Findings on Happiness and INTERESTS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and INTERESTS
Subject Code: I04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
I04INTERESTS0
I04aaInterest career1
I04abCurrent interests14
I04acAttitudes to own interests2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INTERESTS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=I04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Interest career
Subject code: I04aa

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelExact interest
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationInterest career, code I04aa
Operationalization
Selfrating of interest in:
a. Algebra
b. Arithmetic

Assessed in 1922
Remarks
1922 interests by 1972 happiness
               

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 Interest in algebra by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 Interest in arithmetic by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelHaving hobbies
Page in Source 235
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Direct question on number of hobbies Weighted score 
based on number of hobbies and amount of skill 
involved.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ar=
Index of Positive Affects: r = +.16 (05)
Index of Negative Affects: r = +.30 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /4
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =855

Correlate
Author's labelInterest in historical films
Page in Source 233
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: no (0) yes (1)
'I am very much interested in films about historical 
events'.
Choosen from a pack of 16 persondescriptions as being 
descriptive for oneself. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Young (16 - 29) and pensioners only. In both 
categories the cheerfull claim more interest in 
historical films.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelVariety of topics for discussion among friends
Page in Source question 97
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
What the most often do your friends discuss when they 
get together? 
a household chores 
b children
c prices, purchases, lines
d work matters
e TV programs, newspaper articles
f politics
g sport
h common friends
i women (men)
j entertainments
k other things
- DK/NA
Observed distributionM = 2,59 SD = 0,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.05 p < .20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelTopics for discussion among firends
Page in Source question 97
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
What the most often do your friends discuss when they 
get together? 
a household chores 
b children
c prices, purchases, lines
d work matters
e TV programs, newspaper articles
f politics
g sport
h common friends
i women (men)
j entertainments
k other things
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = a: 46,8% b: 39,5% c: 58,9% d: 10,6% e: 27,9% f: 26,4% g: 4,5% h: 21,6% i: 11,5% j: 9% k: 2,4% DK/NA: 4,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
   mentioned   not mentioned   differences
a: M = 2,52    M = 2,52          0,00
b: M = 2,54    M = 2,50        + 0,04 
c: M = 2,45    M = 2,63        - 0,18
d: M = 2,55    M = 2,52        + 0,03
e: M = 2,56    M = 2,51        + 0,05 
f: M = 2,58    M = 2,50        + 0,08
g: M = 2,85    M = 2,51        + 0,34
h: M = 2,51    M = 2,52        - 0,01
i: M = 2,62    M = 2,51        - 0,11
j: M = 2,69    M = 2,50        + 0,19
k: M = 2,67    M = 2,52        + 0,15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelThings on TV they would like to do
Page in Source 7,12,13,15
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Analysis of a two-part open-ended question:
Part 1:
A. have you ever seen anyone on tv doing soomething 
that you would like to do, and you think you could do? 
Answers were analysed in two ways:
1 yes 
2 no.
B. if answer was positive, researchers classified into 
three answer categories the answers of adolescents who 
report what they would like doing:
1 related to sport 
2 media related activities
3 travelling or adventure activities.
Part2: If you have done it how did you go about doing 
what you have seen?  Answer categories:
1 nothing 
2 training or learning 
3 trying or demanding.
Observed distributionA. N=861; N = 1: 78,3%, 2: 21,7%. B. N=374; N = 1: 60,2%, 2: 31,8%, 3: 8%.
Remarks
Part 1, B: Boys preferred more sports and girls more 
media related activities. Age has nothing to do with 
responses.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aF= ns
Part 1, B


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCasas et al. (2003): study ES Cataluna 1999
TitleStrategies to Achieve Goals Related to TV or Computer Activities: Their Correlates with Adolescents' Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 5th Conference of the International Society for Quality - of - Life Studies, July 2003, Frankfurt, Germany
URLhttp://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2005/CASAS.PDF
Public12-16 aged, secondary schools pupils, Catalunya, Spain, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =968

Correlate
Author's labelThings of computers they would like to know
Page in Source 7,12,15
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Analysis of open-ended question: 
(part A. of two part question)
I would you like to know the following about computers? 

Obtained anwers:
(categories from open answers)
3 everything
2 concrete things
1 nothing.
Observed distributionN=753; N = 3: 30,7%, 2: 51,8%, 1: 17,5%.
Remarks
Differences by gender were observed in the sense that 
boys expressed with more frequency than girls that they 
wanted to know everything. In contrast more girls than 
boys preferred to know nothing.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aF= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelAesthetic feeling
Page in Source 26
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Trained-peer rating on love for the beautiful for its 
own sake on a 7-point scale on the basis of observation 
du- ring 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCrandall & Kytonen (1980): study US 1975
TitleSex, Age, and Stress as Moderators for the Relation between Social Interest and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 36, 169 - 182
PublicStudents, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =150

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Interest Scale
Page in Source 172,175
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Self report on nine questions. Questions not reported.
Remarks
Social Interest Scale (Candrall, 1975). It consists of 
15 keyed and 9 filler items in a force-choice format 
presented as a measure of values.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.24 p < .10
University students: all
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.12 ns
University students: men
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.43 p < .01
University students: women
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.15 ns
High School Students: all
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
High school students: men
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
High school students: women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCrandall & Putman (1980): study US Idaho 1975
TitleRelations between Measures of Social Interest and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 20, 156 - 168
PublicNon-teaching employees, university, Idaho, USA, 197?
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelSocial interest scale
Page in Source 161
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
If you had to make a choice, which would you rather be? 
Draw a line under your choice in each of the pairs.
"I would rather be..."
a imaginative - rational
b helpful* - quick witted
c neat - sympathetic*
d level-headed - efficient
e intelligent - considerate*
f self-reliant - ambitious
g respectful* - original
h creative - sensible
i generous - individualistic
j repsonsible - original
k capable - tolerant*
l trustworthy* - wise
m neat - logical
n forgiving* - gentle
o efficent - respectful*
p practical - self-confident
q capable - independent
r alert - cooperative*
s imaginative - helpful*
t realistic - moral*
u considerate* - wise
v sympathetic* - individualistic
w ambitious - patient*
x reasonable - quick-witted

The social interest score consists of the number of 
characteristics with asteriscs (maximum 15) chosen by 
the individual. (Asterisc is not visible in test).
Remarks
Social Interest Scale test, Crandall 1975.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.37 p < .00
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.37 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCrandall & Putman (1980): study US Idaho 1975 /1
TitleRelations between Measures of Social Interest and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 20, 156 - 168
PublicUndergraduate students, university, Idaho, USA,197?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Interest Scale
Page in Source 163
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
If you had to make a choice, which would you rather be? 
Draw a line under your choice in each of the pairs.
"I would rather be..."
a imaginative - rational
b helpful* - quick witted
c neat - sympathetic*
d level-headed - efficient
e intelligent - considerate*
f self-reliant - ambitious
g respectful* - original
h creative - sensible
i generous - individualistic
j repsonsible - original
k capable - tolerant*
l trustworthy* - wise
m neat - logical
n forgiving* - gentle
o efficent - respectful*
p practical - self-confident
q capable - independent
r alert - cooperative*
s imaginative - helpful*
t realistic - moral*
u considerate* - wise
v sympathetic* - individualistic
w ambitious - patient*
x reasonable - quick-witted

The social interest score consists of the number of 
characteristics with asteriscs (maximum 15) chosen by 
the individual. (Asterisc is not visible in test).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCrandall & Putman (1980): study US Idaho 1975 /2
TitleRelations between Measures of Social Interest and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1980, Vol. 20, 156 - 168
PublicPsycology students, USA, University of Idaho, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =61

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Interest Scale
Page in Source 166
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
If you had to make a choice, which would you rather be? 
Draw a line under your choice in each of the pairs.
"I would rather be..."
a imaginative - rational
b helpful* - quick witted
c neat - sympathetic*
d level-headed - efficient
e intelligent - considerate*
f self-reliant - ambitious
g respectful* - original
h creative - sensible
i generous - individualistic
j repsonsible - original
k capable - tolerant*
l trustworthy* - wise
m neat - logical
n forgiving* - gentle
o efficent - respectful*
p practical - self-confident
q capable - independent
r alert - cooperative*
s imaginative - helpful*
t realistic - moral*
u considerate* - wise
v sympathetic* - individualistic
w ambitious - patient*
x reasonable - quick-witted

The social interest score consists of the number of 
characteristics with asteriscs (maximum 15) chosen by 
the individual. (Asterisc is not visible in test).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-?-0-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyCrandall & Reimanis (1976): study US 1971
TitleSocial Interest and Time Orientation, Childhood Memories, Adjustment and Crime.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1976, Vol. 32, 203 - 211
URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&uid=1979-20065-001
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Interest Scale
Page in Source 203
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
If you had to make a choice, which would you rather be? 
Draw a line under your choice in each of the pairs.
"I would rather be..."
a imaginative - rational
b helpful* - quick witted
c neat - sympathetic*
d level-headed - efficient
e intelligent - considerate*
f self-reliant - ambitious
g respectful* - original
h creative - sensible
i generous - individualistic
j repsonsible - original
k capable - tolerant*
l trustworthy* - wise
m neat - logical
n forgiving* - gentle
o efficent - respectful*
p practical - self-confident
q capable - independent
r alert - cooperative*
s imaginative - helpful*
t realistic - moral*
u considerate* - wise
v sympathetic* - individualistic
w ambitious - patient*
x reasonable - quick-witted

The social interest score consists of the number of 
characteristics with asteriscs (maximum 15) chosen by 
the individual. (Asterisc is not visible in test).
Remarks
Social Interest Scale test, Crandall 1975.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-ar=+.26 p < .05
O-SL?-c-sq-?-0-ar=+


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelRange of interests
Page in Source 285
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction: "To what extent is this person 
interested in a variety of fields of activity such as 
science, politics, sports, music, and art and so on?"

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.09 ns
T5 range of interests by T5 happiness.

Later analysis of the full study-group (N=266) 
showed a non -significant correlation (BRAY 
1983:302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current interests
Subject code: I04ab

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in manners
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent interests, code I04ab
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own interests
Subject code: I04ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to own interests, code I04ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,51 SD: 1,52, Non-exercisers: M: 7,19 SD: 2,06
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.30 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own interests
Subject code: I04ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of goals, challenges and vital commitments
Our classificationAttitudes to own interests, code I04ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "goals, challenges and vital commitments"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 5,74 SD: 2,41
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.07 p < .31


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 18 questions:

How have things been going in the past few weeks? Please tick one of the two boxes for each of the questions below:
A Have you been anoyed with someone?
B Have you ever felt lonely or remote from people?
C Have you ever felt that things were going your way?
D Have you ever felt very worried
E Have you ever felt pleased because you've got friends?
F Have you ever been afraid of what might happen?
G Have you ever felt particularly excited or interested in something?
H Have you ever felt depressed or unhappy?
I Have you ever been full of energy?
J Have you ever felt really tired?
K Have you ever felt so restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
L Have you ever felt that you were really enjoying yourself?
M Have you ever felt really cheerfull?
N Have you ever felt like crying?
O Have you ever felt at the top of the world?
P Have you ever felt confident about the future?
Q Have you ever felt bored?
R Have you ever felt pleased about having accomplished something?

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation: (C+E+G+I+L+M+O+P+R) - (A+B+D+F+H+J+K+N+Q)

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale: extended version
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-?-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, are you happy these days......?"
6 very happy
5
4
3
2
1 very unhappy
(Response options not fully reported)
O-HP-g-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

… happy… (full text not reported)

Response options not reported

Part of a 27 item self-descriptive checklist
O-SL?-?-sq-?-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"........life-satisfaction........."
(Full text not reported)
1 -
2
3
4
5 +
(Response options: not reported)
O-SL?-c-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

.. Generally satisfied with present life .. (Full text not reported)

Response options not reported
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
I04INTERESTSC08CONCERNS
I04INTERESTSL03ac02Specific leisure activities
I04INTERESTSL07ab02Object of life-goals
I04INTERESTSM13ac09cFeeling interested
I04INTERESTSP04bpInterested

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings