Findings on Happiness and INTERVIEW

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and INTERVIEW
Subject Code: I05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
I05INTERVIEW 0
I05aaInterview conditions0
I05aa01Moment of the interview3
I05aa01aDay of the week3
I05aa01bMonth of the year1
I05aa01cSpecial day1
I05aa02Context of the interview2
I05aa02aGood or bad weather3
I05aa02bPlace of interview0
I05aa03Method of interrogation10
I05aa04Characteristics of the interviewer1
I05abQuestioning6
I05ab01Sequence of items16
I05ab02Prior mood-manipulation7
I05acRespondent behavior1
I05ac01Non response, refusal4
I05ac02Panel-dropout4
I05ac03Response tendencies10
I05adRespondents attitudes to interview9
I05aa05Language of the interview2
I05aeProblems with understanding the interview1
I05aa02cOthers present during interview2
I05ab03Response scale0
I05ab04Repeated questioning over time1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INTERVIEW
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=I05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Moment of the interview
Subject code: I05aa01

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelRaw Olympic Date
Page in Source A17
Our classificationMoment of the interview, code I05aa01
Operationalization
Number of medals won by Australia at Olympic games at 
time of interview
Remarks
Interviews took plaqce during Olympic games August 16- 
September 8, 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .017
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Moment of the interview
Subject code: I05aa01

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's label(ln) War days
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationMoment of the interview, code I05aa01
Operationalization
Assessment of authors
Moment of interview:
a) Before the Lebanon-war
b) During the Lebanon-war
c) After the Lebanon-war

a: logarithmic function of interview during the war
b: logarithmic function of interview during the war 
squared
c: logarithmic function of interview after the war
d: logarithmic function of interview after the war 
squared
Remarks
The Libanon war started on July 12, 2006 and
lasted for 34 days until august 14, 2006.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 ns
DURING THE LEBANON-WAR         
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.44 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.05 ns
DURING THE LEBANON-WAR SQUARED 
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.14 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.01 ns
AFTER THE LEBANON-WAR          
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.07 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.00 ns
AFTER THE LEBANON-WAR SQUARED  
(vs before the war)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.03 ns
Arabs

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- health
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- years residing in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- employment status
- place of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Moment of the interview
Subject code: I05aa01

StudyMutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006
TitleChristmas and Subjective Well-Being: a Research Note.
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2015, Published Online, 1 - 26
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8
Public15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2057

Correlate
Author's labelPre-Post-Christmas Interview
Page in Source 24,25
Our classificationMoment of the interview, code I05aa01
Operationalization
Pre:   Surveyed between December 16 and 26.
Post: Surveyed between December 27 and 31.
Observed distributionPre: yes = 4,7% no = 95,3% Post: yes = 1,9% no = 98,1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.12 p < .05
PRE-CHRISTMAS INTERVIEW

b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health

Affected by  additional control for
- christian denomination (b = -.19 p<01)
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview (b = -.21 p<01).

Stronger among christians (b interaction = +.14 
(ns).

Stronger among most religions.
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=-.21 p < .01
b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health

Affected by  additional control for
- christian denomination (b = -.25 p<01)
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview (b = -.24 p<01).

Stronger among Christians (b interaction +.08 
p<05)

Stronger among most religions.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.04 ns
POST-CHRISTMAS INTERVIEW

b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health

Affected by  additional control for
- christian denomination (b = +.03 p<01)
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview (b = +.03 p<01).
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=-.09 p < .01
b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health

Unaffected by  additional control for
- christian denomination
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Day of the week
Subject code: I05aa01a

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public14+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7965

Correlate
Author's labelDay of the week
Page in Source 229
Our classificationDay of the week, code I05aa01a
Operationalization
Day of the week the interview took place

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=
The difference between cheerfulness (happy face) 
on Thursday and Sunday is significant (p < 01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Day of the week
Subject code: I05aa01a

StudyKnabe et al. (2009): study DE 2008
TitleDissatisfied with Life, but Having a Good Day: Time-Use and Well-Being of the Unemployed.
SourceCES/IFO Working Paper no. 2604, CES, 2009, Munich, Germany.
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_2604.html
PublicFulltime employed and long-term unemployed, Germany, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelWeekdays and weekends
Page in Source 18, 21
Our classificationDay of the week, code I05aa01a
Operationalization
Day of interview:
a: a day in the week
b: weekend

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-aDM=
Unemployed feel happier during weekdays but worse 
in the weekend (compared to employed)
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=-1.2 p < .01
Unemployed during weekdays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=+.18 ns
Employed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=-.31 ns
Unemployed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)

B -1.2 means that unemployed individuals are 1.2 
points less satisfied with their lives during 
weekdays compared to employed individuals during 
weekdays on the happiness scale 0-10.
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.66 p < .05
Unemployed during weekdays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.75 p < .05
Employed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.49 ns
Unemployed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)

B's are controlled for:
- income
- cohabiting
- education
- health satisfaction
- children
- age
- general goodness of previous day 
- goodness of health and work on previous day

B +.66 means that unemployed individuals are .66 
points happier during weekdays compared to 
employed individuals during weekdays on the 
happiness scale -10-10.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Day of the week
Subject code: I05aa01a

StudyFordyce (1972): study US 1971
TitleHappiness, its Daily Variation and its Relation to Values.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, U.S. International University, 1972, San Diego, California, USA
PublicUniversity students, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's labelDay of week (Monday, Tuesday, etc.)
Page in Source 152
Our classificationDay of the week, code I05aa01a
Operationalization
Difference between the day's averages on the happiness 
score and the mean of the other days, during a period 
of 21 days as assessed by an analysis of
variance, using the 21 days as units
for the analysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aAoV= ns
No day of the week was significantly different 
from the other days.
Fridays and Saturdays averaged the highest and 
Mondays and Tuesdays the lowest (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Month of the year
Subject code: I05aa01b

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /7
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30397

Correlate
Author's labelSeason
Page in Source 228
Our classificationMonth of the year, code I05aa01b
Operationalization
Months of interviewing. Happiness was measured (by 
interviewerratings of cheerful look) in 11 months 
survey in 1976 (not in July).

Ranknumbers of the months:
- January     9
- February    8
- March       5
- March/April 4
- April       2
- May         1
- June        3
- August      7
- September  11
- Nov./Dec.   6
- December   10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aD%=
Differences in average cheerfulness over the 
months are small.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Special day
Subject code: I05aa01c

StudyFordyce (1972): study US 1971
TitleHappiness, its Daily Variation and its Relation to Values.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, U.S. International University, 1972, San Diego, California, USA
PublicUniversity students, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's label'Special' day
Page in Source 152
Our classificationSpecial day, code I05aa01c
Operationalization
Differences between the day's averages on the happiness 
score and the mean of all days, during a period of 21 
days; as assessed by an analysis of variance, using the 
21 days as units for the analysis.
Remarks
The period covered in the study included the 
Thanksgiving Holidays, several weekends, an important 
examination, and the last day of the school term.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aAoV= ns
None of the day's averages was significantly 
different from the mean of all days.
Thanksgiving day, weekend, and the last-school 
day's-eve rating showed the highest averages (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Context of the interview
Subject code: I05aa02

StudyWagner et al. (1984): study XZ Germany West 1983
TitleDas Leid des Einen ist das Glück des Anderen: Soziale Vergleiche und Selbstdarstellung bei der Beurteilung des eigenen Wohlbefindens. (Social Comparison and Selfpresentation in Judgments of Own Well-Being.)
SourcePaper University of Heidelberg, 1984, Germany
PublicFemale university students, Mannheim Germany, 1983
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's label Open/covered answers in presence of handicapped bystander or not
Page in Source 8-10
Our classificationContext of the interview, code I05aa02
Operationalization
Answers to two questions on happiness in different 
interview conditions:

A: Handicapped person present in room
   a: no
   b: yes

B: Response open to handicapped bystander
   a: yes: verbal response  
   b: no: covered answer on paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aDM=
            handicapped bystander    difference
            present     not-present
reponse
- open      5,7         6,0           -0,3 (ns)
- covered   5,6         4,6           +1,0 (ns)

difference  +0,1 (ns)   +1,4 (.02)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Context of the interview
Subject code: I05aa02

StudyCharness & Grosskopf (2001): study ES 1998
TitleRelative Pay offs and Happiness: An Experimental Study.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2001, Vol. 45, 301 - 328
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00148-2
PublicUniversity students, Barcelona, Spain, 1998
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =121

Correlate
Author's labelPassive (dead) vs active (live) role in partition experiment
Page in Source 312
Our classificationContext of the interview, code I05aa02
Operationalization
Ss met in one large room and were explained that they 
would randomly be assigned one of two roles in an 
experiment:
A: Passive role (dead), no say in the decision, only 
asked what they would do if they had been in the other 
role and/or to predict the choice of B
B: Active role (live), makes two decisions about 
partition of money (about $10) between A and B

After this introduction Ss were randomly assigned 
either role A or role B. Next Ss answered written 
questions about respectively general happiness (GH), 
comparative happiness (CH) and momentary happiness (MH)
Observed distributionA.: N= 60 B.: N= 61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM=- ns
Passive role: GH=7.25 (MH=6.45)
Active role:  GH=6.64 (MH=6.07)
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%=- ns
% time happy:
Passive role: happy 44.1, neutral 44.2 unhappy 
11.7
Active role: happy 42.1, neutral 42.0 unhappy 15.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Good or bad weather
Subject code: I05aa02a

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public14+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7965

Correlate
Author's labelGood weather
Page in Source 229
Our classificationGood or bad weather, code I05aa02a
Operationalization
Wheather conditions during the interview as rated by 
the interviewer (sunny, cloudy, instable, rainy).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.07 p < .01
% happy face:
- sunny      73
- cloudy     71
- instable   69
- rainy      69

% happy face (reported in NOELL 1978 table 10)
- Monday     70
- Tuesday    71
- Wednesday  71
- Thursday   68
- Friday     70
- Saterday   71
- Sunday     74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Good or bad weather
Subject code: I05aa02a

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelUnexpected transitory sunshine changes
Page in Source 34
Our classificationGood or bad weather, code I05aa02a
Operationalization
Last ten day deviation = weithed average of the last 
ten day sunshine measure - the average of the last ten 
day sunshine measure in the last 60 years.
a: daily cloud cover
b: daily sunshine (average duration)
c: daily sunshine (maximum duration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.04
LAST TEN DAY DEVIATION: average duration of daily 
sunshine
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.06
LAST TEN DAY DEVIATION: maximum duration of daily 
sunshine
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.04
LAST TEN DAY DEVIATION: daily cloud cover

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - income
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
  - gender
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Good or bad weather
Subject code: I05aa02a

StudyYoung (1937a): study US 1934 /2
TitleLaughing and Weeping, Cheerfulness and Depression: A Study of Moods among College Students.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1937, Vol. 8, 311 - 334
PublicCollege students, psychol. course,, USA, 1934-35
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =236

Correlate
Author's labelThe weather
Page in Source 328
Our classificationGood or bad weather, code I05aa02a
Operationalization
Mean daily temperature for the days of the experiment; 
temperature at the time of the experiment; mean daily 
humidity.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-aSNR= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Others present during interview
Subject code: I05aa02c

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelOthers present during interview
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationOthers present during interview, code I05aa02c
Operationalization
Interviewer's report on single question:
Were any other adults present during any of this 
interview?
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution1: 40%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.11 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.12 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicion of interview questions
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Others present during interview
Subject code: I05aa02c

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelNon- participant
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationOthers present during interview, code I05aa02c
Operationalization
1 no others present during the interview or don't know- 
telephone interview
0 other
Observed distribution1: 31.1%; 0: 68.9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.14 ns
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978
TitleAustralians' Priorities, Satisfaction and Well-Being.
SourceMonograph in Public Policy Studies, nr. 4, University of Melbourne, 1981, Australia
PublicAdults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, 1978-1981
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelIn-depth interview
Page in Source 25
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
In-depths interview by a qualified psychologist 
involving open questions and probes about various 
topics, such as activities, friendships, sources of 
self-fullfiment and life-satisfaction. Transcripts of 
the interviews were then scored by two coders, who were 
unaware of the surveys results. 

The coders scored life-satisfaction using the 1-9 
Delighted-Terrible scale
Remarks
only 23 of 31 respondents interviewed were available 
for scores of the survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.43 p < .05
Self-rating (from survey) by coder(1)-rating (from 
interview) both on the same 1-9 D-T scale
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.33 ns
Self-rating (from survey) by coder(2)-rating (from 
interview) both on the same 1-9 D-T scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyWagner et al. (1984): study XZ Germany West 1983
TitleDas Leid des Einen ist das Glück des Anderen: Soziale Vergleiche und Selbstdarstellung bei der Beurteilung des eigenen Wohlbefindens. (Social Comparison and Selfpresentation in Judgments of Own Well-Being.)
SourcePaper University of Heidelberg, 1984, Germany
PublicFemale university students, Mannheim Germany, 1983
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's label Open/covered answers in presence of handicapped bystander or not
Page in Source 8-10
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Answers to two questions on happiness in different 
interview conditions:

A: Handicapped person present in room
   a: no
   b: yes

B: Response open to handicapped bystander
   a: yes: verbal response  
   b: no: covered answer on paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aDM=
            handicapped bystander    difference
            present     not-present
reponse
- open      5,7         6,0           -0,3 (ns)
- covered   5,6         4,6           +1,0 (ns)

difference  +0,1 (ns)   +1,4 (.02)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSurvey method
Page in Source 5, 16
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
1: Online survey
0: Direct visit and self completion
Remarks
Data on direct-visit: from main survey.
The main survey was Quality of Life Survey (~Well-Being 
Study Unit (2012b)), which involved face-to-face 
interviews and self completion questionnaires. An 
online survey was additionally conducted, to assess 
well-being indicators not included in the main survey.
The publication focusses on differences due to method 
of assesment.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=-
               All    Males    Females
Online         6,1     5,4      6,0
Direct visit   6,6     5,6      6,6
-difference   -0,5    -0,2     -0,6

Difference greater among:
- females
- young people

Unaffected by self reported health
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
1:          M = 5,7
0:          M = 6,0
-difference M = -0,3
Higher among females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 6, 22, 17
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
1: 10s
2: 20s
3: 30s
4: 40s
5: 50s
6: 60s

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+-
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbDM=+-
The average scores declined from 10s to 20s, but 
increased with age among respondents over 20s. The 
entire curve is a "J-shape".
Set Image size:   

A-AB-yd-mq-n-11-aDM=+
pattern differs slightly across measurement 
methods.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-reported health status
Page in Source 59-60
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
1: I am not healthy at all
2: I am not healthy
3: I am neither healthy nor ill
4: I am healthy
5: I am totally healthy
Observed distribution Online survey Direct-visit survey I am not healthy at all 5,2% 5,8% I am not healthy 17,1% 15,3% I am neither healthy nor ill 21,1% 18,9% I am healthy 43,0% 40,9% I am totally healthy 13,7% 19,0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+
1: M = 4,5
2: M = 5,3
3: M = 5,6
4: M = 6,5
5: M = 7,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyBiswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001
TitleMost People are Pretty Happy, but There is Cultural Variation:: The Inughuit, The Amish and the Maasai.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 205 - 226
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10902-005-5683-8
PublicAdults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =358

Correlate
Author's labelSelf report vs peer rating
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time 
during the PAST MONTH have you (has X) felt each 
emotion?
A  affectionate
B  joyful
C  sad
D  worried
E  irritable
F  guilty
G  happy
H  proud

1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/ 8

Same questions used both for selfreports and for peer 
rating
Remarks
Mean and SD stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 
(for facilitating comparability with other indicators 
of wellbeing on range 1-7)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-aDM= ns
              Maasai     Amish      Inughuit
              M   SD     M    SD    M    SD 
Self-report  4,2   1,0   1,6  0,7   1,7  1,9  
Peer rating  3,8   1,9   1,8  0,7   2,1  1,4  
Difference   0,4  -0,9   0,2  0    -0,4  0,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyScherpenzeel (2001): study CH Bern 1999
TitleMode Effects in Panel Surveys: A Comparison of CAPI and CATI.
SourceBFS aktuell (Bulletin of the Statistical Office Switzerland), October 2001, Nr. 448-0100, Neuchatel, Switzerland
URLhttp://www.unine.ch/psm
Public15+ aged, general public, household members, Bern, Switzerland 1999
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =864

Correlate
Author's labelCATI versus CAPI
Page in Source 12
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Happiness of the same respondents assessed in two 
interviews with one month interval using two methods of 
interogation: 
A: Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI)
B: Computer Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI)

Experimental group 1 was interviewed using CATI at the 
first interview and CAPI at the second. Experimental 
group 2 first CAPI and next CATI.Average reported here.
Observed distributionCATI Mean = 7.95 SD = 1.65 CAPI Mean = 8.11 SD = 1.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-h-sq-n-11-aDMt=0,06 ns
CATI: Mean = 7.95 SD = 1.65 
CAPI: Mean = 8.11 SD = 1.49
t = 1,50 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyHinton (1979): study GB 1978
TitleComparison of Places and Policies for Terminal Care.
SourceThe Lancet, 1979, 6 January, 29 - 32
PublicEnd stage cancer patients, UK,1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelMood assessments
Page in Source 30
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Rating of patients mood by:
A: Interviewer on the basis of a bedside open interview
B: Nurse
C: Spouce

All ratings expressed on scale
1  depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9  elated
Observed distributionInterviewer rating - depressed 6% - sad 39% - average 26% - cheerful 9% - elated 0% Spouce rating of patient -depressed 7% -sad 37% -average 20% -cheerful 16% -elated 0% Nurse rating of patient -depressed 9% -sad 24% -average 31% -cheerful 16% -elated 0%
Remarks
Ratings collapsed to 5 categories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.65
patient - spouce
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.59
patient- nurse
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-ar=+.45
spouce - nurse


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudyDiener et al. (1995c): study US 1991
TitleThe Personality Structure of Affect.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 130 - 141
PublicCollege students, USA, 1991-1992
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =212

Correlate
Author's labelMethods
Page in Source 135
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Affective experience in the last month was assessed in 
three ways
a: global self-report 
b: experience sampling  
c: informant report
Observed distributiona: M = -1.40, b : M = -0.18, c: M = -1.42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-aDM=
global self report:  M = -1.40
experience sampling: M = -0.18
informant report   : M = -1.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Method of interrogation
Subject code: I05aa03

StudySudman (1967): study US 1964
TitleReducing the Cost of Surveys.
SourceAldine, 1967, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1964
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2084

Correlate
Author's labelInterview technique
Page in Source 55
Our classificationMethod of interrogation, code I05aa03
Operationalization
Happiness assessed using:
a: face-to-face interview
b: self adminstered questionnaire
Remarks
Catholics only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=
% happy
- face-to-face interview          36%
- self administered questionnaire 23%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of the interviewer
Subject code: I05aa04

StudyPhillips & Clancy (1972): study US New England 1967
Title"Modeling Effects" in Survey Research.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1972, Vol. 36, 246 - 253
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2747793
Public21+ aged , general public, eastern states, USA, 196?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response3.7%
Respondents N =404

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of Interviewer
Page in Source 251
Our classificationCharacteristics of the interviewer, code I05aa04
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
Taking all things together, how would you say things 
are these days? Would you say you are:
3: Very happy
2: Pretty happy
1: Not too happy
Remarks
25 white female interviewers. All were high-school 
graduates, between the ages of 25 and 49, who had at 
least one year of experience as marketing and public 
opinion research interviewers.
Interviewers answered this question, ostentibly in the 
context of a training excercise. Later they asked the 
same question to respondents in telephone interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adQ=+.17
Happiness of interviewers by happiness of 
respondents

Years of education respondents:
- 1-11:   Q = +.24
- 12-15:  Q = -.12
- 16+:    Q = +.42

Modelling effects (projection by interviewer of 
own characteristics on responden) appear even in 
telephonic interview. The effect on happiness 
rating is, but strongest for the highest educated 
respondents.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Language of the interview
Subject code: I05aa05

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage spoken at home
Page in Source 42
Our classificationLanguage of the interview, code I05aa05
Operationalization
Language spoken:
a) French
b) Dutch (reference)
c) Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.26 p < .01
FRENCH (vs Dutch)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.34 p < .001
OTHER (vs Dutch)

B controlled for:
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Region in Belgium
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Language of the interview
Subject code: I05aa05

StudySenik (2011): study CA 2000
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3439

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage of interview
Page in Source 44
Our classificationLanguage of the interview, code I05aa05
Operationalization
Language of interview:
a) French
b) English (reference)
c) Other
Observed distributiona) 26%; b) 74%; c) 0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.04 p < .05
FRENCH (vs English)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
OTHER (vs English)

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Marital status
- Income scale
- Survey year
- Ethnic group
- Employment status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelattitude to the questionaire
Page in Source 408
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"This questionaire does not express my quality of life"
1: very negative
2: negative
3: neither/nor
4: positive
5: very positive
Observed distributionN: 4598; %:1:0,2; 2:1,1; 3:17,6; 4:62,2; 5:18,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.29 p < .00
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.66
3: Ms=6.86
4: Ms=7.71
5: Ms=8.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.20
3: Ms=6.40
4: Ms=7.39
5: Ms=8.61
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.46
3: Ms=6.09
4: Ms=6.93
5: Ms=8.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire as fully adequate
Page in Source 410
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
" Did the questionaire cover all major aspects of your 
life?"
Observed distributionN: All:4322; %:1:17,8; 2:22,9; 3:59,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 p < .00
1: Ms=7.51
2: Ms=7.53
3: Ms=7.90
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.09 p < .00
1: Ms=7.13
2: Ms=7.20
3: Ms=7.59
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.09 p < .00
1: Ms=6.76
2: Ms=6.79
3: Ms=7.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire's unethical questions
Page in Source 414
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Did you find any questions that we should not have 
asked  ?"
1: no 
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4534; %: 1:95,2; 2:3,1; 3:1,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
1: Ms=7.76
2: Ms=7.25
3: Ms=6.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .00
1: Ms=7.46
2: Ms=6.86
3: Ms=6.66
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.04 p < .01
1: Ms=7.04
2: Ms=6.75
3: Ms=6.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of life questionaire
Page in Source 386
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question :
"How well does questionaire express the quality of your 
life?"
1: very negative
2: negative
3: neither/nor
4: positive
5: very positive
Observed distributionN all:1471, 1:2, 2:10, 3:213, 4:924, 5:322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.25   
 2: Mt=5.50   
 3: Mt=6.50   
 4: Mt=5.50
 5: Mt=8.66
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.36 p < .00
 1: Mt=3.75 
 2: Mt=4.78 
 3: Mt=6.15 
 4: Mt=7.43
 5: Mt=8.46
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.35 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00  
 2: Mt=4.55  
 3: Mt=5.84  
 4: Mt=6.88
 5: Mt=7.95
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire as adequate
Page in Source 388
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question 
"Did the questionaire cover all major aspects of your 
life?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: all:1352, 1:154, 2:313, 3:885

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.09 p < .00
  1:Ms=7.54   
  2:Ms=7.49  
  3:Ms=7.93  
All Mt=7.78

Alla Mt=7.76 Allb:7.78 Allc:7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.09 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.26
 2: Mt=7.10
 3: Mt=7.60
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.12 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.70
 2: Mt=6.53
 3: Mt=7.16
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Questioning
Subject code: I05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's label(un)ethical questions
Page in Source 392
Our classificationQuestioning, code I05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Did you find any questions that we should not have 
asked (unethical questions)?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: all:1421, 1:1296, 2:84, 3:41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 ns
 1: Mt=7.79
 2: Mt=7.59
 3: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 ns
 1: Mt=7.44
 2: Mt=7.38
 3: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.04 ns
 1: Mt=6.96
 2: Mt=6.71
 3: Mt=6.88
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyMellor et al. (1999): study AU 1994
TitleThe Gold Standard for Life Satisfaction: Confirmation and Elaboration Using an Imaginary Scale and Qualitative Interview.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Research, 1999, Vol. 2, 263 - 278
Public18-25 aged students, Australia, 1994
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42

Correlate
Author's labelSequence of questions on best or worst possible life
Page in Source 272
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Before answering a question on life-satisfaction type 
C-BW, respondents were asked to imagine what particular 
circumstances that could have produced the best of the 
worst possible life for them. These life-scenario's 
were discussed with the interviewer in two conditions:
a: worst life first
b: best life first
Observed distributionN = a: 10, b: 10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-101-aDM= ns
a: worst life first  M = 73,3 SD = 18
b: best life first   M = 79,0 SD = 5,9
-  difference            +5,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness: Three-pt. happiness_C
Page in Source 92
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Taken all together, how would you say things are these 
days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Remarks
Happiness measure O-HL

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.47
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end
Correlations with O-HL (asked once).
O-DT asked first : r=+.50
O-DT asked second: r=+.50
O-DT asked third : r=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelOverall happiness Life 3
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.93
Question asked asked twice: 
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.92
at the end       of the interview: r=+.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelOverall happiness: Ladder: most
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the 
ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to 
have. At the top is the best life you might expect to 
have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere 
in between. Where was your life most of the time during 
the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ] 
[ 2 ]   
[ 1 ]  worst life you might expect to have
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type C-BW

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.54
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.51
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.51
at the end       of the interview: r=+.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelOverall happiness Circles: whole life
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the 
lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses 
in it, to represent a person who has all the good 
things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, 
to represent a person who has all the bad things in his 
life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you 
think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8  + + + + + + + +
7  + + + + + + + -
6  + + + + + +  - -
5  + + + + +  -  - -
4 + + + +  -  -  - -
3  + + +  -  -  -  - -
2  + +  -  -  -  -  - - 
2  +  -  -  -  -  -  - -
0   -  -  -  -  -  -  - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-Further

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.52
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.49
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.51
at the end       of the interview: r=+.46
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.59


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelHighest overall happiness: Ladder best
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: "Where on the ladder was your best 
week in the past year
-on which rung would you put it?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.48
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.68
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.52
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.45
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.45
at the end of the interview:       r=+.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelLowest overall happiness: Ladder: worst
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: "Where on the ladder was your worst  
week in the past year
- on which rung?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.33
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.52
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.41
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.31
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.32
at the end       of the interview: r=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelOverall compared to others: Circles:R-others
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Difference in response to the following questions:
a  "Which circle comes closest to 
    matching your life?"
b  "Which circle do you think would be
    chosen most often by people in this
    country?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from an 
all-plus-circle (8) to an all-minus-circle (0)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.40
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.74
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.37
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.39
at the end of the interview:       r=+.35
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast change in overall happiness: Past progress
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Difference in response to the following questions:
a  "Where was your life most of the
    time during the past year?"
b  "Where was your life five years 
    ago?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best 
life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.19
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.37
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.15
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.18
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.17
at the end       of the interview: r=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Difference in response to two identical questions asked 
twice in the interview:
"Where do you expect your life to be five years from 
now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.03
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.41
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.10
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.03
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=-.04
at the end of the interview:       r=-.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness: Progress past & future
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Difference in response to two questions 1."Where was 
your life five years ago?"
2."Where do you expect your life to be
   five years from now?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best 
life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.13
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.04
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.05
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.13
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.11
at the end of the interview:       r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast years extremes: Ladder:best-worst
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Difference in response to two questions
a  "Where on the ladder was your best 
    week in the past year - on which
    rung would you put it?"
b  "Where on the ladder was your worst
    week during the past year - on 
    which rung?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale 
ranging from best life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.04
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.00
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.00
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.04
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.03
at the end of the interview:       r=+.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness: Ladder:5 years ago
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Closed question: 
Where was your life five years ago?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.18
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.30
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.26
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.17
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.18
at the end of the interview:       r=+.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness Ladder:5 years hence
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Single closed question: "Where do you expect your life 
to be five years from now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.45
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.48
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.42
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.42
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.42
at the end of the interview:       r=+.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived happiness of others: Circles: others
Page in Source 78
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Single closed question: 
Which circle do you think would be choosen most often 
by people in this country?
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from an 
all-plus-circle (8) to
an all-minus-circle (0)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.11
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.04
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.04
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.04
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.03
at the end of the interview:       r=+.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sequence of items
Subject code: I05ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelDelighted Terrible life
Page in Source 85
Our classificationSequence of items, code I05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question, asked twice in 
interview: 
How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Happiness measure type O-DT
Asked twice during the interview. The interval was 
about 8 to 12 minutes. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Test-retest correlation: r=+.71.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyStrack et al. (1985): study XZ Germany West 1983
TitleHappiness and Reminiscing: The Role of Time Perspective, Affect, and Mode of Thinking.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 49, 1460 -1469
PublicUniversity students, West Germany, 1983
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =36

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent reminiscence
Page in Source 1464/1467
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to write down either positive or 
negative life-events from their past.

EXPERIMENTAL VARIATIONS
-Pallid recall:"recall 3 very pleasant 
 or unpleasant events and describe them
 in a few sentences".Four lines were
 provided for each event.
-Vivid recall:"imagine 1 event and
 re-experience it as vividly as
 possible". Subjects were provided two
 pages with 21 lines to describe the 
 event.

Next, subjects were asked to rate their happines.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-11-aDMt= p < .t
Happiness scores after reminiscence of
POSITIVE EVENT
-pallid recall  Mt=5.8 b
-vivid recall   Mt=8.1 c
NEGATIVE EVENT
-pallid recall  Mt=7.4 ac
-vivid recall   Mt=6.9 ab
                                               
Means sharing a common subscript do not differ 
significantly on adirectional t-test (05).

In Vivid recall-variation the effect is largely 
mediated by mood. In Pallid recall-variation not.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyStrack et al. (1985): study XZ Germany West 1983 /1
TitleHappiness and Reminiscing: The Role of Time Perspective, Affect, and Mode of Thinking.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 49, 1460 -1469
PublicStudents, West Germany, 1983
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =64

Correlate
Author's labelPositive reminiscence
Page in Source 1466/1467
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to think about past life and to 
write down either a positive and pleasant, or a 
negative and unpleasant event. Both groups had the same 
restricted number of lines for the descriptions.

EXPERIMENTAL VARIATIONS
-How: describe in detail how the event
 occured ("How" being emphasized)
-Why: give three accounts of why the
 event occured ("Why" being emphasized)

Next, subjects were asked to rate their happiness.
Lastly, subjects were asked to indicate the degree to 
which they had been searching for causes and reasons 
(0) or imagined the course of the event vividly (9). 
Result: subjects generated more vivid descriptions in 
"How" than in "Why" variation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-11-aDMt= p < .t
Happiness scores after thinking about POSITIVE 
EVENT
-in "Why" variation  Mt=6.8 a
-in "How" variation  Mt=7.2 a
NEGATIVE EVENT
-in "Why" variation  Mt=7.9 a
-in "How" variation  Mt=5.3 b

Means sharing a common subscript do not differ 
significantly (05) on a directional t-test.

The effects are largely mediated by momentaneous 
mood.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyStrack et al. (1985): study XZ Germany West 1982
TitleHappiness and Reminiscing: The Role of Time Perspective, Affect, and Mode of Thinking.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 49, 1460 -1469
PublicStudents translater school, West-Germany, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =51

Correlate
Author's labelPositive reminiscence
Page in Source 1462/1467
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Subjects were asked to think about either their present 
or past life (experimental variation) and then to write 
down 3 events that were either very positive and 
pleasant or very negative and unpleasant. (short, only 
1/3th of legal size page was provided for each event). 
Then they were asked to rate their happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-11-aDMt=
Happiness scores after thinking about:
POSITIVE EVENT
-in the past    Mt=6.5 bc
-in the present Mt=7.9 a
NEGATIVE EVENT
-in the past    Mt=7.5 ac
-in the present Mt=6.1 b

Means with a common subscript do not differ 
significantly (.05) on a directional t-test.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyDermer et al. (1979): study US 1978
TitleEvaluative Judgements of Aspects of Life as a Function of Vicarious Exposure to Hedonic Extremes.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, Vol. 37, 247 - 260
PublicFemale students, moderately happy, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelPleasant imagination
Page in Source 253
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Experimental manipulation. Ss were lead to believe they 
participated in an experiment to study their 
conceptions of life in Milwaukee at the turn of the 
century. They were asked to view a series of slides 
describing this area, to vividly imagine the scene and 
to write a description of a day in the life of a 
typical Milwaukeean living in 1900.

1.Bad old days condition:             The Ss saw the 
slides accompanied by   negative 
descriptions:(a)Anymals and   people drank and washed 
themselves
  in the same public fountain.(b)People   all drank 
from the same filthy    communal drinking cup.(c)These 
cups    were vehicles for tuberculosis,        smallpox 
and other diseases.(d)Many    people were killed by 
these diseases.                                  2.Good 
old days condition:           The other half saw the 
slides    accompanied by positive   
discriptions:(a)Beautifully carved   
fountains.(b)Artfully sculpted   statues, 
charactaristic of the   craftmanship of European 
immigrants.
  (c)Fountains suplied a thirsty public   with cool 
water on sunny afternoons.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-bDM= ns
Happiness was assessed several weeks before the 
experiment and several weeks after.
Experimental treatment was not followed by a 
significant change in happines.

Bad old days condition:
Pretreatment-happiness    Mt'= 8.0
Posttreatment-happiness   Mt'= 8.0

Good old days condition:
Pretreatment-happiness    Mt'= 7.8
Posttreatment-happiness   Mt'= 7.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyDermer et al. (1979): study US 1978 /1
TitleEvaluative Judgements of Aspects of Life as a Function of Vicarious Exposure to Hedonic Extremes.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, Vol. 37, 247 - 260
PublicFemale students, moderately happy, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelPleasant imagination
Page in Source 257
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Experimental manipulation. Subjects were lead to 
believe they participated in an experiment to study the 
ability of people to vividly imagine "life events". 
They were asked to read a series of life events, to 
imagine the events happening to themselves and to 
describe their reactions to the events.
Half did so in a negative imagination condition and 
half in a positive condition.

1. Negative imagination: Ss were    
   required to imagine: (a) that they     were severely 
burned,(b) that they     were blind,(c)that they were 
invalid    (d) that they suffered Hodgkin's
   disease.
2. Positive imagination: Ss were     required to 
imagine:(a)that they     were winners of an 
all-expenses-paid    tour,(b)that they were    
multimillionaires,(c) that they were    well-paid 
private secretaries,(d)    that they were winners of an 
   all-expenses-paid vacation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-8-aDM= ns
Happines was assessed several weeks before the 
experiment and several weeks after.
Experimental treatment was not followed by a 
significant change in happiness.


Negative imagination
Pretreatment-happiness    Mt'= 7.6
Posttreatment-happiness   Mt'= 8.4

Positive imagination:
Pretreatment-happines     Mt'= 7.8
Posttreatment-happines    Mt'= 7.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyDermer et al. (1979): study US 1978 /2
TitleEvaluative Judgements of Aspects of Life as a Function of Vicarious Exposure to Hedonic Extremes.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, Vol. 37, 247 - 260
PublicFemale students, moderately happy, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =73

Correlate
Author's labelPleasant imagination
Page in Source 253
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Experimental manipulation. Subjects were lead to 
believe they participated in an experiment to study 
their conceptions of life in Milwaukee at the turn of 
the century. They were asked to view a series of slides 
describing this area, to vividly imagine the scene and 
to write a description of a day in the life of a 
typical Milwaukeean living in 1900.
                                   1.Bad old days 
condition:            Half saw the slides accompanied 
by  negative discriptions: (a)anymals and  people drank 
and washed themselves in  the same public 
fountain.(b)People  all drank from the same filthy  
communal drinking cup.(c)These cups  were vehicles for 
tuberculosis,  smallpox and other diseases.(d)There  
were many people killed by these  diseases.

2.Good old days condition:           Half sa the slides 
accompanied by    positive discriptions:(a)Beautifully  
carved fountains.(b)Artfully sculpted  
staues,characteristic of the  craftsmanship of European 
immigrants.
  c)Fountains suplied a thirsty  public   with cool 
water on sunny  afternoons.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-bDM= ns
Happiness was assessed several weeks before the 
experiment and several weeks after       
Experimantal treatment as not followed by a 
significant change in happiness                    
                                            Bad 
old days condition:
Pretreatment-happiness        Mt'= 8.0
Posttreatment-happiness       Mt'= 8.0

Good old days conditions:
Pretreatment-happiness        Mt'= 7.8
Posttreatment-happiness       Mt'= 7.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Prior mood-manipulation
Subject code: I05ab02

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelElated mood during experiment
Page in Source 64
Our classificationPrior mood-manipulation, code I05ab02
Operationalization
Two indicators were used to measure mood. Ss answered 
these questions at the end of an experimental situation 
in which their self-esteem was experimentally altered. 
This was done by means of a false personality report 
dealing with the subject's creativity, maturity and 
other things.
  
1. 5-item elation cluster from the 
   Nowlis-Green Mood Adjective Check- 
   list, containing adjectives scored
   for 'how do you feel at the moment'
   (see Nowlis, 1965).


2. 4-item index of closed questions on
   mood right now, the best you felt
   today, the worst you felt today, and
   the way you usually feel: scored on
   the Wessman & Ricks Elation vs 
   Depression Scale (see excerpt WESSM
   1960, II).
Remarks









Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=+.31 p < .05
Among happy Ss temporaly mood is unaffected by  
bolstered self-esteem and slightly decreased by 
reduced self-esteem.

Among unhappy Ss temporaly mood is unaffected  by 
reduced self-esteem and increased by bolstered 
self-esteem.
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=+.02 p < .01
- Among happy Ss temporaly mood is increased by
  reduced self-esteem and slightly decreased by
  bolstered self-esteem.
- Among unhappy Ss temporaly mood is higher after
  bolstered self-esteem than after reduced self-
  esteem.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Repeated questioning over time
Subject code: I05ab04

StudyEhrhardt et al. (2000): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleStability of Life-Satisfaction over Time. Analysis of Change in Ranks in National Population.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2000, Vol. 1, 177 - 205
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8851
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1010084410679
Public18+ aged general public West-Germany, followed 10 years, 1984-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5483

Correlate
Author's labelOvertime correlations of life-satisfaction total sample
Our classificationRepeated questioning over time, code I05ab04
Operationalization
Mean and standard deviation. Happiness assessed at
T1 = 1984
T2 = 1985
T3 = 1986
T4 = 1987
T5 = 1988
T6 = 1989
T7 = 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=7.54
interval T1-T2 Mean  = 7.54 SD = 2.06
interval T2-T3 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 2.01
interval T3-T4 Mean  = 7.33 SD = 1.90
interval T4-T5 Mean  = 7.18 SD = 1.89
interval T5-T6 Mean  = 7.11 SD = 1.89
interval T6-T7 Mean  = 7.10 SD = 1.90
T7             Mean  = 7.24 SD = 1.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondent behavior
Subject code: I05ac

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelresponse time in days
Page in Source 416
Our classificationRespondent behavior, code I05ac
Operationalization
Days between invitation to complete the questionnaire 
and response
1: 1-10
2: 11-20
3: 21-30
4: 31-40
5: 41-50
6: 51-60
7: 61-70
8: > 70
Observed distributionN: All:4518; %:1:66,6; 2:12,0; 3:5,9; 4:1,5; 5:1,4; 6:0,3; 7:0,4; 8:11,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 ns
1: Ms=7.79
2: Ms=7.65
3: Ms=7.85
4: Ms=7.16
5: Ms=7.58
6: Ms=7.80
7: Ms=6.88
8: Ms=7.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 ns
1: Ms=7.48
2: Ms=7.23
3: Ms=7.51
4: Ms=7.01
5: Ms=7.30
6: Ms=7.33
7: Ms=6.73
8: Ms=7.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
1: Ms=7.08
2: Ms=6.89
3: Ms=7.09
4: Ms=6.63
5: Ms=7.06
6: Ms=6.96
7: Ms=6.41
8: Ms=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non response, refusal
Subject code: I05ac01

StudyHeinonen et al. (2004): study FI 1997
TitleIs the Evaluation of the Global Quality of Life Determined by Emotional Status?
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol.13, 1347 - 1356
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000040788.12947.b9
Public25-65 aged, 5 regions, Finland, 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =3838

Correlate
Author's labelNon Respondente
Page in Source 1351
Our classificationNon response, refusal, code I05ac01
Operationalization
1 No anser
0 Anser
Observed distribution1: 2,9% 0: 97,1%
Remarks
The happiness question was on the last page of a 15 
pages questionnaire, wich may explain the high % no  
anser

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aF=-
non-respondents tend to be
- older
- more depressed
- more anxious
- less active in daily live
- less healthy

Since these variables are related to happiness, 
non-respondents are likely to be less happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non response, refusal
Subject code: I05ac01

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelMissing income
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationNon response, refusal, code I05ac01
Operationalization
1 Did not report income
0 Did report income
Remarks
The authors included a dummy variable to indicate the 
missing income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+2.3
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+.9
OPRC additionally controlled for
- Subjective income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+.75
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.2
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+2.1
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+1.1
OPRC additionally controlled for
- Subjective income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.9
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.11
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+3.4
OPRC controled for
- log income
- log work hours
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+1.6
OPRC additionally controlled for
- Subjective income
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+1.3
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.35
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non response, refusal
Subject code: I05ac01

StudyVirshub & Coombs (1993): study US Los Angeles County, California 1988
TitlePhysicians' Adjustment to Retirement.
SourceThe Journal of Western Medicine, 1993, Vol. 158, 142 - 144
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1021966/
PublicRetired physicians, Los Angeles County, 198?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response32.35%
Respondents N =161

Correlate
Author's labelnonrespondents
Page in Source 142
Our classificationNon response, refusal, code I05ac01
Operationalization
1: Late partial responers.Did not respond on first 
invitation, but on reminder with shortened 
questionnaire
0: Full first responders. Did repond to first 
invitation completed full questionnaire
Observed distributionN = 1: 62, 0: 99
Remarks
Error in the last paragraph on p. 142 in the 
description of the percentages of happiness, two times 
nonrespondents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-eDM=-
late responders  M = 2.80
first responders M = 2.94
- difference = - 0.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non response, refusal
Subject code: I05ac01

StudyAdams (1997): study US 1980
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006806601848
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
Respondents N =623

Correlate
Author's labelPanel drop out
Page in Source 214
Our classificationNon response, refusal, code I05ac01
Operationalization
1: participated at T1,T2,T3,T4 (all)
2: participated at T1,T2,T3 but not T4
3: participated at T1,T2, but not T3,T4
4: participated at T1 only
Observed distributionN = 1: 607, 2: 758, 3: 908, 4: 1479
Remarks
T1:1980; T2:1987; T3:1989; T4:1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+1.2 p < .25
1 vs 4; participated at all times vs at T1 only
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+1.4 p < .15
2 vs 4: participated at T1+T2+T3 vs at T1 only
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+1.7 p < .08
3 vs 4; participated at T1+T2 vs at T1 only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Panel-dropout
Subject code: I05ac02

StudyKunzmann et al. (2000): study DE Berlin 1990
TitleIs Age-Related Stability of Subjective Well-Being a Paradox? Cross-Selection and Longitudinal Evidence from the Berlin Aging Study.
SourcePsychologing and Aging, 2000, Vol. 3, 511 - 526
DOIDOI:10.1037//0882-7974.15.3.511
Public70-103 aged, Germany, 1990-1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelContinuer / non-continuer
Page in Source 516
Our classificationPanel-dropout, code I05ac02
Operationalization
1: participated in T2 interview
0: dropped-out

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-eDM=-
Continuer      M=0.93 SD=-0.8
Non-continuer  M=0.82 SD=-0.1
-difference     -0.11

Affect Balance computed by WDH team, substracting 
Na from PA.
PA difference significant, NA difference not


Correlational finding on Happiness and Panel-dropout
Subject code: I05ac02

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelPanel attrition
Page in Source 323
Our classificationPanel-dropout, code I05ac02
Operationalization
0:participated at T1 and T2
1:drop out at T2
Observed distributionT1: M=2,21; SD=1,06; T2: M=2,36; SD=1,08
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1 happiness
1: drop out at T2
0: participated T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Panel-dropout
Subject code: I05ac02

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelpanel dropout
Page in Source 133
Our classificationPanel-dropout, code I05ac02
Operationalization
0 completed T1 and T3 survey
1 completed T1 survey only
Observed distributionN=40
Remarks
Assessed for three periods:
T1: 1 or 2 weeks before vacation
T2: during vacation (retrospectively at T3)
T3: the week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
No statistical significant differences found in 
either mean or standard deviation of T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Panel-dropout
Subject code: I05ac02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelPanel dropout
Page in Source 244
Our classificationPanel-dropout, code I05ac02
Operationalization
Reaction to request for follow-up interview 10 month 
after first interview. Most requests made by same 
interviewer.
0. cooperators   N= 2163
1. dropouts      N=  624

Dropout due to either refusal or impossibility to 
locale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=- ns
% high hedonic affect at T1.
- all             : 28
- cooperators     : 28
- dropouts        : 27
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=+ ns
% very happy at T1
- all           31
- cooperators   31
- dropouts      33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelClosed attitude
Page in Source 350
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
Rated by the interviewer on a 5 point-
scale. Very open(1), fairly closed(5).
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.04 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 incommunicativeness at 
interview
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
T3 happiness by T2 incommunicativeness at 
interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelInclination to answer positively
Page in Source 350
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
3-item additive index revealing the inclinination to 
answer positively. Each rated on a 5-point scale.
Typical items are:
- If someone askes me something personal I reply 
straightforwardly.
- If someone startstalking to you, you 
  have to be as honest as possible
- It is a good thing that people say
  what they really feel.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
T2 happiness by T2 yea-saying
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.10 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelYea-saying
Page in Source 128
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
Index of 4 closed questions, having the
same content but phrased pairswise 
positively or negatively.    
1 If people stopped complaining about
  everything, everybody would be better
  of.
2 You have to learn how to let others
  know you're not satisfied, or else
  there'll be no improvements.
3 You have to content yourself with
  what you've got, otherwise you'll
  just be disappointed and bitter.
4 If you're not satisfied, it is
  important to let others know about
  it. 
Questions rated on a 5 point scale, 1: disagree 
completely,... 5: agree completely. Scores of all 
questions were summed.
Administered at T3.
 
Remarks
Happiness assessed at three points in time. The 
intervals varierd from several days to several months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+
happiness at T1             r= +.14
happiness at T2             r= +.14
happiness at T3             r= +.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 928
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
Not reported
Error EstimatesConbach alpha: .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 ns
PA: r = -.09 (ns)
NA: r = -.17 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelEye-contact
Page in Source 87/93
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
The interviewer counted the number of times the 
respondent established eye-contact with him while 
answering a series of highly structured questions.     

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEvasive test-attitu-de (social-desirabi-lity)
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
MMPI Suppression Scale (see Gough, 1953), measuring the 
degree to which S has been guarded or evasive, or 
overly frank and self-critical in responding.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHypobolic - hyperbo-lic verbal expession
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
Clinical rank order on the basis of ge- neral clinical 
experience with the sub- jects and observation of their 
behavior and reactions to experimental situat- ions, 
for the relative degree to which S understates and 
overstates and habi- tually uses strong  words to 
express himself.
Assessed one year before AFF 3.1 was measured.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-atau=_.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelEccentric test- attitude
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
MMPI Invalidity Scale (see Gough, 1953)
supposedly indicative of gross eccen- tricity, 
carelessness in responding, or
lack of personal restraint.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.64 p < .05
Inspection of the individual items suggests that 
low scores would be indicative of well-adjusted 
conventionality and high scores of eccentric de- 
viance with bizarre and unpleasant admission.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelConsistent (dis)- agreeing response tendencies
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
Over-all agreement score (see Couch & Keniston, 1960), 
indicative of 'yea saying' or 'nay saying'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.31 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Response tendencies
Subject code: I05ac03

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelTest dishonesty
Page in Source 104-106
Our classificationResponse tendencies, code I05ac03
Operationalization
MMPI Lie Scale (See Gough, 1953), scored on a series of 
'false' answers to questions that usually are answered 
'true'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.25 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelSuspicious of interview questions
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How much do you think they (the persons around) 
influenced the
answers?
1: a little/a fair amount/a great deal
0: not at all (reference)
Observed distribution2-4: 5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.16 p < .05
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.07 ns
Females

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelattitude to the questionaire
Page in Source 408
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question:
"This questionaire does not express my quality of life"
1: very negative
2: negative
3: neither/nor
4: positive
5: very positive
Observed distributionN: 4598; %:1:0,2; 2:1,1; 3:17,6; 4:62,2; 5:18,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.29 p < .00
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.66
3: Ms=6.86
4: Ms=7.71
5: Ms=8.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.20
3: Ms=6.40
4: Ms=7.39
5: Ms=8.61
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Ms=6.56
2: Ms=5.46
3: Ms=6.09
4: Ms=6.93
5: Ms=8.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire as fully adequate
Page in Source 410
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question:
" Did the questionaire cover all major aspects of your 
life?"
Observed distributionN: All:4322; %:1:17,8; 2:22,9; 3:59,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.08 p < .00
1: Ms=7.51
2: Ms=7.53
3: Ms=7.90
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.09 p < .00
1: Ms=7.13
2: Ms=7.20
3: Ms=7.59
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.09 p < .00
1: Ms=6.76
2: Ms=6.79
3: Ms=7.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelpersonal resources towards the questionaire
Page in Source 412
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Personal resources(comfort and speed filling out the 
questionaire)
1: -3
2: -2
3: -1
4: 0
5: +1
6: +2
7: +3
Observed distributionN: 4528; %:1:
Remarks
Based on the questions:
Q 309, 310, en 312:
Did you find it easy filling out the questionaire?
Did you find it strenuous filling out the questionaire 
?
How much time did it take you to fill out the 
questionaire ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .00
1: Ms=6.66
2: Ms=6.50
3: Ms=6.14
4: Ms=6.70
5: Ms=7.19
6: Ms=7.58
7: Ms=8.15
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.23 p < .00
1: Ms=5.84
2: Ms=6.08
3: Ms=5.80
4: Ms=6.39
5: Ms=6.85
6: Ms=7.26
7: Ms=7.81
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.19 p < .00
1: Ms=5.84
2: Ms=5.79
3: Ms=5.98
4: Ms=6.25
5: Ms=6.55
6: Ms=6.90
7: Ms=7.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire's unethical questions
Page in Source 414
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question:
"Did you find any questions that we should not have 
asked  ?"
1: no 
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: All:4534; %: 1:95,2; 2:3,1; 3:1,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.07 p < .00
1: Ms=7.76
2: Ms=7.25
3: Ms=6.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.06 p < .00
1: Ms=7.46
2: Ms=6.86
3: Ms=6.66
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.04 p < .01
1: Ms=7.04
2: Ms=6.75
3: Ms=6.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of life questionaire
Page in Source 386
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question :
"How well does questionaire express the quality of your 
life?"
1: very negative
2: negative
3: neither/nor
4: positive
5: very positive
Observed distributionN all:1471, 1:2, 2:10, 3:213, 4:924, 5:322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .00
 1: Mt=1.25   
 2: Mt=5.50   
 3: Mt=6.50   
 4: Mt=5.50
 5: Mt=8.66
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.36 p < .00
 1: Mt=3.75 
 2: Mt=4.78 
 3: Mt=6.15 
 4: Mt=7.43
 5: Mt=8.46
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.35 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00  
 2: Mt=4.55  
 3: Mt=5.84  
 4: Mt=6.88
 5: Mt=7.95
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelquestionaire as adequate
Page in Source 388
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question 
"Did the questionaire cover all major aspects of your 
life?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: all:1352, 1:154, 2:313, 3:885

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.09 p < .00
  1:Ms=7.54   
  2:Ms=7.49  
  3:Ms=7.93  
All Mt=7.78

Alla Mt=7.76 Allb:7.78 Allc:7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.09 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.26
 2: Mt=7.10
 3: Mt=7.60
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.12 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.70
 2: Mt=6.53
 3: Mt=7.16
All Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's label(un)ethical questions
Page in Source 392
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Single question:
"Did you find any questions that we should not have 
asked (unethical questions)?"
1: no
2: not sure
3: yes
Observed distributionN: all:1421, 1:1296, 2:84, 3:41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.06 ns
 1: Mt=7.79
 2: Mt=7.59
 3: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 ns
 1: Mt=7.44
 2: Mt=7.38
 3: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.04 ns
 1: Mt=6.96
 2: Mt=6.71
 3: Mt=6.88
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Respondents attitudes to interview
Subject code: I05ad

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1980a): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleHappiness and Games of Chance.
SourcePaper Institut für Demoskopie, 1980, Allensbach, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle-neumann_e_1980.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany, 1979
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelattitude to interview
Page in Source 1o
Our classificationRespondents attitudes to interview, code I05ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
1 "Did you find this interview  
  interesting?" 
2 "How did you like this interview
  all in all?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
question 1:
22% of cheerful looking persons
12% of not so cheerful looking persons
found intervieuw "very interesting"
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
question 2: 
70%of cheerful looking persons
48%of not so cheerful ones
liked intervieuw "a lot"


Correlational finding on Happiness and Problems with understanding the interview
Subject code: I05ae

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelPoor English speaking ability
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationProblems with understanding the interview, code I05ae
Operationalization
Did the respondent have any of the following problems 
which may have affected the interview?
A) Language problems
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionMales: 4.8%; Females: 5.3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.25 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.38 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hSelfreport on 8 questions:

How much of the time during the past week did you feel ?
A depressed
B happy
C lonely
D enjoyed life
E sad
F a lot of energy
G anxious
J calm and peaceful

Rated
1 none or almost none of the time
2 some of the time
3 most of the time
4 all or almost all of the time

Computation: (B+D+F+J) - (A+C+E+G)
A-AB-yd-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 9 questions:

I'd like you to think about YESTERDAY by trying to retrace your actions and locations - that is - what you were doing and where you were - thouighout YESTERDAY. A good way to do this is by starting in the morning when you awoke andthen moving to the next activity and so on.So please spend 30 seconds or so doing this. Review your morning, then afternoon and then evening.
Now rate how or how much you have felt..
A Happy
B Engaged
C Satisfied
D Worthwhile and meaningful
E Stress
F Worried
G Sad
H Pain
I Wished you were somewhere else

Rated:
0 not at all
:
:
10 very much

Computation: (A+B+C+D+E)/5 - (F+G+H+I)/4
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-aSelfrating of feeling during activities in previous day

Respondents listed activities of the previous day in a standard diary and next rated how the had felt during each of these activities on the following aspects:
A Letgargic, dull
B Enjoying myself
C Insecure, anxious
D Happy
E Frustrated, anoyed
F Relaxed
G Stressed
H Comfortable, at ease

Each rated:
0 not at all
.
.
10 very much

Computation: (B+D+F+H)/4 - (A+C+E+G)/4

Name: Day Reconstruction Method (DRM), Net Affect
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
"just awful".
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days.

"Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling".
7 highly elated
6 moderately cheerful
5 mildly cheerful
4 indifferent
3 wildly depressed
2 moderately depressed
1 extremely gloomy


Summation: Average of 32 scores.
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-aInterviewer rating based on open interview

1 depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 elated
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-aRating by spouce

1 depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 elated
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-aPeer rating of affect using 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH has X felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-aSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions

'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt in the past month'
A LOVE
Aa Affection
Ab love
Ac caring
Ab fondness
B JOY
Ba joy
Bb happiness
Bc contentment
Bd pride
C FEAR
Ca fear
Cb worry
Cc anxiety
Cd nervous
D ANGER
Da anger
Db irritation
Dc disgust
Dd rage
E SHAME
Ea shame
Eb guilt
Ec regret
Ed embarrassment
F SADNES
Fa sadness
Fb loneliness
Fc unhappiness
Fd depression

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 very slight
3 somewhat
4 moderate amount
5 much
6 very much
7 extremely much
Options presented horizontally

Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
A-BW-cm-mq-v-5-eSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past few weeks?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
a 1 very slightly or not at all
b 2 a little
c 3 moderately
d 4 quite a bit
e 5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aInterviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects

A The look is
2) open
1) evasive
- impossible to say
B The corners of the mouth turn
2) up
1) down
- impossible to say
C The posture is
2) relaxed, at ease
1) rather tense
- impossible to say
D The movements are
2) relaxed, at ease
1) limited, withdrawn
- impossible to say
E The eyes are
2) big, open
1) small, screw up
- impossible to say
F The elbows are kept
2) not close to the body
1) close to the body
- impossible to say
G The lips are more
2) broad, full
1) thin, pent up
- impossible to say
H All in all the subject looks
2) quite cheerful
1) not very cheerful
- difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

"What percentage of the time would you say you are....?" (Percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Computation: Net Time Happy (NTH) % time happy - % time unhappy
C-BW-c-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question,

Think about the quality your current life and imagine that it is being registered by this thermometer
100 the best my life can possibly be
;
;
;
0 the worst my life can possibly be

Preceded by open questions about particular circumstances that could have produced the best and worst possible life
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life-as-a-whole.....?
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

The rating scale was presented horizontally and allowed scores
in between (resulting in fact in a 67 point scale)

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

.. happy .. (full text not reported)
4 wonderfull
3 happy
2 ok
1 unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-cm-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you estimate your quality of life as a whole during the last 4 weeks?
| 0
|
|
|
|
|
| 100
Rated on 15 cm vertical open line
O-SL?-?-sq-?-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"......satisfaction with life......"
(Full question not reported)
10 exceptionally dissatisfied
20
30
40 midpoint
50
60
70
80 exceptionally satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you are leading?
1 not satisfied at all
3 not so satisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life currently?"
0 Not at all
1
2
3
4 neutral
5
6
7
8 A great deal
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-h-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied would you say you are you with the way your life has worked out up to now?
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question;

Now, let's talk about your life as a whole. All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
10 extermely happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy

B. All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays.?
10 extremely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 extermely dissatisfied

Summation: (A+B)/2
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions

A Happiness
B Life-satisfaction

Texts not reported

Summation: A+B
O-Sum-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "When you think about your life as a whole how happy would you say you are.....?"
10 happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 unhappy

B. "Taking everything into account, how satisfied are you with
your life.....?"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 dissatisfied

Summation: average score


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
QYule's Q-STATISTIC
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: dichotomous
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
Q = 0 « no association
Q = -1 or + 1 « at least one level of the correlate allows a perfect prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
I05aa04Characteristics of the interviewerP04ahApproval seeking
I05aa05Language of the interviewL01LANGUAGE
I05ab02Prior mood-manipulationM13ab01Mood during the interview
I05ab02Prior mood-manipulationT02ab02Effects of happiness-training
I05ac01Non response, refusalH11HELPING
I05ac03Response tendenciesP04ctSelf-disclosing
I05ac03Response tendenciesP04cbOpen
I05ac03Response tendenciesP04ahApproval seeking
I05ac03Response tendenciesP04aeAgreeing, yea-saying
I05adRespondents attitudes to interviewA08abCurrent attitudes

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings