Findings on Happiness and INCOME

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and INCOME
Subject Code: I01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
I01INCOME1
I01aaIncome career3
I01aa01Earlier income3
I01aa01aEarlier level of income14
I01aa01bEarlier sufficiency of income1
I01aa01dEarlier satisfaction with income2
I01aa02Change in income4
I01aa02aChange in income level46
I01aa02bChange in income sufficiency0
I01aa02dChange in source of income4
I01aa02eChange in attitude to income3
I01aa03Later income3
I01aa03aLater level of income11
I01aa03cLater source of income2
I01aa03dLater satisfaction with income3
I01abCurrent income level (unspecified)109
I01ab01Personal income51
I01ab02Household income 313
I01acSufficiency of current income20
I01ac01`objective` poverty15
I01ac02Subjective poverty16
I01ac03Being able to save2
I01adSource of current income6
I01ad01Own income or not4
I01ad03Type of income4
I01ad03aParents1
I01ad03bPension6
I01ad03cWelfare11
I01ad03dPaid work1
I01ad03eNon-money income from farming2
I01aeRelative income26
I01ae01Relative to family of origin0
I01ae02Relative to neighborhood12
I01ae03Relative to nation18
I01afAttitudes to own income9
I01af01Concerns about income9
I01af01aAspired income-increase3
I01af01bWorrying about money6
I01af02Income aspirations18
I01af03Income expectations8
I01af05Satisfaction with income\finances19
I01af05aSatisfaction with income33
I01af05bSatisfaction with financial situation109
I01af05cSatisfaction with financial security20
I01af05dSatisfaction with opportunity to save2
I01af05eSatisfaction with standard of living53
I01af05fSatisfaction with physical needs met4
I01aa02fAttitude to change in income3
I01ad02Main breadwinner1
I01aa02cChange to better or worse7
I01ac04Material standard of living5
I01aa01eEarlier concern about income1
I01ab03Negative/Zero income2
I01aa01cEarlier relative income level1
I01af05gSatisfaction with relative income1
I01af04Income comparisons6
I01ad03fWindfall income1
I01ae04Relative to similar people15
I01aa03bLater relative income1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and INCOME
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=I01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and INCOME
Subject code: I01

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic Well-Being
Page in Source 58,67
Our classificationINCOME, code I01
Operationalization
Factors derived from responses on the following 
questions:
a How do you feel about your standard of living …?
b How do you feel about your house or apartment?
c How do you feel about the income you have and your 
family have?
d Positive affect
e How do you feel about yourself, what you are 
accomplishing, and how you handle problems?

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Observed distributionPositvie
Remarks
Factor 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.32 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income career
Subject code: I01aa

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelln(income)
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationIncome career, code I01aa
Operationalization
self reported natural logarithm of income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.22
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.08
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.21
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.1
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.09
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.33
OPRC controled for
- log work hours
- missing income
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.15
OPRC additionally controlled for
- subjective income
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.12
OPRC additionally controlled for Job 
characteristics
- autonomy
- Work pressure
- Development
- Irregular hours
- Supervisor
- Temporary Job
- Firmsize 
- Number of collegues
- Turn down Job
- Similar job elsewhere
- Easily replaced to Job 
- Time to work
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.03
OPRC additionally controlled for Personal 
characteristics
- Health
- Marital status
- Having children
- Education
- Age
- Trust
- Equality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income career
Subject code: I01aa

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationIncome career, code I01aa
Operationalization
income decile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .01
B (0.102) controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employmnet
  - education
  - marital status
- national characteristics
  - number of TV channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Income career
Subject code: I01aa

StudyKuhn et al. (2011): study NL 2003
TitleThe Effects of Lottery Prizes on Winners and their Neighbors: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery.
SourceIZA DP, 2011, No. 4950, Tilburg, The Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/36917
PublicLottery winners, players and controls, Netherlands, 2003-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response32.7 %
Respondents N =2011

Correlate
Author's labelNon-lottery income
Page in Source 30
Our classificationIncome career, code I01aa
Operationalization
1: higher annual household income post tax, before 
lottery.
0: lower  annual household income post tax, before 
lottery.
Remarks
Lottery players only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12 p < .01
B controled for:
- Car consumption
  - bought a car after lottery
  - number of cars
  - age of cars
- Monthly expenditures
  - food at home
  - food away
  - transport
  - other
- Occasional expenditures
  - exterior renovations
  - other renovations
  - vacation
  - non-car durables
- Other factors
  - PostCodeLottery (player) now
  - Charity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income
Subject code: I01aa01

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalent income
Page in Source 14 + 22
Our classificationEarlier income, code I01aa01
Operationalization
Household's income net of taxes and including benefits, 
adjusted for household size, using OECD equivalence 
weights which are 1.0 for the first adult, 0.7 for 
other adults and 0.5 for children under 18.

Assessed at T1  (1984) and T2 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.14
T1 happiness by T1 income: raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
T1 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T1 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
T1 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06
T2 happiness by T1 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T2 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.12
T2 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.17
T2 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for income 
and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income
Subject code: I01aa01

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelLog net hourly wage of last job (euros)
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationEarlier income, code I01aa01
Operationalization
Log net hourly wage of last job in euros
Observed distributionM= 7.49; SD=3.98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.49 p < .001
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) gender
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier income
Subject code: I01aa01

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelLog of monthly household income 3 years before
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 34
Our classificationEarlier income, code I01aa01
Operationalization
Natural logarithm of Adjusted Monthly Household Net 
Income three years before
Remarks
Data: earlier wave in this panel study

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.03 p < .10
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.08 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 905
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Financial year disposable personal income, converted 
with 2001 consumper price index (log)
Observed distributionMean: - 2001: $24202 - 2002: $25241 - 2003: $25218 - 2004: $25926 - 2005: $27185
Remarks
Invididuals needed to respond about their income 
sources (both public and private) and afterwards 
disposable income is computed by estimating income 
taxes and transfers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
- income 1 year ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 2 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
- income 3 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 4 years ago

OPRC controlled for:
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelPermanent income
Page in Source 11
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Average income of the individuals  averaged over all 
years in the panel (1992-2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.36 p < .01
Both sexes
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33 p < .01
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.39 p < .01
Women only

OPRC's controlled for:
- employment status
- transitory income (truncated model)
- family status
- age, age squared
- number of children
- years of education
- house ownership
- health indicators

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size

OPRC's mean that a higher permanent income 
corresponds to more happiness and that the 
difference is similar among males and females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyClark et al. (2015): study DE 1992
TitlePoverty Profiles and Well-Being: Panel Evidence from Germany.
SourceSOEP Papers, 2015, no. 739, 1 - 29
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2576631
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 14 years; 1992-2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =368000

Correlate
Author's labelPoverty
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Yearly equivalence household income
1) Poor, below 60% of median equivalent income in 
nation
0) Not poor

a) Incidence: whether individual is poor
b) Intensity: how poor an individual is
c) Chronic poverty: occurrence of periods of poverty
d) Persistence of poverty: to what extent those periods 
are linked together
e) Past poverty
Remarks
Assessed every years
b, c and d only individuals who participated more than 
10 years in the panel

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.13 p < .01
Incidence of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.50 p < .01
Intensity of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 p < .05
Past poverty (scarring)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.13 p < .10
Persistence of poverty
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.07 p < .05
Chronic poverty

b-fix's  controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age group
- Number of  years of education
- Marital status
- Dummy for East Germany
- Number of children in the household


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 296
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Relative income to nation
a currently (T)
b one year earlier (T-1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.27 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T), postive
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T), negative
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
Relative income to nation (T-1), positive
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.57 p < .01
Relative income to nation (T-1), negative


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudySaris (2001b): study DE 1990
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1990-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 130
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by CURRENT income (T)

T1 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T2 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T3 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER income (T-1)

T2 happiness by T1 income: r=+.09
T3 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T3 happiness by T2 income: r=+.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER happiness (T) by LATER income (T+)

T1 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T1 happiness by T3 income: r=+.12
T2 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8 + 17
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Aggregated income of all household members (log)
Observed distributionMean: 2359; SD:1355
Remarks
Assesed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.29 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by CURRENT 
income (T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.31 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by PAST 
(T-1) income

b controlled for:
- Household size
- Years of education
- Home owner
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study DE 1984
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56240

Correlate
Author's labelReal household income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Real net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.50
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+33
b's controled for:
- age squared
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- work status
- state dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53
b additionally controled for average income of 
similar people
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.33
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.32
b additionally controled for past incomes (1, 2 
and 3 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-1) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-2) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06
Current happiness by past (T-3) household income

b's controled for:
- personal characteristics
- average income of similar compatriots
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Real Household post-government income per year in 
German Marks
Observed distributionM = 60.971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.23 p < .02
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
- Gender
  - males         Beta = +.28
  - females       Beta = +.17 
- political preference
  - left          Beta = +.28
  - right         Beta = +.21
- employment
  - employee      Beta = +.20
  - self employed Beta = +.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04 p < .02
CURRENT happiness by PAST income
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.07 p < .02
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06 p < .02
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02 p < .02
4 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE income (one year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05 ns
income rose
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.20 ns
income declined

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- status
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier household income
Page in Source 35
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Household income previous year (log)
Observed distributionMean: 41416.03; SD: 3630.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.00 ns
b-fix (+0.002) controlled for:
- yearly change in household income
- reference group income
- age
- employment status
- health status
- marital status
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudySenik (2004): study RU 1994
TitleWhen Information Dominates Comparison. Learning from Russian Subjective Panel Data.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2099 - 2123
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0047-2727(03)00066-5
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 6 years, 1994-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11129

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 2109
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
a) Individual income: includes cash and non cash 
salaries, other paid work and income, unemployment 
benefits and pensions
b) Household income: household income in its broadest 
sense (including rents)
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.13 p < .01
PAST YEAR's individual income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.24 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income (log)

Controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- household size
- mother tongue
- believer
- gender
- region
- round
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyMartin & Lichter (1983): study US Michigan 1973
TitleGeographic Mobility and Satisfaction with Life and Work.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 64, 524 - 534
Public16+ aged, employees, Michigan/US, followed 4 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response(43%)
Respondents N =827

Correlate
Author's labelPast income
Page in Source 529, 531
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Adding up your income from all sources, roughly what is 
the total yearly incane before taxes of your immediate 
family--including
your income, the wages of everyone else in the family 
who works and income from any other source?
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1973) and T2(1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.09 p < .01
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 income (T2 
happiness by T1 income, controlling for T1 
happiness).

Beta addtionally controlled for:
- T1-T2 residential moving
- T1 age
- T1 education
- T1-T2 change in intrinsic job rewards
- T1-T2 change in extrinsic job rewards


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier level of income
Subject code: I01aa01a

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier level of income
Page in Source 23
Our classificationEarlier level of income, code I01aa01a
Operationalization
Closed question asked 11 years ago at 
T1(1969)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= ns
T1 income by T5 happiness (11 year interval
Males:   r= +.02 (ns)        
Females: r= -.13 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier sufficiency of income
Subject code: I01aa01b

StudyClark (2015): study DE 1992
TitleSWB as a Measure of Individual Well-Being.
SourceHal Archives, 2015, Pse Working Papers, No 2015-11, 1 - 45, Paris, France
URLhttps://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01134483
Public16+ aged, general public, followed 10 years, Germany, 1992-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =368000

Correlate
Author's labelPast poverty
Page in Source 10,12,13,25
Our classificationEarlier sufficiency of income, code I01aa01b
Operationalization
Poverty in the past (respondents observed for at least 
10 years).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 p < .05
ALL
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 ns
Men
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .05
Women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 ns
Age<=60
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 ns
Age >60 

All beta's controlled for:
- age
- employed
- residence East or West Germany
- education (years)
- marital status
- number of children in household


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier relative income level
Subject code: I01aa01c

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelPast income compared to nation
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationEarlier relative income level, code I01aa01c
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"Please imagine a 10-step ladder, on the bottom of 
which, on the first step, stand the poorest 10% of 
people in our country, and on the highest step, the 
tenth, stand the richest 10% in our country. On which 
step of the 10 was your household 4 years ago?"
 a Downward ranking: People who rated themselves 5 or 
lower on the ladder
b Upward ranking: People who rated themselves higher 
than 5 on the ladder.
Error EstimatesAll nations Upward: s.e.=0.041 Downward:s.e.=0.039 Developed nations Upward: s.e.=0.080 Downward:s.e.=0.081 Transition nations Upward: s.e.=0.047 Downward:s.e.=0.044

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=.14 p < .01
ALL NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.20 p < .01
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.01 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 ns
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.19 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.23 p < .01
Downward ranking

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -present and future income rank
  -relative household position
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with income
Subject code: I01aa01d

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 211
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with income, code I01aa01d
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9- point scale (delighted 
...  terrible) Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
Happiness T2 by satisfaction T2, controlling for 
happiness T1 and satisfaction T1.

ß can be interpreted as regression between CHANGE 
OF HAPPINESS and CHANGE OF SATISFACTION in time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier satisfaction with income
Subject code: I01aa01d

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationEarlier satisfaction with income, code I01aa01d
Operationalization
Self report on:
- satisfaction with the income you and your family have
- satisfaction with the pay and fringe benefits you get
- how secure are you financially?

Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...
7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=3,64 SD=1,31
Error Estimatesalpha=.84
Remarks
Assessed at T1 1 or 2 weeks before vacation and T3 the 
week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.49 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier concern about income
Subject code: I01aa01e

StudyNickerson et al. (2003): study US 1976
TitleZeroing on the Dark Side of the American Dream: A Closer Look at the Negative Consequences of the Goal for Financial Success.
SourcePsychological Science, 2003, Vol. 14, 531 - 536
DOIDOI:10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1461.x
PublicStudents USA, followed 20 years 1976-1995-97
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =12894

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial Goal
Page in Source 534
Our classificationEarlier concern about income, code I01aa01e
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

The importance to you personally of being very well off 
financially?
1: not important
2: somewhat important
3: very important
4: essential
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=-.04 p < .0001
T1 financial goals by T2 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=-.04 p < .0001
B controlled for T2 income

Effect of materialism at T1 on happiness at T2 
diminished to zero at highest income level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income
Subject code: I01aa02

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 328
Our classificationChange in income, code I01aa02
Operationalization
Change in Household income per capita. Difference in 
self report over time.
Observed distribution0 no change/decrease 1 increase
Remarks
Subjects with at least two observations, so not all 
followed 10 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
T1-T2 CHANGE in happines vy T1-T2 CHANGE in income
             age <30   30-49     >49

- women      +.22(01)  +.15(01)  +.04(ns)
- men        +.11(01)  +.21(01)  -.06(ns)

B's controled for CHANGE in:
- labour market position
- marital status
- self perceived disability
- self perceived health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income
Subject code: I01aa02

StudyRudolf & Cho (2011): study KR 1998
TitleThe Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea.
SourceCourant Research Centre, Discussion Papers no. 77, 2011, Göttingen, Germany
URLhttp://www.uni-goettingen.de/crc-peg
PublicWorking aged, South-Korea, followed 10 years 1998-2008
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25461

Correlate
Author's labelLog per-capita income
Page in Source 21
Our classificationChange in income, code I01aa02
Operationalization
Log per capita income
Remarks
25.153 observations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-e
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE income.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
Wives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
Husbands

b-fix controled for:
- houshold head
- spouse
- year of survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income
Subject code: I01aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1018,1022,1023
Our classificationChange in income, code I01aa02
Operationalization
Log of self reported household income
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.08 p < .001
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.10 p < .001
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.03 p < .001
CURRENT income by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.02 ns
CHANGE income by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income
Subject code: I01aa02

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelBonus amount
Page in Source 2
Our classificationChange in income, code I01aa02
Operationalization
amount of bonus in $
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.18 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
- % bonus spend for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyAmbrey & Fleming (2014a): study AU 2002
TitleThe Causal Effect of Income on Life Satisfaction and the Implications for Valuing Non-market Goods.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2014, VOL, 123, 131 - 134
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2014.01.031
Public20-59 aged general public, Australia, 2002-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =254727

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Natural log of household income
Observed distributionMean: $38574

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.06 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income

OLRC (5.28E-07) controlled for:
- age squared
- English speaking ability
- marital status
- lone parent
- number of children
- highest level of educational attainment
- self-employed
- employment status
- years at current adress
- life events
- state/territory dummies
- year dummies

Fixed effects ordered logit estimate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySchurer & Yong (2012): study AU 2001
TitlePersonality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random Coefficient models?
SourceHEDG WP 12/01, 2012, York, UK
URLhttp://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/12_01.pdf
Public20-60 aged general public, followed 9 years, Australia, 2001-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7158

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 32
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Disposable household income (log): difference between 
gross household income and estimated taxes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.05 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income
Men only, similar results for females. 

Beta controlled for:
- personality
- age
- marital status
- number of children in household
- number of individuals in household
- health status
- education
- employment status
- total weekly work-hours
- reginal indicators
- time fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelExperienced a fall in HH income
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Self-report on single question for every household 
member with income:
Please recall and fill in the following form regarding 
your personal income earned during 1998-2002.
Income is accumulated and distinguished by: 
1: A fall in HH income in one of the years
0: No fall in HH income in all years
Observed distribution1: 25.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=-.11 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Unemployed
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Marital status
- Sociability
- Dependent relatives
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial problems (because of illness)
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Have you experienced financial problems (because of 
illness)
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer: No (=0) or Yes (=1)
Observed distributionNever: N = 1682 Ever in your life : N = 760

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.28
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.26
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 4.00
ever in your life:       M = 3.53
95% CI for difference:   [0.40 ; 0.54]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in social and health services
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in social and health services
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N= 1875 Ever in your life: N = 572

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.12
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.13
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.68
95% CI for difference:   [0.16 ; 0.32]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in child allowance or child benefits
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in child allowance or child 
benefits
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 1936 Ever in your life: N = 338

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.77
95% CI for difference:   [0.02 ; 0.20]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCuts in health benefits
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Have you experienced cuts in health  benefits
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever : N = 2092 Ever in your life: N = 338

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.89
ever in your life:       M = 3.71
95% CI for difference:   [0.08 ; 0.28]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelMontly household income (log)
Page in Source Table 2, 3
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Change Montly household income (log), in Euros
Observed distributionMean: 2801; S.D.: 1793.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.49 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in income

Beta (+.487), based on pooled OLS, controled for:
- age
- sexe
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

b unaffected by additional control for:
- personality
- year
- region

Similar among males (+.46) and females (+.42)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.17 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in income

Beta (+.165), based on fixed effects, controlled 
for
- household size (log)
- marital status
- children (dummy)
- year
- region

Stronger among males (+.21) than females (+.15)

Interaction with personality:
- stronger among the conscientiousness (males) and 
neurotics (males and females)
- unaffected by openness, extraversion and 
agreeableness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelMontly net household income
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Monthly net household income (in real Euro's, 2003)
Observed distributionM=2851; SD=1881

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.10 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
b controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- educational career
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFitzroy et al. (2013): study DE 2000
TitleTesting the Tunnel Effect: Comparison, Age and Happiness in UK and German Panels.
SourceIZA DP No. 7452, 2013, Hull, United Kingdom.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp7452.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, 2000-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =212650

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 8
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Net household income (montly)
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=2872; SD=1863 East Germany: M=2248; SD=1294

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.25 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.38 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany only

b's are slightly smaller for individuals with age 
<45, and slightly larger for individuals with age 
>45

b's controlled for:
- Marriage
- Cohabiting
- Children
- Health status
- Education
- Work status
- Interview form
- Time in panel
- Year of last interview
- Household size
- Age group
- Year of survey
- Regional/Federal unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelLn (household income)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
in Euros
Observed distributionM = 3169,118 SD = 2143,248

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income

PROBIT ADAPTED OLS. 

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - household size
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
  

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.126 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.19 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life (going to cultural events, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.18 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
  - savings

Random effects. Fixed effects: +.041 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.086 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack 
- relative lack

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.057 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- social life (absolute and relative lack)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.108 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE East Germany 1992
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (East-)Germany, followed 18 years,1992-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81956

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Net equivalized household income (in price level of 
1995, euro)
Observed distributionMean: 13630; SD: 6455

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.29 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT household income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.14 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyWolbring et al. (2013): study DE 1992
TitleNeeds, Comparisons, and Adaptation: The Importance of Relative Income for Life Satisfaction.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2013, Vol. 29, 86 - 104
URLHttp://www.esr.oxfordjournals.org
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcr042,
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1992-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19568

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 94
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Monthly disposable income per capita (in euro) (log)
Observed distributionMean: 1188; SD:981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Beta controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Health
- Number of friends
- Martial status
- Children
- Employment status
- Church Attendance
- Social trust


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier level of household income
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Percentage change of equivalent montly household income 
( T-1 to T)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .05
CURRENT Happiness (T) by earlier CHANGE in 
household income (T-1 to T)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .05
Positive change only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.31 p < .01
Negative change only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 101
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Change (in %) in post-government montly household 
income from 1995 to 1996 (log)
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1995; T2: 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.04
T1 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in income level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=0
T2 happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in income level

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Education
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFerrer-i-Carbonell (2005): study DE 1992
TitleIncome and Well-Being: An emperical Analysis of the Comparison Income Effect.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2005, Vol. 89, 997 - 1019
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/222683403_Income_and_well-being_an_empirical_analysis_of_the_comparison_income_effect
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.06.003
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, 1992-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Family income: net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.25
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.16
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Only West-Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Only East-Germany

Fixed effect analysis controlling for:
- age
- education
- number of children living in the household
- whether individual works


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelHoushold income
Page in Source 735
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real household income (ln), post tax

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.86
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.72
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
women only

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of children
- disability
- employment status
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelDifferences in income
Page in Source 737
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Natural log of real household income, post tax
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1991, T2: 1996 and T3: 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
T1-T2 CHANGE income by T1-T2 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.545 point

Males
- all           DM = +0.281 (05)
- young         DM = +0.238 (05)
- old           DM = +0.378 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.236 (05)
- high educated DM = +0.399 (05)
Females
- all           DM = +0.255 (05)
- young         DM = +0.257 (05)
- old           DM = +0.256 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.219 (05)
- high educated DM = +0.310 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/-
T2-T3 CHANGE income by T2-T3 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.144 point

Males
- all           DM = -0.004 (05)
- young         DM = +0.007 (05)
- old           DM = -0.054 (05)
- low educated  DM = -0.003 (05)
- high educated DM = -0.006 (05)
Females
- all           DM = +0.005 (05)
- young         DM = -0.008 (05)
- old           DM = +0.006 (05)
- low educated  DM = +0.004 (05)
- high educated DM = -0.016 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyWelsch & Kühling (2013): study DE 1991
TitleIncome Comparison, Income Formation, and Subjective Well-Being: New Evidence on Envy versus Signaling.
SourceOldenburg Discussion Papers in Economics, No V-356-13, 2013, Oldenburg, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2258400
DOIdoi:10.2139/ssrn.2258400
Public15+ aged general public, Germany, 1991-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =293998

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 26
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Montly net real equivalized household income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.31 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany, 1991-1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.54 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany, 1991-1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.28 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
West-Germany, 2000-2009
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.38 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
East-Germany, 2000-2009

All b's controlled for:
- Age,
- Marital status
- Size household
- Education level
- Employment status
- Comparison income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelLog household income (post tax)
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.21  Beta=+.20
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
      Males      Females
West: Beta=+.13  Beta=+.13

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 24 years,1984-2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =318346

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 30
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Net equivalized household income (in price level of 
1995, euro)
Observed distributionMean: 16648; SD: 11610

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.26 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT household income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.06 p < .01
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income growth (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Self-administerd-interview
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPischke (2011): study DE 1984
TitleMoney and Happiness: Evidence from the industry Wage Structure.
SourceIZA DP no. 5705, IZA, 2011, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1051.pdf
Public20-64 aged general public, West-Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56476

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 55, 56
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Family income (ln)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.13
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.30
Married men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.26
Married women only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.22
Married women, not working only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.28
Married women, working only

All betas controlled for:
- Age
- Nationality
- Education level
- Region, year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBoes & Winkelmann (2010): study DE 1984
TitleThe Effect of Income on General Life Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 95, 111 - 128
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9452-7
Public25-65 aged singles, (West-)Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9735

Correlate
Author's labelLogaritmic income
Page in Source 121, table 4
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Log of monthly income in Euro
Observed distributionMales: M = 1403, Females: M = 1141

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.36 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Males only
Stronger among unhappy
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.13 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Females only
Similar among happy and unhappy

Controlled for:
- Age squared
- Good health (0/1)
- Time fixed effects
- Unemployment
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 16
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.05 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in income

OPRC controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study DE 1984
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged non-immigrant West-Germans, West-Germany, followed 1984-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56240

Correlate
Author's labelReal household income
Page in Source 33
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real net household income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.50
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+33
b's controled for:
- age squared
- sexe
- education
- marital status
- work status
- state dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53
b additionally controled for average income of 
similar people
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.33
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.32
b additionally controled for past incomes (1, 2 
and 3 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-1) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01
CURRENT happiness by PAST (T-2) household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06
Current happiness by past (T-3) household income

b's controled for:
- personal characteristics
- average income of similar compatriots
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyDiTella et al. (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness Adaptation to Income and to Status in an Individual Panel.
SourceNBER Working Paper 13159, 2007, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w13159
Public18+ aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed 16 years 1984-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7812

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, 3 and 4
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real Household post-government income per year in 
German Marks
Observed distributionM = 60.971

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.23 p < .02
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
- Gender
  - males         Beta = +.28
  - females       Beta = +.17 
- political preference
  - left          Beta = +.28
  - right         Beta = +.21
- employment
  - employee      Beta = +.20
  - self employed Beta = +.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.04 p < .02
CURRENT happiness by PAST income
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.07 p < .02
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.06 p < .02
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.02 p < .02
4 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07 ns
CURRENT happiness (T) by CHANGE income (one year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.05 ns
income rose
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.20 ns
income declined

All betas (fixed effects) controlled for:
- status
- marital state
- employment state
- education
- physical health
- number of children
- child birth in past year
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyVendrik & Woltjer (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness and Loss Aversion: Is utility concave or convex in relative income?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007, Vol. 91, 1423 - 1448
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 17 years, 1984-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102068

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 1436
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Annual disposable family income (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.31
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
b controlled for:
- Family composition
- Unemployment status
- Years of education
- Age
- Weekly hours worked


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 35
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Yearly change of household income (log)
Observed distributionMean: 42185.27; SD:3695.17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.06 p < .01
b-fix controlled for:
- earlier household income
- reference group income
- age
- employment status
- health status
- marital status
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFerrer-i-Carbonell & VanPraag (2002): study RU 1997
TitlePoverty in Russia.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2001, Vol.2, 147 - 172.
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1011560530411
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, 1997-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2233

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 1, Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: What is your total 
monthly family income, including pensions, aliments and 
so on for the last month after tax?
Logarithm is used
Error EstimatesNon response 13%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-gb=+.50 s
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
1997
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-gb=+.35
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
1998

b's controlled for family size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome changes
Page in Source 453
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real household income per month, in roubles
Remarks
T1: 1995; T2:1996; T3:1998; T4:2000; T5:2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nDM=+/-
T1-T5 CHANGE income by T1-T5 CHANGE happiness
Mean change in happiness due to change in income. 
Total change in happiness in this period was 
+0.523 point (men), +0.584 (women). Differences 
are due to the changes in income.

Males
- T1-T2         DM = -0.010 (05)
- T2-T3         DM = -0.089 (05)
- T3-T4         DM = +0.093 (05)
- T4-T5         DM = +0.060 (05)
- T1-T5         DM = +0.055 (05)
Females
- T1-T2         DM = -0.008 (ns)
- T2-T3         DM = -0.100 (05)
- T3-T4         DM = +0.100 (05)
- T4-T5         DM = +0.058 (05)
- T1-T5         DM = +0.050 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySenik (2004): study RU 1994
TitleWhen Information Dominates Comparison. Learning from Russian Subjective Panel Data.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2004, Vol. 88, 2099 - 2123
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0047-2727(03)00066-5
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 6 years, 1994-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11129

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 2109
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
a) Individual income: includes cash and non cash 
salaries, other paid work and income, unemployment 
benefits and pensions
b) Household income: household income in its broadest 
sense (including rents)
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.13 p < .01
PAST YEAR's individual income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-hOPRC=+.24 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income (log)

Controlled for:
- age
- marital status
- household size
- mother tongue
- believer
- gender
- region
- round
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in income
Page in Source 1729/1730
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in response to question about monthly 
income from earnings and/or benefits
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.20 p < .05
T1-T2 INCREASE in income by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.18 p < .05
T1-T2 DECREASE in income by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyFitzroy et al. (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Tunnel Effect: Comparison, Age and Happiness in UK and German Panels.
SourceIZA DP No. 7452, 2013, Hull, United Kingdom.
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp7452.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153189

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 11
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Net household income (montly in pound)
Observed distributionM=2715; SD=2155

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
All
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.06 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Age <45 only
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.02 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Age >=45 only

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- children
- health status
- education
- work status
- time in panel
- year of last interview
- household size
- age group
- wave number
- regions
- regional unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyPfaff & Hirata (2013): study GB 1996
TitleTesting the Easterlin Hypothesis with Panel Data: The Dynamic Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Economic Growth in Germany and in the UK.
SourceZWb Econstor Conference Paper, Münster, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.421619.de/diw_sp0554.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 12 years,1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125095

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 32
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Net real equalized household income (in price level of 
1987, pounds)
Observed distributionMean:16586; SD:10245

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in household 
income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.00 ns
CURRENT Happiness (T) by CHANGE in household 
income (T-1 to T)

b's controlled for:
- Age squared
- Marital status
- Number of children in the household
- Health satisfaction
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Person requiring health in the household
- Regional GDP/capita growth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyProto & Rustichini (2015): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction, Income, and Personality.
SourceIZA Dp, 2015, No. 8837, 1 - 30
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp8837.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 1996-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117041

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Real household income (in 1000 USD)
Observed distributionMean: 6.44; SD: 3.7
Remarks
Converted to US$ at 2005 constant prices

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.00 ns
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income

Among neutrotics stronger effect of low income but 
smaller effect of high income.

Interactions with other BIG-5 personality traits 
non-significant.

Controlled for:
- Age, age squared
- Gender
- Number of children
- Worked hours, worked hours squared
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome relative to the past income (in logs)
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Measure of happiness dependent on the relative change 
in income level (based upon the log of T4 income 
divided by the average income of T1-T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.04 p < .05
b (0.035) controlled for:
- sexe
- age/age squared
- self-reported health
- marital status
- eduation
- unemployed
- number of children
- religiouness
- region
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 p < .10
b (0.027) when additionally controlled for 
absolute income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBecchetti et al. (2008): study GB 1991
TitleEasterlin-Types and Frustrated Achievers: The Heterogeneous Effects of Income Changes on Life Satisfaction.
SourceCambridge Working Papers in Economics 0816, 2008, Cambridge, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cam/camdae/0816.html
Public18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, followed 15 years 1991-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79504

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source Table 3, 4
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Log annual household income, deflated by the price 
index
Remarks
Assessed every year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in log income
Income up   happiness up    16% satisfied 
achievers
            happiness same  30%
            happiness down  18% frustrated 
achievers
Income down happiness up    9%
            happinbess same 16%
            happiness down  11%
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 ns
b (+0.0033) controlled for:
- family status
- number of children
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.06 ns
Satisfied achievers (Easterlin types) only:
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-3.4 p < .02
Frustrated archievers only: 

b's controlled for:
- number of children
- familiy status

Frustrated Achievers are happier than Satisfied 
Achievers (M = 5, 22 vs 4,17 p<.05)

Frustrated achievers more
- female
- divorced
- low educated
- low income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelln household income
Page in Source Table 1+7+8
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Household pretax income from both main respondent and 
his/her spouse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14
Males only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11
Females only
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Age <30
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Age 30-40
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.17 p < .05
Age 40-60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Age <60
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.02 ns
Education level: no education
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Education level: high school dropout
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.18 p < .05
Education level: high school degree
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .10
Education level: college degree or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: married/cohabiting
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Marital status: divorced/seperated
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 ns
Marital status: widowed
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Marital status: never married
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 ns
Marital status: marital status changed last year
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: rents
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.19 p < .05
Home ownership: owns
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Presence of children <18: None
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Presence of children <18: >1 child
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.10 p < .05
Lives in current home: <7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Lives in current home: >7 years
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.12 p < .05
Lives in current home: duration is missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.13 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Less than once a month or 
missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with neighbor: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Less than once a month 
or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.11 p < .05
Socialize with relatives: Once a month or more
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.15 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: less than once a month
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Socialize with friends who live outside 
neighborhood: once a month or more frequently
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.14 p < .05
Sociazlize with people one works with: less than 
once a month or missing
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07 p < .05
Socialize with people one works with: once a month 
or more frequently


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelRecent financial change
Page in Source 324
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
During the last few years has your financial situation 
been getting:
0 got worse
1 stayed the same
2 got better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.12 p < .05
% very happy   
0      21
1      34
2      42
The relationship remains sizable after control for 
perceived comparative income of parents and 
compatriots and occupational presties.
The relation also survives a control for marital 
status, race, household size and social 
participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study US 1971
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public25-74 aged general public, United States, 1971-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4942

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 203-211
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Family income reported in categories.

At T1:
- lowest income group: no income to 1000$ annualy
- highest income group: 25000$ or above

At T2:
- lowest income group: no income to 3000$ annually
- highest income group: income above 100000$
Error EstimatesT1-T2 stability: r=+.67 (0.01)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.13 p < .001
T1 income by T1 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE income by T2 happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.12 p < .001
T2 income by T2 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM=
Income increases M=36.56
Income unchanged M=37.52
Income decreased M=37.92

Unaffected by:
- ethnicity
- education
- wealth neighboor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Ratio of postretirement (T2) income
to preretirement (T1) income.
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=.04 ns
T1- T2 CHANGE in income by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
      
Same for blacks and whites.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease of income
Page in Source 104
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Change in total family income between T1 and T3 (one 
year).
1. less
2. same
3. more

Total family income assessed by estimates.
T1 (Jan. 1963): estimated income 1962.
T3 (Okt. 1963): expected income 1963.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=± ns
CHANGE in income by CHANGE in happiness.
Happiness (Affect Balance) assessed at T1 and T3.

Change in happiness expressed in change () in 
average ridits (RT). RT above .50 indicates that 
Ss in the category became more happy than the 
reference group, RT below .50 that they became 
relatively less happy. The sample of 10 
metropolitan areas served as reference.

1. less income      RT = .49
2. same             RT = .53
3. more income      RT = .50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelChange in pay
Page in Source 104
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Single direct retrospective questions:
a. Raise in pay
   0 No
   1 Yes
b. Cut in pay
   0 No 
   1 Yes
Remarks
Data T1.Employed Ss only.
Happiness level in average ridits (RT).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
Yes: RT=.48            No: RT=.43
               
                    
                     
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=- ns
Yes: RT=.39            No: RT=.43

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level of happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial well-being in previous year
Page in Source 108
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Question on respondent's view of financiel well-being 
in previous year  compared to now:
1: better off 
2. same
3. worse off

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.10
Stepwise regression by age-group.
age group 17-25

Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- year of significant social change
- education
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.07
age-group 26-45
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
-friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- sex
- year of significant social change
- things wanted to do satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.13
age-group 45+ 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- health satisfaction
- non work activities satisfaction
- job satisfacion
- frienship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- things wanted to do satisfaction
- sex
- year of significant social change


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold comparison with past
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"My household lives better nowadays than 4 years ago".
A My household lives better:
    1 "Agree" and "Strongly agree"
    0  Otherwise
B My household lives worse:
    1 "Disagree" and "Strongly disagree"
    0   Otherwise
Error EstimatesAll nations Lives better: s.e.=0.038 Lives worse: s.e.=0.035 Developed nations Lives better: s.e.=0.073 Lives worse: s.e.=0.070 Transition nations Lives better: s.e.=0.045 Lives worse:s.e.=0.040

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
ALLL NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.46 p < .01
Lives worse
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.09 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.62 p < .01
Lives worse
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.25 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Lives better
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.40 p < .01
Lives worse

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -past,present and future income rank
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived deterioration/improvement in material situation
Page in Source q2
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
How has the material situation of your family changed 
within last 6 months? 
1 it has worsened
2 didn't change
3 it has improved
- NR
Observed distributionN: 1: 52,3%; 2: 35,6%; 3:9,3% NR: 2,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,31
2: M = 2,73
3: M = 2,94
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.29 p < .00000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived to be better/worse off than at age 15
Page in Source 204,209,213
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Perceived to be
3. better
2. same
1. worse 
off than at age 15:
Observed distribution3. M = 0.55 SE = 0.008 2. M = 0.31 SE = 0.007 1. M = 0.13 SE = 0.005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.33 p < .01
Percieved to be better than age 15 (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = +0.34 (p<.01)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.14 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.12 p < .01
Percieved to be worse  than age 15 (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = -.05 (ns)
- Whites only   OPRC = -.27 (p<.05)

OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neighbours help out
  - neighbours are aggressive
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
poorest)
    - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelExpect to be better/worse off 2 years hence
Page in Source 204,209,213
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Expect to be ..  2 years hence:
3. better off
2. same
1. worse off
Observed distribution3. M = 0.72 SE = 0.007 2. M = 0.26 SE = 0.007 1. M = 0.02 SE = 0.002

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.12 p < .01
Expect to be better off 2 years hence (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = +0.16 (p<.01)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.26 (p<.01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.05 ns
Expect to be worse off 2 years hence (vs same)
- Africans only OPRC = -0.05 (ns)
- Whites only   OPRC = -0.31 (p<.10)

OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neighbours help out
  - neighbours are aggressive
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
poorest)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial deprevation in retirement
Page in Source 630
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Now that you are retired, is your standard of living 
better or worse than during most of your working 
life-time?'
0: worse
1: better

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.28 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial improvement over time
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Self report on single question about the financial 
situation during the past few years: had it 'been 
worse', did it stay 'about the same', or had it been 
'getting better'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.22 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.15
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- assessments
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons
- resources
- assessments

Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- home ownership
- marital status
- number of children
- number of household members
Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- leisure time
- housing
- health
- education
- community
- government


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income
Subject code: I01aa02d

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelCut in unemployment benefit
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income, code I01aa02d
Operationalization
Have you experienced cut in unemployment benefit
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2148 Ever in your life: N = 296

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.19
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.20
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.92
ever in your life:       M = 3.45
95% CI for difference:   [0.36 ; 0.58]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income
Subject code: I01aa02d

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelFalling outside the social welfare system
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in source of income, code I01aa02d
Operationalization
Have you experienced falling outside the social welfare 
system
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No(=0) or Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2038 Ever in your life: N = 355

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.17
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.16
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.93
ever in your life:       M = 3.46
95% CI for difference:   [0.27 ; 0.47]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income
Subject code: I01aa02d

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Our classificationChange in source of income, code I01aa02d
Operationalization
Change in employment status 1998-2009
as registered in employment registration.
a: going to be/got employed
b: going to be/got unemployed
c: going to be/got retired
d: going to be/got disabled
e: going to be/got social assistance
Observed distributiona: 0,93%; b: 0,14%; c: 0,27%; d: 0,11%; e: 0,05%; No event: 98,50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers earlier 
and later employment registration data. Survey 
respondents identified using their their (encrypted) 
civil service number.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in employment status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting employed slightly increases happiness
b: Getting unemployed after employment is 
preceeded by a decline in happiness and slow 
recovery afterwards which comes close to pre-event 
happiness after 8 years.
c: Retirement does not affect happiness much
d: Disabled already less happy before being 
officially registered as disabled
e: Happiness continues to decrease after getting 
social assistance.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on employment history.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in source of income
Subject code: I01aa02d

StudyBendo & Feldman (1974): study US 1970
TitleA Comparison of the Self-Concept of Low Income Women with and without Husbands Present.
SourceThe Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 1974, Vol. 9, 53 - 85
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bendo_aa_1974.pdf
PublicLow-income women with children, small cities and rural areas, New York State, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1325

Correlate
Author's labelWelfare status
Page in Source 77
Our classificationChange in source of income, code I01aa02d
Operationalization
0 Formerly-welfare 
1 Currently on welfare

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-5-cDM=-
Significant (05) among husband-present females 
only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income
Subject code: I01aa02e

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978 /1
TitleAustralians' Priorities, Satisfaction and Well-Being.
SourceMonograph in Public Policy Studies, nr. 4, University of Melbourne, 1981, Australia
PublicAdults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, followed 25 months 1978-1981
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response0
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with standard of living
Our classificationChange in attitude to income, code I01aa02e
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The income you and your family have
b: Your standard of living: the things you have; 
housing ,car, furniture, etc.
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Remarks
Both Happiness (ABS) and satisfaction with standard of 
living were assessed at T1 and T2 (25 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with standard of living
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.09 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
satisfaction with standard of living
Beta controlled for satisfaction with
- sex life
- health
- house
- friends
- self-fulfillment
- leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income
Subject code: I01aa02e

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 211
Our classificationChange in attitude to income, code I01aa02e
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9- point scale (delighted 
...  terrible) Assessed at T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 ns
Happiness T2 by satisfaction T2, controlling for 
happiness T1 and satisfaction T1.

ß can be interpreted as regression between CHANGE 
OF HAPPINESS and CHANGE OF SATISFACTION in time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in attitude to income
Subject code: I01aa02e

StudyHeadey & Krause (1988): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Health and Wealth Model of Change in Life Satisfaction.
SourceArbeitspapier 260, Sonderforschungsbereich 3, University of Mannheim, 1988, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1985
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition sample A: 8%, sample B: 15%
Respondents N =2718

Correlate
Author's labelChange in satisfaction with income
Page in Source 18
Our classificationChange in attitude to income, code I01aa02e
Operationalization
Closed questions rated on an 11 point scale. Assessed 
at T1 and T2.
'Residual  changes scores' computed by by first 
regressing T2-scores on T1- scores : 
- ^Satisfaction T2^= a + b * Sat T1. 
-  Residual change = Sat T2-^Sat T2^.
Residual change is in fact the deviation of an 
individuals satisfaction at T2 from the average T2- 
satisfaction of Ss who were equally satisfied at T1.
Remarks
CHANGE HAPPINESS by CHANGE SATISFACTION


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.33
Happiness assessed at T1 and T2. 
Change in happiness measured by:
1 Residual change (like change in satisfaction) 
2 Change in happiness expected at T1
                                              
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.29
ß controlled for satisfaction with health.


O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaßL=+.37
ßL path coefficient in the LISREL model, 
also involving : change in health satisfaction, 
change in income, change in employment, change in 
health and age. 
Change in satisfaction with income related to 
change in income (ßL=+.15)  and loss of job 
(ßL=-.18), which in their turn  are related  to 
age (resp. ßL=-.09 and -.08)
  
  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income
Subject code: I01aa02f

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelPrepared for drop in income
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income, code I01aa02f
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:

Did you prepare for the drop in income?
1 Not at all. I just see what my income would be and 
whether I could make and meet
2 I had some idea about my future income and 
expenditures. I have given it a thought
3 I have carefully planned my financial future and 
calculated whether I could make and meet
- Don't know
Observed distributionN = 1: 214, 2: 299, 3: 219, DK: 94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=+
1: M = 6,81  SD = 1,83
2: M = 6,97  SD = 1,64
3: M = 7,16  SD = 1,62
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kb


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income
Subject code: I01aa02f

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelInformation gathered consequences drop income
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income, code I01aa02f
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:
 
Have you gathered information about the consequences 
about drop in income?
a: No, I felt sufficiently informed
b: No, I didn't know where to find information 
c: No, I waited what would happen
d: Yes, I gathered information with….
Observed distributionN:= 1: 314, 2: 121, 3: 105, 4: 286

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=
1: M = 7,19  SD = 1,67
2: M = 6,29  SD = 1,84
3: M = 7,03  SD = 1,69
4: M = 6.87  SD = 1,78
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbBMCT=
b< a,c,d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to change in income
Subject code: I01aa02f

StudyAntonides (2004): study NL 2004
TitleMinder Geld, Minder Gelukkig? (Less Money, Less Happier?)
SourceResearch Report in order of NIBUD, 2004, Wageningen University, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/antonides_g_2004.pdf
PublicPeople with income setback in past 2 years, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =808

Correlate
Author's labelLooking back done enough to deal new financial situation
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitude to change in income, code I01aa02f
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Earlier in this interview you indicated that you have 
experienced an involuntary setback in your income 
during the last two years. The following questions are 
about that phase in your life:

Looking back, have you done enough to deal with the new 
financial situation?
1 No
2 Yes
Observed distributionN = 1: 376, 2: 442

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-kbDM=+
1: M = 6,71  SD = 1,80
2: M = 7,11  SD = 1,72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income
Subject code: I01aa03

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalent income
Page in Source 14 + 22
Our classificationLater income, code I01aa03
Operationalization
Household's income net of taxes and including benefits, 
adjusted for household size, using OECD equivalence 
weights which are 1.0 for the first adult, 0.7 for 
other adults and 0.5 for children under 18.

Assessed at T1  (1984) and T2 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.14
T1 happiness by T1 income: raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.19
T1 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T1 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
T1 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06
T2 happiness by T1 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
T2 happiness by T1 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.12
T2 happiness by T2 income: raw r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.17
T2 happiness by T2 income: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for income 
and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income
Subject code: I01aa03

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 126
Our classificationLater income, code I01aa03
Operationalization
not reported
Remarks
Assessed each year: T1, T2 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness(T) by CURRENT income (T)
                               Raw  .Corrected
T1 happiness by T1 income: r = +.19  +.36
T2 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18  +.32
T3 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12  +.25
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.11
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER (T-1) income
                               raw    corrected
T2 happiness by T1 income: r = +.10   +.21
T3 happiness by T1 income: r = +.08   +.11
T3 happiness by T2 income: r = +.11   +.19
Correction for measurement error in happiness and 
income (disattenuation)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER Happiness by LATER income
T1 happiness by T2 income: r = +.18
T1 happiness by T3 income: r = +.14
T2 happiness by T3 income: r = +.12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56 p < .05
CHANGE happiness (T controled for T-1) by CHANGE 
income (T minus T-1): 1 year lags 

Beta's controled for
- Age
- Education
and corrected for measurement error
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later income
Subject code: I01aa03

StudyLayard et al. (2009): study US 1972
TitleDoes Relative Income Matter? Are the Critics Right?
SourceWorking paper SOEP No. 210, DIW, 2009, Berlin, Germany. (also published in: Diener E.;Helliwell J.E.; Kahneman D.;Eds.: ''International Differences in Well-Being'', Oxford University Press, 2010, 139 - 165)
URLhttp://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0918.pdf
Public30-55 aged white males, United States, 1972-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14836

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial situation relative to others
Page in Source 31
Our classificationLater income, code I01aa03
Operationalization
Answer to the question:
Compared with other American families in general, would 
you say your family income is far below average, below 
average, average, above average or far above average?
Observed distribution0 well below average; 2,5 below average; 5 average; 7,5 above average; 10 well above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.15
b controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - Age, age squared
  - Sex
  - Marital status
  - Employment status
- average income of similar compatriots


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudySaris (2001b): study DE 1990
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1990-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 130
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by CURRENT income (T)

T1 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T2 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T3 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
CURRENT happiness (T) by EARLIER income (T-1)

T2 happiness by T1 income: r=+.09
T3 happiness by T1 income: r=+.10
T3 happiness by T2 income: r=+.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+
EARLIER happiness (T) by LATER income (T+)

T1 happiness by T2 income: r=+.12
T1 happiness by T3 income: r=+.12
T2 happiness by T3 income: r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyVendrik (2013): study DE 1984
TitleAdaptation, Anticipation and Social Interaction in Happiness: An Integrated Error-correction Approach.
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2013, Vol. 105, 131 - 149
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272713001333
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2013.06.009
Public27-59 aged general public, (West-)Germany, followed at least 6 years,1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60984

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 137
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Real household-equivalence income: real household 
income divided by equivalence scale
(equivalence scale not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.03 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
1 year ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.04 ns
2 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.04 p < .01
3 years ago
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.19 p < .01
yearly CHANGE in happiness by yearly CHANGE in 
income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .01
LATER income by CURRENT happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study DE 1984
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public16+ aged, general population, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelSalary
Page in Source 355
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Household income
Remarks
Average over 4 year period: 2000-2003. Based on 
detailed measurement of incomes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.09 p < .001
T1 happiness (1984-87) by T2 income (2000-03)
The initially most happy earned less 15 years 
later.


Control variables not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 350
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Monthly T2 income in dutch currency:
1: below      ƒ 1200,-
2: ƒ 1201, -  ƒ 1600,-
3: ƒ 1601, -  ƒ 2000,-
4: over       ƒ 2000,-
Assessed at T2 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.08 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T3 happiness by T2 income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelLater income
Page in Source 331,333,336
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Household income in rubles/square root of the number of 
people in the household
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1 happiness by T2 income (5 year lag)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.03
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- minority status

Similar in all income quintiles
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.03 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for
T1 income (indicating CHANGE in income)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1 income by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.32
T1-T2 CHANGE in income by T2 happiness

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- occupation/employment
- health
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.19 p < .001
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyZhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9037-7
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8439

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Income in rubles
Remarks
Assessed at:
T1:  1994
T2:  1995
T3:  1996
T4:  1997
T5:  1998
T6:  1999
T7:  2000
T8:  2001
T9:  2002
T10: 2003
T11: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T4 happiness by T5 income
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.06 p < .01
T6 happiness by T7 income

Beta's controled for
-age
-gender
-education

Sign of correlation reversed, correlation in 
report as dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study GB 1996
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public16+ aged, UK, 1993-2006
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5000

Correlate
Author's labelSalary
Page in Source 356
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Household income
Observed distributionSee picture.
Remarks
Average over three years 1996-98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.04 p < .001
T1 happiness (1996-98) by T2 income (2001-03)
The initially most happy earned less 5 years 
later.


Control variables not reported.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Thousands of dollars, computed by combining all incomes 
of $65,000 and above into one category to minimize 
skewness.
Observed distributionM=45.48, SD=17.10
Remarks
Measured at T4 (1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.03 ns
T4 Happiness by T4 income
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.08 p < .05
T1 Happiness by T4 income
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=.00 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyNickerson et al. (2003): study US 1976
TitleZeroing on the Dark Side of the American Dream: A Closer Look at the Negative Consequences of the Goal for Financial Success.
SourcePsychological Science, 2003, Vol. 14, 531 - 536
DOIDOI:10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1461.x
PublicStudents USA, followed 20 years 1976-1995-97
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =12894

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 533
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Household Income in 1995 
1:  less than $1000 
2:  $1000-$9999
3:  $10000-$19999
4:  $20000-$29999
5:  $30000-$49999
6:  $50000-$74999
7:  $75000-$99999
8:  $100000-$149999
9:  $150000-$199999
10: $200000 or more
Remarks
Assessed at T2 (1995-1997)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=+.30 p < .0001
T2 happiness by T2 income
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ib=+.26 p < .0001
B controlled for T1 materialism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater pay
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Pay at T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later level of income
Subject code: I01aa03a

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic deprivation
Page in Source 168
Our classificationLater level of income, code I01aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on single question (text not reported)
0: not deprived
1: economically deprived
Assessed at T2
Observed distributionN = 0: 682, 1: 105
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aD%=
                              T2 deprivation
                              NO       YES
T1-T2 CHANGE happy to unhappy
- Gainfull employed thoughout 31%(500) 60%(50)
- Retired willing             30%(125) 58%(24)
- Retired reluctant           51%(57)  71%(31)

Economic deprevation at T2 goed together with a 
loss of happiness since T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later relative income
Subject code: I01aa03b

StudyDumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010
TitleSatisfaction and Comparison Income in Transition and Developed Economies.
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2014, Vol. 61, 127 - 152
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-014-0201-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response37,7%
Respondents N =38864

Correlate
Author's labelFuture income compared to nation
Page in Source 135-136
Our classificationLater relative income, code I01aa03b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"Please imagine a 10-step ladder, on the bottom of 
which, on the first step, stand the poorest 10% of 
people in our country, and on the highest step, the 
tenth, stand the richest 10% in our country. On which 
step of the 10 was your household 4 years from now?"
 a Downward ranking: People who rated themselves 5 or 
lower on the ladder
b Upward ranking: People who rated themselves higher 
than 5 on the ladder.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
ALL NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.37 p < .01
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 ns
DEVELOPED NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.15 p < .05
Downward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
TRANSITION NATIONS

Upward ranking
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.46 p < .01
Downward ranking

Beta's controlled for: 
-Relative income:
  -future and present income rank
  -relative household position
  -relative parents position
-Social demographic:
  -age squared
  -gender
  -household size
  -marital status
  -education
  -employment
  -log household consumption
-Country dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later source of income
Subject code: I01aa03c

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelPublic Assistance
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationLater source of income, code I01aa03c
Operationalization
Self report on receiving public assistance (vs not). 
Text is not reported.
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
Public Assistance refers to financial and medical 
assistance provided by the Japanese Government to those 
who meet the criteria of need under Japanese welfare 
laws.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.17 p < .01
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.09 p < .10
Beta controlled for:
- ethnicity
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later source of income
Subject code: I01aa03c

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelMissing income
Page in Source 493, 497
Our classificationLater source of income, code I01aa03c
Operationalization
1: missing income
0: not having missing income (reference)
Observed distributionN1: 34.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.22 ns
Missing income (vs not having missing income)
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- age at migration
- origin
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.14 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group Events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income
Subject code: I01aa03d

StudyHeadey & Veenhoven (1989): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDoes Happiness Induce a Rosy Outlook?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.:"How Harmful is Happiness?", Universitaire Pers Rotterdam, 1989, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 106 - 127
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/89c-full.pdf
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 6 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1981-87
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T4: 31%
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with standard of living
Page in Source 115
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income, code I01aa03d
Operationalization
Index of two identical questions asked at the beginning 
and the end of the interview (20 minute interval)    
Rated on a 9-point scale ranging from terrible (1) to 
delightfull (9). Assessed at T1 (1981), T2 (1983),    
T3 (1985) and T4 (1987). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=-.06 ns
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT ON HAPPINESS of 
satisfaction with standard of living (bottum-up).

O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.17 p < .05
Estimated same-time causal EFFECT OF HAPPINESS on 
satisfaction with standard of living (top-down).

Effect assessed at T1, T2, T3 and T4.      
Effect assumed to be identical at all times. 
ßL is the path-coefficient in a four wave LISREL
model. T1 sex, age, SES, extraversion and 
neuroticism are controlled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income
Subject code: I01aa03d

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelIncome satisfaction
Page in Source 101
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income, code I01aa03d
Operationalization
Self report on single quesiton: How satisfied are you 
with the following area's of your life?
- Household income
Answers: 0 (totally unsatisfied) - 10 (totally 
satisfied)
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1995, T2: 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.50
T1 happiness by T1 satisfaction with income level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.04 ns
T2 happiness by T1 satisfaction with income level

All beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Education
- Marital status
- Employment status
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later satisfaction with income
Subject code: I01aa03d

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money
Page in Source 132,134
Our classificationLater satisfaction with income, code I01aa03d
Operationalization
Self report on:
- satisfaction with the income you and your family have
- satisfaction with the pay and fringe benefits you get
- how secure are you financially?

Assessed on a 1-7 scale:1 delighted...
7 terrible
Observed distributionN=121 M=3,64 SD=1,31
Error Estimatesalpha=.84
Remarks
Assessed at T1 1 or 2 weeks before vacation and T3 the 
week after vacation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T1 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.49 p < .05
T3 life satisfaction by T3 satisfaction with money
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
T1 satisfaction with money by T3 life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 109+111+112+113+117
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7:  $150000+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt= p < .377
1 Mt = 7,88; SD = 1,55
2 Mt = 7,83; SD = 1,56
3 Mt = 7,75; SD = 1,52
4 Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,27
5 Mt = 7,95; SD = 1,17
6 Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,09
7 Mt = 8,16; SD = 1,13
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .026
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 2,04
2 Mt = 7,61; SD = 1,95
3 Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,64
4 Mt = 7,76; SD - 1,57
5 Mt = 8,04; SD = 1,32
6 Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,61
7 Mt = 8,23; SD = 1,17
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .003
Survey 7:
5>1
5>3
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .046
Survey 9:
5>1
5>2
5>3
6>1
6>2, p< .033


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source AB11+13+14+15+18+2
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7: >$150000
Observed distributionN = 1:212, 2: 334, 3: 501, 4: 287, 5: 129, 6: 48, 7: 62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .199
1 Mt = 7,44; SD = 2,28
2 Mt = 7,75; SD = 1,88
3 Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,55
4 Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,45
5 Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,21
6 Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,08
7 Mt = 7,95; SD = 1,84
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .167
1 Mt = 7,58; SD = 2,10
2 Mt = 7,34; SD = 2,07
3 Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,69
4 Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,48
5 Mt = 7,54; SD = 1,63
6 Mt = 7,27; SD = 2,15
7 Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,60
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source B12
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1:<$15000
2: $15000- $ 30000
3: $31000- $ 60000
4: $61000- $ 90000
5: $91000- $120000
6: $121000-$150000
7:>$150000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
1 Mt = 7,35; SD = 2,31; N = 184
2 Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,67; N = 390
3 Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,46; N = 420
4 Mt = 8,00; SD = 1,27; N = 280
5 Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,56; N = 120
6 Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,25; N =  49
7 Mt = 8,21; SD = 1,01; N =  39
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
3>1; p<.012
4>1; p<.014
7>1; p<.008


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 97+102+103+163
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of your households total 
annual income before tax?
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $31000-$60000
4:  $61000-$90000
5:  $91000-$120000
6:  $121000-$150000
7: >$150000
Observed distributionN = 1: 246, 2: 241, 3: 377, 4: 250, 5: 128, 6: 37, 7: 64

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt= p < .000
1: Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,97
2: Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,96
3: Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,59
4: Mt = 7,78; SD = 1.60
5: Mt = 8,17; SD = 1,30
6: Mt = 8,22; SD = 0.98
7: Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cAoV=
5>1, p< .001
5>2, p< .004
5>3, p< .046
6>1, p< .015
6>2, p< .033


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income (ln)
Page in Source 25,55,57
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income from al sources and, if married, also from their 
spouse.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+2.5
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.10
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
   - Marital status:
      - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
      - Widowed
      - Divorced
   - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
   - Church attendance
   - Denomination
   - Charity work
- Work status:
   - Education
   - Family income
   - Labor force participation
   - Spouse in labor force
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+0.0
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05
Beta and above B when additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 18,30,T21
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Austrian shillings a month:
< 6.000 / 6.000-10.000 / 10.000-16.000/  >16.000        

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.23 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aG=+.24 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.16 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-atc=+.18 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.16
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
education, professional status, and community size
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.14 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
education, professional status, and community size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly income
Page in Source 395
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1. Less than $250
2. $250 to $499
3. $500 to $749
4. $750 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=+.22 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Perceived health
6. Days in bed
7. Family size
8. Functional ability
9. Satisfaction with family
   relationships
10.Social contacts 
11.Number of children
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMichalos (1986): study CA 1984
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300488
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =457

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 363
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income before taxes
1: under     $  3.000
2: $  3.000- $  5.999
3  $  6.000- $  9.999
4  $ 10.000- $ 19.999
5  $ 20.000- $ 34.999
6: $ 35.000 and over

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
ß path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, 
education, and the perceived discrepancies: own 
life with that of others, life with that deserved, 
life with needs, life with progress in life, life 
now with best previous experience, life with 
wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.05
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.13
Males: total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.14
Males: Total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKennedy et al. (1978): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleSubjective Evaluation of Well-Being: Problems and Prospects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 457 - 474
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352943
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =335

Correlate
Author's labelincome
Page in Source 467
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=+.18 p < .01
All
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG=+.15 p < .05
dwelling: single house
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: semi-detached
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bG= ns
dwelling: apartment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
 1-15
16-27
28-40
41-64
65-75
76-85
86-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.09 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bG=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-btc=+.03 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBlishen & Atkinson (1980): study CA 1977
TitleAnglophone and Francophone Perceptions of the Quality of Life in Canada.
SourceSzalai, A.; Andrews, F.; Eds.:" The Quality of Life, Comparative Studies.", Sage, 1980, London, 25 - 40
PublicAdults, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3288

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 30
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Quintiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-br=+.07
Lowest   1  Mt'= 8.39          SD = 2.12
         2  Mt'= 8.52          SD = 1.88
         3  Mt'= 8.64          SD = 1.82
         4  Mt'= 9.03          SD = 1.51
Highest  5  Mt'= 8.86          SD = 1.55

Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly income
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 3-point scale with 
the choice statements: '$ 1-150', '$ 151-300' and '$ 
301 plus'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.07 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atb=+.06 ns
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
1 -15
16-27
28-40
41-64
65-75
76-85
86-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.19 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dG=+.13 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dtc=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income percentiles:
1: 1 - 15
2: 16- 27
3: 28- 40
4: 41- 64
5: 65- 75
6: 76- 85
7: 86- 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-aG=+.27 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-atc=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
0 monthly wage < MOP 3000
1 monthly wage >= MOP 3000
Remarks
MOP = Macau Pataca  (Macau currency)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+
0: M=6.74
1: M=?


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
An ordered variable representing monthly household 
income over 20 categories from 1 (<260RMB) to 20 
(>20,000 RMB).
Observed distributionMedian=9 (RMB2001-2250).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=+.07 p < .001
b(0.0692) controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2006): study HR 2003
TitleWhat makes Croats Happy? Predictors of Happiness in Representative Sample.
SourceDelle Fave, A.;Ed.: "Dimensions of Well- Being. Research and Intervention, Franco Angeli, 2006, Milan, Italy, 53 - 59
Public18+aged, general public, Croatia, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =1242

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic status
Page in Source 3,12
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self report of monthly income in Euro's, circled one of 
7 options
Observed distribution<70 8% 70-130 19% 130-200 21% 200-270 17% 270-400 15% 400-530 8% >530 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-standard of living, 
-health, 
-achievement in life, 
-relationship with family and friends, 
-feelings of physical safety, 
-acceptance by community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.23
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.25
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ±1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 99
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
DM 2500,-

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE²=+.06 p < .01
DM 2500,-        M=5.23  Mt'=7.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyHeadey & Headey (2003): study DE 1990
TitleGerman Reunification: Welfare Gains and Losses East and West.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 107 - 138
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024780114892
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 40%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quintiles
Page in Source 119, 120/5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Quintile 1 is poorest fifth of the population
Quintile 3 is fifth of the population with middle 
income
Quintile 5 is fifth of the population with highest 
income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
                   East              West
             1990  1992  1997  1990  1992  1997

Quintile 1    6.6   5.8   5.8   6.8   6.6   6.1
Quintile 3    6.7   6.1   6.3   6.7   6.7   6.4
Quintile 5    6.7   6.3   6.7   7.6   7.7   7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 49
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
In thousands

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.47
B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - household size
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 181/182
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
income level in quintiles, 
Q1 = poorest, 
:
Q5 = richest
Observed distributionQ1 = 20%, Q2 = 20%, Q3 = 20%, Q4 = 20%, Q5 = 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eOR=+ p < .05
Income  OR       CI95
Q1      0.304    [0.220-0.420](vs Q5)
Q2      0.345    [0.251-0.476](vs Q5)
Q3      0.374    [0.272-0.514](vs Q5)
Q4      0.581    [0.418-0.806](vs Q5)

OR adjusted for:
- age
- sex
- educational level
- ethnic background


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelStandard of living
Page in Source 269
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.12 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKousha & Mohseni (2000): study IR 1995
TitleAre Iranians Happy? A Comparative Study between Iran and the United States.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 52, 259 - 289
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1007061431186
PublicResidents big city (Tehran), Iran, 1995-97
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response4,8%
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 273/276
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1= no income
2= < 20.000
3= 20.000 to 39.999
4= 40.000 to 59.999
5= 60.000 to 100.000
6= > 100.000
Observed distribution 1995: 1= 79, 2=100, 3=149, 4= 76, 5= 76, 6= 55 1997: 1=306, 2= 63, 3=159, 4=137, 5=165, 6=190

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= p < .02
            1995    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,84    0,35 
             2=    1,69    0,33 
             3=    1,78    0,25
             4=    1,86    0,44
             5=    1,82    0,26
             6=    1,82    0,44
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= p < .01
            1997    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,76    0,43 
             2=    1,83    0,33 
             3=    1,82    0,40
             4=    1,86    0,34
             5=    1,88    0,36
             6=    1,92    0,34
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= p < .02
             1995
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=    10,8    62,2     27,0 
             2=     6,0    57,0     37,0 
             3=     4,0    69,8     26,2
             4=    15,8    53,9     30,3
             5=     5,3    71,1     23,7
             6=    14,5    52,7     32,7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= p < .01
             1997
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=    12,4    51,3     36,3 
             2=     9,5    63,5     27,0 
             3=    11,3    51,6     37,1
             4=    10,9    64,2     24,8
             5=    12,7    63,0     24,2
             6=    13,2    65,3     21,6
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.05 ns
             1995
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.09 p < .00
             1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelincome (net weekly)
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
!: first quartile
2: second quartile
3: third quartile
4: fourth quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-
first quartile:  M = 7.73
second quartile: M = 7.40
third quartile:  M = 7.61
fourth quartile: M = 7.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyTiefenbach & Kohlbacher (2011): study JP 2011
TitleHappiness from the Viewpoint of Economics.
SourceDeutsches Institut für Japanstudien, 2011, Tokyo, Japan
URLhttp:www.dijtokyo.org
Public15 -79 aged, Japan, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28,4%
Respondents N =3578

Correlate
Author's labelIncome and assets
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: very low income
2: low income
3: middle income
4: high income
5: very high income
Observed distributionN=3147; 1:0,04; 2: 0,29; 3: 0,3; 4: 0,3; 5: 0,07.
Remarks
N/A = 431

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fDM=+
1: very low income  M = 5,22
2: low income       M = 5,88
3: middle income    M = 6,51
4: high income      M = 6,93
5: very high income M = 7,45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 46,52,55,56
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Household income in quintiles:
1 low income
2 mid-low income
3 mid-mid income
4 mid-high income
5 high incomer
Observed distribution1st decile: 22.0%; 2nd-5th decile: 20.0%; 6th-8th decile: 19.8 %; 9th-10th decile: 38.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+
Relation between quintiles curvilinear 
(diminishing returns):
Income level       
1 M=4.38
2 M=5.58
3 M=6.00
4 M=6.31
5 M=6.43
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.23 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education level
- work status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.14 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCampbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010
TitleWell-Being and the labour Market from a Global View: It's not Just the Money
SourceGlatzer, W.; Camfield, L.; Moller, V.; Rojas, M.; Eds.: "Global Handbook of Quality of Life" , Springer Science+Buisiness Media, 2014, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 351 - 379
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-017-9178-6_15
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26723

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment vs. low pay work
Page in Source 356
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1 Unemployed
0 High paid worker

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=-
AVREAGE happiness by unemployment rate in 27 EU 
nations

Unemployed are 250% likely to feel less happy than 
high paid workers, and about 150% from low paid 
workers
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19 p < .01
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAlber & Lenarz (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWachsende soziale Ungleichheit in Europa. (Growing Social Inequality in Europe).
SourceISI Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 39, 1 - 5
URLhttp://www.gesis.org/fileadmin/upload/forschung/publikationen/zeitschriften/isi/isi-39.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, EU 27 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income Quartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+
Average happiness in income quartiles in 25 
nations

In rich nations, the poor are happier than the 
rich in poor nations.

Difference in happiness across income categories 
is smaller in rich nations than in poor nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
0 = 1st quartile (low, reference)
1 = 2nd quartile
2 = 3rd quartile
4 = 4th quartile (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.42 p < .05
2nd QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.82 p < .05
3rd QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+1,7 p < .05
4th QUARTILE (vs 1st) No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.87 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-employment
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.77 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.76 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.65 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGraham (2005): study ZZ Latin America 2001
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public16+ aged, general public, 17 countries in Latin America, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18135

Correlate
Author's labelLog wealth index
Page in Source 217
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionN=15209

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cb=+.40
B controlled for:
- Country
- Age
- Gender
- Married
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported household income; coded on a ten-point 
ordinal scale, based on income categories which differ 
by society. This closes off the possibility of 
adjusting household incomes for household size and of 
comparing absolute levels of household income across 
societies.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.12 p < .05
In all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09
In richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.

B's controlled for at individual level:
 -gender
 -marital status
 -age & age squared
 -social class
 -employment status

Unaffected by additional control at country-level 
for:
-GDP per capita
-income inequality
-growth GDP last 10 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
Income has more impact on life-satisfaction in 
poor nations, like Ukraine and Belarus, than in 
rich nations, like Ireland and Sweden.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyFischer (2008a): study ZZ 1997
TitleCompetition and Well-Being: Does Market Competition make People Unhappy ?
SourceSSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance, 2008, No. 697
URLhttp://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/7097952.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, 60 nations, 1997-2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =79064

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level
Page in Source 45
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Deciles
1 lowest (reference)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 highest

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.10 p < .01
Income level 2 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.17 p < .01
Income level 3 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.29 p < .01
Income level 4 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.36 p < .01
Income level 5 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.44 p < .01
Income level 6 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.50 p < .01
Income level 7 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.51 p < .01
Income level 8 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.56 p < .01
Income level 9 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.69 p < .01
Income level 10 vs income level 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Stronger in nations with more market competition. 
Similar among males and females.
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Interaction with competition differs not very much 
with income level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 137
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income levels 1 (low) to 9 (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by individual 
income.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .05
Income level 2 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.13 p < .05
Income level 3 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.27 p < .01
Income level 4 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.34 p < .01
Income level 5 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.47 p < .01
Income level 6 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.56 p < .01
Income level 7 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.57 p < .01
Income level 8 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.65 p < .01
Income level 9 (compared to 1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.74 p < .01
Income level 10 (compared to 1)

Beta's controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being

Beta's are similar if additionally controlled for 
aggregated variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

Study~Eurobarometer (1997): study ZZ EU 15 1997 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 47.
SourceEuropean Commission,1997, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb47/eb47_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source B2
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income:
1:--
2: -
3: +
4:++
Observed distributionDivided in income quartiles for every country, totalled for EU: 1: 18%, 2: 17%, 3: 19%, 4: 19% Don't know or refusal to answer 27%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+ p < .05
1:--  M=2,71  CI95: 2,68-2,74 
2:-   M=2,91  CI95: 2,88-2,94
3:+   M=2,94  CI95: 2,91-2,96
4:++  M=3,09  CI95: 3,07-3,11
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1< 2,3,4
2< 4
4> 1,2,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyWelzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleAgency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model
SourceJournal of happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 97, 43 - 63
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9557-z
Public18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level
Page in Source 59
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported income rank. Normalized scale with 0 for 
the lowest income bracket and 1 for the highest income 
bracket.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL income level in 
76 nations

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
 -Western tradition
 -agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
 -biological age
 -female sex
 -income level
 -education level
-interaction between societal characteristics 
(agentic strategy and Western tradition) with 
individual characteristics:
 -communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family 
and friends as important life domains)
 -monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial 
situation of household)
 -agency feeling
 -agency feeling*monetary saturation
 -agency feeling*communion
 -communion*monetary saturation


Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic openness
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Openness of economy; exports and imports as % of GDP.
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 77,16 SD = 53,23
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by openness of the economy in 67 nations. 


'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.00 ns
B (+0,000) controlled for:
-income inequality
-GDP per capita
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

No relation between economic openness and the 
difference in happiness between poor and rich.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelGDP per capita
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
GDP per capita in dollars
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 9,717 SD = 2,841
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by real income per head in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=-.05 ns
B (-0,054) controlled for
-income inequality
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

The higher the GDP per capita in a nation, the 
less difference in happiness between poor and rich 
(but not significant). This relationship is 
stronger (and significant) among rich and 
democratic nations


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome inequality
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Income inequality (Gini)
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 37,62 SD = 10,14
Remarks
Source: World Income Inequality Database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by income inequality in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.29 ns
B (+0,290) controlled for:
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Government consumption
-Regulatory freedom

The greater income inequality in a nation, the 
bigger the difference in happiness between poor 
and rich (but not significantly). 

This relation is reversed among rich and 
democratic nations (and significantly negative)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelGovernment consumption
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Government consumption as % of national consumption.
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 16,88 SD = 9,22
Remarks
Source: Penn World Tables, Heston et al. (2002)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by government consumption in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=+.01 p < .10
B (+.0,009) controlled for
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Income-inequality
-Regulatory freedom

The more government consumption in a nation, the 
bigger difference in happiness between poor and 
rich. Yet among rich and democratic nations 
government consumption is unrelated to difference 
in happiness between the rich and the poor.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995
TitleIdeological Interpretation of Easterlin's Income-Happiness Paradox: A Warning.
SourcePaper Aarhus School of Business, May 2006, Denmark
Public18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =70000

Correlate
Author's labelRegulatory Freedom
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Regulatory Freedom
Observed distributionN = 67 M = 0.56 ; Sd = 0,98 (z-scores in original sample).
Remarks
Source: Gwartney and Lawson (Fraser Institute, 2005)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a
DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich 
citizens by regulatory freedom in 67 nations. 

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self 
rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-ab=-.13 p < .05
B (-0,133) controlled for
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Government share in national consumption
-Postcommunist
-Income-inequality

The more freedom in a nation, the less difference 
in happiness between poor and rich. 
Yet among rich and democratic nations freedom is 
not related to difference in happiness between the 
rich and the poor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quartiles
Page in Source 207,210
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1 lower quartile
2 lower-middle quartile
3 upper-middle quartile
4 highest quartile
Observed distribution1: M=0,25, SD=0,43; 2: M=0,25, SD-0,43; 3: M=0,27, SD= 0,44; 4: M=0,23, SD=0,42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
1 lower quartile           r=-0,10
2 lower-middle quartile    r=-0,04
3 upper-middle quartile    r=+0,03
4 highest quartile         r=+0,12
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=.25 p < .01
Lower-middel quartile (vs lower)   SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.51 p < .01
Upper-middle quartile (vs lower)   SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.91 p < .01
Highest quartile (vs lower)        SE =.09

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- education
- type of employment
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Measured by self-reported deciles in the national 
distribution of income, so that income levels expressed 
in relative terms are comparable across countries and 
individuals.
Observed distributionRange 1-10, M= 4.73 SD= 2.53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .05
B (+1.15) controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra income decile goes with 0.12 
point greater happiness on scale 1-10 (1.12 on 
scale 10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 461,466, 468
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=15.09, SD=3.03

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.03 ns
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.16 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile

In regression with proxies on wealth absolute 
income coefficients became  sihnificant and there 
is  a stronger effect in LICs.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 519-521+526
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-rating of current income-position on 1-10 scale.
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v363

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 p < .001
b (0,04044)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-marital status
-gender
-education
-age
-age squared
-number of children
-home life quality
-unemployed
-church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-perceived income rank in nation on a scale of 1 
(lowest) to 10 (highest).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.16 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL income rank
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.01 p < .001
Income rank squared

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
In 74 nations separately.
Significantly positive in 54 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelRelative income
Page in Source 159
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
The relative income position of the participants (based 
on a self-reported deciles scale) in their respective 
society. 

The same variable is also included raised to the power 
two to capture a possible nonlinear relationschip.
Observed distributionRelative income: range 0.1-1, M= 0.48, SD= 0.25 Relative income 2: range 0.01-1, M= 0.29, SD= 0.26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+2.1 p < .00
Relative income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.0 p < .000
Relative income squared

B's controlled for:
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- education
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicEmployed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income in 1990
Page in Source 187
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self rated income category on scale 1-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .01
Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=+.18 p < .01
Unemployed
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .01
Employed
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.24 p < .01
Unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyOuweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980
TitleSocial Security and Well-Being of the Unemployed in 42 Nations.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2002, Vol. 3, 167 - 192
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1019619324661
PublicUnemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90
SampleMixed samples
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =60000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial security and income level
Page in Source 184, 186
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
A Low social security level:
 a Low personal income
 b High personal income

B High social security level:
 a Low personal income
 b High personal income
Observed distribution39 nations in 1990 N= Aa: 343, Ab: 488, Ba: 257, Bb: 439, total number: 1547 23 first world nations in 1990 N= Aa: 205, Ab: 174, Ba: 237, Bb: 185, total number: 801
Remarks
level of social security spending in a welfare state 
was split at the median

personal income was split at the nation's median of 
self-reported income on a scale of 1-10

data social security: ILO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
39 nations in 1990

Aa:  .35
Ab:  .67
Ba:  .26
Bb: 1.21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=
Aa: 6.36
Ab: 6.33
Ba: 5.65
Bb: 6.42
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Aa: 2.70
Ab: 2.91
Ba: 2.64
Bb: 2.99
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
23 first world nations in 1990

Aa:  .90
Ab: 1.18
Ba:  .37
Bb: 1.41
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=
Aa: 6.53
Ab: 6.84
Ba: 5.44
Bb: 6.72
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
Aa: 2.90
Ab: 3.11
Ba: 2.67
Bb: 3.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyVeenhoven (1990c): study ZZ 1970
TitleDe Vrolijke Vechtmaatschappij. (The Merry Competition Society).
SourcePaper Erasmus University, 1990, Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16153
PublicAdults, general public, 22 nations, 1970-1985
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome position
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Various classifications
Remarks
Meta analysis on data drawn from this database

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-aG=+
Gamma's range from +.85 (Dominican Republic) to 
-.20 (Hong Kong)

Correlations tend to be lower in rich nations 
(r=-.35)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ±1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 259
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Low / medium / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.38 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute Income (per month)
Page in Source 4, 7
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1 lower than 1000
2 1000-2000
3 2000-3000
4 more than 3000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=±
                     TURKISH  MOROCCAN  diff.
Lower than 1000: M=  6.29     7.30      -1.01
1000-2000:       M=  6.54     6.76      -0.22
2000-3000:       M=  6.38     8.00      -1.62
More than 3000:  M=  6.28     8.00      -1.72
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 ns
Turkish
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1.1 p < .01
Moroccan

B's controlled for:
- Income(Relative)
- Marital status
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Religion
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAussen et al. (2008): study NL Rotterdam 2007
TitleGeluk in Rotterdam. Het Effect van Vrijetijds Voorzieningen op het Geluk in Wijken. (Happiness in Rotterdam. The Effect of Leisure Time Facilities on the Happiness in Neighbourhoods).
SourceBachelor Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/aussen_s_2008.pdf
Public16-75 aged, general public, City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4420

Correlate
Author's labelincome level
Page in Source 26, 31, 86
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: <  € 950
2: €950 -   € 1.300
3: € 1.300- € 1.900
4: € 1.900- € 3.150
5. € 3.150- € 3.500
6 > € 3.500
Observed distributionN=1: 409; 2: 672; 3: 993; 4: 1165; 5: 384 ; 6: 631.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abr=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 48
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.21
OLRC controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - gender
  - health status
  - age
  - parental status
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
less than 1.300
around 1.300-2.000,
around 2.000-3.200
3.200 or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.38 p < . 01
Linear relationship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyStapel (1987): study NL 1987
TitleKundigheid en Geluk. (Abilities end Happiness)
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1987, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1987
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =825

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 6
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Under 1300, around 1460, around 1825, around 2280, 
around 2850 and 3200 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.07 p < .05
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.07 p < .05
Slightly curvilinear: middle incomes happiest


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
In deciles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Employment
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 350
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Monthly T2 income in dutch currency:
1: below      ƒ 1200,-
2: ƒ 1201, -  ƒ 1600,-
3: ƒ 1601, -  ƒ 2000,-
4: over       ƒ 2000,-
Assessed at T2 (1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.08 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T3 happiness by T2 income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

Study~NIPO (1949): study NL 1948
TitleWat de Mensen Gelukkig Maakt. (The Things that Contribute to Happiness).
SourceDe Publieke Opinie, 1949, Vol. 3, 3 - 4
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~NIPO_1949.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, The Netherlands, 1948
Sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
4-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.19 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
10 step scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.19
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.11
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, occupationally 
active, marital status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.14 p < .01
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, occupationally 
active, marital status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
12 step scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, number of friends, occupationally active, 
marital status, degree of urbanization.      
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.18
Controlled for:Housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possiblities to decide on matters concerning one's 
own personal life, number of memberships in clubs 
and associations, interesting life, easyness of 
life, loneliness, feelings of being liked, 
feelings of being able to use knowledge and 
skills, feeling of chance to succeed, feelings of 
getting sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, year of birth(young-old), male vs. female, 
no. of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Units of 100 Norwegian Kroner.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.09 p < .05
ß controlled for education, age, sex, household 
size, occupational prestige, number of friends, 
occupational active, marital status.       
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic
level of the county.  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMatlin (1966): study PR 1963
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matlin_n_1966.pdf
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1417

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
8-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cG=+.19 p < . 01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.20 p < . 01
Unaffected by educational level.
Stronger among those of age 50+.
Lower in rural areas (Q = +.13).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBaltatescu & Cummins (2004): study RO Bihor county 2003
TitleSubjective Wellbeing in a Post-Communist Country: Romania's International Wellbeing Index.
SourcePowerpoint presentation at 6th Conference ISQOLS, November 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLhttp://slideplayer.com/slide/4801500/
Public18+ aged, general public, Bihor County, North-West Romania, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =368

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income in equivalent adults
Page in Source 9
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1st quartile
2nd quartile
3rd quartile
4th quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caD%=+
% very satisfied
1st quartile           67%
2nd quartile           60%
3rd quartile           62%
4th quartile           66%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGraham (2005): study RU 2000
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8911

Correlate
Author's labelLog equivalent income
Page in Source 217
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"And, concluding this part of our conversation, tell 
me, please, what was the monetary income of your entire 
family in the last 30 days? Include here all the money 
received by all members of the family: wages, pensions, 
stipends, and any other money received, including hard 
currency converted into rubles."
Observed distributionN=3887 M=3295.91 sd=4770.57 Min=0 Max=156000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebb=+.39
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health index
- Household size
- Household composition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelLabour Income
Page in Source 224-225
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.04 ns
Self-employed:   (N=356)
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.08 p < .1
Wage-earners:    (N=640)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Coded in 4 numbers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.13
Controlled for: housing density, education, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 788, 793-798
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
income percentiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.00 ns
OPRC=+.001
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.00 ns
OPRC=+.001

OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
5 levels (ascending), not specified
Observed distributiongroup 1: 17 % (reference category) group 2: 10 % group 3: 39 % group 4: 22 % group 5: 4 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
probability of being more/less happy (vs income 
group 1)
GROUP 2
- very satisfied          + 5% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      + 1% (.10)
- medium satisfied        - 2% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 2% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       - 2% (ns)

GROUP 3
- very satisfied          + 7% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 2% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 3% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 3% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very satisfied          + 9% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 2% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 3% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 4% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 4% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very satisfied          +15% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 1% (.05)
- medium satisfied        - 6% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 6% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       - 5% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
GROUP 2
- very happy              + 5% (ns)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        - 2% (ns)

GROUP 3
- very happy              + 7% (.01)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 4% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 3% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very happy              + 8% (.01)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          - 4% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 3% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very happy              +14% (.01)
- quite happy             - 4% (ns)
- not very happy          - 6% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 4% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
5 levels (ascending), not specified
Observed distributiongroup1: 15 % (reference category) group 2: 23 % group 3: 20 % group 4: 21 % group 5: 21%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
probability of being more/less happy (vs income 
group 1)
GROUP 2
- very satisfied          + 6% (.05)
- somewhat satisfied      + 5% (.05)
- medium satisfied        + 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 3% (.05)
- very dissatisfied       - 8% (.01)

GROUP 3
- very satisfied          +13% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 9% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 6% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -15% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very satisfied          +14% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      + 9% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 7% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -15% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very satisfied          +26% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      +12% (.01)
- medium satisfied        - 5% (.05)
- somewhat dissatisfied   -10% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -23% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
GROUP 2
- very happy              +11% (.01)
- quite happy             + 4% (.01)
- not very happy          - 8% (.01)
- not at all happy        - 8% (.01)

GROUP 3
- very happy              +16% (.01)
- quite happy             + 4% (.01)
- not very happy          -10% (.01)
- not at all happy        -10% (.01)

GROUP 4
- very happy              +16% (.01)
- quite happy             + 5% (.01)
- not very happy          -10% (.01)
- not at all happy        -10% (.01)

GROUP 5
- very happy              +21% (.01)
- quite happy             + 5% (.01)
- not very happy          -13% (.01)
- not at all happy        -13% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 547, 553
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self rated income position on 1 to 8 steps:
1 fisrt step (reference)
2 second step
3 third step
4 fourth step
5 fifth step
6 sixth step
7 seventh step
8 eight step

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.18 p < .05
second step (compared to fisrt step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.49 p < .01
third step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.59 p < .01
fourth step (compared to fisrt step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.94 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.87 p < .01
sixth step (compare to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.93 p < .01
seventh step (compared to first step)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+1.2 p < .01
eight step (compared to first step)

higher levels of income are associated with higher 
levels of satisfaction
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.14 ns
second step(compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.34 p < .01
third step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.38 p < .01
fourth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.52 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.50 p < .01
fifth step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.39 p < .05
seventh step (compared to first step)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.43 p < .01
eight step (compared to first step)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- number of childeren
- education level
- type of employment
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Relative values denote that a higher income 
goes with more happiness. Comparison is only 
possible across associations with the same 
happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelLog income
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Observed distributionRange 0 - 9.4; M= 6.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=+.15 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - education
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelIncome (ln)
Page in Source 14,19,31,45,49
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Log income: household disposable income per OECD adult 
equivalent (extra adults .7; children .5).
7: £250 and more per week
6: Between £200 and £249 per week
5: Between £150 and £199 per week
4: Between £100 and £149 per week
3: Between £50 and £99 per week
2: Between £35 and £49 per week
1: Under £35 per week
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.18
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta controlled for:
- Education
- Employed
- Good conduct(at age 26)
- Has partner
- Good conduct (at age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health (at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.05
Beta additionally controlled for: childhood
- Intellectual performance 
- Good conduct 
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.04
Beta additionally controlled for: childhood 
- Intellectual performance (only age 5)
- Good conduct 
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyMentzakis & Moro (2009): study GB 1996
TitleThe Poor, the Rich and the Happy: Exploring the Link between Income and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2009, Vol. 38, 147 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2008.07.010
Public16+ aged general public, the UK, followed 7 years, 1996-2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50658

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute income
Page in Source 151=153
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Equivalised annual household income
1 lowest
2
3
4 (refecence groeuip)
5
6
7 highest
Observed distributionMales: 1: 6,5%; 2: 7,9%; 3: 17,8%; 4: 20,5%; 5: 22,8%; 6: 11,9%; 7: 12,5% Females: 1: 8,5%; 2: 9,1%; 3: 18,4; 4: 20,0%; 5: 21,6%; 6: 10,7%; 7: 11,5%
Remarks
Originally 5  categories, the lowest and highest of 
which splitted into two categories because of the large 
variance in those two groups, leading to 7 absolute 
income groups.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Income     males    females  difference
1:         M = 4,0   4,0       0,0
2:         M = 4,0   4,2      -0,2
3:         M = 4,0   4,2      -0,2
4:         M = 4,0   4,3      -0,3
5:         M = 4,0   4,4      -0,4
6:         M = 4,0   4,4      -0,4
7:         M = 4,0   4,5      -0,5
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+/-
Sstronger correlations amnong:
- the least happy: /- pattern
- dissatisfied with income

OPRC's controled for
- self rated health (lagged)
- unemployment (lagged)
- age
- education
- marital status
- children
- household size
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Question not reported
Remarks
Mental patients wih severe disorder had no income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=.28 p < .01
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=+.12 p < .05
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Low vs high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDMt= +
low income : Mt = 5.25
high income: Mt = 6.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAbrams (1973): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Social Indicators.
SourceSocial Trends, 1973, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public16+ aged, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: $2000 and over 
0: below $2000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=+
$2000 and over M = 6.7
below $2000    M = 5.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question.
Question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- party identification
- married
- age over 64
- educaton
- age under 30
- race
- ethnicity
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.11 p < .05
Additionally controlled for
- health
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1. <$30,000
2. $30,000-$49,999
3. $50,000-$75,000
4. >$75,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%=+
                %'very happy':
1. <$30,000           44
2. $30,000-$49,999    59
3. $50,000-$75,000    55
4. >$75,000           60
Set Image size:   

O-SLP-c-sq-v-4-aD%=
     % 'very satisfied' with their lives
1. <$30,000          41
2. $30,000-$49,000   53
3. $50,000-$75,000   62
4. >$75,000          75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1. <$30,000
2. $30,000-$49,000
3. $50,000-$75,000
4. >$75,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 3,4,5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self reported annual income
1: less than $20.000
2: $20.000 - $29.999
3: $30.000 - $49.999
4: $50.000 - $74.999
5: more than $75.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
1: less than $20.000             42%
2: $20.000 - $29.999             38%
3: $30.000 - $49.999             45%
4: $50.000 - $74.000             53%
5: more than $75.000             51%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyEasterlin (2001): study US 1994
TitleIncome and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 2001, Vol. 111, 465 - 484
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2667943
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2627

Correlate
Author's labelLife cycle
Page in Source 469
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Age category

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM= ns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=ns
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 18 months, 1989
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 181
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
in dollars
Observed distribution Homeowners Renters M = 17700 15300
Remarks
T1-T2 lag: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.09 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 income.

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - sex
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborhood satisfaction
- housing type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyRohe & Basolo (1997): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleLong-Term Effects of Homeownership on the Self-Perceptions and Social Interaction of Low-Income Persons.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1997, Vol. 29, 793 - 819
URLhttp://eab.sagepub.com/content/29/6/793
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0013916597296004
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 36 months, 1989-1991
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 809
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
in dollars
Remarks
T1-T3 lag: 36 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.08 ns
T3-T1 CHANGE in happiness, by T1 income.

Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - sex
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborthood satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 330
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Level of income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=.00 ns
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bBeta=+/-
age 18-25 Beta=-.17 (ns)
age 26-35 Beta=+.16 (05)
age 36-45 Beta=-.09 (ns)
age 46-55 Beta=-.08 (ns)
age 56-65 Beta=+.10 (ns)
age 66-75 Beta=-.13 (ns)
age 76-96 Beta=-.14 (ns)

Beta's controlled for:
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyFranklin et al. (1986): study US 1985
TitleAssessing Quality of Life of the Mentally Ill. A Three Dimensional Model.
SourceEvaluation & The Health Professions, 1986, Vol. 9, 376 -388
Public18-65 aged, mentally ill, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =220

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 383
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aAoV= ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06
Beta controlled for satisfaction with income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 902
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self rating of income on 15 step scale (ascending 
order)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.02 p < ..008
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture

Bs similar when controlled either for:
- Transfer payments
- Government Ideology
- Democratic Party Control
Instead of:
- economic regulation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 873
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
in thousands of dollars per year and has been converted 
to 2008 dollars using the CPI-U.
Observed distributionMeans=3.75; SD=0.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.07 p < .01
b(0.065) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Children
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyTan & Tan (1986): study US 1984
TitleTelevision Use and Mental Health.
SourceJournalism Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 63, 106 - 113
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1984
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =446

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 113
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
0 lower incomes
1 higher incomes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- age 
- TV program types viewed (News & Public
     affairs, Game Shows, Soap operas, Sports,
     Action drama, and Situation comedies)
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- age 
- mass media use (TV, Movies, Newspaper,
     Magazines, and Books)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBoski (1989): study US 1984
TitleCorrelative National Self-Identity of Polisch Immigrants in Canada and the United States.
SourcePaper presented at the 2th Regional Conference of IACCP, 1989, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/boski_p_1989.pdf
PublicPolish migrants, New Jersey USA, 198?
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source figure 5
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-?-0-aBeta=+.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBamundo & Kopelman (1980): study US 1977
TitleThe Moderating Effects of Occupation, Age, and Urbanization on the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Vocational Behavior, 1980, Vol. 17, 106 - 123
DOIdoi:10.1016/0001-8791(80)90020-2
PublicHeads of households, USA, 1977
Sample
Non-Response59 %:overrepresentation of high income, high aducated metro-politans
Respondents N =911

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 112
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
< $  4.000
  $  4.000 to $  7.999
  $  8.000 to $ 11.999
  $ 12.000 to $ 14.999
  $ 15.000 to $ 19.999
  $ 20.000 to $ 24.999
  $ 25.000 >

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 392
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
< $4,000
$4,000 - 7,999
$8,000 - 9,999
$10,000 - 12,499
$12,500 - 19,999
$20,000 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.42 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.14 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.48 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.16 p < .01
% very happy:            1957         1976

- < $4,000                23           25
- $4,000 - 7,999          15           17
- $8,000 - 9,999           7            8
- $10,000 - 12,499         9           11
- $12,500 - 19,999         5            6
- $20,000 or more          5            3

Effect persists after control for sex, age and 
education. Interaction effects with sex, age and 
education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGoudy & Goudeau (1981): study US 1975
TitleSocial Ties and Life Satisfaction of Older Persons: Another Evaluation.
SourceJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 1981, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public50+ aged, general public, North-Central Iowa, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response11.3%
Respondents N =2321

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 41/43
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Less than $ 3000 (1); $ 25000 and over (7)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=.13 p < .001
ß controlled for age, education, marital status, 
relatives in community, friends in community, 
local people known, organizational memberships, 
community attachment, quality of life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 141
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1.  under 3.000
2.  3.000-3.999
3.  4.000-4.999
4.  5.000-5.999
5.  6.000-7.499
6.  7.500-9.999
7.  10.000-12.499
8.  12.500-14.999
9.  15.000-24.999
10. 25.000-or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.21
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.15
ß controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.06
ß additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAlston et al. (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocioeconomic Correlates for Four Dimensions of Self-Perceived Satisfaction, 1972.
SourceHuman Organization, 1974, Vol. 33, 99 - 102
PublicAdult, general public, USA 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1602

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 100
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
4-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.21 p < .01
Gammas based on proportions 'very happy'.

Whites : G' =+.19 (01)
Blacks : G' =-.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 139
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1.  under 3.000
2.  3.000-3.999
3.  4.000-4.999
4.  5.000-5.999
5.  6.000-7.499
6.  7.500-9.999
7.  10.000-12.499
8.  12.500-14.999
9.  15.000-24.999
10. 25.000-or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.18
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.16
ß controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- sexe
- eduaction
- race
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05
ß additionmally controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- Spare-time activities
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGraham (2005): study US 1972
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =24128

Correlate
Author's labelLog income
Page in Source 218
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"In which of these groups did your total family income, 
from all sources, fall last year before taxes, that is?
 1 Under $2,000
 2  $2,000 to  3,999
 3  $4,000 to  5,999
 4. $6,000 to  7,999
 5  $8,000 to  9,999
 6 $10,000 to 12,499
 7 $12,500 to 14,999
 8 $15,000 to 17,499
 9 $17,500 to 19,999
10 $20,000 to 24,999
11 $25,000 to 29,999
12 $30,000 or over"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.16
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Years of education
- Race
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 209
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
4-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-ar= +
handicapped : r = +.34 (01)
normals     : r = +.11 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCameron et al. (1973): study US 1971 /1
TitleThe Life Satisfaction of Non-Normal Persons.
SourceJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, Vol. 41, 207 - 214
DOIDOI:10.1037/h0035158
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response2% of the handicapped excluded because matching was impos- sible (lack of data)
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 211
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
4-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyCameron et al. (1971): study US 1969
TitleHappiness or Life Satisfaction of the Malformed.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 641 - 642
PublicHandicapped and controls Detroit, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =295

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 641
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
4-point  scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.31 p < .01
Handicapped: G' = +.49 (01)
Normals    : G' = +.09 (ns)

Controlgroup of normals matched for sexe, age and 
situation (outpatient, inpatient or student).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 414
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Assessed at T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
Happiness assessed at T2:
Widowed            r= +.21 (ns)   ß= +.17 (05)
Divorced/Separated r= +.17 (ns)   ß= +.05 (ns)
Never married      r= +.21 (ns)   ß= +.14 (05)
ß's controlled for sex, earlier education, age 
earlier occupation, earlier happiness, retirement 
attitudes, health and employment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyPalmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968
TitleHealth and Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 68 -80
Public46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 70-72
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
Selfestimate: 
"About how much was your (and your spouse's ) total 
income from all sources during the last 12 months?"
0 (under $ 1000) to
.
.

15 (over $ 15000).
Observed distributionM= 8.1 SD=4.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.10
All
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.14 p < .05
Age group 46-59
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.06 p < .05
Ages 46-59 (N=268) step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.46
org. activity        B1=+.51
performance status   B2=+.53
income               B3=+.54
education            B4=+.55
All variables p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 97/108
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: less than $ 3,999
2: 4,000 - 4,999
3: 5,000 - 7,999
4: 8,000 or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.15 p < . 01
Those with incomes between $ 5,000 and $ 7,999 
generally are less happy than those with incomes 
of $ 4,000 - 4,999.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 9/23
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
8-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eG=+.26 p < . 01
Stronger at lower educational levels.
Stronger among older Ss.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.29 p < . 01
Stronger among those of lower educational level.
Stronger among older Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 216
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= + p < . s
Unaffected by educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current income level (unspecified)
Subject code: I01ab

StudyManning-Gibbs (1972): study US 1946
TitleRelative Deprivation and Self-Reported Happiness of Blacks: 1946-1966.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, 1972, Austin, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/manning-gibbs_ba_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25617

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 50
Our classificationCurrent income level (unspecified), code I01ab
Operationalization
1: Less than average
2: average
3: greater than average
Remarks
1946: rated by Gallup interviewer according to the 
following scale: on relief/ on Old Age Assistance / 
poor / average / average plus / wealthy.
1966: rated according to reported income category: less 
than $ 5000 /   $ 5000 - $ 7000 / more than $ 7000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cG=+
G' based on proportion very happy.
Response formats of happiness question very 
slightly over the years.

1946: blacks: G' = +.15 (ns)
      whites: G' = +.24 (01)
1966: blacks: G' = -.32 (05)
      whites: G' = +.26 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Wage income before taxes
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.10 ns
T2 happiness by T2 income
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study 1981
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public18+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118519

Correlate
Author's labelSalary, Income
Page in Source 350-351
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self-reported; respondents indicated their income (in 
deciles from the lowest 10% in the nation to the 
highest 10% of the nation)
Observed distributionRange 3.09-5.58, similar for men and women. M: Males: 4,71; Females:4,44.
Remarks
Data: Pooled World Values Surveys 1981, 1990,1995 and 
2000.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=- p < .001
The most happy (10) earned less than moderately 
happy (9 or 8)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.13 p < .001
The most happy (10) earned less than expected on 
basis of a linear model.

Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyChhetri et al. (2009): study AU Queensland 2003
TitleWhy Bother to ''Downshift''? The Characteristics and Satisfaction of Downshifters in the Brisbane- South East Queensland Region, Australia.
SourceJournal of Population Research, 2009, Vol. 26, 57 - 64
DOIDOI:10.1007/s12546-008-9005-y
PublicDownshifters and non-downshifters, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60
Respondents N =773

Correlate
Author's labelDownshifters and non-downshifters
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
In the last 10 years, have you voluntarily made a 
long-term change in your lifestyle, other than planned 
retirement, which has resulted in you earning less 
money?
  1 Yes (downshifter)
  0 No (non-downshifter)
Observed distributionDownshifter: N = 202 Non-downshifter: N = 511

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-aDMa=- ns
Downshifters:     Ma = 4.18, SD = 0.67
Non-downshifters: Ma = 4.19, SD = 0.81
 -Difference: -0.01

Ma adjusted for: 
 -Sex
 -Education
 -Partner
 -Employment
 -Household type
 -Marital status
 -Dwelling status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyCummins et al. (2003b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey, Report 8.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Feeling Connected to Australia.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, November 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response83%
Respondents N =1980

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 89+93
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
I will now give you a number of categories for 
household income. Can you please give me an idea your 
household total annual income before tax? Please stop 
me when I say your household income category

a: <$15000
b:  $15000-30000
c:  $31000-60000
d:  $61000-90000
e:  $91000-120000
f: >$120000
Observed distributionN = a: 316, b: 308, c: 464, d: 297, e: 150, f: 101

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .006
a Mt = 7,60; SD = 2,08
b Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,87
c Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,60
d Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,41
e Mt = 7,98; SD = 1,36
f Mt = 8,07: SD = 1,19
M-AC-g-sq-n-11-aDMt=+ p < .340
a Mt = 7,60; SD = 1,73
b Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,70
c Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,48
d Mt = 7,73; SD = 1,33
e Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,11
f Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,26
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+ p < .554
a Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,68
b Mt = 7,93; SD = 1,69
c Mt = 7,77; SD = 1,43
d Mt = 7,92; SD = 1,29 
e Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,12
f Mt = 7,93; SD = 1,13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 905
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Financial year disposable personal income, converted 
with 2001 consumper price index (log)
Observed distributionMean: - 2001: $24202 - 2002: $25241 - 2003: $25218 - 2004: $25926 - 2005: $27185
Remarks
Invididuals needed to respond about their income 
sources (both public and private) and afterwards 
disposable income is computed by estimating income 
taxes and transfers.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
CURRENT income by CURRENT happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
PAST income by CURRENT happiness
- income 1 year ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 2 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
- income 3 years ago
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
- income 4 years ago

OPRC controlled for:
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 29,57
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Natural log of income from respondents main job.
Remarks
Income levels adjusted to the price levels of the year 
2000 (consumer price index)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.00 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 p < .05
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Education
  - Family income
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Job security 
  - Current occupational status
  - Unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudySchulz et al. (1997): study AT 1992
TitleThema Kunst: Zur sozialen und ökonomischen Lage der bildenden Künstler und Künstlerinnen in Österreich. (Socio-Economic Situation of Artists in Austria).
SourceFalter Verlag, 1997, Vienna, Austria
PublicArtists, Austria, 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response388
Respondents N =1812

Correlate
Author's label Net income
Page in Source 199/200
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
 1  > 10 000 AS
 2  > 25 000 AS 
 3  < 25 000 AS
Observed distribution N = 1: 315, 2: 462, 3: 202

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BS-c-mq-v-5-aDM=+
1) M = 1,53
2) M = 1,77
3) M = 2,02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Log of personal income
Error Estimatess.e.= 0.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.22 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.19 p < .01
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 317, 323-325
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self report: question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.12 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.08 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.07 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-country of birth
-years in Canada
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children
-see children as often as want


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelHourly income
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Hourly income: exact question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .05
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.00 p < .10
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank-good
Page in Source 18
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on question to rank one's income in the 
past year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: Very poor, poor, or about average.
1: Good or very good.
Observed distributionM = 0.08, SD = 0.28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.57 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- years of education
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyChan & Lee (2006): study CN 2000
TitleNetwork Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 87 - 112
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2125

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 98, 100
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Income in US dollars per months 
1: less than 295 US dollars per months
2: higher than 295 US dollars per months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.19 p < .01
Hong Kong
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.14 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- education 

Beta unaffected (+.11) by additional control for
- network size
- social support
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.09 ns
Beijing
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.09 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- education 

Beta unaffected (+.09) by additional control for
- network size
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 217, 220, 221
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Total income divided by number of persons in family 
1: <€137 
2: €137-€409
3: >€409
Observed distribution1: 16%; 2: 58%; 3: 24%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.14 p < .01
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.08 ns
Males


Beta's controlled for:
- Age    
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelannual income
Page in Source 82
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
What was your income before taxes last year? (Income in 
1000 DKK)
1: 0-50 kr
2: 50-100 kr
3: 100-200 kr
4: 200-300 kr
5: 300-400 kr
6: 400-1000 kr
Observed distributionN: all:4514, 1:189, 2:378, 3:1938, 4:1493, 5:362, 6:154

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.14 p < .00
1: Mt=6.63
2: Mt=7.10
3: Mt=7.73
4: Mt=7.80
5: Mt=7.88
6: Mt=8.25
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.14 p < .00
1: Mt=6.41
2: Mt=6.74
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.68
5: Mt=7.58
6: Mt=8.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.10 p < .00
1: Mt=6.56
2: Mt=6.41
3: Mt=7.00
4: Mt=7.23
5: Mt=7.08
6: Mt=7.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelannual income
Page in Source 78
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"What was your income before taxes last year ?"
Income in 1000DK
1: 0-50
2: 50-100
3: 100-200
4: 200-300
5: 300-400
6: 400-1000
7: > 1000
Observed distributionN: 1:205, 2:220, 3:549, 4:295, 5:95, 6:37, 7:0,
Remarks
1 DK was US $0.18 at 2-1-1996

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=7.71
2: 50-100   Mt=7.44
3: 100-200  Mt=7.84
4: 200-300  Mt=8.04
5: 300-400  Mt=7.90
6: 400-1000 Mt=7.50
All         Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.04 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=7.40    
2: 50-100   Mt=7.33
3: 100-200  Mt=7.41
4: 200-300  Mt=7.68
5: 300-400  Mt=7.69
6: 400-1000 Mt=7.36
All         Mt=7.48
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.04 ns
1: 0-50     Mt=6.91
2: 50-100   Mt=6.71
3: 100-200  Mt=6.94
4: 200-300  Mt=7.21
5: 300-400  Mt=7.00
6: 400-1000 Mt=6.83
All         Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household 
income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€907; SD=€358; Rural: M=€ 651; SD=€310; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - homeownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study XZ Germany West 1985 /1
TitleSome Uses of Happiness Data in Economics.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 25 - 46
PublicEmployed females, Germany 1985-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14000

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source 31
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Income in Deutsche Mark per year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12
Poor half of sample (average income: 40.938 DM)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01
Rich half of sample (average income: 84.864DM)

B controlled for individual variables (which are 
not reported)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelLog of unemployment benefits
Page in Source 7
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Logarithmic function of unemployment benefits. People 
in Germany are approximately 12 months entitled to 
unemployment benefits, but it varies because of age and 
duration of work in the last job. When these benefits 
are over, one falls back in social insurance.
Remarks
These people have most likely no other source of 
income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) gender
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelIncome (log equivalent)
Page in Source 3,8,16-18,30
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Real personal  income assessed from all income sources.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < ..05
b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Marital status
- Spouse in foreign country
- Years of education
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study DE 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionGermany West: Urban: M=€1003; SD=€448; Rural: M=€ 784; SD=€316; p<.001 Germany West: Urban: M=€929; SD=€261; Rural: M=€719; SD=€221; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany West
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Germany East
-urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
-rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyKnabe & Rätzel (2010): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labor.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol. 107, 77 - 79
URLhttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/28101/1/608759643.PDF
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2009.12.032
Public18-65 aged working couples, Germany, followed 7 years, 1999-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16937

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Log annual labor income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.31 ns
Women's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.38 ns
Woman's happiness by husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.03 ns
Woman's happiness by interaction of own and 
husbands income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.49 ns
Men's happiness by own income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.67 p < .01
Men's happiness by wife's income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.05 ns
Men's happiness by interaction between own and 
wife's income

All coefficients based on Probit-adjusted OLS, 
controlled for:
- age
- own health
- spuces health
- individual fixed effects
- time fixed effects

Unaffacted by weekly working hours
(which contradicts theory that gains in happiness 
from higher income are balanced by costs of 
working time)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyPouwels et al. (2008): study DE 1999
TitleIncome, Working Hours, and Happiness.
SourceEconomic Letters, 2008, Vol. 99, 72 - 74
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.econlet.2007.05.032
Public18-65 aged, couples, neither unemployed nor disabled, Germany, 1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2698

Correlate
Author's labelOwn yearly net labour income
Page in Source 73
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Logarithm of own net yearly income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
WOMEN (+.47)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .01
MEN (+.41)

OPRC's controled for:
- income of partner
- product of own income and of partner
- age
- self rated health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+ p < .05
Additional control for working hours shows a 
larger effect of income among women (+.53) and 
among men (+.52) compared to the coefficients when 
not controlled for working hours.

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size. Coefficients denote relative differences in 
association, eg. stronger among women than among 
men.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyEriksson et al. (2007): study DE 1995
TitleTemporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 80, 511 - 533
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13919

Correlate
Author's labelWage rate
Page in Source 523
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
B (+.020) controlled for (model 3): 
- log discretionary time
- log spare time
- log household income
- socio-demographic characteristics

B's not different in models without
- discretionary time (model 1)
- spare time (model 2)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelEarnings
Page in Source 43
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Log of self reported workers' income
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.23 p < .01
OPRC controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
  - education-squared (log)
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study HU 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Hungary, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =605

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionUrban: M = 133 euros; SD = 59; Rural: M = 110; SD = 34; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelincome per standard adult
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
income per standard adult in hundreds of Israeli pounds 
per month
Observed distributionM= 12,4
Remarks
in this case number of responses for anisos amounts to 
38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=-.09 ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Strange negative effect in community with unequal 
income:
- equal moshav: B=ns
- unequal moshav: B=-.17 (p<0.05)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at teh International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Disposable income.
Observed distributionM=16975,81 SD=8224,577

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.00 p < .001
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 p < .001
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
Regressions control for:
-age
-schooling*creativity index
-marital status
-gender
-educational level
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income
-area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study IT 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€599; SD=€321; Rural: M=€ 478; SD=€199; p<.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyTominaga (1972): study JP Tokyo 1970
TitleAn Approach to the Measurement of the Levels of Welfare in Tokyo.
SourcePaper presented at Post-Industrial Conference of the Japan Society, 1972, New York, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/tominaga_k_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, City of Tokyo, Japan 197?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10468

Correlate
Author's labelpersonal income
Page in Source 23
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
self reported annual income in ten thousands Yen:
1:  < 60
2: 60-90
3: 90-120
4: 120-150
5: 150-180
6: 180-210
7: 210-240
8: 240-270
9: 27-300
10:  >300
Observed distributionNot reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1: M = 2.16
2: M = 2.18
3: M = 2.27
4: M = 2.39
5: M = 2.40
6: M = 2.48
7: M = 2.50
8: M = 2.51
9: M = 2.58
10:M = 2.61


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study LT 2001
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Lithuanian women, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response10.5 %
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source S25
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question. How much do you usually 
earn per month before tax deduction?

Presented in quartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dF=+ p < .001
Lowest fourth: M = 0.96
Low fourth:    M = 1.32
High fourth:   M = 1.33
Highest fourth:M = 1.72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 259
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
self-report on single question:
1 (lowest income decile)
:
10 (highest income decile)
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.07 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual income

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelIncome rank-good
Page in Source 19
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on question to rank one's income in the 
past year.
1: very poor
2: poor
3: about average
4: good
5: very good

Recoded as:
0: Very poor, poor or about average. 
1: Good or very good.
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = .15, SD = 0.36 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 0.09, SD = 0.29 3) Thai female sex workers. M = .19, SD = 0.39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.40 ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.76 ns
Yunnan male sex customers (N = 283)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.93 p < .05
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OLRC's controlled for:
- years of education
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged, general public, EU 15 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome quartile
Page in Source 50
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.15 p < .000
Turkey
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.07 p < .000
EU15 (EU Member States before 2004)


Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - education
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
  - church attendance
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - trust in people
  - perceived tensions in society
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question
1)<€1800/year 
2)<€3600/year
3)<€6000/year
4)<€12,000/year 
5)<€18,000/year 
6)<€24,000/year
7)<€30,000/year
8)<€36,000/year
9)>€60,000/year (reference)
Remarks
2008 data only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.3 p < .001
<€1800/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.58 p < .001
<€3600/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.30 p < .001
<€6000/year     (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 ns
<€12,000/year (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 p < .05
<€18,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.36 p < .001
<€24,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.37 p < .01
<€30,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 ns
<€36,000/year   (vs >60,000/year)

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

Small negative change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question
0  poor
:
10  very rich

a)income
b)income squared
Remarks
1999 data only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.20 p < .001
1999

-Income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
-Income squared 

B’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

No significant change when addtionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelAbsolute Income
Page in Source 514
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Respondents were presented a card with 10 income 
brackets, that expressed the nations income deciles in 
local currency. 

They self-rated their income category with in answer to 
question: Here is a scale of incomes. We would like to 
know in what group your household is, counting all 
wages, salaries, pensions and other incomes that come 
in. Just give the letter of the group your household 
falls into, before taxes and other deductions.

Absolute income is the midpoint of the bracket 
indicated, transfomed to purchasing power parity 
dollars, using the World Bank conversion factors.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .017
Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Children
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country variables
  -log of GDP pc
  -Economic growth
  -Hapiness in  the country (dummies for 
below/above average)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 18
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
1: lowest income quintile (reference)
2: second income quintile (IQ2)
3: third income quintile  (IQ3)
4: fourth income quintile (IQ4)
5: highest quintile       (IQ5)
Observed distributionSelf-rating of income position on 10 step scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
IQ2: OLRC= +.45 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.50 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.38 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.44 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.14 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.50 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.41 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.52 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
IQ2: OLRC= +.34 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.75 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.11 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.99 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
IQ2: OLRC= +.71 (01)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.35 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.92 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.70 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
IQ2: OLRC= -.30 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.39 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= -.26 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.26 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
IQ2: OLRC= +.24 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.85 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.57 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.19 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.23 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.60 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.74 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.11 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
IQ2: OLRC= -.11 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.04 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.22 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.57 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
IQ2: OLRC= +.24 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.00 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.12 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.93 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.37 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.42 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.84 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.21 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
IQ2: OLRC= +.18 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.36 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.01 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.63 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
IQ2: OLRC= +.59 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.75 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.72 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.93 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.35 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.37 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.46 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.68 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
IQ2: OLRC= -.14 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.33 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.29 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.47 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
IQ2: OLRC= +.15 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.17 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.14 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.13 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
IQ2: OLRC= +.51 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.54 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.47 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.53 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.30 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.63 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.65 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.74 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
IQ2: OLRC= +.58 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.65 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.85 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.27 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
IQ2: OLRC=+1.00 (01)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.63 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+2.23 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+2.44 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
IQ2: OLRC= -.25 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= -.04 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.26 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.42 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
IQ2: OLRC= +.42 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.89 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.42 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.49 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.33 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC=+1.04 (01)
IQ4: OLRC=+1.02 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.45 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
IQ2: OLRC= +.49 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.47 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.81 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.34 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
IQ2: OLRC= +.39 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.23 (ns)
IQ4: OLRC= +.69 (05)
IQ5: OLRC= +.59 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
IQ2: OLRC= +.33 (01)
IQ3: OLRC= +.59 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.90 (01)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.28 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
IQ2: OLRC= +.17 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.42 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.39 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.84 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden
IQ2: OLRC= +.10 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.57 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.40 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC= +.97 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan 
IQ2: OLRC= +.44 (05)
IQ3: OLRC= +.53 (01)
IQ4: OLRC= +.48 (01)
IQ5: OLRC= +.58 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
IQ2: OLRC= +.16 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.65 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.63 (05)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.01 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
IQ2: OLRC= +.16 (ns)
IQ3: OLRC= +.38 (05)
IQ4: OLRC= +.29 (ns)
IQ5: OLRC=+1.42 (05)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-number of children
-marital status
-size of town
-labour market status
-education

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive. E.g.in the USA and Taiwan 
the correlations between income and happiness are 
lower than in China and Japan.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyVeenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleProgrès dans la Compréhension du Bonheur. (Progress in Understanding Happiness).
SourceRevue Québécoise de Psychologie, 1997, Vol. 18, 29 - 74
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16324
PublicAdults, general public, 13 nations of varying wealth, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelCorrelation happiness - income in nations
Page in Source 53
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Statistical relationship between personal happiness and 
personal income as assesses in 13 nations using 
comparable measures
Remarks
Correlations taken from this database, section income 
(I1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=-.55
Individual level CORRELATION of happiness and 
personal income by nation level average income per 
capita
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study NL 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Netherlands, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =616

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€944; SD=€371; Rural: M=€ 892; SD=€386; ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta= ns
Urban areas
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.35 p < .05
Rural areas

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Environment:Housing:
  - housing amenities
  - home ownership
  - satisfaction with housing
  - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
  - car in household
  - satisfaction with public transportation
  - satisfaction with mobility
- Services:
  - medical services
  - services and shops
  - satisfaction with services
- Culture:
  - Cultural amenities
  - natural environment
  - satisfaction with leisure
- Security:
  - security
- Social Environment:
  - living together
  - division social network
  - friends/kin nearby
- Economic situation:
  - satisfaction with finances
- Health:
  - ADL
  - satisfaction with health

Only standardized regression coefficient 
significant at a maximum error rate of alpha=.05 
are shown.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyStapel (1970): study NL 1969
TitleHet Gelukkige Nederland: Een Staat van Welvaart. (Happy Netherlands: A State of Welfare).
SourceNIPO, "Zo zijn Wij: De Eerste 25 jaar NIPO Onderzoek", Agon/Elsevier, 1970, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 56 - 63
Public21+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1969
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1003

Correlate
Author's labelAnnual income (in Dutch Florin)
Page in Source 59
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
1: Less than 9000
2: 9000-12000
3: 12000-18000
4: 18000 and higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-3-aDM=+
1: M = 2.66
2: M = 2.80
3: M = 2.82
4: M = 2.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelWeekly wage (100 NZD)
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Weekly wage in New Zealand dollars.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (11 months after migration) and T2 (33 
months after migration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.04 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
income

B controlled for:
- age
- religion
- employment status
- relative income
- years of education
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT income

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyKeng & Hooi (1995): study SG 1993
TitleAssessing Quality of Life in Singapore: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 35, 71 - 91
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079239
Public15-54 aged, general public, Singapore, 1993
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response14%
Respondents N =329

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly personal income
Page in Source 84
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
1: less than $ 1000 
2: $1000-$1999  
3: $2000-$2999  
4: $3000 & more
Observed distribution1: 24.3% 2: 42.2% 3: 17.8% 4: 15.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sqt-n-5-aDM= ns
1: M = 3.39
2: M = 3.53
3: M = 3.52
4: M = 3.53


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly cash income
Page in Source 630
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
0: below median
1: above median

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.27 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.39 p < .01
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
All
ß controlled for: 
- Satisfied with health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- Has a confidant
- Keeps goats
- More active person
- Worked for many years in jobs
- Retired for many years
- No desire to return to work
- Agrees: Modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
65+ years old
ß controlled for:
- Seldom restricted by poor health
- Higher affluence rating
- Need to purchase maize
- Grows cash crop
- Religious traditionalist
- More active person
- Keeps chicken
- Has a confidant
- Higher standard house
- Keeps goats
- Larger size field
- No desire to return to work
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
-65 years old
ß controlled for:
- Satisfied with health
- Religious traditionalist
- Grows cash crop
- Feels land is secure    
- Retired for many years
- Worked for many years in jobs
- No desire to return to work
- Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyFernandez Ballesteros et al. (2001): study ES 1996
TitleThe Contribution of Socio-Demographic and Psychological Factors to Life Satisfaction.
SourceAgeing and Society, 2001, Vol. 21, 25 - 43
Public65+ aged, Spain, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =507

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 31
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
income in pesetas per months
1: lower than 45
2: 45-75
3: 75-100
4: 100-150
5: more than 150

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-gDM=+
<45      M:2.31 SD=0.77
45-75    M:2.80 SD=0.76
75-100   M:2.83 SD=0.79
100-150  M:3.09 SD=0.65
>150     M=3.00 SD=0.75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study SE 1998
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Swedish women 1998
SampleNo sample: full population
Non-Response23 %
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal income
Page in Source S25
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question. How much do you usually 
earn per month before tax deduction?

Presented in quartiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=+ ns
Lowest fourth  M = 1.81
Low fourth     M = 1.94
High fourth    M = 1.99
Highest fourth M = 2.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyFrey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992
TitleMaximizing Happiness?
SourceGerman Economic Review, 2000, Vol. 1, 145 - 167
URLhttps://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/C_335_2000.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Switzerland, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelIncome bracket
Page in Source 156
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
0 First Quartile (reference)
1 a Second Quartile
  b Third Quartile
  c Fourth Quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+,05 p < .1
Second Quartile
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
Third Quartile
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+,23 p < .01
Fourth Quartile

Betas controlled for:
- Employment status
- Education
- Demographic factors
- Institutional factors


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study TO 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, aspirant migrants who stayed, Tonga, followed 3 years, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelWeekly wage (100 NZD)
Page in Source 5, 9
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Weekly wage in New Zealand dollars.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005) and T2 (2008), both after 
decision to stay in Tonga

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.02 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
income

B controlled for:
- years of education
- employment status 
- age
- relative income 
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.04 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT income

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyNettle (2005b): study GB 2000
TitleSocio-Economic Status and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper 2005, New Castle University, UK.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nettle_d_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =11419

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 6,12
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Observed distributionTake-home income
Remarks
N=7954

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-h-sq-n-11-ar=+.03 p < .001
Set Image size:   

O-V-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+ ns
Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic status
- Perconal control


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 2
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
1 < $20,000
2   $20,001-$35,000
3   $35,001-$50,000
4   $50,001-$65,000
5   $65,001-$80,000
6 > $80,001
Observed distributionM=$4918.64, SD=1816.98
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.38 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.40 ns
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness, indicating CHANGE in happiness
- % bonus spend for one-self
- % bonus spend for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =632

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 1
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
1 < $20,000
2   $20,001-$35,000
3   $35,001-$50,000
4   $50,001-$65,000
5   $65,001-$80,000
6 > $80,001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.11 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.11 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Spending in a typical month for one-self
- Spending in a typical month for others


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal income
Subject code: I01ab01

StudyForrester (1980): study US San Diego County, California 1980
TitleFactors Contributing to Life Satisfaction of Divorced Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, 1980, Arizona State University, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/forrester_ng_1980.pdf
Public21-71 aged divorced women, San Diego, California, USA, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of income
Page in Source 78
Our classificationPersonal income, code I01ab01
Operationalization
Direct question:"What was your gross income for the 
year 1979?" Rated on a 8-point scale ranging from 
0=<$7000 to 8=>$50000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.19 p < . ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.14 p < . ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
in pesos
Observed distributionM = 4096 SD = 4922
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=+.00 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.00 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - education
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

Not significant when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
- credit cycle


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale (scale 
categories not
reported in datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
3       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
7       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
8       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.75      Mt=6.4
2       M=6.83      Mt=6.5
3       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
8       M=8.16      Mt=8.0
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .66      Mt=5.7
2       M= .83      Mt=5.8
3       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.98      Mt=7.0
7       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
8       M=2.32      Mt=7.3
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.12 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.14 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2003d): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 7, Report 7.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. The Effect of Work.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response85%
Respondents N =1993

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 88+97+99+100
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
I will now give you a number of categories for 
household income. Can you please give me an idea of 
your household,s total annual income before taX? Please 
sop me when I say your household income category
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $30000-$60000
4:  $60000-$90000
5:  $90000-$120000
6:  $120000+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
1: Mt = 7,50; SD = 2,27
2: Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,77
3: Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,64
4: Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,36
5: Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,18
6: Mt = 8,21; SD = 1,20
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
1,3<6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

Study~HILDA (2003): study AU 2003
TitleHousehold, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Annuel Report 2003.
SourceThe University of Melbourne, 2003, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.melbourneinstitute.com
Public15 + aged, general public, households, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =8326

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 22
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport

1 1st quintile
2 2nd quintile
3 3rd quintile
4 4th quintile
5 5th quintile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
1 1st quintile  M=7,8            
2 2nd quintile  M=7,8            
3 3rd quintile  M=7,8            
4 4th quintile  M=8,0            
5 5th quintile  M=8,1
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 71+73
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Income per year
1: <$15,000
2: >$15,000-$30,000
3: >$30,000-$60,000
4: >$60,000-$90,000
5: >$90,000-$120,000
6: >$120,000
Observed distributionN = 1 :217; 2 :317; 3 : 491; 4 :301; 5 :119; 6 :117

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
1 Mt =7,75; SD =2,04
2 Mt =7,75; SD =1,88
3 Mt =7,65; SD =1,59
4 Mt =7,85; SD =1,44
5 Mt =7,94; SD =1,37
6 Mt =8,10; SD =1,34
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caE²=+.48
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=.032
1,2,3,4< 6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 78+80
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
Can you please give me an idea of your Household's 
annual income,combined from all sources and before tax?
Raw Income
1:<$15000
2: $15000-<$30000
3: $30000-<$60000
4: $60000-<$90000
5: $90000+

Adjusted Income =Raw Income divided by the sqare root 
of the number of household members
Observed distributionN = 1 : 313, 2 : 349, 3 : 536, 4 : 285, 5 : 183

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .000
Raw Income
1: Mt =73.87, SD =21.59
2: Mt =75.24, SD =18.88
3: Mt =77.07, SD =15.76
4: Mt =79.40, SD =13.27
5: Mt =79.84, SD =12.69
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
2<5
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .002
Adjusted Income
1: Mt =73.87
2: Mt =76.93
3: Mt =78.94
4: Mt =76.44
5: Mt =68.57
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
1<4
4<3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised income (/1000)
Page in Source 10,11,22
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components. Equivalised income scale is 
the household disposable income divided by the square 
root of household size. 
Household disposable income measure is based on summing 
the incomes of all household members, assuming that 
resources are shared.
Remarks
Income included labour, asset, private and 
superannuation income, privaye and public transfers. To 
estimate disposable incomes, taxes had to be imputed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+.04 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.05 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for:
 - net worth
 - gender
 - age 
 - partnered
 - educational attainment
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 13
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eR²=.005 p < .001
Income by itself
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eR²=.017 p < .001
Income + wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised household income / 1000
Page in Source 16
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Estimates based on responses to detailed questions 
about income components.Equivalised income scale is the 
household disposable income divided by the square root 
of household size. Household disposable income measure 
is baed on summing the incomes of all household 
members, assuming that resources are shared.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+.07
Only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=.04 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eBeta=+.05 p < .001
B and Beta are controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2002a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 3, Report 3.2. The Impact of Personal Relationships and Household Structure on the Wellbeing of Australians.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =2110

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Income
Page in Source 54+56
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
1. < $ 15.000
2.   $ 15.000 - < $ 30.000
3.   $ 30.000 - < $ 60.000
4.   $ 60.000 - < $ 90.000
5. > $ 90.000
Observed distributionN=: 1: 327, 2: 435, 3: 538, 4: 257, 5: 150

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .000
< $ 15.000:              Mt = 7,4
  $ 15.000 - < $ 30.000: Mt = 7,69
  $ 30.000 - < $ 60.000: Mt = 7,87
  $ 60.000 - < $ 90.000: Mt = 7,88
> $ 90.000:              Mt = 8,15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2001b): study AU 2001
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 2, Report 2. Special Report on Income and Geographic Location.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2001, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response90%
Respondents N =2004

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 33
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
1: <$15000
2:  $15000-$30000
3:  $30000-$60000
4:  $60000-$90000
5: >$90000
Observed distributionN = 1: 413, 2: 472, 3: 603, 4: 310, 5: 206

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+ p < .000
1 Mt = 7,55; SD = 2,26
2 Mt = 7,57; SD = 2,09
3 Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,87
4 Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,61
5 Mt = 8,20; SD = 1,42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
5>1
5>2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelLog annual household income
Page in Source 433, 436, 438, 440
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Multiple questions on personal income accumulated to 
log annual household income
Observed distributionMale: M= 7.6 SD= 4.90; Female: M=7.26 SD= 4.95
Remarks
Section G in personal questionnaire of HILDA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.04 p < .10
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.06 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.06 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 p < .05
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.05 p < .05
FEMALES

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- state/territory of residence
- remoteness of place of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English 
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
- duration of living in residential area
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
FEMALES

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 183,192
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
(Log) total annual family gross income in 1000 
australian dollar
Observed distributionLog(84,9)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
ALL (correlation with couple's average happiness)  
                        +0,25
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
WIVES ONLY                          +0,27
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
HUSBANDS ONLY                       +0,22

OLCR's controlled for:
- having children
- health of spouse
- own health
- own employment
- employment of spouse

OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 18.20
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Natural log of disposable household income
Observed distributionMean=10.6010; SD=0.8005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.15 p < .05
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1     C
2     D
3     E
4     F
5     G
6     H
7     I
8    J
9    K
10  L
Error Estimatess.e.=.054

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.22 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study AU 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1104

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 41/5
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
$ per year:
1. <5.999
2. 6.000-9.999
3. 10.000-14.999
4. 15.000-19.999
5. 20.000>

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.03 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale.
1  Less than 5,999 Schillings per month
2   6,000  -   9,999
3  10,000  -  13,999
4  14,000  -  17,999
5  18,000  -  21,999
6  22,000  -  25,999
7  26,000  -  29,999
8  30,000  -  33,999
9  34,000  -  37,999
10 38,000 Schillings or more per month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .72      Mt=5.7
2       M= .99      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.85      Mt=6.8
5       M=1.98      Mt=7.0
6       M=1.90      Mt=6.9
7       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
8       M=2.15      Mt=7.2
9       M=1.85      Mt=6.9
10      M=2.26      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
2       M=5.99      Mt=5.5
3       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
4       M=6.17      Mt=5.7
5       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
6       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
7       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
8       M=6.61      Mt=6.2
9       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
10      M=6.93      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
2       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
7       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
8       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
9       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
10      M=3.30     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1989
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 8
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Household income
1. lower quartile
2. median
3. upper quartile

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% happy (very or quite) by age
    18-29  30-39  40-49  50-59  60-69  70-79  80+
1.   69     58     33     31     25     27     27
2.   75     72     62     50     44     29     35
3.   78     83     59     49     60     27     -
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1.   71     53     47     45     44     49     57
2.   77     80     70     65     66     57     55
3.   82     77     71     65     79     87     -
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1.   69     53     40     42     39     35     50
2.   75     77     63     61     56     49     50
3.   78     77     59     56     73     47     -

The positive relationship is strongest in the 
middle of life.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFessel (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phänomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 111
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Netto household income in Shillings
1.  8.000
2. 12.000
3. 18.000
4. 22.000
5. more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.12 p < .01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.10 p < .01
% often happy
1. 31
2. 42
3. 55
4. 49
5. 51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1    C
2    D
3    E
4    F
5    G
6    H
7    I
8    J
9    K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.094

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.16 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale.
1    Less than 50 rubles per month
2    51  -   75
3    76  -  100
4   101  -  125
5   126  -  150
6   151  -  200
7   201  -  300
8   301  -  400
9   401  -  500
10  500  or more rubles per month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.82      Mt=5.4
2       M=5.19      Mt=4.7
3       M=5.35      Mt=4.8
4       M=5.51      Mt=5.0
5       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
6       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
7       M=6.05      Mt=5.6
8       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .23      Mt=5.2
2       M= .28      Mt=5.3
3       M= .71      Mt=5.7
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .98      Mt=6.0
6       M= .69      Mt=5.7
7       M= .92      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.38     Mt=4.6
2       M=2.32     Mt=4.4
3       M=2.45     Mt=4.8
4       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
5       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
6       M=2.44     Mt=4.8
7       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
8       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
ß controlled for sex and age
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudySenik (2011): study BE 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4831

Correlate
Author's labelLog household income
Page in Source 42
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Please tell me which letter describes your household's 
total income, after tax and compulsory deductions, from 
all sources?
10 letters in total, hence deciles.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.29 p < .001
B's controlled for:
- Region in Belgium
- Language spoken at home
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale.
1    25,000  -  29,999 Belgian francs       per year 
2    30,000  -  34,999
3    35,000  -  39,999 
4    40,000  -  49,999    
5    50,000  -  59,999    
6    60,000  -  69,999    
7    70,000  -  79,999    
8    80,000  -  99,999    
9   100,000  -  119,000  
10  120,000 francs or more per year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
8       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0
10      M=2.11      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
2       M=7.19      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
8       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
9       M=7.97      Mt=7.7
10      M=7.95      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
8       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0
10      M=2.11      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
4       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
7       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
8       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
9       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
10      M=3.38     Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
2       M=7.19      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
8       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
9       M=7.97      Mt=7.7
10      M=7.95      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
4       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
7       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
8       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
9       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
10      M=3.38     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1    C
2    D
3    E
4    F
5    G
6    H
7    I
8    J
9    K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.078

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.14 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study BE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Income
Page in Source 369
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "Now we're talking about the total 
family income, before taxes, premiums and so on are 
paid. Your answer will be kept secret. Which number on 
this card corresponds best with your total family 
income?"
1  NLG <12000-39999  (low)
2  NLG  40000-50999  (middle)
3  > NLG 51000       (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.15 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale.
1   Under 34,000 Cruzeiros per month
2    34,001  -   68,000    
3    68,001  -  136,000   
4   136,001  -  238,000   
5   238,001  -  340,000   
6   340,001  -  442,000   
7   442,001  -  578,000   
8   578,001  -  714,000   
9   714,001  -  850,000   
10  850,000  -  1,020,000 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
2       M=7.13      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
7       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
8       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
9       M=7.65      Mt=7.4
10      M=7.94      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
2       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
3       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
7       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
8       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
9       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
10      M=3.20     Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .25      Mt=5.3
2       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
7       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
8       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
9       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
10      M=2.23      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
5       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
7       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
8       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      M=6.67      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .92      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
8       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      M= .33      Mt=5.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
2       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
4       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
6       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
7       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
8       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      M=3.23     Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.18 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study BR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, metropolitan areas Brazil, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 99/103
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Cr per month:
1. < 6.000
2. 6.000 - 10.000
3. 10.001 - 18.000
4. 18.001 - 30.000
5. > 30.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.10 p < .01
U-shaped curve: middle incomes least satisfied.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.03 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale (scale 
categories not reported in datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=1.87     Mt=2.9
2       M=2.07     Mt=3.6
3       M=2.26     Mt=4.2
4       M=2.21     Mt=4.0
5       M=2.34     Mt=4.5
6       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
7       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
8       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=2.89      Mt=2.1
2       M=3.75      Mt=3.1
3       M=4.45      Mt=3.8
4       M=4.63      Mt=4.0
5       M=5.34      Mt=4.8
6       M=5.38      Mt=4.9
7       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
8       M=5.77      Mt=5.3
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.25 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.33 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.24 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.25 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.33 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelFamily members' income
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Log of other family members' income
Error Estimatess.e.=0.02

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.07 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Log of personal income
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.06
OPRC not controlled for job satisfaction, but 
additionally controlled for job characterisitics:
- Makes own decisions
- Requires skill
- Has enough time
- Free of conflicting demands
- Has variety of tasks
- Trust in management


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudySenik (2011): study CA 2000
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =3439

Correlate
Author's labelIncome scale
Page in Source 44
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Please tell me which letter describes your household's 
total income, after tax and compulsory deductions, from 
all sources?
10 letters in total, hence deciles.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.01 ns
B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Language of interview
- Marital status
- Survey year
- Ethnic group
- Employment status
- Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Household income is
1: low
2: middle
3: high
4: highest
Remarks
See also jonesC2002-2.jpg: Chart 2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy
Household income is
1: low     26%
2: middle  26%
3: high    26%
4: highest 34%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.29 p < .000
girls, highest income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.14 p < .058
boys, highest income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.11 p < .100
girls, high income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.04 p < .481
boys, high income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.15 p < .019
girls, middele income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.03 p < .646
boys, middle income household
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.34 p < .001
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N=1192, boys N= 1178))

girls, highest income group
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.16 p < .085
boys, highest income group
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.24 p < .009
girls, high income group
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.10 p < .271
boys, high income group
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.21 p < .024
girls, middle income group
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.07 p < .451
boys, middle income group

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 249, 273
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distributionmedian between $ 50.000 - 60.000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.13 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er=+.09 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36I2.2.2
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1     C
2     D
3     E
4     F
5     G
6     H
7      I
8     J
9     K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.054

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.27 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale, 
recoded to a 5-point
scale (scale categories not reported in
datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=8.02      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.92      Mt=7.7
7       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
8       M=8.24      Mt=8.0
9       M=8.04      Mt=7.8
10      M=8.12      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.21      Mt=7.2
5       M=2.47      Mt=7.5
6       M=2.45      Mt=7.5
7       M=2.40      Mt=7.4
8       M=2.68      Mt=7.7
9       M=2.46      Mt=7.5
10      M=2.73      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
2       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
3       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
6       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
7       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
8       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
9       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
10      M=3.11     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.18 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.17 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 109/134/7
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single closed questions:
What is your personal annual income (rated on a 
10-point scale ranging from $5,000- to $100,000+);
If you are married or living with a romantic partner, 
what is the combined income of both you and your 
partner (idem);
- Question on household income rated on   a 10-point 
scale from $5,000,- to    $100,000+;
For the purpose of regression analysis, the midpoint of 
each range was used ($35,000 in the range $30,000 to 
$39,999)




Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=+.20 p < .001
- personal income:   r = +.10  (001)
- dual income:       r = +.10  (05)

                                   
ALL Ss (married, including not formally married 
cohabitating Ss, and non-married):

ß   = -.03 after control for: gender, age, marital 
status, being in love, desire to change dating 
pattern or marital status, locus of control, 
social support (1. instrumental: problems managing 
money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying 
job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: 
no close companions, no one to depend on, 
unsatisfactory sex life, problems communicating, 
dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close 
friends, no one to show love/affection, too 
dependent on others, not having children, no one 
to understand problems;
3. interpersonal demands: too may 
responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many 
demands om time,problems communicating, problems 
with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, 
conflicts with those who are close), and 
satisfaction with: job and financial situation, 
friendships, love relationships and living 
situation;

NON-MARRIED Ss ONLY:  

- males:   r = -.04  ß = -.02
- females: r = +.10  ß = -.07
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, 
except marital status and gender.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1012

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 157/161
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Can. $ per year:
1. < 9.999
2. 10.000-14.999
3. 15.000-19.999
4. 20.000-29.999
5. 30.000>

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.09 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.06 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.04 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a a 10-point scale.
1 Under 18,000 Chilean pesos per month
2   18,001   -   26,000
3   26,001   -   33,000
4   33,001   -   53,000
5   53,001   -   65,000
6   65,001   -   80,000
7   80,001   -  100,000
8   100,001  -  135,000
9   135,001  -  250,000
10  More than 250,000 Chilean pesos

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .35      Mt=5.3
2       M= .85      Mt=5.8
3       M= .80      Mt=5.8
4       M= .98      Mt=6.0
5       M= .98      Mt=6.0
6       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
7       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
8       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
9       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
10      M=1.68      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.64     Mt=5.5
2       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
7       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
9       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
10      M=3.25     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.46      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
6       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
7       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
8       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
9       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
10      M=7.97      Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.16 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.15 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.19 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on household monthly income.
Remarks
LnIncome

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=-.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 215,210
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Household income:
- low: under 20.000 Yuan (reference group)
- medium: 20.000 - 40.000 Yuan
- high: 40.000 Yuan and above.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=0.98 ns
- medium: 20.000 - 40.000 Yuan
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=0.92 ns
- high: 40.000 Yuan and above
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.17 ns
- medium: 20.000 - 40.000 Yuan
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.36 ns
- high: 40.000 Yuan and above
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.04 ns
- medium: 20.000 - 40.000 Yuan
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.33 ns
- high: 40.000 Yuan and above
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=-.02 ns
- medium: 20.000 - 40.000 Yuan
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.03 ns
- high: 40.000 Yuan and above
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
OR and B are versus reference group.

OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- unemployement
- urban residency
- domain satisfaction
- value priorities
- lifestyle

For a subgroup of 87% of respondents with at least 
one positive experience of happiness, enjoyment 
and accomplishment OR and B values are higher 
unless stated otherwise.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyXiao & Li (2011): study CN 2005
TitleSustainable Consmuption and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 323 -329
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/226764459_Sustainable_Consumption_and_Life_Satisfaction
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9746-9
PublicGeneral public, 14 cities, China, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response151
Respondents N =3372

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 326-327
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on family income:
1: less than 10.000 yuan
2: 10,000 to 12.000 yuan 
:
:
15: 36,000 to 38,000 yuan
16: more than 38,000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.04 p < .0001
B controlled for:
-Green lifestyle intention
-Green purchase intention
-Green purchase behavior
-Gender
-Age
-Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelLog of per capita household income
Page in Source 116
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Total household income from working in cities and 
family production in 2002: .. Yuan

A) Log of household income/1000 
B) Income quintile
Observed distributionM=8550 yuan

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.20 p < .01
LOG OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME/1000 

B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city

Effect is stronger for those who migrated longer 
ago
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daDM=+
INCOME QUINTILE

1st quintile        M=2.13  N=396
2nd quintile        M=2.34  N=397
3th quintile        M=2.37  N=397
4th quintile        M=2.46  N=397
5th quintile        M=2.56  N=398
5th-1st difference  +.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelLog household income per capita
Page in Source 1194, 1195
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Total household income from working in cities and 
family production in 2002: .. Yuan
Log of household income/1000 is taken
Observed distributionM= 7635 SD= 5903

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.27 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Marital status
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income per capita (log)
Page in Source 2335
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question for every household 
member with income:
Total income in 2002: 
.. (Yuan)
Observed distributionM=8820

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nOPRC=+.18 p < .01
OPRC controlled for:
- Fall in household income
- Unemployed
- Age (squared)
- Gender
- Marital status
- Sociability
- Dependent relatives
- Belief in religious tolerance
- Health
- Medical insurance
- Political factors
- Occupation type
- Hukou location
- Province


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Page in Source 139
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
0: below median in province
1: above median in province
Observed distribution50/50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bDM=+
Individual happiness by Household income. 
 
1:Income above median      M = 2,83
0:Income below median      M = 2,61 
-difference                   +0,22



1998-2008; respondents are 65 or older.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale (scale 
categories not reported in datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
5       M= .84      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
7       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
8       M=1.82      Mt=6.8
9       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
10      M=2.40      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.87     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
6       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
7       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
8       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
9       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
10      M=2.74     Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyXu & Wu (1988): study CN 1986
TitleA preliminary survey of the psychological and social situation of the elderly in Beijing.
SourceInternational Journal of Mental Health, 1988, Vol. 16, 51 - 66
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/41344468
Public55+ aged, Being China, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =175

Correlate
Author's labelAverage income of family members
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
RMB per month
1  <40 
2  40-60
3  >60
Remarks
Income in this sample is above average.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aG=-.39 p < .01
This negative relationship  paralelled by a 
negatieve relationship with occupational status, 
labourers being happier than cadres
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-atc=-.26 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale, 
recoded to a 24-point scale (scale categories not 
reported in datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
2       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
3       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
4       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
7       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
8       M=6.52      Mt=6.1 
9       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
10      M=5.86      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
2       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
3       M=2.52     Mt=5.1
4       M=2.69     Mt=5.6
5       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
6       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
7       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
8       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
9       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
10      M=2.64     Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .36      Mt=5.4
2       M= .59      Mt=5.6
3       M= .53      Mt=5.5
4       M= .74      Mt=5.7
5       M= .92      Mt=5.9
6       M= .68      Mt=5.7
7       M= .76      Mt=5.8
8       M= .88      Mt=5.9
9       M= .91      Mt=5.9
10      M=1.21      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
ß controlled for sex and age
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
ß controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1    C
2    D
3    E
4    F
5    G
6    H
7   I
8   J
9   K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.113

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.37 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelNormal income
Page in Source 1082
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Total household income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- education
- marital status
- age
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a 10-point scale (scale 
categories not reported in datafile).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .98      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
4       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
5       M=1.99      Mt=7.0
6       M=1.95      Mt=7.0
7       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
8       M=2.16      Mt=7.2
9       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
10      M=2.37      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
3       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
7       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
8       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
9       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
10      M=3.48     Mt=8.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
4       M=8.22      Mt=8.0
5       M=7.91      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.16      Mt=8.0
7       M=8.57      Mt=8.4
8       M=8.67      Mt=8.5
9       M=8.80      Mt=8.7
10      M=8.56      Mt=8.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.21 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.18 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.17 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.20 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DK 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1182

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Income
Page in Source 369
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "Now we're talking about the total 
family income, before taxes, premiums and so on are 
paid. Your answer will be kept secret. Which number on 
this card corresponds best with your total family 
income?"
1  NLG <12000-39999  (low)
2  NLG  40000-50999  (middle)
3  > NLG 51000       (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1    C
2    D
3    E
4    F
5    G
6    H
7    I
8    J
9    K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.124

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.26 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold income
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "Here is a scale of incomes and we 
would like to know in what group your household is, 
counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other 
incomes that come in" rated on a a 10-point scale.
1   Less than 50 Rubles per month
2    51  -   70
3    71  -   100
4   101  -   150
5   151  -   200
6   201  -   300
7   301  -   500
8   501  -   800
9   801  -  1000
10  More than 1000 Rubles per month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.28      Mt=5.9
2       M=5.83      Mt=5.4
3       M=5.70      Mt=5.2
4       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
5       M=5.86      Mt=5.4
6       M=6.50      Mt=6.1
7       M=6.15      Mt=5.7
8       Less than 10 Ss
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
2       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
3       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
4       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
5       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
6       M=2.59     Mt=5.3
7       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
8       Less than 10 Ss
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .44      Mt=5.4
2       M= .55      Mt=5.5
3       M= .69      Mt=5.7
4       M= .85      Mt=5.9
5       M= .89      Mt=5.9
6       M= .98      Mt=6.0
7       M= .59      Mt=5.6
8       Less than 10 Ss
9       Less than 10 Ss
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.08 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
ß controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelGross household income (log)
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport in single question: "Here is a scale of 
incomes. We would like to know in what group your 
household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions 
and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of 
the group your household falls into, before taxes and 
deductions." 
1    C
2    D
3    E
4    F
5    G
6    H
7    I
8    J
9    K
10   L
Error Estimatess.e.=.029

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab02

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2004): study FI 2000
TitleQuality of Life in Urban and Rural Areas of Five European Countries: Similarities and Differences.
SourceHallym International Journal of Aging, 2004, Vol. 6, 1 - 36
Public55+ aged, Finland, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =610

Correlate
Author's labelIncome per person
Page in Source 21,29
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab02
Operationalization
Pseudo-metric net income per person in the household 
derived from a list of 14 categories for overall net 
household 
income
Observed distributionUrban: M=€907; SD=€358; Rural: M=€ 651; SD=€310; p<.001