Findings on Happiness and LANGUAGE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and LANGUAGE
Subject Code: L01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
L01LANGUAGE0
L01aaLanguage career0
L01aa01Earlier language2
L01aa02Change in language1
L01aa03Later language2
L01abCurrent language8
L01ab01Number of languages spoken2
L01acRegional language1
L01adProblems with the language2
L01aeAttidudes to language0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and LANGUAGE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=L01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier language
Subject code: L01aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 85
Our classificationEarlier language, code L01aa01
Operationalization
Single question:
What is your ethnic origin?
1: Non-English Speaking Countries
2: Australian
3: Mainly English Speaking Countries
Observed distributionN = 1 : 369, 2 : 500, 3 : 500

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .744
1: Mt =76.10, SD =15.39
2: Mt =76.45, SD =18.50
3: Mt =77.00, SD =17.93
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier language
Subject code: L01aa01

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationEarlier language, code L01aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
In which country were you born?
..
Is English the first language you learned to speak as a 
child?
1: yes
0: no

Categorized into:
a) Immigrant from English speaking country
b) Immigrant from non-English speaking 
     country
a) Non-immigrant (reference)
Observed distributiona) Males: 11.6%; Females: 10.3%; b) Males: 14.3%; Females: 14.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 ns
IMMIGRANT FROM ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRY (vs 
non-immigrant)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
IMMIGRANT FROM NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRY (vs 
non-immigrant)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.11 p < .05
Females

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in language
Subject code: L01aa02

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelEnglish-speaking ability
Page in Source 323-325
Our classificationChange in language, code L01aa02
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.14 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.22 p < .05
Marrried Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.02 ns
Widowed women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangements
-age
-health
-personal income
-country of birth
-years in Canada
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children
-see children as often as want


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later language
Subject code: L01aa03

StudyLai & McDonald (1995): study CA Calgary, Alberta 1991
TitleLife Satisfaction of Chinese Elderly Immigrants in Calgary
SourceCanadian Journal of Aging,1995, Vol.14, 536 - 552
DOIDOI:10.1017/SO714980800009107
PublicChinese elderly immigrants, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response14.7%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelEnglish capacity
Page in Source 544-546
Our classificationLater language, code L01aa03
Operationalization
Self report on the English capacity:
1: Not having capacity to speak, read, write, or listen 
to English
0: Having capacity to speak, read, write, or listen to 
English
Observed distributionCapable of English: M=4.47 SD=1.14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.13 ns
All
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 ns
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later language
Subject code: L01aa03

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelBilingual
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationLater language, code L01aa03
Operationalization
Self report on question 'What language(s) do you speak 
in your home?:
1: Speaking both Arabic and English
0: Speaking either English only or Arabic only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=-.12 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.07 ns
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant
- English fluent


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage spoken at home
Page in Source 42
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Language spoken:
a) French
b) Dutch (reference)
c) Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.26 p < .01
FRENCH (vs Dutch)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.34 p < .001
OTHER (vs Dutch)

B controlled for:
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Region in Belgium
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudySenik (2011): study CA 2000
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3439

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage spoken at home
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Language spoken at home:
a) French
b) English (reference)
c) Other
Observed distributiona) 25%, b) 68%, c) 5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.05 p < .01
FRENCH (vs English)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.11 p < .01
OTHER  (vs English)

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Income scale
- Survey year
- Ethnic group
- Employment status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudySenik (2011): study CA 2000
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3439

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage of interview
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Language of interview:
a) French
b) English (reference)
c) Other
Observed distributiona) 26%; b) 74%; c) 0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.04 p < .05
FRENCH (vs English)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
OTHER (vs English)

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Marital status
- Income scale
- Survey year
- Ethnic group
- Employment status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010) Id=7061: study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelHebrew fluency
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you know Hebrew?
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.10 p < .05
JEWS
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.07 p < .05
ARABS

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- years residing in Israel
- health
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage
Page in Source 95, 98, 99
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Language proficiency 
Rated 1-5
Observed distribution3,5
Remarks
In the questionnaire, this  variable did not directly 
address proficiency in the Hebrew (local) language, but 
rather asked about language proficiency per se. 
However, authors believe that most of the immigrant 
respondents interpreted the question to refer to 
proficiency in the Hebrew language.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=+.26 p < .01
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.25 p < .01
Beta controled for immigration history
- continent or origin
- years since migration
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- gender
- age
- married
- income
- education
- activities
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage of interview
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
a.Gave interview in Afrikaans or English
b.Gave interview in isiZULU
Observed distribution% a:6, b:31

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=+
                    %happy  %neutral %unhappy  
Interv. in Afrikaans  71       10       19
or English                   
Interv. in isiZULU    42       13       45
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cgH=0,12 p < .0,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudySenik (2011): study CH 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4904

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage spoken at home
Page in Source 43
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Spoken language:
a) French
b) Italian
c) Other
d) German (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.16 ns
FRENCH      (vs German)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.47 p < .001
ITALIAN     (vs German)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.37 p < .001
OTHER       (vs German)

B's controlled for:
- Regional language
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current language
Subject code: L01ab

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelEnglish fluency
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationCurrent language, code L01ab
Operationalization
Self report on question: What language(s) do you speak 
in your home? 
1: Arabic
2: English
3: Both Arabic and English
4: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.19 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of languages spoken
Subject code: L01ab01

StudyAyyash-Abdo & Alamuddin (2007): study LB 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among College Youth in Lebanon.
SourceThe Journal of Social Psychology, 2007, Vol. 147, 265 - 284
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17703789
PublicStudents, Lebanon, 2007
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =689

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage
Page in Source 274-275
Our classificationNumber of languages spoken, code L01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about language dominance:
0 monolingual(Arabic)
1a bilingual(also French or English)
1b trilingual(also French and English)
Observed distribution28.5% Arabic; 20.5% English and/or French; 34.5% Arabic and either English or French; 16.5% Arabic, English and French

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aDM=+
Arabic monolinguals lower on PA than bi/trilingual 
students

No difference on NA. ABS not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of languages spoken
Subject code: L01ab01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelBilingual
Page in Source 173, 175
Our classificationNumber of languages spoken, code L01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on question 'What language(s) do you speak 
in your home?:
1: Speaking both Arabic and English
0: Speaking either English only or Arabic only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=-.12 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.07 ns
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant
- English fluent


Correlational finding on Happiness and Regional language
Subject code: L01ac

StudySenik (2011): study CH 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4904

Correlate
Author's labelRegional language
Page in Source 43
Our classificationRegional language, code L01ac
Operationalization
Main language spoken in region:
a) French
b) Italian
c) German (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.17 p < .05
FRENCH  (vs German)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 ns
ITALIAN (vs German)

B's controlled for:
- Language spoken at home
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with the language
Subject code: L01ad

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelPoor English speaking ability
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationProblems with the language, code L01ad
Operationalization
Did the respondent have any of the following problems 
which may have affected the interview?
A) Language problems
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionMales: 4.8%; Females: 5.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.25 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.38 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with the language
Subject code: L01ad

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelPoor English
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationProblems with the language, code L01ad
Operationalization
1 Respondent  speaks  English  either  not  well or not 
at all
0 Others
Observed distributionEnglish either not well or not at all 0.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.31 ns
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions:

Lead item not reported.

A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Rated:
1: not at all
.
.
5 a lot

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gSelfreport on single question

.. Satisfaction with life.. (full text not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question

.. life .. (text not reported)
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you are leading?
1 not satisfied at all
3 not so satisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
L01aa02Change in languageM08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
L01ab01Number of languages spokenE01ab02Level of school-education
L01ab01Number of languages spokenL09ab02cInternational life style
L01acRegional languageE03aaEthnic status in specific nations

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings