10 AM and 
midnight over 14 days. Each text-message contained a 
link to an online survey in which the next question was 
asked

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ab=-.08 p < .01
T1-T14 CHANGE in happiness: T14 Happiness 
controlled for how respondents felt at T1.

Nested time-lag analysis indicated that the more 
people used Facebook the worse they subsequently 
felt.

The reverse pathway (T1 happiness predicting T1-14 
Facebook use, controlling for T0-1 Facebook use) 
was not significant: B= -.005, Chi2=.05.
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aChi²=28.9 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 /2
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2024

Correlate
Author's labelReading books
Page in Source 236
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Ss were asked how often they read books:
3 at least once a week
2 less than once a week
1 haven't read a book the last year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.38 p < .01
age 16 - 29
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .01
                         
                      
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.19 p < .01
age 30 - 44
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .01
                     
                    
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.19 p < .01
age 45 - 59
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .01
                      
                     
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.28 p < .01
age 60+
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.19 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.28 p < .01
higher education
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.14 p < .01
elementery education only
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelnr of books in house
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
log of number of books present in the household
Observed distributionM= 4.719 SD=1.372

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
probit result= -0,013
CI95=[-0,08  0,06]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyShamir (1985a): study IL 1983
TitleUnemployment and 'Free Time'. The Role of Protestant Work Ethic and Work Involvement.
SourceLeisure Studies, 1985, Vol. 4, 333 - 345
Public27-47 aged unemployed male academics, Israel, 1983
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =59

Correlate
Author's labelReading books as a leisure activity
Page in Source 340
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Self report of in involvement in non-work book reading
Remarks
Item in a wider questionnaire on involvement in 
non-work activities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+
a High protestant work ethic
Set Image size:   

A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-
b Low protestant work ethic

Protestant Work Ethic measured using Mirels and 
Garret (1971) scale. PWE unrelated to study 
activity (r = +.02 ns)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelIndoor activity
Page in Source 306-309
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Self report on how often participants performed  in his 
or her home the following indoor activities during last 
week:
a: listening to radio
b: watching television
c: reading a newspaper or book
d: writing letters
e: doing any physical training
f: studying (alone) the Bible languages etc
g: doing any handwork (such as knitting)
h: performing any housekeeping duties
i: doing any hobby
j: cooking and baking
k: speaking on the telephone
l: performing special works at home such as gardening, 
repairing etc
m: any other indoor activity that participant wished to 
add

Rated:
1: never
2: seldom
3: often
4: constantly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=-.08 ns
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.33 p < .05
Males
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.24 ns
rpc's controled for satisfaction with indoor 
activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelReading newspapers and magazines
Page in Source 44
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
1 Little
2 Average (reference category) 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Much    1,02     0,88       0,89       0,83
Average 1        1          1          1
Little  1,11     1,01       1,01       1,04

Control variable is:
- Reading books


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelReading books
Page in Source 44
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
1 Not (reference category) 
2 Well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Well   0,94     0,94       1,08       1,07 
Not    1        1          1          1

Control variable is:
- Reading newspapers and magazines


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelReading newspapers
Page in Source 234
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency in the past week: not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.42
Females : G = +.60
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.21
Females : G = +.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelFun reading/writing
Page in Source 193
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
% of time reading books for pleasure when beeped
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=+
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=-2.1 p < .04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelActive Coping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Using special calendars, making lists or using other 
devices to become better organized
- Attending religious services or activities
- Reading non work-related books and magazines other 
than daily newspapers
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Using calendars etc 3.75, Religious services 1.76, Reading etc 4.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelReading religious books
Page in Source 701, 703, 704
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
How often do you read religious books or other 
religious materials?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly everyday - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,45, SD = 1,25 T2: M = 3,93, SD = 1,10
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.07 ns
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.02 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelReading religious books
Page in Source 704
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
How often do you read religious books or other 
religious materials?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly everyday - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.12 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.08 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.06 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .01
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religioun
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.04 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reading
Subject code: L03ac02g

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelReading
Page in Source 703
Our classificationReading, code L03ac02g
Operationalization
Number of hours devoted to reading books, newspapers 
and magazines: less than 1/1 to 3/more than 3 hours 
daily.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.04 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Shopping
Subject code: L03ac02h

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelShopping
Page in Source 270,272,279,281,288,290
Our classificationShopping, code L03ac02h
Operationalization
Hours spent on shopping.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 31%, 1: 59%, 2: 8%, 3: 1%, 4: *%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -% , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 21%, 1: 40%, 2: 28%, 3: 6%, 4: 1%, 5: *%, 6-10: *%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 91%, 1: 3%, 2: 2%, 3: *%, 4: -%, 5: *%, 6-10: -%, 11-16: -%, 17-24: -, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.8  M = 0.8 hrs          0.0 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.3  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.3  M = 1.2 hrs         +0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=0
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 3:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs
top 5:  M = 0.1  M = 0.1 hrs          0.0 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Shopping
Subject code: L03ac02h

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of shopping
Page in Source 234
Our classificationShopping, code L03ac02h
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency in the past week: not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.45
Females : G = +.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.18
Females : G = +.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Theater/movies
Subject code: L03ac02i

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly at cinema, pop concerts and similar
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationTheater/movies, code L03ac02i
Operationalization
1 go at least once a month to the cinema
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=215769 M=0.53 sd=0.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.06 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.03 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending other events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Theater/movies
Subject code: L03ac02i

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelGoing to the movies
Page in Source 234
Our classificationTheater/movies, code L03ac02i
Operationalization
Direct question on frequency in the past week not at 
all / once / more than once.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.02
Females : G = +.52
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.24
Females : G = +.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of days traveled
Page in Source 657
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
number of days traveled
Remarks
Assess every three months 2007 and 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-arpc=+.01 ns
2007
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-arpc=-.02 ns
2008
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-arpc=+.00 ns
2007
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-arpc=+.00 ns
2008

rpc controlled for socio-demographics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelchange trip frequency
Page in Source 658
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
T1-T2 difference in 
A: frequency of trips
B: number of days spent in holiday
Remarks
Leisure behavior reported every 3 months during 2 years
T1: 2007, T2: 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.02 ns
T1-T2 change in trip frequency by T2 happiness
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.03 ns
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in number of days spend by T2 
happiness
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelVacationing
Page in Source 655
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
1 vacationing
0 non-vacationing
Remarks
Vacationing measured every 3 months.
T1: 1007, T2: 2008 2 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-aDM=+
vacationers      M = 4.12, SD = 3.03
non-vacationers  M = 3.66, SD = 2.88
- difference        +0.56
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-aES=.004 p < .001
partial eta squared (initial test: ANOVA)
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-aDM=+
vacationers      M = 3.87 SD = 0.79
non-vacationers  M = 3.83 SD = 0.84
- difference        +0.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of trips made
Page in Source 657
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
1  made one or more trip
0: no trip made
Remarks
Assessed every 3 minths 2007, 2008

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-arpc=+.01 ns
2007
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-arpc=+.02 ns
2008
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.01 ns
2007
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.02 ns
2008

rpc controlled for socio-demographics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labellenght of travel
Page in Source 657
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Number of days traveled in 2008

Travel behavior assessed every 3 months
Remarks
T1: 2007, T2: 2008 2 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-ar=+.00 ns
T1 happiness ny T2 trip frequency
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-ar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn (2011a): study NL 2007
TitleHappiness Trough Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2011, Vol. 12, 651 - 665
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-010-9221-y
PublicAdults, general public, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 2007-2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response36% drop-out at T2
Respondents N =3650

Correlate
Author's labelvacation frequency
Page in Source 657
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
1: had a vacation
    a: in 2008 only
    b: in 2007 and 2008
0: not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-aDM=
           Mean happiness:    2007  2008  
difference
a: vacation in 2008 only      3.64  3.51  -0.13
b: vacation in 2007 and 2008  3.68  3.52  -0.24
- difference                 +0.04 +0.01  +0.11
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-aDM=
           Mean happiness:    2007  2008  
difference
a: vacation in 2008 only      3.85  3.96  +0.11
b: vacation in 2007 and 2008  3.88  3.98  +0.10
- difference                 +0.03 +0.01  +0.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn et al. (2010): study NL 2006
TitleVacationers Happier, but Most not Happier after a Holiday.
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2010, Vol. 5, 35 - 47
DOIDOI:10,1007/s11482-009-9091-9
Public16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, followed 21 weeks, 2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response470
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelHoliday quality
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Self report on single question about quality of Ss' 
holiday trip.
3: very relaxed
2: relaxed
1: stressful or neutral
Remarks
Vacationers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-cMAoV=
Holiday quality   T1      T5       difference
-very relaxed     M=2,48  M=2,71   +0,23 (01)
-relaxed          M=2,27  M=2,22   -0,05 (ns)
-stressful        M=1,52  M=1,56   -0,04 (ns)
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-cF= p < .001
F (4, 718)=9.24
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-c
Pillai’s Trace=.10; ?2=.05

Happiness rises after a holiday trip only for 
vacationers who rated the holiday as 'very 
relaxed'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyNawijn et al. (2010): study NL 2006
TitleVacationers Happier, but Most not Happier after a Holiday.
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2010, Vol. 5, 35 - 47
DOIDOI:10,1007/s11482-009-9091-9
Public16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, followed 21 weeks, 2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response470
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelVacationing
Page in Source 43
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question at T3 on whether or not 
one had had a holiday trip in the last two months  
(since T2)
1: Had a holiday trip (vacationers)
0: Had not (non-vacationers)

Assessed in week 35 and referred to the time since the 
last participation in this follow-up study in week 27
Observed distributionN = 1: 974, 0: 556
Remarks
Ss answered questions every 2 months on how happy they 
had felt and at T3 also about holiday trips since T2 
T1: week 11  (March)
T2: week 19  (May)
T3: week 27  (July)
T4: week 35  (September)
T5: week 43  (November)
In week 35 respondents also reported:
A: the number of days the holiday trip had lasted
B: how many days had passed since return

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-cDM=+
                 T1(before)     T5 (after)
Vacationers      M=2,25 SD=.08  M=2,19 SD=.08 
Non-vacationers  M=2,07 SD=.09  M=2,06 SD=.07
-difference       +0,18           +0,13

T1 = pre-trip (March 2006), T5= post-trip 
(November 2006)
Set Image size:   

A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-cMAoV=+
Vacationers significantly happier at T1 but not at 
T2

Covariates:
- educational level
- net household income
- age
- extraversion

Happiness rises after a holiday only among 
vacationers who rated the trip as 'very relaxed'


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal life
Page in Source 370,371
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Responses to 6 questions on openness and interaction 
with others were counted to form the Global Life Index:
- have a family or relative living in another country
- have traveled at least 3 times in the past 3 years 
either for business or holiday purposes
- making friends from other countries
- exposure to foreign-produced programs on TV
- communication with people in other countries via the 
internet or email
- job related contact with organizations or people in 
other countries.
The value of the index ranges from 0 to 3+.
Observed distributionall:0:9,3%,1:17,3%,2:22,2%,3+:51,2% married subjects only: 0:9,3%,1:15,7%,2:21,4%,3+:53,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.03 ns
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.04 ns
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 ns
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.06 ns
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=-.02 ns
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=.00 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- digital
- spirituality
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2004): study GB 2001
TitleHolidaytaking and the Sense of Well-Being.
SourceAnnals of Tourism Research, 2004, Vol. 31, 103 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.annals.2003.06.001
PublicHolidaymakers and controls, Guildford area, UK
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelholidaymaking (vs not)
Page in Source 1
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Reponse to question about holidays: Having taking at 
least four nights or more holiday outside the UK
1 yes: holiday taking group
0 no : non-holiday group

Non-holidaymakers control group was matched on basis of 
occupation and age
Observed distributionN = 0: 240, 1:355

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW=63.6 p < .05
At T1 (pre-trip)
- Non-holidaymakers  M = 23,8  SD = 23.4
- Holidaymakers      M = 29,3  SD = 22,8
  difference              +5,5
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM= p < .05
- Non-holiday takers  M = 6,69   SD = 1,52
- Holiday takers      M = 7,00   SD = 1,22
  Difference             +0,31
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+
At T2 (post trip)
- Non-holiday takers  M = 20,5  SD = 25.2
- Holiday takers      M = 33,3  SD = 23,1
  difference             +12,8
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
- Non-holidaymakers  M = 6,35   SD = 1,41
- Holidaymakers      M = 7,11   SD = 1,20
  difference             +0,76


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2004): study GB 2001
TitleHolidaytaking and the Sense of Well-Being.
SourceAnnals of Tourism Research, 2004, Vol. 31, 103 - 121
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.annals.2003.06.001
PublicHolidaymakers and controls, Guildford area, UK
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelhaving had a holiday
Page in Source 113/4
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: Pre-trip
T2: Post-trip

T1-T2 within one year period
Remarks
Holiday takers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+
CHANGE in happiness after holiday trip
T1: pre-trip happiness  M = 29,30  SD = 22,8
T2: post-trip happiness M = 33,30  SD = 23,1
    difference              +6,00
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW= p < .00`1
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aE²=.063

Happiness declined slightly among non-holidy 
taking controls
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+
T1: pre-trip happiness  M = 6,99   SD = 1,22
T2: post-trip happiness M = 7,11   SD = 1,20
    difference             +0,12
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aMW= p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2002): study GB 2000
TitleA Study of the Impact of the Expectation of a Holiday on an Individual 's Sense of Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Vacation Marketing, 2002, Vol. 8, 353 - 361
PublicTourists, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelHoliday making
Page in Source 357
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Reponse to question about holidays: Having taking at 
least four nights or more holiday outside the UK
1 yes: holiday makers
0 no : non-holiday makers

Non-holidaymakers control group was matched on basis of 
occupation and age
Remarks
Comparison of those waiting to go on holiday and those 
not waiting to go on holiday (holidaymakers vs. 
Non-holidaymakers)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
Holidaymakers      M = 6,99  SD = 1,23
Non-holidaymakers  M = 6,68  SD = 1,52
- difference:         +0,31      -0,29
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aMW= p < .05
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Holidaymakers      M = 29,30  SD = 22,77
Non-holidaymakers  M = 23,85  SD = 23,43
- difference:          +5,45       -0,66
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW= p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyMilman (1998): study US 1993
TitleThe Impact of Tourism and Travel Experience on Senior Travelers' Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Travel Research, 1998, Vol. 37. 166 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1177/004728759803700208
Public50+ aged, before and after holiday trip, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59%
Respondents N =124

Correlate
Author's labelBefore/after trip
Page in Source 168
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: first day of trip
T2: last day of trip

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-aDM=0- ns
T1 first day: PA = 1,46, NA = 0,11, ABS = 1,35
T2 last day : PA = 1,45, NA = 0,12, ABS = 1,33
difference                               -0.02
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bDM== ns
T1 first day: M = 1,86
T2 last day : M = 1,87
difference       +0.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelDistance traveled from home during the past few weeks
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Direct question on furthest distance other than going 
to work, rated on a 7-point scale.
Remarks
Data T1.
Not computed for summed ABS.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Index of Positive Affects: G'= +.29
Index of Negative Affects: G'= -.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelGoing for a trip in a car
Page in Source 48
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Closed question: not at all / once / several times or 
more during last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= +
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = +.23 (01)
- Unaffected by sex          
- Unaffected by S.E.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Traveling
Subject code: L03ac02j

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelDistance travelled from home during last week
Page in Source 43
Our classificationTraveling, code L03ac02j
Operationalization
Closed question on furthest distance other than going 
to work, rated on a 10-point scale less than 1 mile / 
2-25 miles / 25 miles or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG=+.08 ns
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = +.08 (ns)
- High S.E.S                    : G' = -.07 (ns)
- Low S.E.S. (U-shaped curve)   : G' = +.15 (ns)
- Those males who travelled 2-25 miles have the   
least positive feelings.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of watching t.v.
Page in Source 114,T40
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Three item index of direct questions on intensity of 
watching t.v.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelIndoor activity
Page in Source 306-309
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Self report on how often participants performed  in his 
or her home the following indoor activities during last 
week:
a: listening to radio
b: watching television
c: reading a newspaper or book
d: writing letters
e: doing any physical training
f: studying (alone) the Bible languages etc
g: doing any handwork (such as knitting)
h: performing any housekeeping duties
i: doing any hobby
j: cooking and baking
k: speaking on the telephone
l: performing special works at home such as gardening, 
repairing etc
m: any other indoor activity that participant wished to 
add

Rated:
1: never
2: seldom
3: often
4: constantly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=-.08 ns
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.33 p < .05
Males
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.24 ns
rpc's controled for satisfaction with indoor 
activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyIannotti et al. (2009): study ZZ Developed nations 2008
TitleInterrelationships of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-based Sedentarry Behavior and Social and Psychological Health.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 54, 191 - 198
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00038-009-5410-z
Public11, 13 and 15 aged, 41 nations, 2008-2009
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =204534

Correlate
Author's labelScreen-based media use
Page in Source 191,192,195
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Self report of hours spend per day on:
A: Using a computer during free time (excluding time 
spent doing homework)
B: Watching television (including videos)

Computation: average hours per day on A and B

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
North America
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.03 p < .01
Western Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= ns
Eastern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.09 p < .0001
Northern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br=-.06 p < .0001
Southern Europe
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-br= p < .0001
North America < westernEurope < Eastern Europe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelWatched TV
Page in Source 13
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .05
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelTV viewing
Page in Source 20
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
A. In the ESS, the question is" on an average weekday, 
how much time do you spend watching television? "
Rated on 8 step scale, ranging from" no time at all" to 
"more than 3 hours".
B. In the WVS,  "How much time do you usually spend 
watching television on an average weekday?"
Answers fall into 4 categories from "do not watch 
television or do not have access to TV" to "more than 3 
hours per day".

For each category, mid-point value is calculated and 
for more than 3 hours, the value is 3.5.

Decile value of residual TV viewing time, which 
influences the TV consumption, aside from the 
individual factors, is used.
Observed distributionResidual TV viewing time: M=0.00, SD=0.92 TV viewing time: M = 2.00, SD = 1.05
Remarks
5th decile=0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 p < .05
B (-0.009) controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employmnet
  - education
  - marital status
- interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country

B -0.019 INDICATES THAT THE HIGHER A PERSON'S 
RESIDUAL TV CONSUMPTION IS, THE SMALLER THE 
MARGINAL EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL CHANNEL ON HIS OR 
HER LIFE SATISFACTION
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 p < .05
B unaffected by additional control for
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey

More negative in countries where the number of TV 
channels is greater (B interaction -.019(01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of hours television
Page in Source 43
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
1 Little
2 Average 
3 Much

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Much    1,92*   1,68*      1,12       1,05 
Average 1       1          1          1  
Little  1,23    1,14       1,10       1,12

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyHuysmans (2007): study NL 2005
TitleToen was Geluk heel Gewoon. (Those Happy Days).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: " Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 136 - 140
Public12+aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2034

Correlate
Author's labelTV-watching
Page in Source 138
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Hours per day
1: <1  hour 
2: 1-3 hours
3: >3  hours
Observed distributionN= 1: 761; 2: 1052; 3: 223

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=-
<1   hour:  M = 2,19
1-3 hours:  M = 2,15
3>  hours:  M = 2,06
Difference     -0,13

Mean happiness on range 1-3 (shortened 5-step 
scale)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aChi²=14,4 p < .01
4 df
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aV=.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyBaltatescu (2001): study RO Bihor county 2001
TitleMass-Media Climate of Opinion and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePresentation International Conference "The Role of Mass Media and the New Information and Communication Technologies during the Democratization Process of the Societies in Central and Eastern Europe'', October 2001, Oradea, Romania
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/baltatescu_sm_2001B.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Bihor county, Romania, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =885

Correlate
Author's labelTV viewing
Page in Source 28
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
1: Light
2: Medium
3: Heavy
Observed distribution1: N=332; 2: N=237; 3: N=294

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-dF=2,68 p < .69
1: M = 2,2
2: M = 2,16
3: M = 2,25
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyHarding (1985): study GB 1981
TitleValues and the Nature of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.,Eds.: "Values and Social Change in Britain", McMillan, 1985, London, UK, 227 - 252
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelTV watching
Page in Source 251
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
simple direct question; hours per day watching TV: < 3 
vs. > 3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
< 3                    M = 1.6   Mt' = 6.6
> 3                        1.2         6.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyChayko (1993): study US 1988
TitleHow You "Act Your Age" When You Watch TV.
SourceSociological Forum, 1993, Vol. 8, 573 - 593
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01115212#
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF01115212
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =967

Correlate
Author's labelTV hours viewed
Page in Source 584
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Aged 18-24
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Aged 25-34
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.13 ns
Aged 35-49
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.09 ns
Aged 50-64
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Aged 65+
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
Beta's controled for:
- sex
- race
- education
- marital status
- social isolation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyTan & Tan (1986): study US 1984
TitleTelevision Use and Mental Health.
SourceJournalism Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 63, 106 - 113
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1984
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =446

Correlate
Author's labelTelevision viewing
Page in Source 113
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Television viewing:
-News & Public affairs hours/week
-Game Shows hours/week
-Soap operas hours/week
-Sports hours/week
-Action drama hours/week
-Situation comedies number of situation
   comedies among five favorite programs

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
News & public affairs
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.32 p < .001
Game shows
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=-.31 p < .001
Soap operas
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.14 ns
Sports
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Action drama
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
Situation comedies

Betas controlled for age and income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyRahtz et al. (1988): study US 1983
TitleElderly Life Satisfaction and Telvision Viewership: Replication and Extension.
SourceShapiro, S.;Ed.: "AMA Winter Educators' Conference", American Marketing Association, 1988, USA, 409 - 413
Public60+ aged, mid-Atlantic region, USA, 198?
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response84 %
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelTV viewership
Page in Source 410
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Self report on 3 statements, rated on a 6 point Likert 
type scale ranging from agree to disagree
a) Television is my primary form of
   entertainment (+)
b) Magazines are more interesting
   than television (-).
c) I frequently watch daytime 
   television (+).
Questions were embedded in the 
context of other psychographic items.
Error EstimatesCronbach Alpha reliability coefficient = .66.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.23 p < .01
95 % confidende interval for rho [-.30; -.16]
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.22 p < .01
rpc controlled for "belief cultivation", 
(taking the tv reality for actual reality)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.20 p < .01
rpc controlled for "social comparison" 
(comparison of own situation with that of most
people in a similar position).
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=-.21 p < .01
rpc controlled for both "belief cultivation"
and "social comparison".


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelListening to religious TV/Radio
Page in Source 701,703,704
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
How often do you watch or listen to religious programs 
on TV or radio?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,63, SD = 1,15 T2: M = 3,77, SD = 1,17
Remarks
Assessed at: T1: 1979, T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.14 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.11 p < .01
T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.15 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.08
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=_.06 p < .01
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.12 p < .01
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
T2

Beta's controled for self rated health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
T2

Beta's additionally controled for:
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelListening to religious TV/Radio
Page in Source 704
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
How often do you watch or listen to religious programs 
on TV or radio?
1: never
2: a few times a year
3: a few times a month - 1 to 3 times
4: at least once a week - 1 to 3 times
5: nearly every day - 4 or more times a week
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.09 p < .05
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.00 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
T1 religion by T1-T2 CHANGE in life satisfaction
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for T2
- religion
- health
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.01 ns
Beta additionally controled for T2
- age
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- employment status
- region in the US
- urban/rural


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelWatching television
Page in Source 703
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Direct question: 2 hours or less/more than 2-5 
hours/more than 5 hours daily.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.09 ns
Happiness assessed at T2.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyGraney (1975): study US 1967
TitleHappiness and Social Participation in Aging.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 701 - 706
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelListening to radio
Page in Source 703
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Direct question: less than 1 hour / 1-2 hours / more 
than 2 hours daily.
Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.19 p < .05
Happiness assessed at T2.

Age 66-75 :tb = +.03 (ns)
Age 82-92 :tb = +.45 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tv watching, radio listening
Subject code: L03ac02k

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelAverage television viewing
Page in Source 43
Our classificationTv watching, radio listening, code L03ac02k
Operationalization
Closed question on number of hours a day on the average 
one watched television last week, rated on a 7-point 
scale.
1 hour or less / 2 hours / 3 hours or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG= - ns
Index of Positive Affects only  : G' = -.13 (ns)
- high S.E.S.    : G' = -.14 (ns)
- low S.E.S.     : G' = +.02 (ns)
- Among those of low S.E.S. U-shaped curve. Those  
 watching television for about 2 hours a day
  have most positive feelings.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Voluntary work
Subject code: L03ac02l

StudyHaski-Leventhal (2009): study ZZ Europe 2007
TitleElderly Volunteering and Well-Being: A Cross-European Comparison Based on SHARE Data
SourceVoluntas, 2009, Vol. 20: 388-404
DOIDoi: 10.1007?s11266-009-9096-x
Public50+ aged, 12 European Nations, 2007
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =30023

Correlate
Author's labelVolunteer vs non volunteer
Page in Source 399
Our classificationVoluntary work, code L03ac02l
Operationalization
1: Volunteer
0: Non-volunteer
Remarks
Percentages are weighted.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
                 % happy 
Austria
-volunteer       98.3
-non-volunteer   92.1
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.05 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Belgium
-volunteer       96.0
-non-volunteer   94.0
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.06 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Denmark
-volunteer       98.3
-non-volunteer   96.9
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.06 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
France
-volunteer       97.1
-non-volunteer   87.0
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.09 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Germany
-volunteer       94.7
-non-volunteer   88.3
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.07 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Greece
-volunteer       94.0
-non-volunteer   88.0
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.06 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%=95.2 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Israel
-volunteer       92.9
-non-volunteer   79.9
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.13 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Italy
-volunteer       90.0
-non-volunteer   84.7
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.02 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Netherlands
-volunteer       97.9
-non-volunteer   96.4
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.04 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Spain 
-volunteer       94.7
-non-volunteer   87.9
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.06 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Sweden
-volunteer       96.6
-non-volunteer   95.6
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.04 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Switzerland
-volunteer       95.7
-non-volunteer   95.5
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.01 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%= p < .05
Total
-volunteer       95.2
-non-volunteer   88.4
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.08 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Voluntary work
Subject code: L03ac02l

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelSocial participation
Page in Source 41
Our classificationVoluntary work, code L03ac02l
Operationalization
Measure not reported
1 Not (reference category) 
2 Well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
Well   0,67*    0,53*      0,93       0,88 
Not    1        1          1          1

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Voluntary work
Subject code: L03ac02l

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelVolunteer work
Page in Source 62
Our classificationVoluntary work, code L03ac02l
Operationalization
Doing voluntary work?
1 no voluntary work
2 voluntary work for one organisation
3 voluntary work for two organisations
4 voluntary work for three organisations
5 voluntary work for four or more organisations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Music listening
Subject code: L03ac02m

StudyLaukka (2007): study SE 2006
TitleUses of Music and Psychological Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 215 - 241
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3
Public65-75 aged, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelListening strategies
Page in Source 227
Our classificationMusic listening, code L03ac02m
Operationalization
Selfreports of the relative frequency of reasons for 
listening to music

A Identy and agency
  It strengthens my self image
  To express my personality
  To shield out the world around me
  To strengthen self esteem
  It makes me feel competnt
  To gain control of sounds in my surroundings
  
B Mood regulation
  It evokes memories
  Music induces emotions
  To enhance positive moods
  To vent emotions
  To reflect on my life
  To feel akin to others

C Relaxation and company
  To get company/background music
  To forget about the present
  To stir up energy
  To relax and calm down
  To reduce feelings of loneliness

D Enjoyment
  For entertainment
  It gives me pleasure
  Interest in music itself
  Its beautiful

Rated:
1 very seldom
2
3
4
5
6 very often
Observed distributionMEANS and STANDARDDEVIATIONS Agency and identiy 1.92 (1.16), Mood regulation 2.93 (1.36), Relaxation and company 3.17 (1.38), Enjoyment 4.32 (1.40)
Error EstimatesCRONBACHS ALPHA Agency and Identity .90, Mood regulation .88, Relaxation and company .84, Enjoyment .82
Remarks
For better analysis they conducted a principal 
component analysis and interpreted 4 factors: Identity 
and agency, Mood regulation, Relaxation and company and 
Enjoyment. Because of low factor loadings some items 
were deleted.
R² = .68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=.00 ns
Identity and Agency
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-brpc=-.05 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=-.03 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.03 ns
Mood regulation
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-brpc=-.11 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=-.07 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=-.14 p < .05
Relaxation and company
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-brpc=-.12 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=-.1 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-br=+.05 ns
Enjoyment
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-brpc=-.09 ns
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bBeta=-.08 ns
rpc's and beta's controlled for      
- Age
- Gender
- Education level
- Health status
- Activity level
- Personality 
  - Extraversion
  - Agreeableness
  - Conscientiousness
  - Emotional Stability
  - Openess

N = 233 for correlations
N = 226 for partial correlations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Music listening
Subject code: L03ac02m

StudyLaukka (2007): study SE 2006
TitleUses of Music and Psychological Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 215 - 241
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3
Public65-75 aged, Sweden, 2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response43
Respondents N =280

Correlate
Author's labelexplained variance (regression analysis)
Page in Source 229
Our classificationMusic listening, code L03ac02m
Operationalization
a Age
b Gender
c Education level
d Health status
e Activity level
f Extraversion
g Agreeableness
h Conscientiousness
i Emotional Stability
j music listening strategy
  a Identity and agency
  b Mood regulation
  c Relaxation and company
  d Enjoyment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bR²=+.37
a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bR²=+.38
ja+jb+jc+jd added


Correlational finding on Happiness and Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
Subject code: L03ac03

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelOutdoor leisure activities
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationPlace of leisure (indoor vs outdoor), code L03ac03
Operationalization
Sum score derived from a list of 18 outdoor activities
Question:
On the following list some leisure activities are 
mentioned. Please mention which activities you actually 
practise and which are especially important for you: 
- being together with friends or relatives
- going to a Cafe or Restaurant
- playing games (Bingo, Skat)
- making excursions or small trips
- gardening
- dancing, bowling
- walking,cycling
- going out on the town
- sporting
- visiting sportevents
- going to the pictures, theater,  concert 
- going to the library
- attending courses, further education courses
- church attendance, religious meetings
- club activities
- attending meetings for elderly people
- fishing
- other activities?
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=5,4; SD=2,5; East Germany: M=4,2; SD=2,5; p<0001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
Subject code: L03ac03

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelIndoor activity
Page in Source 306-309
Our classificationPlace of leisure (indoor vs outdoor), code L03ac03
Operationalization
Self report on how often participants performed  in his 
or her home the following indoor activities during last 
week:
a: listening to radio
b: watching television
c: reading a newspaper or book
d: writing letters
e: doing any physical training
f: studying (alone) the Bible languages etc
g: doing any handwork (such as knitting)
h: performing any housekeeping duties
i: doing any hobby
j: cooking and baking
k: speaking on the telephone
l: performing special works at home such as gardening, 
repairing etc
m: any other indoor activity that participant wished to 
add

Rated:
1: never
2: seldom
3: often
4: constantly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=-.08 ns
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.33 p < .05
Males
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-arpc=+.24 ns
rpc's controled for satisfaction with indoor 
activity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
Subject code: L03ac03

StudyWahl et al. (2007): study ZZ Various nation sets 2000
TitleEnvironmental Aspects of Quality of life in Old Age.
SourceMollenkopf, H.;Walker, A.;Eds: '''Quality of Life and Old Age", Springer, 2007, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 101 - 122
Public55+aged, urban and rural regions in 5 EU nations 2000-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseExcept for Eastern Germany rural areas 32%, urban areas 48%, rural Italy 18.6%, urban The Netherlands 65.8%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelOptions of outdoor activities
Page in Source 116
Our classificationPlace of leisure (indoor vs outdoor), code L03ac03
Operationalization
Self report on options of outdoor activities. 
Standardized sum score ranging from 0=no outdoor 
activity purposed to 1=all asked outdoor activities 
pursued. Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.09 p < .001
Germany
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Italy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta= ns
Finland
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta= ns
The Netherlands
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta= ns
Hungary

Control variables are not reported.

The publication presents only significant Beta's 
(05. Not mentioned Beta's are added to this 
excerpt by WDH-team and assumed to be 
insignificant (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
Subject code: L03ac03

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2005): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleMobility and the Quality of Life.
SourceMollenkopf, H; et al; Eds.: "Enhanching Mobility in Later Life", IOS Press, 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 279 - 288
Public55+ aged, 6 European Countries, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelOutdoor mobility
Page in Source 284
Our classificationPlace of leisure (indoor vs outdoor), code L03ac03
Operationalization
Factor based on:
A: transport modes used
B: outdoor activities
C: realised mobility
Error EstimatesFactor loadings:A: +.64; B: +.70; C: +.39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aBeta=+.76 p < .001
Beta's controlled for:
- Age 
- Gender
- SES
- Vision
- Physical mobility
- Visumotoric coordination
- External control belief
- Urban vs rural
- Residential area
- Variety of social network
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
Subject code: L03ac03

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelOutdoor leisure
Page in Source 164
Our classificationPlace of leisure (indoor vs outdoor), code L03ac03
Operationalization
Questions on 'outdoor leisure'.Full items not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2003): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleLeisure Activities, Health and the Quality of Life.
SourceMichalos, A.C.;Ed.: "Essays on the Quality of Life", Kluwer, 2003, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 217 - 238
Public18+ aged, general public, British Columbia, USA, 1999
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response17,6
Respondents N =440

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological benefits (of leisure)
Page in Source 222, 232
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
Self report on 13 questions about rewards of leisure;
a I freely choose the activities I do in my leisure 
time
b: My leisure activities are very interesting to me
c: I emjoy doing my leisure activities
d: I am frustrated in my free time
e: My leisure activities give me self confidence
f: My leisure activities give me a sense of 
accomplishment
g: I use many different skills and abilities in my 
leisure activities
h: I consider my leisure activities a waste of time
i: When I am doing leisure activities I become fully 
involved in the activity
j: My choice of leisure activities are limited by my 
lack of skills
k: I feel lonely in my free time
l: My leisure activities are intellectually challinging
m: Generally, my leisure activits have a positive 
effect upon my life

Rated strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5)
Observed distributionM = 4,1
Error Estimates ? = .85,
Remarks
N = 440

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.42
Beta controled for
- perceived aesthetic benefits from leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2003): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleLeisure Activities, Health and the Quality of Life.
SourceMichalos, A.C.;Ed.: "Essays on the Quality of Life", Kluwer, 2003, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 217 - 238
Public18+ aged, general public, British Columbia, USA, 1999
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response17,6
Respondents N =440

Correlate
Author's labelAesthetic benefits (of leisure)
Page in Source 232
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions about rewards of leisure;
a. The area where I engage my leaisure activities are 
fresh and clean
b. The area where I engage my leaisure activities are 
interesting
c. The area where I engage my leaisure activities are 
beautiful
d. The area where I engage my leaisure activities are 
well designed
e. The area where I engage my leaisure activities are 
plaesing to me

Rated strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5)
Observed distributionM = 3,8
Error Estimates ? = .84
Remarks
N = 440

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.14
Beta controlled for
- perceived psychological benefits from leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyZijlmans (2009): study DE 1998
TitleWork Involvement in the Valuation of Unemployment.
SourceMasterthesis, Utrecht School of Economics, 2009, The Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/zijlmans_tj_2009.pdf
Public21-64 aged working force, Germany, 1998-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19093

Correlate
Author's labelChange in unemployment status
Page in Source 43-44, 55
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
0 Employed
1 Unemployed
Observed distributionBoth periods: % of sample= 0:65% 1:9%
Error EstimatesT1-T2 correlation .37 for individuals who became unemployed and .29 for individuals who become reemployed between periods
Remarks
Reference group is working people in T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
T2-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE into out 
of unemployment and T1 importance of leisure
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.80 p < .01
Work very important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.48 p < .01
Work important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.2 p < .01
Work less/not important

B's are controled for:
- year
- socio-economic variables
- demographic variables

Findings are comparable when:
- importance of leisure is measured in T2 
- averaged for T1 and T2

B -1.2 means that unemployment lowers happiness by 
1.2 points on scale 0-10 for individuals who 
consider that leisure is not important for their 
well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyZijlmans (2009): study DE 1998
TitleWork Involvement in the Valuation of Unemployment.
SourceMasterthesis, Utrecht School of Economics, 2009, The Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/zijlmans_tj_2009.pdf
Public21-64 aged working force, Germany, 1998-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19093

Correlate
Author's labelBeing unemployed
Page in Source 43-45, 51
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
0 Employed 
1 Unemployed
Observed distribution% of sample= 0:65% 1:9%
Remarks
Reference group is working people

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.1 p < .01
Very important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.93 p < .01
Important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.5 p < .01
Less/not important

B's are controled for:
- year
- socio-economic variables
- demographic variables

Findings are comparable when:
- importance of leisure is measured in T2 
- averaged for T1 and T2

B -1.1 means that unemployment corresponds with a 
lower happiness of -1.1 points on scale 0-10 for 
individuals who consider that leisure is very 
important for their well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyZijlmans (2009): study DE 1998 /1
TitleWork Involvement in the Valuation of Unemployment.
SourceMasterthesis, Utrecht School of Economics, 2009, The Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/zijlmans_tj_2009.pdf
PublicUnemployed, 21-64 aged, Germany, 1998-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1975

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of leisure for well-being
Page in Source 43-45
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
Self report on the question how important leisure is 
for their well-being and contentment:
3: Very important
2: Important 
1: Less important or not important at all
Observed distributionBoth periods N= 1:491 2:1270 3:204 %= 1:24,99, 2:64,60 3:10,41
Error EstimatesT1-T2 correlation .37 for individuals who became unemployed and .29 for individuals who become reemployed between periods

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Very important:     M=5,87 SD=2,15
Important:          M=5,92 SD=1,94
Less/not important: M=5,08 SD=2,07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 70 countries, mid 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of leisure time
Page in Source 131
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by perceived importance of 
leisure time in 63 nations mid 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to leisure
Subject code: L03ad

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations mentioned
Page in Source 210
Our classificationAttitudes to leisure, code L03ad
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
0: Not mentioned
1: Mentioned

a: Travel, vacation
b: New home, build home, own home
c: Material possessions (cars, coats)
d: Education, follow a talent 
e: Money
f: New job, business of own
g: Move to country, become farmer
h: Marriage, children, husband
Remarks
Computed for those who have unfulfilled aspirations 
only (N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.07 ns
a: Travel
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
b: Home
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.11 ns
c: Possessions
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 ns
d: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns
f: Job
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.00 ns
g: Country
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05
h: Marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived importanceof leisure-time
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Question: 'How important is leisure-time for you?'
Rated on a 7 point scale ranging from 1 to 7.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978
1980
1984      +.07       +.04       +.02       +.09
1988      +.05       +.03       +.02       +.08

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived importanceof one's family
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Question: 'How important is your family for you?'
Rated on a seven point scale, ranging from 1 to 7.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978
1980
1984      +.13       +.13       +.10       +.17
1988      +.10       +.09       +.05       +.13

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /4
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =855

Correlate
Author's labelTouristic interest
Page in Source 233
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Single direct question: no (0) yes (1)
'If I come in an unknown town, I'm very interested in 
the local places of interest'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Young (16 - 29) and pensioners only. In both 
categories the cheerfull claim more touristic 
interest.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Barasi, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived family needs: leisure
Page in Source 262
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 0,94%; 1: 37,2%; 2: 36,8%; 3: 21,4% M: 4,7%
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of leisure time
Page in Source 547, 553
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Self report on single question about importance of 
leisure: 
0 unimportance of leisure time (reference)
1 importance of leisure time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
importance of leisure time (compared to 
unimportance of leisure time)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+ p < .01
importance of leisure time (compared to 
unimportance of leisure time)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Values are therefore not reported in this 
abstract.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Self report of feelings about the amount of money spent 
during vacation

Assessed on a 1-5 scale
Observed distributionN=119 M=1,15 SD=.33
Error Estimatesalpha = .86
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
Satisfaction with money (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
T2 Satisfaction with money (during vacation) by T3 
life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in recreation
Page in Source 292
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about leisure
Subject code: L03ad01

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withrecreation
Page in Source 292
Our classificationConcern about leisure, code L03ad01
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure aspirations
Subject code: L03ad02

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure time activities
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationLeisure aspirations, code L03ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on an 11-point bipolar scale:
 0: if I had a choice, I would always  stay at home
10: if I had a choice, I would always be on the go
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=7,5; SD=2,4; East Germany: M=6,1, SD=2,8; p<0,001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bab=+.14 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure aspirations
Subject code: L03ad02

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2005): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleMobility and the Quality of Life.
SourceMollenkopf, H; et al; Eds.: "Enhanching Mobility in Later Life", IOS Press, 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 279 - 288
Public55+ aged, 6 European Countries, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelOutdoor motivation
Page in Source 284
Our classificationLeisure aspirations, code L03ad02
Operationalization
Factor based on:
A: indoor vs outdoor type
B: importance of being out
Error EstimatesFactor loadings: A: +.51; B: +.64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aBeta= ns
Beta's controlled for:
- Age 
- Gender
- SES
- Vision
- Physical Mobility
- Visumotoric coordination
- External control belief
- Urban vs rural
- Residential area
- Variety of social network
- Outdoor motivation
- Outdoor mobility
- Quality of life
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure aspirations
Subject code: L03ad02

StudyBray & Howard (1983): study US 1956
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelAvocational interests
Page in Source 302
Our classificationLeisure aspirations, code L03ad02
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction: "To what extent does this person 
find meaning and satisfaction in a hobby or hobbies?"
(Consider depth and intensity of interest, not breadth. 
Includes work if it is not Bell System Work)".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=
T5 avocational interests by T5 happiness.

Analysis showed a non-significant correlation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure aspirations
Subject code: L03ad02

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelDesire for more amusement
Page in Source 18
Our classificationLeisure aspirations, code L03ad02
Operationalization
Whether one would like to go out more
often in the evenings for entertainment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= - p < . 05
33 % of the relatively dissatisfied and 26 % of
the satisfied would like to go out more often
Stronger among males
Uneffected by going ot with spouse or not


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with quantity of leisure
Page in Source 41
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single question:
How satisfied are you with the amount of leisure time 
you have?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with quality of leisure
Page in Source 41
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single question:
How satisfied are you with the way you spend your 
leisure time?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaude Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 150
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 1-5 step scale.
Remarks
ß controled for satisfaction with housing, social 
contacts and activities.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.08
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.39
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.11 p < .01
Contact-facilities in housing estate:
- high  ß=+.17
- low   ß=+.14
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.11 ns
- high ß=-.07
- low  ß=-.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGehmacher (1986): study AT 1986
TitleGlück als Mathematische Gleichung. (Happiness as a Mathematical Equation).
SourceStart und Aufstieg: die Zeitschrift des Berufsförderungsinstituts, Austria, 1986, 8 - 9
PublicAdults, age range not reported, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1814

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-6-ar=+.43
O-SLW-c-sq-n-6-aBeta=+.18
ß controled for satisfaction with work, health, 
housing and politics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure time
Page in Source 27,49,T53
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Six item index of direct questions on satisfaction with 
leisure time during the last 14 days.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.27 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.22 p < .05
All
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
ß controlled for: satisfaction with physical 
health, material satisfaction, satisfaction with 
partner, satisfaction with selfrealisation, 
satisfaction with social involvement, satisfaction 
with work (positive), and satisfaction with work 
(negative).
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta= ns
                 
         
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.12
- with partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- with partner, without work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.30
- no partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- no partner, without work
 
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.17
- monotonous work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.16
- some selfcontrol
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.24
- much selfcontrol

All ß's controlled for satisfaction with six other 
domains of life (physical health, income, partner, 
selfrealiszation, social involvement, work).
*=N too small.
 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyDann (1984): study BB 1981
TitleThe Quality of Life in Barbados.
SourceMacmillan Publishers, 1984, London, UK
Public18+ aged, Barbados, 1981
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =865

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 191
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
'How satisfied are you with the way you spend your 
leisure time?'
1 utterly dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-?-9-cr=+.39
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your recreation?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Beta's controlled for:
- mental health
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
  - future society
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta' s controlled for satisfaction with:
-health              (+.28)
-achievement in life (+.16)
-future security     (+.23)

(45% of variance explained)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Beta's additionally controlled for:
-mental health             (+.15) 
and satisfaction with:
-romantic relationships    (+.13)
-feeling part of community (+.12)
-health                    (+.24)
-future security           (+.20)

(48% of variance explained)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006): study CA British Columbia 1998
TitleA Note on Student Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 51 - 59
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-005-2404-y
PublicUniversity students Northern British Columbia, Canada, 1998 - 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3407

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your recreation?
1. very dissatisfied
.
.
7. very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.5, SD = 1.6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.56 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006a): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleQuality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 191 - 213
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-4717-2
Public18+ aged, general public, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997-2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8664

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreational activities
Page in Source 5, 8,13,14,15
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your recreational 
activities?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 4.94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.47 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=ns
All               ns
Females           +.03
Males             ns
18 -24 aged       ns
25+ aged          ns
Aboriginals =     +.14
Other etnecities  +.02
Unemployed        ns
Other workstatus  ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.50 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.06 p < .05
All               +.06
Females           +.07
Males             +.06
18 -24 aged       +.09
25+ aged          +.06
Aboriginals =     ns
Other etnecities  +.07
Unemployed        ns
Other workstatus  +.06
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.02 p < .05
All               +.02
Females           +.04
Males             ns
18 -24 aged       ns
25+ aged          +.02
Aboriginals =     ns
Other etnecities  ns
Unemployed        ns
Other workstatus  +.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyKennedy et al. (1978): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleSubjective Evaluation of Well-Being: Problems and Prospects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 457 - 474
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352943
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =335

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with recreation activities
Page in Source 463
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self-report.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.14
B controlled for satisfaction with:
-friendships
-standard of living
-health
-family life.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelfeelings during leisure hours
Page in Source 266
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single question:
" How do you feel during your leisure hours?"
1: very bad
2: bad 
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: 1:3, 2:18, 3:99, 4:677, 5:654

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.52 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.66
 2: Mt=3.89
 3: Mt=5.18
 4: Mt=7.45
 5: Mt=8.70
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.53 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.25
 2: Mt=3.20
 3: Mt=4.90
 4: Mt=7.10
 5: Mt=8.38
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.49 p < .00
 1: Mt=2.50
 2: Mt=3.89
 3: Mt=4.88
 4: Mt=6.55
 5: Mt=7.83
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelfeelings during leisure
Page in Source 276
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single question:
"How do you feel during your leisure hours?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4596; 1:6; 2:62; 3:413; 4:2112; 5:2003

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.54 p < .00
1: Mt=1.66
2: Mt=3.19
3: Mt=5.28
4: Mt=7.39
5: Mt=8.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.57 p < .00
1: Mt=1.66
2: Mt=2.50
3: Mt=4.68
4: Mt=7.06
5: Mt=8.54
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.52 p < .00
1: Mt=1.66
2: Mt=3.55
3: Mt=4.91
4: Mt=6.59
5: Mt=8.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure possibilities
Page in Source 17,28
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: All in all, how 
satisfied are you with your leisure possibilities?
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionUrban: M=8,4; SD=1,8; Rural: M= 7,8; SD=2,3; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.16 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - homeownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure time
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Question: ' How satisfied are with your leisure time?'
Rated on an 11 point scale ranging from 0 to 10.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.24       +.32       +.23       +.26
1980
1984      +.23       +.32       +.21       +.26
1988      +.25       +.38       +.24       +.31

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social security
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Question: ' How satisfied are you with
social security? We mean the so-called social assurance 
system for healthcare, disemployment and old age.'
Rated on an 11 point scale ranging from 0 to 10.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.18       +.22       +.16       +.17
1980      
1984      +.13       +.14       +.11       +.13
1988      +.12       +.11       +.06       +.12

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with relaxing
Page in Source 347
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: relaxing.
Observed distributionN= 0:1%, 1:1%, 2:2%, 3:3%, 4:3%, 5:6%, 6:7%, 7:12%, 8:21%, 9:19%, 10:26%, DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2055

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.7  M = 7.5             +1.2
top 3:  M = 8.5  M = 7.1             +1.4 
top 5:  M = 8.2  M = 6.5             +1.3
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 481, Others: 8-0 N=1574
Top 3: 10-8 N=1045, Others: 7-0 N=1010
Top 5: 10-6 N=1620, Others: 5-0 N= 435


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study DE 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure possibilities
Page in Source 17,28
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: All in all, how 
satisfied are you with your leisure possibilities?
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionGermany West: Urban: M=7.3; SD=2.6; Rural: M= 7.5; SD=2.4; ns Germany East: Urban: M=7.0; SD=2.5; Rural: M= 6.1; SD=2.8; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.20 p < .05
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.29 p < .05
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.25 p < .05
-rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 35
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
single question:
'How satisfied jou are with leisure?"
0 totally dissatisfied
.
.
.
.
.
10 totally satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=+26
%satisfied with leisure:
satisfied with life:57
dissatisfied with life:31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 50
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on 0-10 scale.
Question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09
OLS
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.07
FIXED EFFECTS MODEL

B and OLRC controlled for satisfaction with:
- work
- housework
- income
- health
- environment
- dwelling


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 272
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.13 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.20 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study IT 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure possibilities
Page in Source 17,28
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: All in all, how 
satisfied are you with your leisure possibilities?
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionUrban: M=7.8; SD=2.0; Rural: M= 6,8; SD=2,2; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.30 p < .05
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.15 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyLeonardi et al. (1999): study IT 1995
TitleThe Top-Down/Bottom-Up Controvercy from a Constructionist Approach: A Method for Measuring Top-Down Effects Applied to Sample of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 187 - 216
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006977717925
Public55+aged, Italy, followed 5 years 1995-200
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response50.5%
Respondents N =297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 63, 65
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Full text not reported
0  very unsatisfied
.
.
10 very satisfied
Observed distributionM =7.08, SD= 2,02
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2: (2000)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.58 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.49 p < .05
rpc controled for objective living conditions with 
which they are significantly correlated.
This partial correlation is seen to indicate a 
'top-down' effect of overall satisfaction with 
life on satisfaction with this life domain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyGuardiola et al. (2013): study MX Yucatán 2008
TitleThe Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 207 - 218
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-011-9925-3
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9925-3
Public373 heads of household, town in rural area, Mexico, Yucatan, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 8
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'How do you feel in 
relation to your leisure'. Rated on a 0-10 numerical 
scale.
Observed distributionM = 7,07, SD = 2,41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gb=+.05 p < .18
B controled for satisfaction with:
- health
- work
- money
- house
- nurture
- community
- water

Values not much different from model without 
water.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyRojas (2006): study MX Multiple regions 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and Satisfaction in Domains of Life: Is It a Simple Relationship?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 467 - 497
DOIDOI:10,1007/s/10902-006-9009-2
PublicGeneral public, Regions, Mexico, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response62,1%
Respondents N =1535

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal life satisfaction
Page in Source 481, 483
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with:
a: availability of time to persue personal hobbies and 
interests
b: recreational activities
c: personal development
d: education and training
Rated on a 7-point numerical scale(1= extremely 
dissatisfied to 9=extremely satisfied)

Questions not reported.
Observed distributionN=579

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-cr=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyRojas (2008): study MX 2001
TitleExperienced Poverty and Income Poverty in Mexico: A Subjective Well-Being Approach.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 1078 - 1093
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X08000442
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.10.005
PublicGeneral public, five states, Mexico, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4
Respondents N =1536

Correlate
Author's labelSelf satisfaction
Page in Source table 5 & 6
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with 
  a.recreational and leisure activities
  b.availability of time to pursue hobbies and 
interests
  c. personal development and education
Full questions not reported

Each question is rated:
1  extremely unsatisfied
2  very unsatisfied
3  unsatisfied
4  neither satisfied nor unsatisfied
5  satisfied
6  very satisfied
7 extremely satisfied
(same response scale as life satisfaction)
Observed distributionM = 56,8 on range 0-100
Remarks
cluster derived using factor analysis. Rescaled to 
range 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-cOPRC=0,01 p < .00
OPRC = 0,0117


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study NL 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Netherlands, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =616

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure possibilities
Page in Source 17,28
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: All in all, how 
satisfied are you with your leisure possibilities?
Rated on 11-point numerical scale
Observed distributionUrban: M = 7,5; SD = 1,8; Rural: M = 7,5; SD = 1,8; ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - Income per person
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyTambyah et al. (2009): study SG 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 337 - 376
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-08-9347-z
Public20+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 363,370,371
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Respondents were asked to rate their satisfaction with 
"Leasure" as follows:
-2: very dissatisfied
-1: somewhat dissatisfied
 0: neither satisfied or dissatisfied
+1: somewhat satisfied
+2: very satisfied
Observed distribution-2:0.3%, -1:3.2%, 0:12.5%, +1:29.9%, +2:58.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.05
all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.05
married subjects only
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
all
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.05 ns
married subjects only
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=+.03 ns
all
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cBeta=+.07 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
all
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBeta=+.07 ns
married subjects only
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
Betas controlled for
Demographic variables:
- gender
- age
- education
- income
Lifestyle
- digital
- global
- spirituality
Value priorities:
- having
- relating
- being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003 /1
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicParents and adolescents, Spain, 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia.
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelOwn body and amusement satisfaction.
Page in Source 107
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on own body and amusement satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.23 p < .0005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyAhlstrand & Bränholm (1998): study SE 1993
TitleActivity Performance, Life Satisfaction and Locus of Control in Young Women on Sick Leave.
SourceWork, 1998, Vol. 11, 131 - 136
Public30- aged women on sick leave, Sweden, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 134
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question on satisfaction with 
leisure, full text not reported
Observed distribution3 satisfied, 8 dissatisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-a?=+ p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyBränholm et al. (1991): study SE 1986
TitleOn Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Rehabilitation Science, 1991, Vol. 4, 29 - 34
Public25-55 aged, vocationally actives, Umea, Northern Sweden, 1986/87
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 103
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
How satisfactory is this aspect of your life?......
Leisure situation.
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-ars=+.42 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyBernow (1985): study SE 1982
TitleLivskvaliteten i Sverige. (Quality of Life in Sweden).
SourceStockholm Läns Landsting, 1985, Stockholm, Sweden
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bernow_r_1982.pdf
Public18-70 aged, general public, Sweden, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1558

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with use of leisuretime
Page in Source 39
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single direct question 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-ar=+.48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
To what extent do you have the opportunity for leisure 
activities?
1  Not at all
2  A little
3  Moderately
4  Mostly
5  Completely
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Remarks
Question on leisure taken from WHOQOL-Bref. 
Question on importance figured in the full WHOQOL 
questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.39 p < .01
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.35 p < .01
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 928
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question; text not reported.
Rated (1) very badly to (5) very well.
Observed distribution Mean SD males 3.93 1.02 females 3.62 1.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.23 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.25 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on the following questions
How satisfied are you with:
-the amount of pleasure you get from things you do at 
home?
-the amount of pleasure you get from things you do 
outside your home?
-the pleasure you get from radio or tv?
Remarks
Satisfaction Subscale of Lancashire Quality of Life 
Profile (LQOLP) [Oliver 1991].

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.60
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.51 p < .000
rpc controled for deprssion as measured with Beck 
Depression Inventery(BDI)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHall (1973): study GB 1971
TitleMeasuring the Quality of Life Using Sample Surveys.
SourceStöber, J.;et al;Eds..: "Technology Assessment and the Quality of Life", Elsevier, 1973, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 93 - 102
PublicAdults, general public, Great Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =593

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time
Page in Source 100
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Question rated on a 7-point self- anchoring scale, 
based on Cantril (1965) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-7-ar=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHall (1976): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Measures of Quality of Life in Britain, 1971 to 1975: Some Developments and Trends.
SourceSocial Trends, 1976, Vol. 7, 47 - 60
URLhttp://independent.academia.edu/JohnFHall/Papers/81542/Subjective_measures_of_quality_of_life_in_Britain_Some_developments_and_trends_Hall_1976b_
PublicAdults, general public, Great Britain, 1971-1975
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =593

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 50
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Direct closed question rated on a 11-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.41
1971
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.41
1973
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.52
1975


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHsieh (2014): study US 2009
TitleThrowing the Baby Out with the Bathwater: Evaluation of Domain Importance Weighting in Quality of Life Measurements
SourceSocial Indicators Research 119: 483-493
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-013-0500-y
Public50+ aged, Chicago area , USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with spare time
Page in Source 489,490
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question on satisfaction with 
spare time. Full text not reported.
7  completely satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
5  slightly satisfied
4  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3  slightly dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
1  completely dissatisfied

Respondents also rated the importance of this life 
domain relative to 7 other domains

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.28 p < .01
unweighted
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns
weighted by importance
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ab=+.22 ns
unweighted
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ab=+.27 p < .05
weighted by importance

b's controled for satisfaction with 
- work
- health
- financial situation
- neighbourhood
- family life
- friendships
- religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHsieh (2008): study US 2005
TitleThe Relative Importance of Health
SourceSocial Indicators Research 87:127-137
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9162-y
PublicFrail older adults,Chicago area, USA, 2005
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with spare time
Page in Source 133
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question on satisfaction with 
spare time. Full text not reported.
7  completely satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
5  slightly satisfied
4  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3  slightly dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
1  completely dissatisfied

Respondents also rated the importance of this life 
domain relative to 7 other domains.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHsieh (2008): study US 2001
TitleThe Relative Importance of Health
SourceSocial Indicators Research 87:127-137
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9162-y
Public50+ aged, Chicago area , USA, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with spare time
Page in Source 133
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question on satisfaction with 
spare time. Full text not reported.
7  completely satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
5  slightly satisfied
4  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3  slightly dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
1  completely dissatisfied

Respondents also rated the importance of this life 
domain relative to 8 other domains.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure satisfaction
Page in Source 164
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your leisure life?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.51 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- job
- family
- finance
- health
- education
- friendships
- neighbors
- community
- spiritual
- taxes
- environment
- political situation
- housing
- cultural life
- social life

Unaffected by additional control for satisfaction 
with:
- acquisitions
- possessions
- consumption
- repair services
- do-it-yourself repairs
- disposition
(consumer well-being)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyKinney & Coyle (1992): study US 1992
TitlePredicting Life Satisfaction Among Adults With Physical Disabilities.
SourceArchives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 1992, VoI. 73, 863 - 869
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1387523
Public18-55 aged, physically disabled, USA,1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =790

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 867
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport  on single question on leisure satisfaction:
7-point Likert scale(1 'terrible' to 7 'delighted')

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.42 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyAckerman et al. (1989): study US 1986
TitleFarm Work and Family: Major Sources of Satisfaction for Farm Families.
SourceUtah Science, 1989, Vol. 50, 134 - 142
PublicDairy farm couples, Utah, USA,1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time, how spent
Page in Source 139, 140, 141
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How do you feel about the way you spend your spare 
time?
7: delighted
6: happy
5: mostly satisfied
4: mixed
3: mostly dissatisfied
2: unhappy
1: terrible
Observed distributionM. wives 5,23; husbands 5,20; difference not significant.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.15 ns
Wives
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
Husbands

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
-farm work
-family activities
-oneself
-health
-leisure: amount of fun
-leisure: time (available)
-off-farm job (only if husband and wife have 
off-farm-jobs)
-family income
-own house
-goods and services
-national government

Beta's somewhat different if satisfaction with 
farm work is removed from regression-equation.
(wives: +0,13; husbands: +0,24)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and enjoyment you have
- the way you spend your spare time
- the amount of free time you have
- the amount of relaxation in your life
- your own health and physical condition
- the amount of pep and energy you have
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 deligted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN= 125 M= 3,25 SD=0,84
Error Estimatesalpha=0,83
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.67 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.50 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with leisure by T3 life 
satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with 
leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure during vacation
Page in Source 132,133, 134
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the amount of fun and relaxation experienced
- engaging in favorite and new leisure activities.
Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...terrible
Observed distributionN=123 M=2,41 SD=1,02
Error Estimatesalpha=.94
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.30 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with leisure (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T2 Satisfaction with leisure (during vacation) by 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyFranklin et al. (1986): study US 1985
TitleAssessing Quality of Life of the Mentally Ill. A Three Dimensional Model.
SourceEvaluation & The Health Professions, 1986, Vol. 9, 376 -388
Public18-65 aged, mentally ill, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =220

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 383
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoV=10.6 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.30
Beta controlled for actual leisure activities

(No significant relation between objective 
(actual) leisure and satisfaction with leisure)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nature during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- the scenery
- the weather
- opportunities for being close to nature
- opportunities for escape
during vacation

Assessed on a 1-7 scale: 1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=2,13 SD=,99
Error Estimatesalpha=.74
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.18 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
satisfaction with nature (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.26 ns
T2 Satisfaction with nature (during vacation) and 
T3 life satisfaction (after vacation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMeredith (1984): study US 1982
TitleLevel and Correlates of Perceived Quality of Life for Lao Hmong Refugees in Nebraska.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 83 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00315723
Public16+ aged, recent refugees from Laos, USA, 1982
Sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =145

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 91
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Index of closed questions, rated on a 7-point 
Delighted-Terrible scale: How do you feel about:
- the way you spend your spare time (your free time 
when you don't have any work to do)?
- the amount of time you have for doing the things you 
want to do?
- the amount of fun and enjoyment you have?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23
ß controlled for:
- satisfaction with self
- optimism
- perceived control
- satisfaction with USA.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.59 p < .0001
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .0001
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.56 p < .0001
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyMancini (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1976
TitleLeisure Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being in Old Age: Effects of Health and Income.
SourceJournal of American Geriatric Society, 1978, Vol. 26, 550 - 552
PublicElderly living in Public Housing Complexes, Grensboro (North Carolina) USA, 1976
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =104

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure satisfaction
Page in Source 551
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
A:'How do you generally feel about the way you spend 
your available free time?'
Rated
5: very satisfied
:
1: very unsatisfied

B:'Would you say that your present recreational pattern 
meets you needs?' 
Rated 
5: yes, very much
:
1:a great deal of change is needed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cbr=+.45 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelAssessment of leisure time
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single closed question rated on a scale 
ranging from very satisfied to very dissatisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.34 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.22
Beta controlled for:
- assessments only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.21
Beta controled for:
- resources
- assessments
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.17
Beta controlled for:
- assesments
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.17
Beta controlled for:
- assessments
- resources
- comparisons

Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- housing
- health
- education
- community
- government
Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- home ownership
- marital status
- number of children
- number of household members
Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
- perceived financial improvement in the past few 
years.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyCrandall (1976): study US Ohio 1973
TitleValidation of Self-Report Measures Using Ratings by Others.
SourceSociological Methods and Measures, 1976, Vol. 4, 380 -400
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/3/380.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, Toledo, USA, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =771

Correlate
Author's labelSpare time
Page in Source 388
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your leisure?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Correlation (+.30) with peer rating of the participants 
satisfaction with his/her spare time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.18
Own happiness by own satisfaction with spare time.

Similar correlation (+.18) between ratings of 
participants happiness and satisfaction with spare 
time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
3-item index containing satisfaction with:
a the way one spends one's spare time
b with amount of relaxation
c chances of relaxation: "How do you feel about...?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.55
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.29
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.30
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.33
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyHarry (1976): study US 1973
TitleEvolving Sources of Happiness for Men over the Life Cycle: A Structural Analysis.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1976, Vol. 38, 289 -296
Public18+ aged males, living with family, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =374

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Single item self-rating on how much satisfaction one 
receives from leisure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 ns
Single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.31 ns
Married, no children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.17 ns
Married, pre-school children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
Married, schoolage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.12 ns
Married, teenage children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.35 p < .05
Married, children grown up


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyLondon et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleThe Contribution of Job and Leisure Satisfaction to Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1977, Vol. 62, 328 - 334
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.3.328
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelAll Leisure satisfaction items
Page in Source 331
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about leisure satistaction 
with:
a: activity with friends
b: activities with family
c: social contacts
d: affiliation to organizations
e: sport and recreation facilities
f: entertainment facilities

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
All                   (N=1297)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
Males                 (N=547)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .01
Females               (N=750)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16 p < .01
Whites                (N=1165)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Blacks                (N=115)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
Ages 16-29            (N=358)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
Ages 30-49            (N=450)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17 p < .01
Ages 50-65            (N=269)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
Married               (N=890)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16 ns
Divorced, widowed, or separated  (N=246)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17 ns
Never married         (N=160)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Education: 0-11 grade            (N=424)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .01
High school graduate  (N=307)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
Some college          (N=358)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .01
College graduate      (N=190)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.11 ns
Low socioeconomic status         (N=337)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
Mid socioeconomic status         (N=268)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16 p < .01
High socioeconomic status        (N=408)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17 p < .01
White-collar workers             (N=404)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
Blue-collar workers              (N=349)

Beta's in SES subgroups controlled for other 
socio-demographic variables


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure
Subject code: L03ad03

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with chances for relaxation
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure, code L03ad03
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about your chances 
for relaxation - even for a short time?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelTime for leisure
Page in Source 70,T56
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Single direct question:"How do you qualify your 
activities, i.e. the things you are doing (during the 
last 14 days)?" Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 
'not enough' to 'very good'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
ß controlled for:age, professional status, income, 
quality of family life, and satisfaction with 
partner.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Reading to others
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with reading to others. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never read to others  were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.02
Remarks
Only people who read to others (N=122)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.28 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with time for leisure
Page in Source 36
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
single question:
"how satisfied you are with your time
for leisure?"
0 totally dissatisfied
.
.
.
.
.
.
10 totally satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=36
& satisfied with life:
satisfied with time for leisure:68
dissatisfied with time for leisure:32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction from indoor activity
Page in Source 307-309
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Generally, are you satisfied with the various 
activities you have mentioned doing in your home?
Rated as:
1: mostly unsatisfied 
2: seldom satisfied
3: often satisfied
4: mostly satisfied
Remarks
This question was preceded with a detailed report of 
indoor activities during the last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.19 ns
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.41 p < .01
Males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyVeenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleHedonism and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 437 - 557
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8676
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd
PublicAdults, general public, 70 countries, mid 1990s
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =100000

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of leisure time
Page in Source 131
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Average happiness by perceived importance of 
leisure time in 63 nations mid 1990s
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfied with amount of free time
Page in Source 38
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
(full question not reported)
1 Not 
2 Neutral (reference category) 
3 Well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR= ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Well    0,95    0,86       0,88       0,89
Neutral 1       1          1          1  
Not     1,02    0,74       1,04       0,97

Control variables are:
- satisfaction with filling in of free time 
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyMakarczyk (1962): study PL 1960
TitleFactors affecting Life Satisfaction among People in Poland.
SourcePolish Sociological Bulletin, 1962, Vol. 1, 105 - 116
PublicAdults, general public, students and peasants excluded, Poland, 1960
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =2387

Correlate
Author's labelAttitude towards amount of time spent on entertainment
Page in Source 114
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Single question: how much time do you spend on 
entertainment ?
none / far too little /rather too little / sufficient.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aT=.18 p < .001
Non-farmers.
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aT=.13 p < .001
Farm owners and family.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure
Page in Source question 17
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
How satisfied are you with your leisure? 
1 completely dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 quite satisfied
- DK/NA
Observed distribution1: 15,6% 2: 375 3: 26,4% 4: 12,1% DK/NA:8,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,02 
2: M = 2,38
3: M = 2,77
4: M = 3,15
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.42 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyBernow (1985): study SE 1982
TitleLivskvaliteten i Sverige. (Quality of Life in Sweden).
SourceStockholm Läns Landsting, 1985, Stockholm, Sweden
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bernow_r_1982.pdf
Public18-70 aged, general public, Sweden, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1558

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with time for hobbies
Page in Source 39
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Single direct question 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-ar=+.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyMancini (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1976
TitleLeisure Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being in Old Age: Effects of Health and Income.
SourceJournal of American Geriatric Society, 1978, Vol. 26, 550 - 552
PublicElderly living in Public Housing Complexes, Grensboro (North Carolina) USA, 1976
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =104

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure satisfaction
Page in Source 551
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
A:'How do you generally feel about the way you spend 
your available free time?'
Rated
5: very satisfied
:
1: very unsatisfied

B:'Would you say that your present recreational pattern 
meets you needs?' 
Rated 
5: yes, very much
:
1:a great deal of change is needed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cbr=+.45 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2727

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time, pressure
Page in Source 156
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Index of closed questions, asked in different samples: 
"How do you feel about...
a the amount of time you have for
   doing the things you want to do
   (asked in November 1972)
b the amount of pressure you are 
   under (asked in April 1973)
c the way you spend your spare time,
   your non-working activities (asked
   in July 1973)
e the amount of relaxation in your
   life (asked in July 1973)
f your chances for relaxation - even
   for a short time (asked in July
   1973)?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of time doing things one likes
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the amount of 
time you have for doing the things you want to do?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.25
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-ar=+.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with time for leisure
Subject code: L03ad03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with amount of time doing things one likes
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with time for leisure, code L03ad03a
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the amount of 
time you have for doing the things you like?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.28
Unaffected by sexe
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.07
ß controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.07
ß additionally controlled for sociodemographic 
variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- education
- race
- sexe
- sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHeadey et al. (1991): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleTop-down versus Bottom-up Theories of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 81 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00292652
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981-1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelLeisure
Page in Source 94
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
1 single question on satisfaction with: The way you 
spend your spare time; your non-working activities, 
scored on a 1-9 rating scale.
Remarks
Panel analysis over four waves (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987) 
which estimates following effects
 - bottom up: effect of satisfaction with leisure 
activities on life satisfaction
 - topdown: effect of life satisfaction on satisfaction 
with leisure activities
 - contemporaneous: within wave correlation
 - lagged: over time (waves) correlation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.06 ns
Contemporaneous bottom up: satisfying leisure 
activities make people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
Contemporaneous top down: happy people are 
satisfied with their leisure activities
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=-.05 ns
Lagged bottum up: satisfying leisure activities 
make people happy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lagged top down:  happy people are satisfied with 
their leisure activities

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
 - marriage
 - job
 - standard of living
 - friendship
 - health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelFamily activities
Page in Source 166
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
1 single question on satisfaction with the things you 
and your family do together, scored on a 1-9 D-T rating 
scale.
Observed distributionM = 6.8 SD = 1.5
Remarks
Item scored on the same rating scale as the question on 
happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.45 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.09
all cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.08
married cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- problem handling
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelSpare time activities
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
1 single question on satisfaction with: The way you 
spend your spare time; your non-working activities, 
scored on a 1-9 rating scale.
Observed distributionM = 6.3 SD = 1.5
Remarks
Item scored on the same rating scale as the question on 
happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to amateur live theater
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to amateur live 
theatre. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to amareur live theatre were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.87
Remarks
Only people who go to amateur live theatre (N=169)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.20 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to movies
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to movies. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to movies were asked to write 
'0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.45
Remarks
Only people who go to movies (N=242)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.36 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with embroidery, needelpoint or cross-stitch
Page in Source 34, 56
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with embroidery, needelpoint 
or cross-stitch. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never carried out this activity were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.15
Remarks
Only people who carried out this activity (N=78)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.32 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching movies on video
Page in Source 36,55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching movies on 
video. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch movies on vide were asked 
to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.40
Remarks
Only people who watch movies on video (N=285)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to art museums/galleries
Page in Source 34, 55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to art 
museum/galleries. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to art museum/ galleries were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.59
Remarks
Only people who go to art museum/ galleries (N=148)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.20 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to other museums than art galleries
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to other museums 
than art galleries. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to other museums than art 
galleries were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.67
Remarks
Only people who go to other museums (N=137)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.25 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.17 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.26 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Gourmet cooking
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with gourmet cooking. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never do gourmet cooking were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.94
Remarks
Only people who do gourmet cooking (N=120)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.38 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.32 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.35 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching live theatre on TV
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching live theaytre 
on TV. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch live theatre on TV were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.89
Remarks
Only people who watch live theatre on TV (N=63)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.26 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching concerts on TV
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching concerts on 
TV. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch concerts on TV were asked 
to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.65
Remarks
Only people who watch concerts on TV (N=168)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.25 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with buying work of arts
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with buying work of arts. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never buy work of artts were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.10
Remarks
Only people who buy work of arts (N=120)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.24 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.32 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with visiting historic, heritage sites
Page in Source 37, 56
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with visiting historic, 
heritage sites. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never visit historic, heritage sites 
were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.84
Remarks
Only people who visit historic, heritage sites (N=215)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.18 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with visiting the public library
Page in Source 37, 56
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with visiting the public 
library. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never visit the public library were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.89
Remarks
Only people who visit the public library (N=226)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with reading novels, stories, plays, or poetry
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with reading novels, short 
stories, plays, or poetry. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied

Respondents who never read novels, short stories, 
plays, or poetry were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.19
Remarks
Only people who reported to be engaged in this activity 
(N=272)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.13 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with dancing
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with dancing. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never dance were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.78
Remarks
Only people who dance (N=98)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.25 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.21 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with knitting or crocheting
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with knitting or crocheting. 

Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never knit or crochet were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.11
Remarks
Only people who knit or crochet (N=66)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.31 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to concerts
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to concerts. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to concerts were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.96
Remarks
Only people who go to concerts (N=196)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (2003): study CA Prince George 2001
TitlePolicing Services and The Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 61, 1 - 18
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1021259917948
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response72%
Respondents N =687

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with you recreational activities
Page in Source 13-14
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them 
today.  Please indicate how satisfied you are with each 
of them.... 
How satisfied are you with your recreational 
activities?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionM = 5.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta= ns
Beta'controlled for satisfaction with 
- your house
- your family relations
- your living partner
- your job
- your friendships
- your health
- your spiritusl fulfilment
- your financial security
- your self-esteem
- your local policing services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (1985): study CA Guelph CMA 1985
TitleMultiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 347 - 413
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00333288
PublicStudents undergraduates University of Guelph, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation activity
Page in Source 365
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question on satisfaction with personal 
recreation activities, rated on a 7 point scale.
1:terrible...7:delightful.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.12 p < .01
Males   N:140 ß=+.16   (05)
Females N:149 ß=+.14   (05)

ß's controlled for satisfaction with:
health, financial security,family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, self-esteem and 
education 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation activity
Page in Source 233
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question on personal recreation activities, 
rated on a 7-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.04
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, religion, self esteem, transportation, 
government services,             
and for the demographic factors: sex, age, formal 
education, language, work status, marital status, 
time in area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: +.08
Females: N: 154  ß: +.02
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, religion, self esteem, transportation, 
government services; and for sex, age, formal 
education, language, work status, marital status, 
time in area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: +.04
Females: N: 154  ß: +.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1980, Vol. 8, 385 - 422
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00461152
PublicUniversity staff members, Guelph Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response59%
Respondents N =357

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with free time activity
Page in Source 399
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 7-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.34 p < .01
Controlled for 1     rpc= +.03 (ns)
Controlled for 1     ß  = +.03
Controlled for 1+3   ß  = +.02 

1= Satisfaction with health , financial security,
   family life, friendships,housing, job,
   education, self-esteem, area you live in,
   ability to get around, security from crime.
3= Demographic factors ( sex, age, marital
   status, education, family income)
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.41 p < .01
Controlled for 1     rpc= +.13 (01)
Controlled for 1+2   rpc= +.12 (05)
Controlled for 1+3   rpc= +.09 (ns)
Controlled for 1+2+3 rpc= +.07 (ns)
Controlled for 1     ß  = +.08 
Controlled for 1+3+4 ß  = +.06
                     
1= Satisfaction with health, financial security,
   family life, friendships, housing, job,
   education, self-esteem, area you live in,
   ability to get around, security from crime.
2= Global happiness(indicator 2, HAPP 1.1)
3= Demographic factors ( sex, age, marital
   status, education, family income)             
4= Workstatus.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelNon-work activities satisfaction
Page in Source 108
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Question on satisfaction with non-work activities;      
               
Rated:
1.very dissatisfied
.
.
7.very satisfied.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09
Stepwise regression by age-group.
age-group 26-45
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
-friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- finanacial better/worse than year ago
- sex
- year of significant social change
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12
age-group 45+ 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- financial better/worse than year ago
- job satisfacion
- frienship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- things wanted to do satisfaction
- sex
- year of significant social change


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMichalos (1982): study CA Huron County Ontario 1977
TitleThe Satisfaction and Happiness of Some Senior Citizens in Ontario.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 11, 1 - 30
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353590
Public60+ aged, rural townships,Southern Huron County, Ontario, Canada, 197?
Sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =392

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question on personal recreation activities,rated 
on a 7-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.08
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with family 
life, friendships, financial security, self 
esteem, spouse, health,transportation,  housing, 
religion,area you live in, government services; 
and for sex, age, formal education.
Males:      N:149  ß:ns
Females     N:121  ß:+.18
Farmer      N:130  ß:+.11
Non-farmer  N:141  ß:+.03
Aged 60-74  N:170  ß:+.02
Aged 75-up  N:121  ß:+.16
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04
All ß's are controlled for satisfaction with 
family life, friendships, financial 
security,self-esteem, spouse, health, 
transportation,housing, religion, area you live 
in,government services; and for sex, age and 
education.
Males       N:149  ß:+.17
Females     N:121  ß:-.08
Farmers     N:130  ß:+.08
Non-farmers N:141  ß:+.01
Age 60-74   N:170  ß:ns
Age 75-up   N:102  ß:+.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with possib. for leisure time activities
Page in Source 590
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 
'very unsatisfied' to 'very satisfied'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-br=+ p < .05
unmarried employed males    : r = +.53 (05)
unmarried employed females  : r = +.19 (05)
married employed males      : r = +.28 (05)
married employed females    : r = +.29 (05)
married non-employed females: r = +.54 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leasure activities
Page in Source 310
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: hobbies and other leisure activities
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:*%, 3:1%, 4:1%, 5:2%, 6:4%, 7:10%, 8:26%, 9:28%, 10:26%, DKNA:*%
Remarks
N=2086.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.3  M = 8.1             +1.2 
top 3:  M = 9.1  M = 7.7             +1.4 
top 5:  M = 8.8  M = 7.0             +1.8
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 490, Others: 8-0 N=1596
Top 3: 10-8 N=1065, Others: 7-0 N=1021
Top 5: 10-6 N=1648, Others: 5-0 N= 438


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with other leisure activities
Page in Source 348
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: other leisure activities.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:*%, 3:*%, 4:*%, 5:1%, 6:2%, 7:5%, 8:16%, 9:27%, 10:48%, DKNA:*%
Remarks
N=708

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.6  M = 8.9             +0.7
top 3:  M = 9.4  M = 8.6             +0.8 
top 5:  M = 9.2  M = 8.3             +0.9
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 161, Others: 8-0 N= 547
Top 3: 10-8 N= 380, Others: 7-0 N= 328
Top 5: 10-6 N= 566, Others: 5-0 N= 142


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with use of leisure-time
Page in Source 37
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How satisfied jou are with use of leisure-time?
0 totally dissatisfied
.
.
.
.
10 totally satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=+42
%satisfied with use of leisure-time:
satisfied with life:71
dissatisfied with life:29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyLomranz et al. (1988): study IL Tel Aviv 1983
TitleIndoor and Outdoor Activities of Aged Women and Man as Related to Depression and Well-Being.
SourceInternational Journal Aging and Human Development, 1988, Vol. 26, 303 - 314
DOIDOI: 10.2190/QPEW-N6QX-FWDE-LA7E
Public60-80 aged, Israel, 1983
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction from outdoor activity
Page in Source 307-309
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on question: Generally, are you satisfied 
with your participation in the various social 
activities outside your home that you have mentioned?

Rated:
1: mostly unsatisfied 
2: seldom satisfied
3: often satisfied
4: mostly satisfied
Remarks
This question was preceded with a detailed report of 
outdoor activities during the last week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.50 p < .01
Females
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+.48 p < .01
Males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975): study IL 1973
TitleOn the Multivariate Structure of Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1975, Vol. 2, 361 - 388
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00293253
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1973
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1940

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure time activities
Page in Source 372
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question ranging from 'not at all satisfied' to 
'very satisfied'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-amc=+.55
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=+.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with trasnport for leisure trip
Page in Source 24
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How happy do you feel by using the current transport 
mode to make a leisure trip?
1: least happy
.
.
10: most happy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dBeta=+.04 s
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with
  - social life
  - family life
  - financial situation
  - work trips


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyWahl et al. (2007): study ZZ Various nation sets 2000
TitleEnvironmental Aspects of Quality of life in Old Age.
SourceMollenkopf, H.;Walker, A.;Eds: '''Quality of Life and Old Age", Springer, 2007, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 101 - 122
Public55+aged, urban and rural regions in 5 EU nations 2000-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseExcept for Eastern Germany rural areas 32%, urban areas 48%, rural Italy 18.6%, urban The Netherlands 65.8%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure activities
Page in Source 116
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with leisure activities by 
11 point scale. Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.21 p < .001
Finland
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.21 p < .001
The Netherlands
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.23 ns
Germany
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.15 p < .001
Hungary
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.22 p < .001
Italy

Control variables are not reported.

The publication presents only significant Beta's 
(05. Not mentioned Beta's are added to this 
excerpt by WDH-team and assumed to be 
insignificant (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with use of free time
Page in Source 38
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
(full question not reported)
1 Not
2 Neutral (reference category) 
3 Well

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Well    0,72    0,62*      1,02       0,96 
Neutral 1       1          1          1
Not     1,27    1.29       0,98       0,97

Control variables are:
- Satisfaction with amount of free time
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with possibilities to pursue one's hobbies
Page in Source 27
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an open graphic scale ranging 
from 'very dissatisfied' to 'very satisfied'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.53 p < .05
Lower among age 41-50
Unaffected by S.E.S.
Stronger among medium educational level.
Stronger among females.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyBalatsky & Diener (1993): study RU 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Russian Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 225 - 243
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079019
PublicStudents, Moscow and Glazov (Ural), Russia, 1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with recreation activity
Page in Source 235
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single question: "How do you feel about your recreation 
activity right now?".
Rated on 7-point scale from:
1.Terrible.......to
.
.
7.Delighted.
Observed distributionM= 4.09; SD= 1.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.39 p < .01
 p two-tailed
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-br=+.47 p < .01
p two tailed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure activity
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of participation in 28 
activities. Ss checked using the following list
a: Going to concents, teatre, cinema, plays or musuems
b: Going to church
c: Visiting friends
d: Visiting relatives
e: Communicating by phone with friends
f: Communicating by phone with relatives
g: Going out with friends to have lunch, coffee, etc.
h: Going out with relatives to have lunch, coffee, etc.
i: Watching educational television
j: Watching entertainment television
k: Reading newspapers and magazines
l: Reading books
m: Listening to the radio
n: Home repair and maintenance
o: Looking after plants
p: Looking after pets
q: Taking care for a sick relative
r: Looking after kids
s: Attending a leisure group - playing with a musical 
group, a theatre group, going on trips-
t: Writing, painting, sculpture, playing a musical 
instrument
u: Listening to music
v: Doing physical exercise
w: To do unpaid work for others
x: Taking courses or lessons
y: Going shopping (not include buying food or things 
for the house)
z: Collaboration with an NGO
aa: To play solitary games and card  
ab: Board games with others

Rating of satisfaction with activities ever done:
1: not satisfactory at all
2: a little satisfactory
3: moderate satisfactory
4: quite satisfactory
5: extremely satisfactory
Observed distributionRange : 1-140, M = 82.14 SD = 18.68
Remarks
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .01
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyBatista-Foguet et al. (1996): study ES Cataluna 1989
TitleSatisfaction in Catalonia, Spain.
SourceSaris, W.E.;et al;Eds.: "A Comparative Study of Satisfaction with Life in Europe", Eötvös University Press, 1996, Hungary, 155 - 174
Public16+ aged, general public, Catalonia, Spain, 1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure activities
Page in Source 159-168
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you recently with your leisure 
activities?"
1. completely dissatisfied
2. dissatisfied
3  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4  satisfied
5  completely satisfied
Observed distributionM= 3.39; SD= 1.33 Scale % 1. 13.3 2. 11.6 3. 22.9 4. 27.3 5. 24.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ear=+.33
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-earp=+.44
rp corrects for random and systematic measurement 
error.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure domain
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your 
leisure?
1: not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7: completely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.04 p < .00
Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb= ns
Males

B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome difficulties
  - able to face up to problems
- Can afford
  - holiday
  - new clothes
  - taking friends out for drink or diner
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - vote in last general election
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with things you can do inleisure time
Page in Source 21
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale, based on Cantril
(1965)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyNeal et al. (1999): study US 1995
TitleThe Role of Satisfaction with Leisure/Travel/Tourism Services and Experience in Satisfaction with Leisure Life and Overall Life.
SourceJournal of Business Research, 1999, Vol. 44, 153 - 163
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296397001975
PublicScientists , university, USA 1995
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response86%
Respondents N =2700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with travel/tourism experiences
Page in Source 158,159,162
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on following questions related to:

A: PERCIEVED FREEDOM FROM CONTROL
 1.In this trip, I felt free to do the kinds of things 
that I can't do at home
 2. On this trip, I felt free from the controls of 
other people. I felt in control of my movements and 
actions
 3. On this trip, I felt free from the pressures of 
life
 
B: PERCIEVED FREEDOM FROM WORK 
 4. On this trip, I felt far away from the drudgery of 
work
 5. I needed to get away from work and relax. This trip 
helped me to rejuvenate
 6. I was feeling overworked and emotionally exhausted. 
This trip helped me to get away from the stress and 
strains of work

C: INVOLVEMENT
 7. On this trip I became emotionally involved and 
engaged with people and things. This experience was 
very peasant for me
 8. This trip allowed me to get close to my spouse, 
children, relatives, and/or friends. Its was very much 
worthwhile
 9. On this trip, I was able to reestablish a 
relationship with people I care a lot for
 
D: AROUSAL
 10. On this trip, I managed to do exciting things. I 
experienced a lot of thrills. This experience had been 
enriching
 11. On this trip, I established friendships with one 
or more new people. This was exciting. I needfed to 
make new friends
 12. On this trip, I got involved with an exciting 
activity, I felt alive
 13. On this trip, I was able to pursue a passionate 
interest. This experience was thrilling

E: MASTERY
 14. On this trip, I had a chance to master a hobby or 
sport. I had wanted to do this for a long time but 
never had the chance
 15. On this trip, I was able to sharpen my skills on a 
passionate hobby or sport. This was very rewarding to 
me. 
  
F: SPONTANEITY
 16. On this trip, I got to feel spontaneous. This 
experience had enriched me in ways I never expected.
 17. One cannot afford to be spontaneous in everyday 
life. But one needs to be spontaneous once in a while. 
This trip allowed me to do just that - be spontaneous

G: THE GENERAL TRIP EXPERIENCE
 18. All in All, I feel that this trip has enriched my 
life. I'm really glad I went on this trip
 19. On this trip, I accomplished the purpose of my 
vacation. This experience haqs enriched me in some ways
 20. This trip was rewarding to me in many ways. I felt 
much better among things and myself after this trip

Answers rated on a 5-point numerical scale
Observed distribution1: M= 4,0; SD=0,97; 2: M=3,7; SD= 1,15; 3: M=3,9; SD=1,09; 4: M=4,2; SD=1,00; 5: M=4,1; SD=1,04; 6: M=3,8; SD=1,13; 7: M=3,7; SD=1,07; 8: M=4,2; SD=0,92; 9: M=3,1; SD=1,14; 10: M=3,8; SD=1,06; 11: M=3,1; SD=1,16; 12: M=3,6; SD=1,03; 13: M=3,2; SD=1,20; 14: M=2,6; SD=1,04; 15: M=2,8; SD= 1,19; 16: M=3,3; SD=1,16; 17: M=3,2; SD=1,19; 18:M=4,1; SD=0,91; 19: M=4,2; SD=0,82; 20: M=4,0; SD=0,96.
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha: A= .81; B= .86; C=.69; D=.77; E=.87; F=.85; G=.89

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-mq-v-5-aßL=+.19 p < .01
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
- travel/tourism services
- leisure life
- nonleisure life domains
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyNeal et al. (1999): study US 1995
TitleThe Role of Satisfaction with Leisure/Travel/Tourism Services and Experience in Satisfaction with Leisure Life and Overall Life.
SourceJournal of Business Research, 1999, Vol. 44, 153 - 163
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296397001975
PublicScientists , university, USA 1995
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response86%
Respondents N =2700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure life
Page in Source 158,159,162
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions related to:

A: LEISURE EXPERIENCES AT HOME
 1. I do things that are fulfilling when I'm off work
 2. Lately, I have been feeling very good about the way 
I spend my leisure time after work
 3. Leisure time after work is very important to me

B: LEISURE EXPERIENCES AT LARGE
 4. Recently I have been spending quality leisure time 
in general - after work as well as going on vacations
 5. I am the kind of person who knows how to enjoy 
leisure time anytime and anywhere
 6. Leisure time after work and going away on vacation 
trips are very important to me. My life becomes very 
stressful without leisure

Answers rated on a 5-point numerical scale
Observed distribution1: M= 3,,9; SD=0,90; 2: M= 3,3; SD=1,06; 3: M=4,3; SD=0,77; 4: M=3,3; SD=1,06; 5: M=3,3; SD=1,06; 6: M=4,1; SD=0,88
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha: A=.73; B=.66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-mq-v-5-aßL=+.20 p < .01
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with: 
- travel/tourism services
- travel/tourism experiences
- nonleisure life domains
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with hobby and leisure time activities
Page in Source 781
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Text not reported
3 satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
1 not satisfied at all

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.30
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.12
Control variables are not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyMookherjee (1997): study US 1986
TitleAssessment of Happiness among the Elderly Population in the United States.
SourceChrakravarty, I.;Ed.: "Life in Twilight Years", Kwality Book, 1997, Calcutta, India, 327 - 343
Public60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =3049

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with non-working activities
Page in Source 336
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single question on satisfaction with leisure 
activities:
1. not satisfied
2. somewhat satisfied
3. well satisfied
Observed distributionN: 1= 520 2= 848 3=1681

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .00
1. M=1.87  SD= .67
2. M=2.16  SD= .62
3. M=2.40  SD= .63
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.30 p < .00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.12 p < .00
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Race
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
- satisfaction with:
   - Neighbours
   - Family
   - Friends
   - Health
   - Finance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nature
Page in Source 132, 134
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on satisfaction with:
- outdoor places you can go in your spare time round 
here
- nearby places you can go in your spare time around 
here
- the condition of the natural environment around here 
- the air, land, and water in this area
Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=2,27 SD=.86
Error Estimatesalpha =.84
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 ns
T1 Life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with  with 
nature
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.28 p < .05
T3 Life satisfaction by T3 Satisfaction with 
nature
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
T1 Satisfaction with nature by T3 Life 
satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.26 p < .05
T1 Life satisfaction by T3 Satisfaction with 
nature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAndrews (1991): study US 1980
TitleStability and Change in Levels and Structure of Subjective Well-Being: USA 1972 and 1988.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 25, 1 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00727649
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1972-1988
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2985

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with use of spare time
Page in Source 20
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on 7 point 
delighted-terrible scale "How do you feel about your 
use of spare time?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+
1972: +.40      1988: +.40
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+
1972: +.14      1988: +.08
ß controlled for satisfaction with 5 other aspects 
of life: 1: fun, 2: accomplishments, 3: family 
income, 4: national government


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with leisure-time activities
Page in Source 234
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single direct questions on both satisfaction and 
dissatisfaction with leisure-time activities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .01
satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1978 /1
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6918

Correlate
Author's labelInterpersonal/ leisure satisfaction
Page in Source 68- 72
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
DATASET 1
"The things you and your family do together?"; "The way 
you spend your time, your non-working activities?"; 
"The things you do and the times you have with 
friends?"; rated on 7-point scales (high scores 
indicating high satisfaction) and combined into index.
DATASET 6 and 7
"All things considered, how satisfied are you with your 
family life -- the time you spend and the things you do 
with members of your family?";
"Overall, how satisfied are you with the ways to spend 
your spare time?"; "All thingss considered, how 
satisfied are you with your friendships -- with the 
time you can spend with friends, the things you do 
together, the number of friends you have as well as the 
particular people who are your friends?"; rated on 
7-pointscale (high scores indicating high satisfaction) 
and combined into an index.
Remarks
DATASETS:
1: 1972,    N=1955, SI  Study,  See ANDRE 1976
6: 1971,    N=1822, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1975
7: 1978,    N=3141, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1981
                                           

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
DATASET 1: ß higher among 45-64 than among 25-44 
and 65-97 aged (p<.05). ß controlled for Economic, 
Residence, Job, Health and Marriage satisfaction.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.0 ns
DATASET 6: ß identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97). ß controlled for Economic, Residence, Job, 
Health, Marriage satisfaction.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.29 p < .05
DATASET 7: ß lower among 25-44 than among 45-64 
and 65-97 aged (p<.05). ß controlled for Economic, 
Residence, Job, Health and Marriage satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyWhite (1979): study US 1977
TitleSex Differentials in the Effect of Remarriage on Global Happiness.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1979, Vol. 41, 869 -876
PublicAdult, general public,, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1085

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time use
Page in Source 874
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single closed question:"How satis-
factory is your spare time use?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=
1:first marriage men    r = +.40  (05)
2:first marriage women  r = +.41  (05)
3:remarriage men        r = +.09  (ns)
4:remarriage women      r = +.30  (05)



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyButtel et al. (1977): study US Wisconsin 1974
TitleIdeology and Social Indicators of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 353 - 369
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353138
Public18+ aged, general public, Winconsin, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =548

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time
Page in Source 353
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a 7-point scale: 
Overall, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the 
ways you spend your spare time: completely satisfied / 
very satisfied / satisfied / satisfied-dissatisfied / 
dissatisfied / very dissatisfied / 
completelydissatisfied?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.39 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.29 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-br=+.39 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyZehner (1977): study US 1973
TitleIndicators of the Quality of Life in New Communities.
SourceBallinger, 1977, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
PublicResidents communities,planned and unplanned, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3894

Correlate
Author's labelUse of leisure time
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Single closed direct question rated on a 7-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.43
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.18
ß contolled for:
- Socio-demographic variables: age, sex,
  education, marital status, family income,
  dwelling unit value, tenure, lenght of
  residence, number of children in the household.
- Satisfaction with: standard of living,
  marriage, job, family life, health, dwelling
  unit, housework, neighborhood, community.

Unplanned communities are left out.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyCrandall (1976): study US Ohio 1973
TitleValidation of Self-Report Measures Using Ratings by Others.
SourceSociological Methods and Measures, 1976, Vol. 4, 380 -400
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/3/380.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, Toledo, USA, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =771

Correlate
Author's labelFun
Page in Source 388
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your fun?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Correlation (+.34) with peer rating of the participants 
satisfaction with his/her fun.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.27 ns
Own happiness by own satisfaction with fun.

Similar correlation (+.27) between ratings of 
participants happiness and satisfaction with fun.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time activities
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the way you 
spend your spare time, your non-working activities?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.49


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1981a): study US 1973
TitleThe Contribution of Marital Happiness to Global Happiness.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 161-168
PublicMarrieds, USA, 1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9000

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with non-working activities
Page in Source 164
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Direct question: "For each area of life I am going to 
name, tell me the number that shows how much 
satisfaction you get from that area? 1.a very great  
deal, 2.a great deal, 3.quite a lot, 
4.a fair amount, 5.some, 6.a little,
7.none"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Married persons working full-time:
- white men:   r=+.18   ß=+.05
- black men:   r=+.16   ß=+.04
- white women: r=+.27   ß=+.09
- black women: r=+.13   ß= .10

All maaried women:
- white: r=+.24  ß=+.06
- black: r=+.23  ß=+.10
            
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Married persons working full-time:
- white men:   r=+.18   ß=+.05
- black men:   r=+.16   ß=+.04
- white women: r=+.27   ß=+.09
- black women: r=+.13   ß= .10

All married women:
- white: r=+.24  ß=+.06
- black: r=+.23  ß=+.10
           
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+
ß controled for marital happiness, satisfaction 
with: work, financial situation, community, family 
life, friendships and health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyLondon et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleThe Contribution of Job and Leisure Satisfaction to Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1977, Vol. 62, 328 - 334
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.3.328
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with activities and time with friends
Page in Source 330
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Self-report on questions about satisfaction with things 
they do and times they have with their friends

Rated on an 7-point numerical scale (7=delighted to 
1=terrible)
Observed distributionN:1277; M=2,46; SD=1,13
Remarks
Scale reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.17 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- co-workers 
- the work itself
- benefits and securitiy of the job
- physical surroundings and amount of work
- equipment at work
- activities with family
- social contacts
- affiliation to organizations
- sport and recreational facilities
- entertainment facilities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyBharadwaj & Wilkening (1977): study US Wisconsin 1972
TitleThe Prediction of Perceived Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 421 - 439
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353143
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with sparetime activities
Page in Source 430
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
direct closed question rated on a 7-point scale, 
ranging from "completely satisfied" to "completely 
dissatisfied".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.41
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09
All ß`s controlled for satisfaction with 
family-life, standard of living, work, health, 
income, community, housing, food, spiritual 
matters, education, organizational involvement, 
natural environment, national government.
males     ß:+.09   females        ß:  ns
AGE                INCOME
under 30  ß:+.08   under $4000    ß:+.15
30-49     ß:  ns   $4000- 7999    ß:+.07
50-64     ß:+.10   $8000-15999    ß:  ns
over 65   ß:+.18   over $16000    ß:+.26
GENDER
males     ß:+.09
females   ß:  ns
  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time activities
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the way you 
spend your spare time, your nonworking activities?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with spare time activities
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the way you 
spend your spare time, your non-working activities?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.41
Unaffected by sexe
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08
ß controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.09
ß additionally controlled for sociodemographic 
variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- education
- race
- sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure activities
Subject code: L03ad03b

StudyGillo (1973): study US Kansas 1971
TitleStudies on the Nature of the Relationships between Job and Life Satisfactions: Towards a Comprehensive Model.
SourceUnpublished Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1973, USA
PublicWorkers, union members, Kansas City, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response73%, no return of mailed questionnaire. Unaffected by age, sex, Local's members
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with leisure time activities
Page in Source 124
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure activities, code L03ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale, based on Cantril (1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.55


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure services
Subject code: L03ad03c

StudyNeal et al. (1999): study US 1995
TitleThe Role of Satisfaction with Leisure/Travel/Tourism Services and Experience in Satisfaction with Leisure Life and Overall Life.
SourceJournal of Business Research, 1999, Vol. 44, 153 - 163
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296397001975
PublicScientists , university, USA 1995
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response86%
Respondents N =2700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with tourism services
Page in Source 158,159,162
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure services, code L03ad03c
Operationalization
Selfreport based on following questions:

A: PRETRIP SERVICE
 1.I was satisfied with the quality of the services 
provided by travel and tourism professionals while 
planning the trip
 2. Making travel and accomodation arrangements for 
this trip was basically problem-free
 3. The cost of the services provided by travel and 
tourism professionals in helping me with the travel 
logistics was reasonable and well worth it 

B: EN ROUTE TRIP SERVICES
 4. I was pleased with the quality of the services 
provided in transit to the vacation site
 5. My travels to the vacation site were basically 
problem free
 6. The cost of the travel to the vacation site was 
reasonable and well worth it

C: SERVICE AT THE DESTINATION
 7. Tourist services at the vacation site were 
comprehensive and of high quality. These services made 
the trip a richer experience
 8. Tourist services provided at the vacation site were 
basically problem-free
 9. The cost of tourist services at the vacation site 
were reasonable and well worth it

D: RETURN TRIP SERVICE
 10. I was satisfied with the quality of the services 
provided by those who assisted me on the way home
 11. my return travels were basically problem-free
 12. the cost of travel home from the vacation site was 
reasonable and well worth it

E: SERVICES IN GENERAL
 13. In general, I was pleased with the quality of the 
travel and tourism services related to this trip
 14. The travel and tourism services related tot this 
vacation trip were basically problem-free
 15. The costs of the travel and tourism services 
related tot this vacation trip were reasonable and well 
worth it.  

Rated on a 5-point numerical scale
Observed distribution1: M=4,1; SD=0,87; 2: M=4,0; SD=0,95; 3: M=4,1; SD=1,00; 4: M=4,0; SD=0,93; 5: M=4,0; SD=1,04; 6: M=4,0; SD= 0,95; 7:M= 4,1; SD=0,91; 8: M= 4,0; SD=0,96; 9: M=3,8; SD=1,00; 10:M=3,8; SD=1,00; 11: M=3,6; SD=1,37; 12: M=3,8; SD= 1,01; 13: M=4,1; SD=0,79; 14:M=3,9; SD=0,92; 15: M=3,9; SD=0,92
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha: A=.85; B=.85; C=.86; D=.83; E=.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-mq-v-5-aßL=
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with: 
- travel/tourism experiences
- leisure life
- nonleisure life domains
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure services
Subject code: L03ad03c

StudyLondon et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleThe Contribution of Job and Leisure Satisfaction to Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1977, Vol. 62, 328 - 334
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.3.328
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with sport and recreation facilities
Page in Source 330
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure services, code L03ad03c
Operationalization
Self-report on question about satsfaction with sport an 
recreation facilities they use themselves of would like 
to use - things like parks, bowling alleys, beaches 

Rated on an 7-point numerical scale (7=delighted to 
1=terrible)
Observed distributionN:1144; M=3,16; SD=1,64
Remarks
Scale reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- co-workers 
- the work itself
- benefits and securitiy of the job
- physical surroundings and amount of work
- equipment at work
- activities with friends
- activities with family
- social contacts
- affiliation to organizations
- entertainment facilities


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with leisure services
Subject code: L03ad03c

StudyLondon et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleThe Contribution of Job and Leisure Satisfaction to Quality of Life.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1977, Vol. 62, 328 - 334
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.3.328
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with entertainment facilities
Page in Source 330
Our classificationSatisfaction with leisure services, code L03ad03c
Operationalization
Self-report on question about satisfaction with the 
entertainment they get from tv, radio,movies, local 
events and places

Rated on an 7-point numerical scale (7=delighted to 
1=terrible)
Observed distributionN:1266; M=3,48; SD=1,29
Remarks
Scale reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- co-workers 
- the work itself
- benefits and securitiy of the job
- physical surroundings and amount of work
- equipment at work
- activities with friends
- activities with family
- social contacts
- affiliation to organizations
- sport and recreational facilities


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

..describe feelings .. (question not reported)
A happy-sad
B tense-relaxed
C satisfied-dissatisfied
D elated-depressed

Rated: 1-7, labels not reported

Computation; (A+B+C+D)/4
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-cSelf report on 3 questions:

Over the last time
A I felt blue
B I felt unhappy
C I enjoyed my daily activities

Rated:
1 never
2 seldom
3 now and then
4 very often
5 always

Computation: (A+B)2 - C
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

We would like to ask you some questions about how things have been going. Please answer 'yes' if a statement is true for you and 'no' if it does not apply to you. In the past months have you been feeling
A On top of the world?
B In high spirits
C Particular content with lige?
D Lucky?
E Bored?
F Very lonely or remote from people?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H Flustered because you didn't know what was expected of you/
I Generally satisfied with the way your life has turned out?

Response options:
1 yes
0 no

Computation: (A+B+C+D+I) - (E+F+G+H)

MUNSH Affect Balance Scale
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statements concerning your feelings during the last week?
A My time has been filled with things meaningful to me
B I have felt liked
C I have felt nervouys
D I have felt tense
E I have felt down
F I have felt I have much to look forward to
G I have felt harmony
H I have felt emotionally stable
I I have felt sad
J I have felt impatient and restless
K I have felt anoyed
L I have felt lighthearted

Rated:
4 completely agree
3 partly agree
2 partly disagree
1 completely disagree

Computation: (A+B+F+G+H+L) - (C+D+E+I+J+K)
Possible range -18 to +18. Transformed to range 0-100

Name: Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey (SWED-QUAL) Part 4 'Your feelings'
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single closed question:

"How is your mood these days....?"
4 very good all the time
3
2
1 not good almost all the time
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

"On the whole, how is your general mood these days....?"
1 bad almost all the time
2
3
4
5 good almost all the time"
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-mi-mqr-v-4-aSelf report on repeated questions (experience sampling)

How happy did you feel at the moment you were beeped?
0 not happy
1 probably not happy
2 probably happy
3 happy
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day

How do you feel right now?
0 very positive
:
:
:
:
100 very negative
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past four weeks have you ever felt....?" (yes/no)

A Pleased about having accomplished something.
B Things going my way.
C Proud because someone complimented me on something I
had done.
D Particularly excited or interested in something I had done.
E On top of the world.
F A deep sense of joy.
G Pleased because my life feels orderly and secure.
H Bored.
I Very lonely and remote from other people.
J Jealous of somebody.
K Angry with someone.
L Disappointed in myself..
M Unhappy about the small number of times I have pleasant
feelings and experiences.

Answer options:
0 no
yes
If yes: How often did you feel so?
5 every day
4 several times a week
3 once a week
2 2 or 3 times a month
1 once a month

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): Average A to G
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): Average H to M
- Affect Balance Score (AB): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: +42 tot -30

Name : Bradburn's "Affected Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aSelfreport on 20 questions

Over the past few week I have felt
A optimistic
B withdrawn
C enthusiastic
D good natured
E discontented
F confused
G confident
H tense
I understood
J insignificant
K satisfied
L lonely
M free-and-easy
N clear headed
O helpless
P impatient
Q usefull
R depressed
S loving
T hopeless


Rated: 1 not at all to 9 all the time

Computation: (A+C=D+G+I+K+M+N+Q+S) - (B+E+F+H+J+L+O+P+R+T)

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 2, 20 item ABS version
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 6 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt dissatisfied with my life
B I felt happy
C I felt cheerless
D I felt pleased with the way I am
E I felt life was enjoyable
F I felt life was meaningless

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A + C + F
Positive affect score (PAS): B + D + E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Joseph's 'Short Depression-Happiness Scale' (SDHS)
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..?
A So sad nothing could cheer you up
B Nervous
C Restless or fidgety
D Hopeless
E That everything was an effort
F Worthless
G Cheerful
H In good spirits
I Extremely happy
J Calm and peaceful
K Satisfied
L Full of life

Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F)

Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aInterviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects

A The look is
2) open
1) evasive
- impossible to say
B The corners of the mouth turn
2) up
1) down
- impossible to say
C The posture is
2) relaxed, at ease
1) rather tense
- impossible to say
D The movements are
2) relaxed, at ease
1) limited, withdrawn
- impossible to say
E The eyes are
2) big, open
1) small, screw up
- impossible to say
F The elbows are kept
2) not close to the body
1) close to the body
- impossible to say
G The lips are more
2) broad, full
1) thin, pent up
- impossible to say
H All in all the subject looks
2) quite cheerful
1) not very cheerful
- difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-A-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"How do you feel about what you are accomplishing in life...?"
7 completely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 satisfied
4 satisfied-dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)

Preceded by open questions:
a: briefly describe your wishes and hopes for the future
b: describe what would be the most unhappy life for you
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life?
1 completely failed
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely accomplished
B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
C How much do you enjoy your life these days?
3 a great deal
2 a fair amount
1 not very much
D How happy have you been for the past five years?
1 completely unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely happy

Summation: % positive answers

Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aSelf report on 21 questions:

A Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days?
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way during the past few weeks:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
11 the happiest I could be
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 the saddest I could be
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-aSelfreport on single question :
Where would you put your life as a whole on a feeling thermometer?
Rated on 'thermometer scale' (in grades)
0 degrees: very cold, negative
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 very warm, positive
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question

Do you feel happy?
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree or disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question:

Taking everything into acount about what has happened in ther last year and what you expect in the near future, how do you feel about your life in general?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 equally satisfied as dissatisfied
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
- no feelings at all
- never thought about it
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
- neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied)
- I never thought about it
- does not apply to me



Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (modified version by Michalos)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
Response options:
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 unhappy
(Originally scored on a horizontal scale)
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, are you happy these days......?"
6 very happy
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
(Response options not fully reported)
O-HL-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Consider the ladder. It has 11 steps, from 0 to 10. Think of this ladder as representing different levels of happiness. Step 0 would stand for the least happy you could ever be. Step 10 would stand for the most happy you could ever be. Taking everything together, where on this ladder do you stand regarding your happiness?"

[ 10 ] most happy you could ever be
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] least happy you could ever be

Name: Cantril's self-anchoring ladder rating of life (variant)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-acSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are....?
1 not too happy
2 relatively happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general these days, how happy or unhappy would you say you are, on the whole...?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are these days.....?
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 pretty happy
4 not too happy
3 a bit unhappy
2 pretty unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gSelfreport on single question:

In general terms, how happy do you feel with your life?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Scale labels not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aSelfrreport on single question asked twice:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
1 tremendously unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 tremendoesly happy
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you think of yourself as.......?
3 happy
2 fairly happy
1 unhappy?
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate your quality of life these days?

Rated on 100 mm open line scale
Anchors not reported
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLC-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question;

I am completely satisfied with the conditions of my life
1 strongly disagree
2
3
4
5 strongly agree
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you lead these days.......?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

"All in all, how satisfied are you with your life these days.....?"
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life today
0 no
1 don't know
2 yes

Item in Munsh Happiness inventory
O-SLu-u-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not satisfied at all
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with overall life....."
(Full questions not reported)
3 very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not satisfied
- NA
O-SLW-?-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question

.. Satisfaction with life as a whole (full text not reported)
7 completely satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
5 slightly satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 slightly dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-aSelf rating on single question:

"All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you overall with your life as a whole these days?"

Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole these days.....?"
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you currently satisfied with your life all in all......?
0 not satisfied
1
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-eaSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you recently with your life as a whole.....?
1 completely dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice during the interview:

Are you at this moment satisfied or dissatisfied with life in general......?
7 very satisfied
6 for the greater part satisfied
5 rather more satisfied than dissatisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat more dissatisfied than satisfied
2 for the greater part dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- Do not know, difficult to say
O-SLW-u-sq-?-9-cSelf report on single question:
All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life at present?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
'thermometer like scale, labels not reported
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfying are these different aspects of your life? Indicate the number which best suits your situation. Life as a whole is....."
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

This item was followed by eight questions on life domain satisfactions.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question :

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything in your life into consideration, how satisfied with your life are you?
1 extremely unsatisfied
2 very unsatisfied
3 unsatisfied
4 satisfied nor unsatisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
7 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how would you rate your own quality of life today on a scale of 1 to 10?
1 very poor
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 excellent
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
O-Sum-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions

A I am generally happy with my life
B Although I have my ups and downs, in general I feel good about my life
C I lead a meaningfull and fullfilling life

Scoring:
5 strongly agree
4 agree
3 agree nor disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C / 3
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
?Measures off association not reported
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate