Findings on Happiness and INSTITUTIONAL LIVING

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and INSTITUTIONAL LIVING
Subject Code: I02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING0
I02aaInstitutional career2
I02aa01Ever lived in an institutional setting2
I02aa02Change in institutional living1
I02aa02aBefore and after entrance1
I02aa02bBefore and after leave1
I02aa03Length of current stay in institution6
I02aa04Later institutional living1
I02abCurrent living in an institution or not4
I02ab01Living in a home for elderly4
I02ab02Living in a home for handicapped1
I02acCharacteristics of institution1
I02ac01Restrictiveness of setting5
I02ac02Group morale2
I02ac03Organizational change in institution1
I02ac04Quality of staff in institution1
I02ac05Size of institution1
I02adAttitudes to institution7
I02aeBehavior in institution3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INSTITUTIONAL LIVING
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=I02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Institutional career
Subject code: I02aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelHospitalisation in first year in months
Page in Source 458
Our classificationInstitutional career, code I02aa
Operationalization
Lenght of hospitalization in the first year of life as 
reported in medical file
1: 1-2 months
2: 3-4 months
3: 5-6 months
4: 7-8 months
5: 9-10 months
6: 11-12 months
Observed distributionN months: 1:10,2%, 2:4,6%, 3:2,7%, 4:2,5%, 5:2,1%, 6:2,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.68
2: Mt=7.69
3: Mt=7.53
4: Mt=7.86
5: Mt=7.85
6: Mt=7.85
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.44
2: Mt=7.43
3: Mt=7.30
4: Mt=7.73
5: Mt=7.39
6: Mt=7.35
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=7.04
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=7.06
4: Mt=7.13
5: Mt=6.79
6: Mt=7.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Institutional career
Subject code: I02aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelHospitalization in the first year of life
Page in Source 458
Our classificationInstitutional career, code I02aa
Operationalization
Hospitalization in the first year of life as reported 
in medical file
a: more than 4 months in the first half year
b: more than 4 months in the 2nd half year
c: time unknown
Observed distributionN all=3398; a:10, b:9, c:3379,
Remarks
only absolute values are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
a: Mt=8.25
b: Mt=7.78
c: Mt=7.74
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-,01 p < .684
rs(a+b) vs c
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
a: Mt=8.50
b: Mt=8.34
c: Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=-,03 p < .052
rs(a+b) vs c
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
a: Mt=8.50
b: Mt=7.50
c: Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-,04 p < .026
rs(a+b) vs c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever lived in an institutional setting
Subject code: I02aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutionalized shortly after birth
Page in Source 290
Our classificationEver lived in an institutional setting, code I02aa01
Operationalization
Institutionalized shortly after birth as reported in 
medical file
1. discharged home with mother
2: other
   2a: discharged to pediatric department
   2b: discharged to children's home
   2c: discharged home, after mother on to foster home
   2d: discharged with mother to an institution
Observed distributionN all:4349, 1::83%; 2:17%; 2 a:8,6%, 2b:5,7%, 2c:1,6%, 2d:1,1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.73
2:  Mt=7.75
2a: Mt=7.79
2b: Mt=7.71
2c: Mt=7.75
2d: Mt=7.65
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.40
2:  Mt=7.38
2a: Mt=7.51
2b: Mt=7.15
2c: Mt=7.61
2d: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.03
2:  Mt=7.00
2a: Mt=7.11
2b: Mt=6.81
2c: Mt=6.93
2d: Mt=6.60


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever lived in an institutional setting
Subject code: I02aa01

StudyKalmuss et al. (1992): study US 1989
TitleShort-Term Consequences of Parenting Versus Adoption among Young Unmarried Woman.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 80 - 90
PublicUnmarried teenage mothers, USA, 1989-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response>10%
Respondents N =527

Correlate
Author's labelliving in maternity residences
Page in Source 82; 88
Our classificationEver lived in an institutional setting, code I02aa01
Operationalization
lived in maternity residence while pregnant
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution75% respondents lived in maternity residence
Remarks
The large proportion of Ss who lived in maternity 
residence limits the generalizability of findings

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-ab=+.09 ns
B controlled for:
- pregnancy resolution (parenters/placers)
- age in years
- race (black/white)
- lived with both parents at age 14
- high schoool graduate
- received public assistance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in institutional living
Subject code: I02aa02

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelHaving to go into institutional care
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in institutional living, code I02aa02
Operationalization
Have you experienced having to go into institutional 
care
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2295 Ever in your life: N = 142

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.01
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.87
ever in your life:       M = 3.64
95% CI for difference:   [0.06 ; 0.40]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Before and after entrance
Subject code: I02aa02a

StudyHacker & Gaitz (1969): study US 1966
TitleThe Moral Career of the Elderly Mental Patient.
SourceGerontologist, 1969, Vol. 9, 120 - 127
PublicAged mental patients, 1 year after admission, USA, 1966
Sample
Non-Response66% drop-outs: 33% dead, 17% could not be located, 16% inco-herent or refusal.
Respondents N =36

Correlate
Author's labelIn treatment
Page in Source 125
Our classificationBefore and after entrance, code I02aa02a
Operationalization
0 Expatients: released (N=18)         
1 Inpatients: still in hospital (N=18)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Significant differences for the Index of Negative 
Affects only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Before and after leave
Subject code: I02aa02b

StudyHacker & Gaitz (1969): study US 1966
TitleThe Moral Career of the Elderly Mental Patient.
SourceGerontologist, 1969, Vol. 9, 120 - 127
PublicAged mental patients, 1 year after admission, USA, 1966
Sample
Non-Response66% drop-outs: 33% dead, 17% could not be located, 16% inco-herent or refusal.
Respondents N =36

Correlate
Author's labelIn treatment
Page in Source 125
Our classificationBefore and after leave, code I02aa02b
Operationalization
0 Expatients: released (N=18)         
1 Inpatients: still in hospital (N=18)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Significant differences for the Index of Negative 
Affects only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMonths institutionalized residence in first year of life
Page in Source 534,538
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization
Months institutionalized residence in first year of 
life as reported in medical file by number of months
(1)24 hour residence in an institution 
(2)day care (institution) 
(3)day care(private home)
1: 1-2 months
2: 3-4 months
3: 5-6 months
4: 7-8 months
5: 9-10 months
6: 11-12 months
7: the whole year
Observed distributionN(1): all:383; 1:2,0%, 2::1,2%, 3:0,6%, 4:1,2%, 5:0,8%, 6:0,7%, 7:2,2% N(2): all:527; 1:0,2%, 2:1,1%, 3:2,6%, 4:0,5%, 5:1,0%, 6:1,4%, 7:5,2% N(3): all:343; 1:0,2%, 2:0,6%, 3:1,3%, 4:0,6%, 5:0,7%, 6:1,4, 7:3,0
Remarks
Institutionalized in the first year of life

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
24 hour        day care        day care
residence      institution     private home
1: Mt=7.73       1:8.05          1:8.50
2: Mt=7.80       2:7.75          2:7.69
3: Mt=7.40       3:7.81          3:7.45
4: Mt=7.04       4:8.13          4:8.10
5: Mt=7.50       5:7.79          5:7.19
6: Mt=7.90       6:7.54          6:7.79 
7: Mt=7.86       7:7.65          7:7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
24 hour        day care        day care
residence      institution     private home
1: Mt=7.16       1:7.78          1:8.25
2: Mt=7.55       2:7.65          2:7.59
3: Mt=7.40       3:7.68          3:7.36 
4: Mt=6.76       4:7.91          4:7.70
5: Mt=7.30       5:7.56          5:6.88
6: Mt=7.74       6:7.16          6:7.71
7: Mt=7.53       7:7.34          7:7.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
24 hour        day care        day care
residence      institution     private home
1: Mt=6.85       1:8.05         1:8.00
2: Mt=7.05       2:7.35         2:7.41
3: Mt=6.60       3:7.21         3:6.98
4: Mt=6.28       4:7.60         4:7.00
5: Mt=6.63       5:7.10         5:6.25
6: Mt=7.50       6:6.71         6:7.04
7: Mt=7.09       7:6.93         7:6.89


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutionalized residence in first year of life
Page in Source 534-538
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization
Institutionalized residence in first year of life as 
reported in medical file
(1)24 hour residence in an institution 
(2)day care (institution) 
(3)day care(private home)
a: more than 4 months in the first half year
b: more than 4 months in the second half year
c: time unknown but either institutionalized or in a 
foster home
Observed distributionN 1 all:4345, 1a:3,4%, 1b:1,2%, 1c:86,4%, N 2 all:4379, 2a:1,2%, 2b:4,7%, 2c:82,5%, N 3 all:4087, 3a:1,0%, 3b:2,2%, 3c:82,9%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
24 hour       day institution  day private     
a: Mt=7.90       a:7.88        a:7.21
b: Mt=7.75       b:7.68        b:7.61
c: Mt=7.74       c:7.75        c:7.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
24 hour       day institution  day private     
a: Mt=7.33       a:7.50        a:6.75
b: Mt=7.40       b:7.50        b:7.55
c: Mt=7.41       c:7.41        c:7.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
24 hour       day institution  day private   
a: Mt=6.95       a:7.36        a:6.75
b: Mt=7.00       b:7.36        b:7.18
c: Mt=7.03       c:7.03        c:7.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyGilman & Handwerk (2001): study US 1996
TitleChanges in Life Satisfaction as a Function of Stay in a Residential Setting.
SourceResidential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2001, Vol. 18, 47 - 65
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J007v18n04_05
DOIDOI: 10.1300/J007v18n04_05
Public11-14 aged in residential treatment followed 4 months, USA, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22

Correlate
Author's labelResidential treatment
Page in Source 55
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization
Residential treatment in Father Flanagan's Boy's Home 
(FFBH) involves the Teaching-Family Model (TFM), in 
which a highly trained, married couple resides in a 
large, domestic home with eight school-aged children. 
The TFM emphasizes a normalized environment in which 
adolescents are taught a variety of socal, academic, 
and vocational skills using a token economy motivation 
system.
Error EstimatesTime 1: Cronbach's alpha=0,76 Time 2: Cronbach's alpha=0,70
Remarks
Life satisfaction was measured at two points of time of 
the residential treatment.
Time 1: Upon first arrival
Time 2: Between 4 to 7 months after arrival at 
institution

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aDM=+
Time 1     : M=3,61  SD=1,05
Time 2     : M=4,44  SD=0,80
-Difference:  +0,83
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-at.=4.29 p < .01
Paired sample t-tests were conducted (between Time 
1 and Time 2).Effect size=0.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelLenght of Stay
Page in Source 57
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.03 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.05 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of years in cloister
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization
Single closed question, rated on a 6-point scale, 
ranging from 
(1) < 3 years to (6) > 40 years.
(order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=-
T1: 1977     r= -.11    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= -.13    (ns)
T3: 1981     r= -.11    (ns)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Length of current stay in institution
Subject code: I02aa03

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelLength of institutionalization
Page in Source 329
Our classificationLength of current stay in institution, code I02aa03
Operationalization
Number of years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar= ns
Open ward  : r = +.14 (ns)
Closed ward: r = -.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later institutional living
Subject code: I02aa04

StudyPitkälä et al. (2004): study FI 1989
TitlePositive Life Orientation as a Predictor of 10-Year Outcome in an Aged Population.
SourceJournal of Clinical Epidemiolgy, 2004, Vol. 57, 409 - 414
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.07.013
Public75-85 aged, Helsinki, Finland followed 1989-1999, ( T1 1989, T2 1994, T3 1999)
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =491

Correlate
Author's labelMoved to institutional care
Page in Source 412
Our classificationLater institutional living, code I02aa04
Operationalization
0. Still iving on their own at T2
1. Went to care home between T1 and T2
Observed distributionN = O; 85,5%, 1: 14,5%
Remarks
T1-T2 difference: 5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bOR= ns
OR controled for:
- age
- gender
- T1 health (comprehensive measure)

This happiness item is part of an index of 
'positive life orientation', which also involved 
questions on: feeling needed, having plans for the 
future, having zest in life, seldom feeling 
depressed and seldom feeling lonely (all coded 
yes/no)
High scores on that index at T1 (all items yes) go 
with a lower chance of being in instititional care 
at T2 (OR = 0.58), but not at T3.  
Split up of T2 difference shows that the holds for 
all items separately, but not for this question on 
life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current living in an institution or not
Subject code: I02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2001): study AU 2001 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 2, Report 1.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 34
Our classificationCurrent living in an institution or not, code I02ab
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $30000-$60000
4:  $60000-$90000
5:  $90000+
Observed distributionN = 1: 413, 2: 472, 3: 603, 4: 310, 5: 206

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .000
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 2,26
2 Mt = 7,57; SD = 2,09
3 Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,87
4 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,61
5 Mt = 8,20; SD = 1,42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current living in an institution or not
Subject code: I02ab

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelLiving arrangement, alone, with spouse, child, both, or others
Page in Source 138, 146.
Our classificationCurrent living in an institution or not, code I02ab
Operationalization
a: living alone (reference group)
b: living in institution,
c: living with spouse, 
d :living with child,
e :living with child and spouse,
f: living with others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOLRC=
Individual happiness by living arrangement.

OPRC controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate
 
-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.61 p < .01
Living in institution
(OPRC = +0,612)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.27 p < .01
living with spouse
(OPRC = +0,267)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.43 p < .01
living with child
(OPRC = 0,+0,425)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.35 p < .01
living with child & spouse
(OPRC = +0,346)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.33 p < .01
living with others
(OPRC = +0,326)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current living in an institution or not
Subject code: I02ab

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent living in an institution or not, code I02ab
Operationalization
a: living with both parents 
b: living with mother only
c: half with father, half with mother
d: living with mother and stepfather
e: living with father only 
f: other
g: living independent
h: living with father and stepmother
i: living with foster parents
j: living in children's home
Observed distributionin %: a: 74.9; b: 9.3; c: 6.4; d: 2.9; e : 2.1; f: 1.9; g: 1.1; h: 0,8; i: 0,4; j: 0,3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
a: living with both parents           M= 7.8
b: living with mother only            M= 7.3
c: half with father, half with mother M= 7.5
d: living with mother and stepfather  M= 7.3
e: living with father only            M= 7.4
f: other                              M= 7.3 
g: living independent                 M= 7.3
h: living with father and stepmother  M= 7.3
i: living with foster parents         M= 7.2
j: living in children's home          M= 6.4
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtones only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.83
b:living with mother only            M=7.31 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.32
e:living with father only            M=7.41
f:other                              M=7.38
g:living independent                 M=7.38
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.35 
i:living in children's home          M=7.25
j:living in children's home          M=6.85
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtones (Turkish and Moroccan) only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.52 
b:living with mother only            M=7.60
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=8.12
e:living with father only            M=7.99    
f:living with both parents           M=6.50 
g:living independent                 M=6.57
h:living with father and stepmother  M=4.99
i:living with foster parents         M=6.73
j:living in children's home          M=5.04
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone girls only
a:living with both parents          M=7.69
b:living with mother only           M=7.08
c:half with father,half with mother M=7.13 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=7.25 
e:living with father only           M=7.19
f:other                             M=7.62
g:living independent                M=7.31
h:living with father and stepmother M=7.51 
i:living with foster parents        M=7.41
j:living in children's home         M=5.63
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone boys only
a:living with both parents           M=7.96 
b:living with mother only            M=7.56 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.91 
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.43
e:living with father only            M=7.62    
f:other                              M=7.62
g:living independent                 M=7.31 
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.27 
i:living with foster parents         M=7.08
j:living in children's home          M=7.21
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtone boys only
a:living with both parents          M=7.64
b:living with mother only           M=7.52
c:half with father,half with mother  M=7.12        
 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=8.36
e:living with father only           M=8.00 
f:other                             M=6.59
g:living independent                M=7.56
h:living with father and stepmother  -    i:living 
with foster parents        M=6.00
j:living in children's home         M=5.50.
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-a
Allochtone girls only
a:living with both parents           M=7.41 
b:living with mother only            M=7.66
c:half with father, half with mother M=8.04
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.62
e:living with father only            M=7.99
f:other                              M=6.43 
g:living independent                 M=5.87 
h:living with father and stepmother  -    
i:living with foster parents         M=7.00 
j:living in children's home          M=4.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current living in an institution or not
Subject code: I02ab

StudyFernandez Ballesteros (1998): study ES 1993
TitleQuality of Life: The Differential Conditions.
SourcePsychology in Spain, 1998, Vol. 2, 57 - 65
URLhttp://www.psychologyinspain.com/content/reprints/1998/7.htm
Public65+ aged, Spain, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1014

Correlate
Author's labelhousing arrangement
Page in Source 63
Our classificationCurrent living in an institution or not, code I02ab
Operationalization
a:living in own home
b:living in a public residence
c:living in a private residence
Observed distributionN =1014 a= 507; b= 256 and c= 251

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-a
No difference. Statistic not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a home for elderly
Subject code: I02ab01

StudyZhang & Liu (2007): study CN 2002
TitleChildlessness, Psychlogical Well-being and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly in China
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 2007, 22:185-203
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10823-007-9037-3
Public65+ aged, China, 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13447

Correlate
Author's labelCo-residence
Page in Source 193
Our classificationLiving in a home for elderly, code I02ab01
Operationalization
1: Living with household members
2: Living alone
3: Living in nursing homes (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.23 p < .01
Living with household members (vs living in 
nursing home)
B controlled for 
- age
- gender
- education 
- residence
- access to pension 
- access to medical services
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.61 p < .01
Living alone (vs living in nursing home)
B controlled for 
- age
- gender
- education 
- residence
- access to pension 
- access to medical services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a home for elderly
Subject code: I02ab01

StudyLi et al. (2008): study CN 2002
TitleAn Exploration of the Subjective Well-Being of the Chinese Oldest-Old.
SourceHealthy Longevity in China, Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, 2008, Vol. 20, 347 - 356
URLhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6752-5_21
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6752-5_21
Public80+ aged, China, 2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response1285
Respondents N =11175

Correlate
Author's labelLiving arrangement
Page in Source 352
Our classificationLiving in a home for elderly, code I02ab01
Operationalization
a: Household member
b: In eldery home
c: Alone
Observed distributionN: a = 8979, b = 633, c = 1563

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
a. M = 3,71
b. M = 3,85
c. M = 3,34
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aAoV= p < .001
F-ratio = 138,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a home for elderly
Subject code: I02ab01

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelUse of care facilities
Page in Source 310, 319-320, 324
Our classificationLiving in a home for elderly, code I02ab01
Operationalization
Self report on current use and usage frequency of 
various care facilities:
a: None 
b: Social center
c: Multiservice center
d: Day care center
e: Home help
f: Hostel
g: Nursing home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aDM=+/-
Non users             M=64.2 SD=21.6
Users of
-Social center        M=65.2 SD=21.7
-Multiservice center  M=66.4 SD=21.7
-Day care center      M=62.1 SD=25.0
-Home help            M=58.7 SD=23.6
-Hostel               M=72.6 SD=20.2
-Nursing home         M=67.7 SD=22.8
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aAoV=14.7 ns
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.1 ns
USAGE of (vs non-usage)
-Social center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.3 ns
-Multiservice center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-1.4 ns
-Day care center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.6 ns
-Home help
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+3.4 ns
-Hostel
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.8 ns
-Nursing home

B's controlled for:
-age
-sex
-education
-acquiescence
-reception of public welfare
-religious faith
-living arrangement
-marital status
-quality of life in the past years
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.3 p < .01
CUMULATIVE USE of (per year
-Social center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.5 p < .01
-Multiservice center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.6 ns
-Day care center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.1 ns
-Home help
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+40 p < .01
-home care
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.3 ns
-hostel
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.9 ns
-nursing home

B is controlled for:
-age
-sex
-education
-acquiescence
-reception of public welfare
-religious faith
-living arrangement
-marital status
-quality of life in the past years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a home for elderly
Subject code: I02ab01

StudyDeKlerk (2005): study NL 2004
TitleOuderen in Instellingen. (Elderly Living in Institutions).
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2005, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicEldery living in institutions, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1158

Correlate
Author's labelEldery living in Institutions
Page in Source 22
Our classificationLiving in a home for elderly, code I02ab01
Operationalization
a: care home     
b: nursing home
Observed distributionN = a: 578, b: 198
Remarks
Care home (in Dutch 'verzorgingshuis') provides light 
care for fairly independent residents
Nursing home: (in Dutch 'verpleeghuis') provides 
'heavy' care for seriously disabeled residents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=1,63 p < .05
nursing home    M = 3,50 CI95 [3,51-3,65]
care home       M = 3,21 CI95 [3,05-3,37]
- difference        0,48 CI95 [0,31-0,65]
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dE²=+.03
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dgH=+.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Living in a home for handicapped
Subject code: I02ab02

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labeltype of housing
Page in Source 16
Our classificationLiving in a home for handicapped, code I02ab02
Operationalization
a: Living alone
b: With spouse
c: With friend
d: With parents or in another family
e: Group home, 3-5 persons
f: Group home, more than 5 persons
g: Institution for persons with Intellectual disability
Observed distributiona: 58(15%), b:14(4%), c:12(3%), d:42(11%),e: 40(11%), f: 173(46%), g: 37(10%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aChi²=+7.8 p < .05
%happy
a:91
b:86
c:92
d:93
e:80
f:84
g:76
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBMCT= p < .00
d>g,e,f,b
c>g,e,f
a>g,e
b>g


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of institution
Subject code: I02ac

StudyDenDraak (2010): study NL 2008
TitleOudere Tehuisbewoners Landelijk Overzicht van de Leefsituatie van Ouderen in Instellingen 2008/2009. ( Institutional Living of Older People National Survey of the Living Situation of Older People in Homes 2008/2009.)
SourceSocial Cultural Planning office (SCP), 2010, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_2010/Oudere_tehuisbewoners
Public50+ aged, living in institution, Netherlands, 2008-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1039

Correlate
Author's labelkind of institution
Page in Source 27
Our classificationCharacteristics of institution, code I02ac
Operationalization
a: care home: living independently in own appartment, 
limited care
b: somatic nursing home: own room, full care
Observed distributionN = a: 709, b: 330

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
care home      M = 3,58
nursing home   M = 3,21
- difference       0,37
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=
care home      M = 2,89
nursing home   M = 3,34
-difference:       0,45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Restrictiveness of setting
Subject code: I02ac01

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal control: self rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationRestrictiveness of setting, code I02ac01
Operationalization
Self report on 9 questions concerning choices in their 
everyday setting

- Did you choose where tho live(in which institution, 
group home or aprtment)
- Do you have a key to your own apartment or to your 
own room?
- Can you take a snack whenever you want?
- Do you cook at least once a week?
- Do you have your own bank account where you can draw 
money?
- Do you have any domestic chores that you are 
responsible for?
- Can you ask your friends to visit whenever you want 
to?
- Does anybody read your mail without your permission?
- Did someone else choose your furniture or carpets?

reponse option: 'yes', 'no', 'don't know'
Observed distributionM=74.22, SD=(20.68
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.62
Remarks
The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-3.5 p < .01
Mean control score 
Happy     = 75.76(SD=19.38)
Not happy = 65.45(SD=25.42)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Restrictiveness of setting
Subject code: I02ac01

StudyBaker & Intagliata (1982): study US 1981
TitleQuality of Life in the Evaluation of Community Support Systems.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1982, Vol. 5, 69 - 79
DOIdoi:10.1016/0149-7189(82)90059-3
PublicMental patients shortly after change in institutional setting, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelResidence-type
Page in Source 77
Our classificationRestrictiveness of setting, code I02ac01
Operationalization
1: Supervised
   a: formally supervised
   b: adult home
   c: family care home
   d: skilled nursing home
   e: group home
0: Non-supervised
   a: boarding house
   b: private residence with spouce
   c: private residence with parents
   d: private residence with non-kin
   e: private residence alone


1: uperviseded:                            42% resided 
in formally supervised     settings including 25% in 
adult        homes, 14% in family-care homes,       2% 
in skilled nursing homes and 1% in   group homes.       
                  
2 Non-supervised:                        The remaining 
respondents living in    settings without formal 
supervision    included 8% in boarding or rooming     
houses, 7% in a private redidence    
  with their spouse, 16% in a private    residence with 
their parents or        relatives, 5 % in a private 
residence   with unrelated others and 22% were     
living alone in a private residence.
Observed distribution1a: 42%, 1b 25%, 1c 14%, 1d: 2%,, 1e: 1% 2a: 8%, 2b: 7%, 2c: 16%, 2d: 5%, 2e 22%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSNR= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Restrictiveness of setting
Subject code: I02ac01

StudyBanziger & Roush (1983): study US 1978
TitleNursing Homes for the Birds: A Control- Relevant Intervention with Bird Feeders.
SourceThe Gerontologist, 1983, Vol. 29, 527 - 531
URLhttp://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/5/527.abstract
DOIDOI: 10.1093/geront/23.5.527
PublicNursing home residents, Ohio, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelinvoking responsibility
Page in Source 530
Our classificationRestrictiveness of setting, code I02ac01
Operationalization
In a nursing home  three groups were selected for a 
test for a responsibility inducing intervention.
1. Responsibility group. In a meeting the head 
administrator delivered a message of " caring for 
yourself, making your own decisions" They also got the 
responsibility for a bird feeder put up at their 
window,with the instruction: "when the food gets down, 
let us know" 
2. Dependency group. In a meeting the head 
administrator delivered a dependency message: "your 
happiness is our responsibility"
3. Control group. They received no message at all.

Happiness was assessed 2 weeks prior to the 
interventions and 3 weeks after.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-?-7-aDM=+ p < .001
Selfrating responsibility group: pretest M=4.07, 
posttest M=5.42
A-CP-?-rdn-n-10-aDM=+ p < .05
Staffrating responsibility group: pretest M=5,86, 
posttest M=7,43
M-FH-?-sq-?-7-aDM=- ns
Selfrating dependency group: pretest M=3,61: 
posttest M=3,69.
A-CP-?-rdn-n-10-aDM=- ns
Staffrating dependency group: pretest M=4,92; 
posttest M=5,84
M-FH-?-sq-?-7-aDM=- ns
Selfrating control group: pretest M=3,83; posttest 
M=3,67
A-CP-?-rdn-n-10-aDM=+ p < .01
Staffrating control group: pretest M=4,50; 
posttest M=6,25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Restrictiveness of setting
Subject code: I02ac01

StudyLanger & Rodin (1976): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibilty for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, Vol. 34, 191 - 198
PublicNursing home residents, Hamden, Connecticut, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response51%
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelBoosting of responsibility and choice
Page in Source 196
Our classificationRestrictiveness of setting, code I02ac01
Operationalization
In nursing home two floors selected because of 
similarity in residents' characteristics. A different 
floor was randomly selected for each treatment. The 
nursing home administrator called a meeting in the 
lounge of each floor where she delivered two 
communications. 0 Comparison group: 2nd floor, the 
  administrator stressed staff
  responsibility
1 Experimental group: 4th floor, the 
  administrator emphasized respondents
  responsibility for themselves

Happiness was assessed 1 week prior to the 
communication (T1) and 3 weeks after (T2).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aDMt=+ p < .05
Mean happiness (Mt) pre and post treatment.
                     T1      T2      CHANGE
-Experiment       :  6.31    6.65    + 0.34
-Comparison group :  5.99    5.84    - 0.15

The difference in change was significant at  05 
level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Restrictiveness of setting
Subject code: I02ac01

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelRestrictiveness of setting
Page in Source 328
Our classificationRestrictiveness of setting, code I02ac01
Operationalization
0 Open ward
1 Closed ward

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aDM=+ p < .001
Open ward  : M = 4.7  Mt' = 6.7
Closed ward: M = 5.4  Mt' = 7.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Group morale
Subject code: I02ac02

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSocial support
Our classificationGroup morale, code I02ac02
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'Compared to other religious 
communities, how do you rate yours on the way sisters 
get along?', rated on a 4-point scale: (1) Better than 
all; (2) Better than most; (3) about the same as most; 
(4) not as good as most. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.18 p < .05
Only assessed at T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Group morale
Subject code: I02ac02

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelGroup cohesion
Our classificationGroup morale, code I02ac02
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'Feel part of local house 
group?', rated on a 4-point scale: (1) Really part; (2) 
Part in most ways; (3) Part in some ways; (4) Don't 
really belong. (order reversed).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.26 p < .01
Only assessed at T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Organizational change in institution
Subject code: I02ac03

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelOrganizational change
Our classificationOrganizational change in institution, code I02ac03
Operationalization
A president and council form of administration was 
replaced by team governance.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aE²=+.23 p < .01
T1 (before change)         Mt'= 8.3
T2 (2 years after change)  Mt'= 8.5
T3 (4 years after change)  Mt'= 8.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Quality of staff in institution
Subject code: I02ac04

StudySchneider & Coppinger (1971): study US 1969
TitleStaff-Resident Perceptions of the Needs and Adjustment of Nursing Home Residents.
SourceAging and Human Development, 1971, Vol. 2, 59 - 65
PublicChronically impaired males, living in nursing home, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response51% unobtainable, because of incapacity or inability to understand.
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelMisperception of Ss needs by staff
Page in Source 63
Our classificationQuality of staff in institution, code I02ac04
Operationalization
10-item inventory of statements which were intended to 
represent general needs of particular importance to 
resi- dents of an institution for the age (e.g. "being 
able to do things for yourself", being with people who 
like you"). 

On the basis of paired comparisons the relative 
importance of each of the needs was assessed for each 
of the 
residents. 
In the same way each staff member's perception of the 
relative importance of the needs for each of the 
residents was assessed. A difference score was computed 
for the discrepancy between each resident's ordering 
and the overall staff's ordering of the needs.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-ata=-.14 ns
Also the 20 difference scores of each individual 
staff member were ranked and then correlated with 
his rankings of the residents on satisfaction 
(= happiness measure). For only 2 of the 16 staff 
members a significant correlation was found.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Size of institution
Subject code: I02ac05

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelSize of convent
Page in Source 58
Our classificationSize of institution, code I02ac05
Operationalization
Single direct question: How many nuns including 
yourself live together in the same convent?
1: 5 or less 
2: 6-10 
3: 11-15 
4: 16-25 
5: 25-50 
6: over 50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=+.06 ns
Convent-size signifficantly affected the jealousy 
that the sisters saw among the nuns in her 
convent.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation
Page in Source 57
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
satisfaction with living situation 
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .0001
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.42 p < .0001
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .0001
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelGroup cohesion
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'Feel part of local house 
group?', rated on a 4-point scale: (1) Really part; (2) 
Part in most ways; (3) Part in some ways; (4) Don't 
really belong. (order reversed).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.26 p < .01
Only assessed at T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with persons around
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about persons 
around dependable/ responsible?', rated on a 7-point 
Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging from (1) Delighted to 
(7) Terrible,       (8) neutral. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.17    (05)
T2: 1979     r= +.28    (01)
T3: 1981     r= +.38    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with opportunity to change things
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about the 
opportunity to change things not liked?', rated on a 
7-point Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging from (1) 
Delighted to (7) Terrible,
(8) neither. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.07    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= +.13    (05)
T3: 1981     r= +.24    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.07    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= +.13    (05)
T3: 1981     r= +.24    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with responsibilities forother sisters
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about 
responsibilities for other sisters (local community)?', 
rated on a 7-point Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging 
from (1) Delighted to 
(7) Terrible, (8) neither.
(order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.27    (01)
T2: 1979     r= +.20    (01)
T3: 1981     r= +.20    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with local house government
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about the 
local house government?', rated on a 7-point 
Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging from (1) Delighted to 
(7) Terrible, 
(8) neither. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.09    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= +.14    (05)
T3: 1981     r= +.24    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to institution
Subject code: I02ad

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelConsidering depature from the convent
Page in Source 57
Our classificationAttitudes to institution, code I02ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: During the past six 
months, which of the following would best describe 
feelings or thoughts you have had about leaving 
religious life?
1: I have not considered leaving
2: I have considered leaving but not seriously 
3: I have seriously considered leaving but have decided 
against it 
4: I have seriously considered leaving and may do so 
5. I will probably leave
Observed distribution1=60%< 2=23%, 3=10%, 4=5%, 5=2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=-.47 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior in institution
Subject code: I02ae

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelCooperativeness
Page in Source 329
Our classificationBehavior in institution, code I02ae
Operationalization
Ratings by two experienced staff members who are 
familiar with all the patients on a 7-point 'rebellious 
- cooperative' scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=+ p < .001
Open ward  : r = +.56 (001)
Closed ward: r = +.60 (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior in institution
Subject code: I02ae

StudySchneider & Coppinger (1971): study US 1969
TitleStaff-Resident Perceptions of the Needs and Adjustment of Nursing Home Residents.
SourceAging and Human Development, 1971, Vol. 2, 59 - 65
PublicChronically impaired males, living in nursing home, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response51% unobtainable, because of incapacity or inability to understand.
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelAdjustment to life in nursing home
Our classificationBehavior in institution, code I02ae
Operationalization
Overall staff-ratings based on the staff's own 
conceptualization of adjustment

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-ata=+.35 p < .02
For 8 out of the 12 staff members a 
significant(05) relationship between their 
rankings on adjustment and satisfaction (= 
happiness measure)was found (range of _ = +.27 to 
+.51).

Analysis of results suggest that in evaluatingthe 
residents the staff equated adjustment with 
external criteria, such as cooperation and 
conduct, more than with internal criteria, such as 
the feelings of the residents.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior in institution
Subject code: I02ae

StudySchneider & Coppinger (1971): study US 1969
TitleStaff-Resident Perceptions of the Needs and Adjustment of Nursing Home Residents.
SourceAging and Human Development, 1971, Vol. 2, 59 - 65
PublicChronically impaired males, living in nursing home, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response51% unobtainable, because of incapacity or inability to understand.
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelCooperation with staff in nursing homes
Page in Source 63
Our classificationBehavior in institution, code I02ae
Operationalization
Overall staff-ratings on cooperation with the staff, 
conformity to rules,and conduct.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-ata=+.46 p < . 01
For 12 out of the 16 staff members a significant 
(05) relationship between their ranking on 
cooperation and satisfaction (= happiness measure) 
was found (range of _ = +.32 to +.63).


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-CP-?-rdn-n-10-aRating by two nurses on different shifts, who had frequent contact with the subject

"........ how happy ......"
(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Scale labels not reported
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
M-FH-?-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... how happy you feel ....."
(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Scale labels not reported
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy would you say you were in general?"
1 -
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 +

(Full response options not reported)
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy or unhappy do you think you are.....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 moderately happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-rc-?-0-aClinical rating by 16 staff members on the basis of lasting face to face contact.

".......happiness and satisfaction with past and present life......"
(full question to raters not reported)

Rating scale not reported
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question:

.. Global life quality.. (full text not reported)
0 lowest quality
.
.
100 highest quality

Rated on line scale with 10 point demarcations between 0 and 100

Name: Spitzer Uniscale
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate your quality of life?
1 very poor
2 poor
3 neither poor nor good
4 good
5 very good
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"...... how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole......?"
(Full question not reported)
1 not very satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SL?-c-sq-*-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life ....."
Full question not reported

Response options: not reported
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole: are you .....?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life today
0 no
1 don't know
2 yes

Item in Munsh Happiness inventory
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6 satisfied

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale' adjusted version
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
SNRStatistic Not Reported
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
taKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-A
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1], but if ties are present -1< ta< +1.

Meaning:
ta = 0 « no rank correlation
ta = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
to high happiness ratings.
ta =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGC03ab03Non-biological children
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGC07COMMUNAL LIVING
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGF01ab02bNo living parents
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGM11MILITARY LIFE
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGP11PRISON
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVINGS01ac04School-type
I02aaInstitutional careerL10aaResidential career
I02abCurrent living in an institution or notH13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION
I02ab01Living in a home for elderlyP06acCurrent functional health
I02ab01Living in a home for elderlyH02abCurrent handicap
I02ab01Living in a home for elderlyF02aaFamily career (family life-cycle)
I02ab02Living in a home for handicappedH02abCurrent handicap
I02ab02Living in a home for handicappedP06acCurrent functional health
I02ac01Restrictiveness of settingF05ab03Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
I02ac05Size of institutionH13ab03Number of persons in household
I02adAttitudes to institutionM11adAttitudes to military life
I02adAttitudes to institutionS01adAttitudes to school
I02adAttitudes to institutionW05WORK: ATTITUDES

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings