Findings on Happiness and LEADERSHIP

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LEADERSHIP
Subject Code: L02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L02LEADERSHIP0
L02aaLeadership career1
L02aa01Earlier leadership0
L02aa02Change in leadership0
L02aa03Later leadership0
L02abCurrent leadership behavior3
L02ab01Leadership ambition2
L02ab02Taking leading roles5
L02ab03Leadership style0
L02acCompliance to leaders2
L02adAttitudes to own leadership0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LEADERSHIP
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Leadership career
Subject code: L02aa

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelBeing supervisor
Page in Source 211
Our classificationLeadership career, code L02aa
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'In your main job, do/ 
did you have any responsibility for supervising the 
work of other employees'. 
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.26 p < .001
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .05
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.09 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- job satisfaction
- country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.16 p < .05
B additionally controlled for work-home 
interference and without job satisfaction inserted
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
B additionally controlled for both job 
satisfaction and work-home interference 

In analysis of each country separately B's are not 
significant in all countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leadership behavior
Subject code: L02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of subordinates
Page in Source 114,116
Our classificationCurrent leadership behavior, code L02ab
Operationalization
Single question: If you have subordinates, indicate how 
many 
1: 0
2: 1
3: 2-4
4: 5-9
5: 10-19
6: 20-50
7: > 50
Observed distributionN WOMEN All:2179; %:1:87,3; 2:2,8; 3:4,0; 4:2,6; 5:1,6; 6:1,4; 7:0,2 N MEN: All:1901; %:1:76,3; 2:3,7; 3:8,4; 4:4,9; 5:2,9; 6:2,7; 7:1,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
WOMEN:           MEN:  
1: Mt=7.65       1:Ms=7.68
2: Mt=7.83       2:Ms=8.18
3: Mt=8.44       3:Ms=7.86
4: Mt=7.64       4:Ms=8.49
5: Mt=8.26       5:Ms=8.13
6: Mt=8.23       6:Ms=8.39
7: Mt=7.50       7:Ms=8.75
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.06 p < .01
women
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.10 p < .00
men
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
WOMEN:           MEN:  
1: Mt=7.40       1:Ms=7.28
2: Mt=7.66       2:Ms=7.68
3: Mt=8.01       3:Ms=7.53
4: Mt=7.33       4:Ms=8.06
5: Mt=7.58       5:Ms=8.18
6: Mt=7.66       6:Ms=7.80
7: Mt=7.00       7:Ms=8.63
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .184
women
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.11 p < .00
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
WOMEN:           MEN:  
1: Mt=7.05       1:Ms=6.83
2: Mt=7.34       2:Ms=7.58
3: Mt=7.39       3:Ms=7.26
4: Mt=6.80       4:Ms=7.55
5: Mt=7.36       5:Ms=7.50
6: Mt=7.34       6:Ms=7.30
7: Mt=7.50       7:Ms=7.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.03 p < .235
women
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.11 p < .00
men


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leadership behavior
Subject code: L02ab

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelHolding Central Office
Page in Source 277, 279, 285
Our classificationCurrent leadership behavior, code L02ab
Operationalization
Holding Central Office (highest level of managerial 
office) during the last five years prior to the data 
collection
1 none
.
.
4 top office
Observed distributionM=2.28, SD=.99

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.06 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.36 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- years of study
- age
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community value
- collectivistic value
- individualistic value
- satisfaction with realization of values
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations and abilities
- satisfactionwith feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- Satisfaction with material standard of living
- Satisfaction with work domain
- Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current leadership behavior
Subject code: L02ab

StudyDrobnic et al. (2010): study ZZ EU 9 2003
TitleGood Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 205 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
PublicWorking people, 9 European Union countries, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3354

Correlate
Author's labelBeing supervisor
Page in Source 211
Our classificationCurrent leadership behavior, code L02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'In your main job, do/ 
did you have any responsibility for supervising the 
work of other employees'. 
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.26 p < .001
B controlled for:
- gender
- age in linear and in quadratic form 
- marital status
- number of children
- education level 
- objective working conditions
- subjective evaluations of work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .05
B additionally controlled for GDP per capita
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.09 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- job satisfaction
- country dummies
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.16 p < .05
B additionally controlled for work-home 
interference and without job satisfaction inserted
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.11 ns
B additionally controlled for both job 
satisfaction and work-home interference 

In analysis of each country separately B's are not 
significant in all countries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leadership ambition
Subject code: L02ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to impose ownwill
Page in Source 26
Our classificationLeadership ambition, code L02ab01
Operationalization
Trained peer rating of desire to impose own will on 
others (as opposed to tole- rance) on a 7-point scale 
on the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leadership ambition
Subject code: L02ab01

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelDesire to impose own will
Page in Source 27
Our classificationLeadership ambition, code L02ab01
Operationalization
Class-master rating of desire to impose own will 
onothers (as opposed to tole- rance) on a 7-point scale 
on the obser- vation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Taking leading roles
Subject code: L02ab02

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelHolding Central Office
Page in Source 277, 279, 285
Our classificationTaking leading roles, code L02ab02
Operationalization
Holding Central Office (highest level of managerial 
office) during the last five years prior to the data 
collection
1 none
.
.
4 top office
Observed distributionM=2.28, SD=.99

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.06 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.36 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- years of study
- age
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community value
- collectivistic value
- individualistic value
- satisfaction with realization of values
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations and abilities
- satisfactionwith feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- Satisfaction with material standard of living
- Satisfaction with work domain
- Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Taking leading roles
Subject code: L02ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelWideness of influence
Page in Source 26
Our classificationTaking leading roles, code L02ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating (of the extent to which he makes 
his influence felt among any of his fellows whenever he 
speaks or acts) on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Taking leading roles
Subject code: L02ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelIntensity of influence
Page in Source 26
Our classificationTaking leading roles, code L02ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating of intensity of Ss influence on his 
special intimates on a 7-point scale as the basis of 
observa- tion during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Taking leading roles
Subject code: L02ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelInfluence
Page in Source 27
Our classificationTaking leading roles, code L02ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating of degree in which he makes his 
influence felt among the fellows on a 7-point scale on 
the basis of observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Taking leading roles
Subject code: L02ab02

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of leading roles played in a play
Page in Source 64
Our classificationTaking leading roles, code L02ab02
Operationalization
2 questions on having played a leading role and number 
of roles.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=+.28 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compliance to leaders
Subject code: L02ac

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelCooperativeness
Page in Source 329
Our classificationCompliance to leaders, code L02ac
Operationalization
Ratings by two experienced staff members who are 
familiar with all the patients on a 7-point 'rebellious 
- cooperative' scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=+ p < .001
Open ward  : r = +.56 (001)
Closed ward: r = +.60 (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Compliance to leaders
Subject code: L02ac

StudySchneider & Coppinger (1971): study US 1969
TitleStaff-Resident Perceptions of the Needs and Adjustment of Nursing Home Residents.
SourceAging and Human Development, 1971, Vol. 2, 59 - 65
PublicChronically impaired males, living in nursing home, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response51% unobtainable, because of incapacity or inability to understand.
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelCooperation with staff in nursing home
Page in Source 63
Our classificationCompliance to leaders, code L02ac
Operationalization
Overall staff-ratings on cooperation with the staff, 
conformity to rules,and conduct.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-ata=+.46 p < . 01
For 12 out of the 16 staff members a significant 
(05) relationship between their rankings on 
cooperation and satisfaction (= happiness measure) 
was found (range of _ = +.32 to +.63).


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
"just awful".
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-aClinical rating by 16 staff members on the basis of lasting face to face contact.

".......happiness and satisfaction with past and present life......"
(full question to raters not reported)

Rating scale not reported
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
taKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-A
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1], but if ties are present -1< ta< +1.

Meaning:
ta = 0 no rank correlation
ta = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
to high happiness ratings.
ta =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L02LEADERSHIPF05FREEDOM
L02LEADERSHIPO01ac01eSupervisory tasks
L02LEADERSHIPP08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR
L02ab01Leadership ambitionP04at01Need for dominance
L02ab01Leadership ambitionP04abAmbitious
L02ab01Leadership ambitionO01ad01aOccupational aspirations
L02ab01Leadership ambitionL07ab02Object of life-goals
L02ab02Taking leading rolesO01ab02Kind of occupation (profession)
L02ab03Leadership styleP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
L02acCompliance to leadersP04cxSolidary, cooperative

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings