Findings on Happiness and INTELLIGENCE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and INTELLIGENCE
Subject Code: I03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
I03INTELLIGENCE0
I03aaDevelopment of intelligence (career)0
I03aa01Earlier intelligence8
I03aa02Change in intelligence1
I03aa03Later intelligence0
I03abCurrent general intelligence3
I03ab01Test-intelligence21
I03ab02Reputation of intelligence9
I03ab03Self-perceived intelligence4
I03acCurrent specific mental abilities4
I03ac02Exact ability2
I03ac03Perceptual performance1
I03ac03aField independence4
I03ac03bPerceptual rigidity3
I03ac04Sorting ability7
I03ac05Verbal ability10
I03adIntelligence defects1
I03ad01Mental retardation3
I03ad02Mental rest-ability1
I03aeAttitudes to own intelligence1
I03ac06Memory1
I03ac01Emotion recognition2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INTELLIGENCE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=I03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelVerbal ability at age 12
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Score on verbal ability test at age 12
Observed distributionM= 102.85, SD=13.03, range= 73-146
Remarks
Verbal ability assessed at T1
(1952, 29 years before)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-a
T1 VERBAL ABILITY by T2 Happiness 
(29 years difference)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.53 p < .05
OPRC Controlled for:
-gender
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
-schooling
-social background.
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.19 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
-gender and family status
-labour market status
-self perceived health
-wealth.

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative, and the 
relative differences in correlation.E.g.more 
verbal ability in childhood goes together with 
more happiness in the future.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelMathematical ability at age 12
Page in Source 252, 253
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Score on mathmematical ability test at age 12
Observed distributionM= 103.09, SD=13.36, range= 75-146
Remarks
Mathematical ability assessed at T1 (1952, 29 years 
before)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-a
T1 MATHEMATICAL ABILITY by T2 Happiness
(29 years difference);
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.20 ns
OPRC controlled for:
-gender
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.03 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
-schooling
-social background.
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
-family status,
-labour market status
-self perceived health
-wealth.

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote relative differences 
in (not-significant) correlation between 
mathematical ability and future happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelIntellectual performance
Page in Source 14,15,16,19,24,25,29,31,45,51,52
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Age 5:  Copy designs test score - ability to copy 
drawings.
Age 10: British Abilities Scales - Test of cognitive 
attainment akin to IQ.
Age 16: Whether any GCSE pass
Error Estimatess.e.=.02
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=
Intellectual performance assessed at:
- Age 5: r= +.09
- Age 10:r= +.07
- Age 16:r= +.09
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta controlled for:
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)

When limiting intellectual performance up to age 
5: beta= +.05
age 10:beta= +.05

Indirect effect of childhood intellectual 
performance:
Simulated: 
beta= +.07
Subtraction of total variance in intellectual 
performance from childhood performance:
beta= +.08


When limited to intellectual performance at age 5, 
beta=+.04 
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 10 and age 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
10, beta=-.002. 
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5 and age 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)

When limited to intellectual performance at age 
16, beta=+.016 
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5 and age 10
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=-.04
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct (16-34)
- Self-perceived health(26)
- Emotional health (26)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier mental ability _A
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
School and Abilities Test (SCAT)-Total.
A multiple-choice test composed of Verbal and 
Quantative subscales measuring intellectual ability.

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.26 p < .05
T1 mental ability by T5 happiness.

Later analysis of the full study-group (N=266) 
also showed a significantly negative correlation 
(BRAY 1983: p302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier mental ability _B
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assesment-center. 

Rater instruction: " How able is this person in terms 
of the functions measured by tests of intelligence, 
scholastic aptitude, and/or learning ability?"

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.34 p < .01
T1 mental ability by T5 happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelHigh school GPA
Page in Source 250
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) High school GPA by T2 (1971) happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.04 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.01 ns
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelExact ability
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
a.Teachers comparison with average in arithmetic.
b.Teacher rates math as best(vs worst) subject.
c.Parent report on special ability in math.
d.Arithmic quotient on Stanford Achievement Test.

Assessed in 1922.
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1922) by present happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1922 teacher rating of arithmetic ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= p < .00
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 teacher rating of math ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 parent rating of math ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 arithmic ability score by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier intelligence
Subject code: I03aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier intelligence, code I03aa01
Operationalization
Combined Quotient on Stanford Achievement Test in 1922.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier IQ (1922) by present happiness (1922).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in intelligence
Subject code: I03aa02

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /3
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public50-69 aged women, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =747

Correlate
Author's labelIntellectual condition
Page in Source 103-107
Our classificationChange in intelligence, code I03aa02
Operationalization
Self rating                 
0 lessened
1 still as good as ever

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Lessened                M=6,06  Mt'=7,6
Still as good as ever   M=6,56  Mt'=8,2
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .001
Lessened                M=5,81  Mt'=7,3
Still as good as ever   M=6,87  Mt'=8,6
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Lessened                M=6,76  Mt'=8,5
Still as good as ever   M=7,19  Mt'=7,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general intelligence
Subject code: I03ab

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 293
Our classificationCurrent general intelligence, code I03ab
Operationalization
Norwegian Armed Forced Test Battery(Rist,1982) with 
three parts; mathematical test, verbal test, and 
spatial test
Mathmatical test from simple arithmetic to elementary 
algebra; The verbal test of word-similarity items; The 
spatial test of a matrics test with 36 metrices adapted 
from the Ravens and selected to provide a linear 
increase in difficulty
Observed distributionM=5.27 SD=1.54
Remarks
Intelligence was assessed several month before Ss 
arrived at the training center and hence before 
assesment of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general intelligence
Subject code: I03ab

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelMental ability_A
Page in Source 285
Our classificationCurrent general intelligence, code I03ab
Operationalization
School and Abilities Test (SCAT)- Total.
A multiple-choice test composed  of Verbal and 
Quantitave subscales measuring intellectual ability.

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.25 p < .05
T5 mental ability by T5 happiness

Later analysis of the full studygroup (N=266) 
showed a significantly negative correlation.
(BRAY 1983 p 302).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current general intelligence
Subject code: I03ab

StudyBray & Howard (1980): study US 1956
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
Respondents N =422

Correlate
Author's labelMental ability_B
Page in Source 285
Our classificationCurrent general intelligence, code I03ab
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method 
assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction: "How able is this person in terms of 
the funtions measured by tests of intelligence, 
scholastic aptitude, and/or learning ability?".

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-ar=-.30 p < .01
T5 mental ability by T5 happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 293
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Norwegian Armed Forced Test Battery(Rist,1982) with 
three parts; mathematical test, verbal test, and 
spatial test
Mathmatical test from simple arithmetic to elementary 
algebra; The verbal test of word-similarity items; The 
spatial test of a matrics test with 36 metrices adapted 
from the Ravens and selected to provide a linear 
increase in difficulty
Observed distributionM=5.27 SD=1.54
Remarks
Intelligence was assessed several month before Ss 
arrived at the training center and hence before 
assesment of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBlock & Kremen (1996): study US 1990
TitleIQ and Ego-Resiliency: Conceptual and Empirical Connections and Separateness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996, Vol. 70, 349 - 361
Public18-aged, followed 5 years; Berkeley, USA, 19??-19??.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =95

Correlate
Author's labelintelligence
Page in Source 354,355
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: +.83
Remarks
Assessed at T1(19??)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-arpc= ns
Women (N= 49)
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-arpc= ns
Men (N= 46)

rpc's controlled for Ego Resilience


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudySigelman (1981): study US 1974
TitleIs Ignorance Bliss? A Reconsideration of the Folk Wisdom.
SourceHuman Relations, 1981, Vol. 34, 965 - 974
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2650

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 970
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Thorndike Intelligence Test (Thorndike,
1942); shortened form

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aarpc=-.04 p < . ns
rpc controled for: age, gender, race, education, 
family income, marital status, church attendance, 
political participation and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
ß controled for: age, gender, race, education, 
income, marital status, church attendance, 
political participation and health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyGeorge (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =380

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 845
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Form C of the Cattell (1970)
16 personality factor questionnaire
Remarks
  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=
ß = .00 ns after control for the other Cattell 
personality variables.
ß = -.03 ns after further control for the 
sociodemographic variables: 
sex/age/education/occupational prestige/health 
impairment/marital status and employment status.   
 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=.00 ns
ß controled for the other Cattell personality 
variables.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
ß further controled for the sociodemographic 
variables: sex/age/education/occupational 
prestige/health impairment/marital status and 
employment status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelVOT (Hooper)
Page in Source 21,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Visual Organization Test (Hooper).
Test of 30 drawings of simple objects.Each drawing is 
segmented into parts which are arranged into a jigsaw 
puzzle. The job is organize the parts in the mind and 
to name the drawings.
Remarks
Hooper, H.E., The Hooper Visual Organization 
Test-Manual, 1958, p.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelTrailmaking A
Page in Source 22,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Trailmaking part A. The test comprises 25 numbered 
circles that are spread out in an apparent random order 
on a sheet of paper. First is given a sample sheet of 8 
circles with instruction: begin at number 1 and connect 
all numbers in order until the end number. Then the 
complete test of 25 numbers is given. Subject is 
requested to correct errors. The score is the time to 
complete the task. For the purpose of this study the 
reciprocal of the score multiplied by 1000 was taken.
Remarks
Unnamed test, first developed for US Army in 1944.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelTrailmaking B
Page in Source 22,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Trailmaking part B. Like test A comprises 25 circles 
but only 13 are numbered, the other 12 enclose letters 
A through L. A sample is given first. Instructions are: 
draw a line from 1 to A, 2 to B, etc until L to 13. 
Subject is requested to correct errors. The score is 
the time to complete the task. For the purpose of this 
study the reciprocal of the score multiplied by 1000 
was taken.
Remarks
Unnamed test, first developed for US Army in 1944.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelCopying digits
Page in Source 32,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
A page of digits (1 to 9) was presented to each 
subject; 8 digits on a row (1 inch apart) with 12 rows 
to the page (3/4 inch apart). The subjects job was to 
copy under each row the digit presented above it. The 
score was in digits per second multiplied by 100 with a 
maximum of 3 minutes.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelCrossing-off
Page in Source 32,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
A simplified version of the Copying Digits task. Digits 
are replaced with short horizontal lines: 8 in a row 
with 12 rows on a page. Subjects task was to make 
vertical or diagonal mark across each line from left to 
right and top to bottom. The score was the number of 
lines "crossed" per second (multiplied by 100) with a 
maximum of 3 minutes.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.32

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelSlow writing
Page in Source 33,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Subject was instructed: write the words "United States" 
as slowly as you can. Don't dot your i or cross your 
t's. Do not lift pencil from paper. During the 
subject's perfomance he was told "slower" or similar 
phrases. The score was the time in seconds to complete 
with a maximum of 5 minutes.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.33.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelVocabulary
Page in Source 39, 69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Is a WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) subtest 
and comprises a list of 40 words in general order of 
difficulty. With each word orally presented the subject 
attemps a good definition. Scores are: 2 is good, 1 is 
poor, 0 is incorrect or failure. After 5 consecutive 
zero scores the test is terminated. The total score is 
converted to a scaled score.
Remarks
Wechsler, D.: Manual for the Wechsler Adult 
Intelligence Scale, New York, 1995.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelClinical impression
Page in Source 56,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Each of 22 specific questions was answered yes or no by 
the person who tested the subject. The questions refer 
to affect states, neurotic behavior and other aspects 
of mental health. The score was the number of positive 
impressions.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.56 and appendix B for the full list of 
questions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labelHealth rating
Page in Source 57,69
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
The self rating was ascertained by a horizontal line 
divided into 10 equal units from 0 to 10. 10 indicates 
excellent health, 5 average and 0 poor health. What do 
you think your present health is? Circle a number and 
tell me.
Remarks
Botwinick and Storandt, Memory related functions and 
age, 1973, p.57.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelIQ
Page in Source 329
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Data obtained from hospital records.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar= ns
Open ward  : r = +.04 (ns)
Closed ward: r = -.16 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence.
Page in Source 70
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale 
(see Wechsler, 1955).
Information, vocabulary, digit symbol and picture 
arrangement.
Observed distributionActual range: 10-60 M= 36.1 SD=9.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Respondent's scores on three tests of intelligence (the 
Quick Test of intelligence, section J (vocubalary) 
of the General Aptitude Test Battery, and the Gates 
test of reading comprehension) and mean of these 
scores. Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
                Quick     GATB   Gates   mean 
                test             test
T1 happiness:   +.01     +.04    +.03    +.03 T2 
happiness:   +.01     +.01    +.03    +.02
T3 happiness:   +.01     +.00    +.04    +.01 T4 
happiness:   +.01     +.03    +.03    +.02 All 
tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 209
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Quick Test of Intelligence (Amons & Amoons, 1962).
Intelligence assessed at T1.
Remarks
Happiness was measured at T1, T2 and T3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.00
Happiness T1
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.00
Happiness T2
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.02
Happiness T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelIntellectual abilityat college entrance
Page in Source 123
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
1. Scholastic aptitude score (S.A.T.)

2. Mathematical aptitude score (M.A.T.)    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.12 ns

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.17 ns



Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 283
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Those below vs those above the 75th percentile of 
college students in the Ohio State University 
Psychological Examination - Form 17.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= + p < . s
Stronger among freshmen
Lower among juniors
L-shaped curve: significant among unhappy students 
only
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=+ s
Stronger among freshmen
Lower among juniors
L-shaped curve: significant among unhappy students 
only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyWatson (1930): study US 1928
TitleHappiness Among Adult Students of Education.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1930, Vol. 21, 79 - 109
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0070539
PublicGraduate students of education (teachers), Columbia University, USA, 192?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =388

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 88/89
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Otis S-A test of mental ability

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-10-ar=-.04 ns
Unaffected by sex
O-HL-g-oq-n-11-ar=-.04 ns
Males only
A-BW-g-mq-v-2-ar= - ns
Males   : r = -.03
Females : r = -.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyFeldman (1984): study US California 1921
TitleA Follow-up of Subjects Scoring above 180 I.Q. in Terman's "Genetic Studies of Genius".
SourceExceptional Children, 1984, Vol. 50, 518 - 523
URLhttp://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10192.aspx
PublicGifted children (IQ >140), California, USA, followed ± 60 years, 1921-1972
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition at T9: 25%
Respondents N =52

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 521
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
IQ score on the Stanford-Binet test at age 12
1. gifted      (IQ > 140)  N = 26
2. very gifted (IQ > 180)  N = 26

Gifted drawn at random from 1500 gifted subjects 
(Terman genius sample). The very gifted are all 
subjects in this group that scored 180 or more. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aD%=±
% satisfied
- females: gifted      64% (few had worked)
           very gifted 57% (only who had worked)
- males  : gifted      68%
           very gifted 74%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelQuickness of apprehension
Page in Source 26
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelProfoundness of apprehension
Page in Source 26
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelSoundness of common sense
Page in Source 26
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelOriginality of ideas
Page in Source 26
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelPower of getting through mental work rapidly
Page in Source 26
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Trained peer rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=+.37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelQuickness of apprehension
Page in Source 27
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.52


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelProfoundness of apprehension
Page in Source 27
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.48


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelSoundness of common sense
Page in Source 27
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reputation of intelligence
Subject code: I03ab02

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelOriginality of ideas
Page in Source 27
Our classificationReputation of intelligence, code I03ab02
Operationalization
Class-master rating on a 7-point scale on the basis of 
observation during 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived intelligence
Subject code: I03ab03

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelFelt clear and creative
Page in Source 74
Our classificationSelf-perceived intelligence, code I03ab03
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"I think clearly and creatively"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived intelligence
Subject code: I03ab03

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelFelt clear-headed
Our classificationSelf-perceived intelligence, code I03ab03
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"How often have you felt clear-headed?"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'not at all' to 
'all the time'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.37 p < .01
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.59 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived intelligence
Subject code: I03ab03

StudyAbbey & Andrews (1985): study US Detroit 1984
TitleModeling the Psychological Determinants of Life-Quality.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 16, 1 - 34
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317657
PublicTranquilizer users, Detroit, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response40%
Respondents N =675

Correlate
Author's labelTechnical performance
Page in Source 16
Our classificationSelf-perceived intelligence, code I03ab03
Operationalization
Self perceived technical performance was measured with 
3 questions about how one does in  technical tasks such 
as decision-making
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'very poorly' to 
exceptionnally well'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-ar=+.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived intelligence
Subject code: I03ab03

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived school ability
Page in Source 242
Our classificationSelf-perceived intelligence, code I03ab03
Operationalization
3-item index of closed questions on self-perceived 
school ability, intelli- gence, and reading ability 
compared with other boys of the same age.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < . 01
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental abilities
Subject code: I03ac

StudyWu et al. (2014): study TW 2009
TitleOn the Predictive Effect of Multidimensional Importance-Weighted Quality of Life Scores on Overall Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, 115, 933 - 943
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0242-x
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0242-x
PublicStudents, Taiwn, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelThinking
Page in Source 937.939
Our classificationCurrent specific mental abilities, code I03ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How well are you able to concentrate?
1  Not at all
2  A little
3  Moderate amount
4  Very much
5  An extreme amount
Observed distributionMean: 3.52: SD=.84
Remarks
Full questions not reported in this paper. 
Question on thinking taken from WHOQOL-Bref. 
Question on importance figured in the full WHOQOL 
questionnaire.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.22 p < .01
raw score
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.26 p < .01
score weighted by perceived importance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental abilities
Subject code: I03ac

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelAbility to recall aspects of American life
Page in Source 661
Our classificationCurrent specific mental abilities, code I03ac
Operationalization
Participants were asked to recall and list as many 
positive and negative aspects of American life as they 
could within 3 minutes.
Ramdom order of positive- and negative tests.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.40 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental abilities
Subject code: I03ac

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /1
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response28%
Respondents N =94

Correlate
Author's labelAbility to recall historic events
Page in Source 658
Our classificationCurrent specific mental abilities, code I03ac
Operationalization
Participants were asked to recall and list as many 
positive and negative US
historical events since 1900 as they could remember 
within 1,5 minutes. Order of the tests randomly.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=-.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current specific mental abilities
Subject code: I03ac

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelNumbering speed
Page in Source 64
Our classificationCurrent specific mental abilities, code I03ac
Operationalization
Time necessary to number backwards from 100 to 1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotion recognition
Subject code: I03ac01

StudyGallagher & Vella-Brodrick (2007): study AU AU Victoria 2003
TitleSocial Support and Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2008, Vol. 44, 1551 - 1561
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188690800024X
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.011
Public267 adults, aged 18-80- years, Australia
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response927 (87.2%)
Respondents N =273

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional Intelligence
Page in Source 1554,1556
Our classificationEmotion recognition, code I03ac01
Operationalization
The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale consists of 33 
self-referencing statements, for example: I know when 
to speak about my personal problems to others. 
Participants are instructed to indicate the extent to 
which they agree or disagree with each statement using 
a 5-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicate greater 
EI.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gr=+
PA: r = +.55 (p<.01)
NA: r = -.35 (p<.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotion recognition
Subject code: I03ac01

StudyVitterso et al. (2009): study NO 2005
TitleLife Satisfaction is not a Balanced Estimator of the Good Life: Evidence from Reaction Time Measures and Self-Reported Emotions.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 1 - 17
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9058-1
PublicStudents and technical staff university, Norway, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30

Correlate
Author's labelRecognition of happy/sad faces
Page in Source 9
Our classificationEmotion recognition, code I03ac01
Operationalization
Reaction time in recognition task


POP-OUT REACTION TIME

Participants were exposed to a series of 3 X 3 matrices 
of smiles of which half showed 8 identical and neutral 
faces and 1 happy face and half showed 8 identical and 
neutral faces and 1 sad face. The deviant face occurred 
randomly at all positions in the matrix over 18 trails 
of this test. 

Participants were told that they would see nine faces 
on the screen and that one of them differed from the 
others, by being either a happy face among neutral 
faces or being a sad face among neutral faces. 

A random half of the participants were told to press 
the 'happy' (button the 'm' key marked with a red 
sticker) if the happy face appeared and a 'sad' button 
(the 'z' key marked with a red sticker) if a sad face 
appeared. For the remaining half of the sample the 
instructions were reversed so that the 'happy' button 
was the 'z' key and the sad button was the 'm' key.

Participants were told to respond as quickly as 
possible. Each trail consisted of the following 
sequence: (a) a fixation point appeared at the center 
of the screen for 500 ms, (b) a 3 X 3 face matrix was 
then displayed until the participant pressed one of the 
two response keys on the keyboard. 


DOT-PROBE REACTION TIME

A total of 20 pairs of happy and sad faces were 
displayed on the computer screen.

Each trail consisted of the following sequence: (a) a 
fixation point appeared at the center of the screen for 
500 ms, (b) the happy and sad faces were displayed in 
the right and left positions of the screen for 3000 ms, 
(c) the two faces disappeared from the screen, and (d) 
an X appeared in the center of the screen location 
where of the faces had been. 

The X remained on the screen until the participant 
pressed one of the two response keys on the keyboard. 
Participants were told that they would see two faces on 
the screen, and were instructed not to respond until an 
X appeared. 

They were told then when the X appeared on the screen 
they should respond as quickly as possible. If they saw 
the X appear on the right side of the screen, they 
should press the right button (the 'm' key marked with 
a red sticker); if the saw the X appeared on the left 
side, they should press the left button (the 'z' key 
marked with a red sticker). 

Happy and sad faces were presented randomly on the left 
and the right side of the screen, and the X appeared 
randomly on either the happy or the sad side of the 
screen. 

In the computation of pop-out and dot-probe RT means 
that error trails (i.e. pressing the 'happy' button for 
a sad face and vice versa) and responses outside the 
range +/- 3 SD from the individual's own mean were 
included. 

X is referred as the 'Happy X' when it appeared where 
the happy faces had been and referred as the 'Sad X' 
when it appeared where the sad faces had been.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.20 ns
recognition time happy face      pop-out test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.33 ns
recognition time sad face        pop-out test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.31 ns
recognition time happy face      dot-probe test
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jr=-.15 ns
recognition time sad face        dot probe test


Correlational finding on Happiness and Exact ability
Subject code: I03ac02

StudyWatten et al. (1995): study NO 1990
TitleQuality of Life, Intelligence and Mood.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 287 - 299
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078818
PublicArmy recruits, Norway,199?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelTechnical ability
Page in Source 293
Our classificationExact ability, code I03ac02
Operationalization
Technical ability test. Detail not reported
Observed distributionM=5.11 SD=1.8
Remarks
Technical ability was assessed several month before Ss 
arrived at the training center and hence before 
assesment of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dr=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Exact ability
Subject code: I03ac02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelExact ability
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationExact ability, code I03ac02
Operationalization
a.Teachers comparison with average in arithmetic.
b.Teacher rates math as best(vs worst) subject.
c.Parent report on special ability in math.
d.Arithmic quotient on Stanford Achievement Test.

Assessed in 1922.
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1922) by present happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1922 teacher rating of arithmetic ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= p < .00
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 teacher rating of math ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 parent rating of math ability by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 arithmic ability score by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceptual performance
Subject code: I03ac03

StudyIrwin et al. (1979): study NZ 1975
TitleIf you Want to Know how Happy I am ,You'll have to Ask me.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1979, Vol. 8, 10 - 12
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol81-1979-2-Irwin.pdf
PublicSingles, Dunedin New Zealand, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =78

Correlate
Author's labelPerceptual accuracy
Page in Source 11
Our classificationPerceptual performance, code I03ac03
Operationalization
Correspondence of self-rating of Ss' happiness with 
ratings of Ss' happiness by two flatmates.
Flatmates rated how they thought the Ss
WILL rate themself and how they SHOULD 
rate if they were honest to themselves.
These ratings appeared largely identical and were 
added. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Field independence
Subject code: I03ac03a

StudyTobacyk (1981): study US 1979
TitlePersonality Differentiation, Effectiveness of Personality Integration, and Mood in Female College Students.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, Vol. 41, 348 - 356
PublicFemale undergraduate students, U.S.A., 198?
Sample
Non-Response57 %
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality differentiation
Page in Source 348
Our classificationField independence, code I03ac03a
Operationalization
Index computed from individual scores
on the Rod-and-Frame Test and the Embedded Figures 
Test. (see Witkin et
al., 1954)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mp-mqr-v-10-ar=+.05 ns
Unaffected by personality integration
No hidden curvilinear relation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Field independence
Subject code: I03ac03a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelField independence_A
Page in Source 215/216
Our classificationField independence, code I03ac03a
Operationalization
Hidden Patters Test - Cf - 2, asking to check the 
instances in which 200 complex figures contained a 
given simple figure (part of Kit of Reference Test for 
Cognitive Factors; see French et al., 1963).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.23 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.24 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Field independence
Subject code: I03ac03a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelField Independence_B
Page in Source 215/216
Our classificationField independence, code I03ac03a
Operationalization
Hidden Figures Test - Cf-1; a 16-item multiple choice 
test asking which one of five simple figures was 
embedded in a given complex figure, scored for number 
of simple figures correctly identified (part of Kit of 
Reference Test for Cognitive Factors; see French et 
al., 1963).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.14 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Field independence
Subject code: I03ac03a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelField Independence_C
Page in Source 215/216
Our classificationField independence, code I03ac03a
Operationalization
Number of items on the Hidden Figures Test - Cf - 1 
which were attempted incorrectly.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.17 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.19 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceptual rigidity
Subject code: I03ac03b

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelRigidity_C
Page in Source 215/216
Our classificationPerceptual rigidity, code I03ac03b
Operationalization
Breskin 15-item Rigidity Test, scored for the number of 
pairs out of 15 pairs in which the 'good fit' figure 
was chosen (see Breskin, 1968).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.45 p < . 01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceptual rigidity
Subject code: I03ac03b

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelRigidity_B
Page in Source 215/216
Our classificationPerceptual rigidity, code I03ac03b
Operationalization
Barron-Welsh Art Scale, scored for the number of 
unusual figures selected of a set of figures differing 
in complexity, shading and symmetry. (See Barron & 
Welsh, 1952).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.22 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceptual rigidity
Subject code: I03ac03b

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelRigidity_A
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationPerceptual rigidity, code I03ac03b
Operationalization
Barron-Welsh Art Scale, Forced Choice Form, scored for 
the number of pairs out of 20 pairs in which the more 
elaborate figure was chosen (Figure Choices Test, see 
Messick & Kogan, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.16 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.15 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public29-88 aged women, upper middle class, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of efficiency
Page in Source 101
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Clement (1963) digit/letter coding test.                
                  The score is the number of characters 
correctly coded in 5 minutes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.16 p < .01
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.08 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975 /1
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de Personalité en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public60-69 aged women, lower class, France 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =922

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of efficiency
Page in Source 101
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Clement (1963) digit/letter coding test.
The score is the number of characters correctly coded 
in 5 minutes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+ ns
Males   r=+.18 (ns)
Females r=-.07 (ns)
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+ ns
Males   r=+.18 (ns)
Females r=-.03 (ns)
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+ ns
Males   r=+.14 (ns)
Females r=+.18 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelObject sorting ability_B
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Clayton & Jackson Object Sorting Test, asking subjects 
to sort 50 objects in logical order, scored for number 
of groups formed (see Clayton & Jackson, 1961).


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.16 ns





C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelNation sorting ability_B
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Scott Nation Sorting Test, asking subjects to sort 28 
countries in logical order, scored for number of groups 
formed (see Scott, 1962).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.06 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelNation sorting ability_A
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Scott Nation Sorting Test, scored for number of 
countries left ungrouped (see Scott, 1962).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.01 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelCategory width
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Pettigrew Category Width Test, asking subjects to 
choose estimates of the largest and smallest values of 
a given object of known average value (see Pettigrew, 
1958).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.11 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Sorting ability
Subject code: I03ac04

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelObject sorting ability_A
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationSorting ability, code I03ac04
Operationalization
Clayton & Jackson Object Sorting Test, scored for 
number of objects left un- grouped (see Clayton & 
Jackson, 1961).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.07 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1980a): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleHappiness and Games of Chance.
SourcePaper Institut für Demoskopie, 1980, Allensbach, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle-neumann_e_1980.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany, 1979
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelproducing associations
Page in Source 10
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Open question.Ss were asked about ideas they associate 
with a certain city, a certain profession or a certain 
political concept.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Cheerful looking Ss produce more associations in 
the interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyVanAgt et al. (2005): study NL 2000
TitleQuality of Life of Children with Language Delays..
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1345 - 1355
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-6013-z
Public3 years aged children, The Netherlands, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =8877

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage development
Page in Source 1348, 1349,1354
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
a: Questions asked and instructions given to the child 
in order to assess the child's receptive language 
development, e.g. the ability to name objects or 
understand orally given instructions

b: Questions asked to parents about: 
- productive language as 
- fluency, 
- articulation and 
- vocabulary such as finding adequate words 

c: Questions asked to parents about productive language 
as 
- audibility, 
- vocabulary such as 'Does your child make 
comprehensible "sentences"of three word or more?' and
- grammar skills such as 'Does your child use the 
following words to make questions (who, where, what, 
how, etc)'?
Remarks
a: Measured by the Language Screening Instrument for 3 
to 4-years-old (LSI-CT)
b: Measured by the Language Screening Instrument - 
Parental Form (LSI-PF)
c: Measured by the Van Wiechen items |(VW) 
internationally accepted method of  individual 
development surveillance as an approach of early 
detection of developmental delays, in combination with 
anamnesis, physical examination, observation and 
information from the parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cq-rdf-v-3-br=+.11
Language comprehension (Child Test)
A-AOL-cq-rdf-v-3-br=+.12
Language production (Parent Forms)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912 /1
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
Public12 aged, male school pupils, London, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 27
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Experimental test containing paired words of opposite 
menaing, and recon- structing disarranged sentences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-ar=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage facility
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Advanced Vocabulary Test V-4; a multiple choice 
questionnaire scored for the number of words correctly 
matched  (see French et al., 1963).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.16 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelMood word fluency
Page in Source 215/218
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Assessment of mood repertoire using the number of words 
mentioned in three minutes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.12 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelSpeech
Page in Source 329
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Ratings by 2 experienced staff members on a 7-point 
scale, ranging from 'talks unintelligible' to 'talks 
well'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=- ns
Open ward  : r = -.00 (ns)
Closed ward: r = -.08 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelVocabulary level
Page in Source 242
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
General Aptitude Test Battery - Part J: Vocabulary 
(GATB-J; Super, 1957)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.02 ns
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelReading comprehen- sion ability
Page in Source 242
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
Test of Reading Comprehension (Gates, 1958).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.02 ns
Both variables assessed at T1.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic status_C
Page in Source 68
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
S.A.I.-verbal score in the form of local percentile 
rank.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=±0 ns
Analysis on the basis of a comparison of happy and 
unhappy students (resp. 120 males, 157 females and 
154 males, 94 females: N=525)

Unaffected by sex and stage of study.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Verbal ability
Subject code: I03ac05

StudyConstantinople (1965): study US 1965
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response30% (take home questionnaire).
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelAcademic status_B
Page in Source 68
Our classificationVerbal ability, code I03ac05
Operationalization
SAT-Verbal score in the form of local percentile rank.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aDM=±0 ns
Unaffected by sex and stage of study.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Memory
Subject code: I03ac06

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1980a): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleHappiness and Games of Chance.
SourcePaper Institut für Demoskopie, 1980, Allensbach, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/noelle-neumann_e_1980.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, West Germany, 1979
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelrecollection
Page in Source 10
Our classificationMemory, code I03ac06
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Cheerful Ss have a better recollection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Intelligence defects
Subject code: I03ad

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelLearning difficulties
Page in Source 127
Our classificationIntelligence defects, code I03ad
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Text not reported.
1 yes
0 no
Observed distribution1: 13%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.14 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.01 p < .94
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental retardation
Subject code: I03ad01

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labellevel of intellectual disability
Page in Source 16
Our classificationMental retardation, code I03ad01
Operationalization
1 Boderline 
2 Mild intellectual disability
3 Moderate intellectual disability
Observed distribution1: 34 (9%), 2: 162(43%), 3: 180(48%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aChi²=+12. p < .00
%happy
1: 65
2: 87
3: 87


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental retardation
Subject code: I03ad01

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelMental retardation
Page in Source 57
Our classificationMental retardation, code I03ad01
Operationalization
Diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.06 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.20 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.22 p < .05
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental retardation
Subject code: I03ad01

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971 /2
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicChildren, retarded and normal, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelBeing retarded
Page in Source 211
Our classificationMental retardation, code I03ad01
Operationalization
0 normals 
1 retarded

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-aAoV= + p < . s
Among boys, retardates are observed to be 
significantly happier; both in observations in 
school and during recess.
No significant differences among girls.
A-CP-g-rdf-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .04
Retardates were rated as happier than normals.
Almost all of the variance contributed by boys.
The report is unclear as to whether this 
difference appears in the ratings of teachres, 
parents or both.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mental rest-ability
Subject code: I03ad02

StudyKahana & Kahana (1975): study US 1970
TitleThe Relationship of Impulse Control to Cognition and Adjustment among Institutionalized Aged Women.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1975, Vol. 30, 679 - 687
Public55+ aged white females living in nursing home, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =91

Correlate
Author's labelReflectiveness
Our classificationMental rest-ability, code I03ad02
Operationalization
1. Selfreport.
2. Interviewerrating.
3. Staff-rating.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.11 ns
ß's control all other indicators of reflectiveness
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.10 ns
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own intelligence
Subject code: I03ae

StudyHolahan et al. (1999): study US 1960
TitleSelf Appraisel, Life Satisfaction and Retrospective Life Choices Across One and Three Decades.
SourcePsychology and Aying, 1999, Vol. 14, 238 - 244
PublicGifted (IQ>135) followed unto old age, USA, 1960-1992
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =383

Correlate
Author's labelLived up to ability
Page in Source 239/243
Our classificationAttitudes to own intelligence, code I03ae
Operationalization
Self-appraisal of having lived up to abilities.
Participants were asked "On the whole, how well do you 
think you have lived up to your intellectual 
abilities?" Responses were coded in two categories
1: did not live-up
2: lived-up
Assessed at T1 (1960)
Observed distributionT2 N: 1=115, 2=223
Remarks
T1:1960, T2:1972, T3:1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=+
T1 lived up by T2 happiness
Men   1.M=3.71 SD=0.89
      2.M=4.15 SD=0.85
Women 1.M=3.76 SD=1.08
In univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) 
there was a significant lived-up effect: 
F(1,332)= 13.85, MSE=.82 p<0.001
      2.M=4.19 SD=0.92
M-AC-h-mq-v-8-aDM=+
T1 lived up by T2 happiness
In univariate analyses of covariance(ANCOVAs) 
there was a significant lived-up effect:
F(1,310)=10,65, MSE=.84, p<.05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-aDM=+
T1 lived up by T3 happiness
Univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) was 
significant for lived-up:
F(1,355)=10.71, MSE=2,25, p<.001
LISREL analysis showed no direct link when T2 
perceid goal relization was controled.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-cq-rdf-v-3-bRating by parents on three questions:

How was your child in the last three month?..
A: In good spirits
B: Cheerful
C: Happy

Rated:
1 never
2 occasionally
3 often

Subscale in TAPQOL questionnaire
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"

B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
nor unhappy)?
Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A : 0.- 10
- Question B : % happy
Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
"just awful".
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ASA-mp-mqr-v-10-aSelfreport on 16 questions, repeated three times a day during at least 33 successive days (experience sampling)

How I feel now:
A Fullness vs. Emptiness of life ( how emotionally satisfying,
abundant or empty, your life felt today )
B Receptivity towards and Stimulation by the World ( how
interested and responsive you feel to what was going on
around you)
C Social Respect vs. Social Contempt ( how you feel about
other people regard you, or feel about you, today)
D Personal Freedom vs. External Constraint ( how much you
feel you are free or not free to do as you want)
E Harmony vs. Anger ( how well got along with, or how angry
you feel toward, other people )
F Sociability vs. Withdrawal (how socially outgoing or
withdrawn you feel now )
G Companionship vs. Being Isolated ( the extent to which
you feel emotionally accepted by, or isolated from other
people )
H Love and Sex ( the extent to which you feel loving and
tender or sexually frustrated and unloving )
I Present Work ( how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with
your work )
J Thought Processes ( how readily your ideas come and how
valuable they seem )
K Tranquility vs. Anxiety ( how calm or troubled you feel )
Impulse Expression vs. Self-restraint ( how expressive and
impulsive or internally restrained and controlled, you feel )
M Personal Moral Judgment (how self-approving or how
guilty, you feel )
N Self-confidence vs. feeling of Inadequacy ( how self-
assured and adequate or helpless and inadequate you
feel )
O Energy vs. Fatigue ( how energetic or tired and weary you
feel )
P Elation vs. Depression ( how elated or depressed, happy
or unhappy, you feel now )

Scoring: all items scored on 0 - 9 . (Rating scales not reported).
Summation: average

Name: Wessman & Rick's `Personal Feelings Scale'
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
A-BW-g-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 50 questions:

Below is a list of words and phrases. Check every term which you believe could fairly be applied to yourself in prevalent attitudes. (yes/no)

A Enthusiastic
B Morbid
C Disappointed
D Distressed
E Cheerful
F Prosperous
G Frivolous
H Troubled
I Annoyed
J Calm
K Miserable
L Thrilled
M Irritable
N Buoyant
O Joyful
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
AX

The total list contained fifty adjectives, half positive and half negative

Scoring:
yes = +1
no = -1

Summation: number of happy traits mentioned minus number of unhappy traits mentioned.

Possible range: - 50 to + 50
A-BW-g-mq-v-5-gSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average?
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-aTime sampling of happy behavior:

Rating by two independent observers.
One of the observers was familiar with the general aims of the study whereas the other one was not familiar with these. Each child was observed twice in both a class situation and at recess. It was observed for one minute and then later for another minute in the same situation by both observers independently and then rated over that minute in that situation.

Rating options:
3 happy
2 neutral
1 unhappy
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-aClinical rating of cheerfulness.

Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 2 or 3 independent judges of cheerfulness as personality descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most characteristic of the subject.

Rating options: scale rating from 1 to 9 (scale options not reported)
A-CP-g-rdf-v-5-aRatings by parents:

How would you rate this child's general level of happiness....?
1 always or almost always unhappy
2 more often unhappy than happy
3 equal periods or amounts of happiness and unhappiness
4 more often happy than unhappy
5 always or almost always happy
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
A-CP-g-rdt-ro-7-aTeacher rating on single question:

1 Personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule.
2. In the columns under each pupil's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Think about the quality of your life at the present time. I would like you to give a rating where 0 represents the worst possible life for you and 10 represents the best possible life for you.
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
M-AC-h-mq-v-8-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A
"How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
-
-
- joy in living


4 of prime importance to me
3
2
1 less important to me than to most people

B.
"How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 little satisfaction in this area

Computation: Life satisfaction score = Perceived success in achieving joy in living now (B) minus remembered importance of joy in living in early adulthood (A)
M-ACO-cw-mq-*-20-aSelfreport on 5 questions, repeated every week during 24 weeks:

A. "How do you feel about your life as a whole?"
1 terrible
2
3
4
5
6
7 delighted

B. "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are........?";
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. To what extent have the five areas of your life been what you wanted it to be? (refers to self, personal life, work life and health)
5 all
4
3
2
1 not at all

D. "How much have you really enjoyed your life as a whole?"
1 not at all,
2
3
4
5 a great deal

E. "How much has your life as a whole made you feel emotionally upset?"
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 a great deal

Summation: A+B+C+D+E
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-cm-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Over the past month I have been feeling.........?"
7 extremely happy
6 very happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 very unhappy
1 extremely unhappy
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line on the place you estimate to be what corresponds best with your state.
1 | I don't feel very well in my skin
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I don't feel too well in my skin
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 | I feel very well in my skin

Scoring: rated on open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.
M-PL-c-rc-v-5-aClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center.

Rater instruction:
"To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?"
1 low
2
3 average
4
5 high
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-oq-n-11-aSelfreport on open question:

Now write in your own words a sentence of two, something which you believe will most truly describe your own general happiness in life.

The answers were rated by three judges on a scale ranging from 0 to 10.
0 low
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 high
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross, on each line, on the place you estimate to be that which corresponds best with your state
1 I am not very happy
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too happy
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am quite happy

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale, divided afterwards in 9 sections.
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-jSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, would you say that you are:
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Among the following description arranged in miscellaneous order, choose the one which comes nearest to fitting you. None will be likely to fit exactly."
3 Finding life rather disappointing and disillusioning, cmfortable in many ways, moderately successful, but far from realizing the hopes of youth.
9 Cheerful, gay spirits most of the time. Occasionally bothered by something but can usually laugh it off.
8 Calm, quiet sort of satisfaction. Life has been pretty good. Not everything one desires comes, of course, but on the whole there is much for which to be serenely thankful.
5 Ups and downs, now happy about things, now depressed. About balanced in the long run.
1 Life often seems so worthless that there is little to keep one going. Nothing matters very much, there has been so much of hurt that laughter would be empty mockery.
2 Keeping a brave front, others think everything is all right. Inside life seems rather black.
1 Usually sad, weep readily, smile seldom.
11 Radiant, find every day full of interest, amusing things, and worthwhile things.
3 Seriously hurt by certain things, for which the good aspects of life cannot quite make up.
5 Quite objective. Like some experiences, dislike others. Not aware of any prevalent happiness or unhappiness.
O-QOL-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 excellent
4 good
3 neither good nor bad
2 bad
1 very bad
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to rate themselves on an 1 - 10 rating ladder in terms of their self-perceived life satisfaction.
(Full question not reported).
[ 10 ] +
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] --

(labels of scale extremes not reported)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-aSelf report on single question:

Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at the ladder. Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder, and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the presentstage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?, Cicle the number
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

'All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life these days?'
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-dSelfreport on single question;

Everything considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied would you say you are with your life these days?
1 extremely dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
3 pretty dissatisfied
4 both satisfied and dissatisfied (neutral)
5 pretty satisfied
6 very satisfied
7 extremely satisfied
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Place a cross on the line below, on the spot you estimate that corresponds best with your state.
1 | I am not very satisfied
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 | I am not too satisfied
6 |
7 |
8 |
9 I am very satisfied

Scoring: rated on an open horizontal line scale divided afterwards in 9 sections.


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
I03INTELLIGENCEC11CREATIVENESS
I03INTELLIGENCEE01ab02Level of school-education
I03INTELLIGENCEW02WISDOM
I03aa02Change in intelligenceI03adIntelligence defects
I03abCurrent general intelligenceP04amClever
I03abCurrent general intelligenceP04byNaive
I03abCurrent general intelligenceP04cePractical
I03ab01Test-intelligenceS01ab02School-success
I03ab03Self-perceived intelligenceS02abCurrent self-characterization
I03ab03Self-perceived intelligenceM13ac02Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
I03acCurrent specific mental abilitiesP04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
I03ac03aField independenceP04blIndependent
I03ac03bPerceptual rigidityP04clRigid
I03adIntelligence defectsH02ab01bMental handicap
I03adIntelligence defectsP06ac02Specific restrictions
I03adIntelligence defectsP06ac02cRestrictions in seeing
I03ad01Mental retardationM07ac08Mental retardation (f70-79)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings