Findings on Happiness and HOPE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HOPE
Subject Code: H12

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H12HOPE0
H12aaHope-career0
H12aa01Earlier hope0
H12aa02Change in hope0
H12aa03Later hope0
H12abCurrent hope 28
H12ab01Specific personal hopes 5
H12acAttitudes to hope1
H12ab02Specific hopes for the country1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HOPE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H12
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study BR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, metropolitan areas Brazil, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 99/103
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.34 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.39 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.24 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelFive year expectation
Page in Source 238
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Closed question: "All things considered, do you expect 
the next five years to be extremely worse than the last 
five years?" Question rated on a 7-point scale, ranging 
from extremely worse(1) to extremely better(7).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.31
C-RG-u-sq-v-7-br=+.23
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.30
C-RG-u-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.06
Beta controled for
- best previous experience
- conparison with average folks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.09
Beta controled for
- best previous experience
- conparison with average folks
- own goal achievement
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.10
Beta controled for
- best previous experience
- conparison with average folks
- own goal achievement


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1012

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 157/161
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.19 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.53 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.11 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.32 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelAttitude towards the future
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Self-report on 6-item Life Orientation Scale:
1) pessimistic
2) neutral (reference)
3) optimistic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=.38 p < .05
OPTIMISTIC (vs neutral)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=.42 p < .05
Women
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=4.69 p < .05
PESSIMISTIC (vs neutral)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=4.06 p < .05
Women: No controls

Or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- passive coping strategies

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness. So 
optimism is associated with more happiness, 
whereas pessimism is associated with less 
happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1020

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 737/41
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.64 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.56 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.35 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.41 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study FR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 215/9
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.17 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.30 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.21 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IN 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 273/7
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.51 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.50 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.35 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.34 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IT 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1042

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 331/5
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.36 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.32 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.25 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.22 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study JP 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1574

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 389/93
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abG=+.49 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.50 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abtb=+.33 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.34 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study KR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, South Korea, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =997

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 563/7
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.32 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.17 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.18 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1
TitleMeasuring Happiness by a Single Item Scale.
SourceSocial Behavior and Personality, 2006, Vol. 34, 139 - 150
PublicUniversity undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =503

Correlate
Author's labelHope
Page in Source 20
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions:
a: I can think of many ways to get out of a jam
b  I energetically pursue my goals
c  There are lots of ways around any problem
d  I can think of many ways to get the things in life 
that are important to me
e  Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find 
a way to solve the problem
f  My past experiences have prepared me well for my 
future
g  I have been pretty succesful in life
h  I meet the goals that I set for myself

Rated:
1  definitely false
2  mostly false
3  mostly true
4  definitely true

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h)/4
a+c+f+g: Pathway subscale
b+d+e+h: Agency subscale
Observed distributionM = 24,13; SD = 3,45
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha = .68
Remarks
The Hope Scale (Snyder, Harris et al., 1991

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-ar=+.41 p < .001
All
males  : r = +.40 (N = 95)
females: r = +.42 (N = 95)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyDekker (2007): study ZZ EU 25 2001
TitleZeer Tevreden Nederlanders in Europees Perspectief. (The Dutch are very Happy in European Perspective).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007,The Hague, Netherlands, 152 - 158
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 25 member states, 2001-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25

Correlate
Author's labelEstimated development personal situation in last five years
Page in Source 154
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
If you compare your actual personal situation with your 
personal situation five years ago, would you say your 
personal situation has improved, deteriorated, or 
remained unchanged?
1: deteriorared
2: remained unchanged
3: improved

Computation: % of people estimating their personal 
situation has improved in the past 5 years (score 3), 
minus % of people estimating their personal situation 
has deteriorated (score 1).
Observed distribution Minimum: -20; maximum +52 (range 0-100)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.61 p < .001
% happy by % (3-1)

Figure 1 shows relationship between surplus % 
people perceiving an improvement in the past 5 
years instead of deterioration (horizontally; six 
nations have a negative score) and surplus % of 
people expecting an improvement in the next 5 
years instead of deterioration (vertically, no 
negative scores). (r=0,84; p<0,01; n=25)

The dots represent nations; the size of the dots 
represents % happy people in these nations.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyKonwicka (1976): study ZZ Europe 1967
TitleHomology of Predictions and Wishes.
SourceOrnauer, H.;et al.,Eds.: "Images of the World 2000:A Comparative Ten Nation Study", Humanities Press, 1976, USA, 403 - 419
Public15-40 aged, 6 european countries,
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3962

Correlate
Author's labelHomology
Page in Source 415
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Correspondence between expressed wishes for the future 
and expectations on the issues of:
- believe in religion
- sexual freedom
- attachment to families
- women in leading positions

Correspondence expressed in contingency coefficient C
Observed distributionRange: .16 to .70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=-
Believe in religion: 
The higher the convergence of whishes and 
expectations the lower happiness (monotonic 
sequence in all 6 countries).
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Sexual freedom: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Attachment to families: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aC=0
Women in leading positions: 
No clear relation between wish/expectation fit and 
happiness, except Norway where highest 
correspondence is found among the least happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyWiberg (1976a): study ZZ 1967
TitleReplication on a Youth Group: The Students.
SourceOrnauer, H.;et al;Eds.: "Images of the World 2000: A Comparative Ten Nation Study'', Humanities Press, 1976, USA, 185 - 216
Publicstudents, 5 western nations, 1967-1970, Germany,Great Britain, New Zealand, Sweden, USA.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelOptimism/pessimism
Page in Source 199,50
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Homology between wishes and expectations about personal 
life; responses to open questions.
Acceptance Ratio (AR) = (a-b) / (a+b) is calculated, 
where a = positive answer and b = negative answer to a 
question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.39
Germany
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.72
Great Britain
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.56
New Zealand
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.78
Sweden
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=.+72
USA


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelOptimism about future
Page in Source 39, 43,44
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions about feelings in the last 
week 
- I thought that later everything will be fine
- I thought that I will be happy in the future

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx=1.47; SD/nx=.78 (nx= number if items in the subscale)
Error EstimatesAlpha=.82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.21 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral expectation for the next year
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single closed question: "What do you expect in general 
of the next year, will it become a good year for 
yourself
or less good?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.70 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelOptimism
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single closed question: "Do you find yourself in 
general an optimist or a pessimist?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.65 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelFelt future looks good
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or
otherwise in the past few weeks):
"My future looks good"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.64 p < .01
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.61 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelConfidence in future
Page in Source question23
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Taking all things together, are you confident in your 
future?
1 no
2 rather no
3 rather yes
4 yes
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 26,1% 2: 41% 3: 16,7% 4 5,8% DK/NA: 10,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,19
2: M = 2,41
3: M = 2,90
4: M = 3,31
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.37 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness
Page in Source 372
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Will your life be 
disappointing/rewarding, enjoyable/
miserable, or in between?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-ar=+
Males  : r = +.52
Females: r = +.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003 /1
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicParents and adolescents, Spain, 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia.
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelSecurity for the future satisfaction
Page in Source 107
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Self report on security for the future satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.09 p < .025


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with the future
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Happiness with the future rated on a 11 point scale 0 
very unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM = 6,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.52 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study GB 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =987

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 621/5
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.53 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.53 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.34 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.35 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study US 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1127

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 679/83
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.60 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.54 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.37 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.33 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyMatlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977
TitleIndividual Differences in Pollyannaism.
SourceJournal of Personality Assesment. 1979, Vol. 43, 411 - 412
PublicUniversity students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelBrighter Future
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Difference between selfratings of "future happiness" 
and "present happiness" on Cantril's Ladder of Life 
Scale. (C-BW)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.23 s
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample
Non-ResponseT1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelHopelessness
Page in Source 672-673
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 20 questions, such as
- I might as well give up because I cant make things 
better for my self (true)
- I can't imagine what my life would be like in 20 
years (true)
 I lok forward to the future with hope and enthusiasm 
(false)
- When things are going badly I am helped by knowing 
they can't stay that way forever
Remarks
The Hopelessness Scale (Beck, Weisman,
Lester and Trexler, 1974)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-br=+.61 p < .001
Hopelessness assessed at T3. Hedonic level sum of 
scores at T1, T2, T3 and T4 (3 month-intervals).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyAngrist (1974): study US 1974
TitleDimensions of Well-Being in Public Housing Families.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1974, Vol. 6, 495 - 516
PublicPublic housing tenants, USA, 1974
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelFuture aspirations
Page in Source 504, 510
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Self reported  hope for the tenant and her family to be 
better of in the next 10 years. 
Rated on 10 step Cantril lader scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aa=+.43
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aa=-.09
Rotated factor loading in a model with 39 other 
variables, of which most involve housing quality, 
living environment, neighbors and relatives.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current hope
Subject code: H12ab

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelExpected life satisfaction 5 years from now
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent hope , code H12ab
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale (Cantril future personal ratings; see CANTR, 
1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.28
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.27
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific personal hopes
Subject code: H12ab01

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with your future security
Page in Source 117+121
Our classificationSpecific personal hopes , code H12ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
How satisfied are you with your future security? Rated 
on 0-10 scale.
Observed distributionM = 6,94; SD = 1,66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.41
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBeta=+.08 p < .001
 controled for satisfaction with:
- Standard
- Health
- Achieve
- Relationships
- Safety
- Community
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caR=+.01
Additional variance explained above satifaction 
with the domains of:
- Standard
- Health
- Achieve
- Relationships
- Safety
- Community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific personal hopes
Subject code: H12ab01

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response75%
Respondents N =1999

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with future security
Page in Source 126
Our classificationSpecific personal hopes , code H12ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
How satisfied are you with your future security?Rated 
on 0-10 scale.
Observed distributionM = 6.98 ; SD = 1.96

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-car=+.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific personal hopes
Subject code: H12ab01

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with future security
Page in Source 143, 144, 146
Our classificationSpecific personal hopes , code H12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your future security?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta's controlled for:
- mental health
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.23 p < .05
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
-health              (+.28)
-recreation          (+.13)
-achievement in life (+.16)

(45% of variance explained)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bBeta=+.20 p < .05
Beta' s additionally controlled for:
-mental health             (+.15)
and satisfaction with:
-romantic relationships    (+.13)
-feeling part of community (+.12)
-health                    (+.24)
-recreation                (+.11)

(48% of variance explained)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific personal hopes
Subject code: H12ab01

StudyStapel (1988): study NL 1988
TitleDe Gelukkige Nederlanders. (The Happy Dutchman).
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1988, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/stapel_j_1988.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1988
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =952

Correlate
Author's labelExpected income increase
Page in Source 2
Our classificationSpecific personal hopes , code H12ab01
Operationalization
Single closed question: "Do you expect that your income 
will increase this year, or do you think it will not 
change or even decrease?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.56 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific personal hopes
Subject code: H12ab01

StudyGanglmair Wooliscroft & Lawson (2008): study NZ 2005
TitleApplying the International Wellbeing Index to Investigate Subjective Wellbeing of New Zealanders with European and with Maori Heritage.
SourceNew Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 2008, Vol. 3, 57 - 72
Public18+ aged, general public, New-Zealand, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response63,4%
Respondents N =3556

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with future security
Page in Source 59, 64, 66
Our classificationSpecific personal hopes , code H12ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How satisfied are your future security?

Rated on a 0-10 numerical scale
Observed distributionEuropean descent: N=2769; M=60,6 SD=19,6 Maori descent: N=289; M=57,2; SD=23,7
Remarks
Item in 'Personal Wellbeing Scale'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbBeta=+.06 p < .001
European descent(78%)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbBeta=+.09 ns
Maori descent(8%)

Beta's controlled for satisfaction with:
- standard of living 
- health
- achieving in life
- personal relationships
- safety
- feeling part of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific hopes for the country
Subject code: H12ab02

StudyKeyes (1998): study US Wisconsin 1994
TitleSocial Well-Being.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 61, 121 - 140
Public18+ aged, general public, Dane County, Wisconsin USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Actualization
Page in Source 132
Our classificationSpecific hopes for the country, code H12ab02
Operationalization
Respondents indicated (dis)agreement with the following 
statements:
a) Society has stopped making progress (-)
b) Society is not improving for people like you (-)
c) Social institutions (e.g. government & law) do not 
make your life better (-)
d) Society is continually evolving (+)
e) Society is a productive place for people to live in 
(+)
f) There is no social progress (-)
g) The world is becoming a better place for everyone 
(+)
Items with (-) are reverse scored on scale ranging from 
1.strongly 2.moderately 3.slightly disagree 4.slightly 
5.moderately 6.Strongly agree
Observed distributionM = 32.1 SD = 5.7
Error EstimatesMetric Loading ranging from 0.54 to 1.0 Validity coefficient for the scoring ranged from 0.46 to 0.62 Alpha reliabiliy 0 .69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-ar=+.26 p < .01
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to hope
Subject code: H12ac

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-future
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationAttitudes to hope, code H12ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and expect to have in 5 years
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.76 SD: 0.98 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.34 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .01
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.42 p < .01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 18 questions:

How have things been going in the past few weeks? Please tick one of the two boxes for each of the questions below:
A Have you been anoyed with someone?
B Have you ever felt lonely or remote from people?
C Have you ever felt that things were going your way?
D Have you ever felt very worried
E Have you ever felt pleased because you've got friends?
F Have you ever been afraid of what might happen?
G Have you ever felt particularly excited or interested in something?
H Have you ever felt depressed or unhappy?
I Have you ever been full of energy?
J Have you ever felt really tired?
K Have you ever felt so restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
L Have you ever felt that you were really enjoying yourself?
M Have you ever felt really cheerfull?
N Have you ever felt like crying?
O Have you ever felt at the top of the world?
P Have you ever felt confident about the future?
Q Have you ever felt bored?
R Have you ever felt pleased about having accomplished something?

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation: (C+E+G+I+L+M+O+P+R) - (A+B+D+F+H+J+K+N+Q)

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale: extended version
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 10 questions, repeated four times at 3 months intervals:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?" (yes/no)

A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life

Name: Cantril's self anchoring Ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-aSelf report on single question:

"Here you have ladder of nine rungs representing different conditions of life in which a person may possibly be. The top of the ladder '9' represents the best possible condition one may think of, and the bottom '1'represents the worst possible condition. On which rung do you think you stand with regard to your personal condition?"
9 best possible
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst possible

This question was followed by questions on the past (five years ago) and the future (five years from now).

Name: Cantril ladder rating (adjusted version)
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
C-RG-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

"Some people have certain goals or aspirations for various aspects of their lives. They aim for a particular sort of home, income, family lifestyle, and so on. Compared to your general aims and goals, how would you say that your life measures up to it.....?"
1 not at all
2 fairly
3 poorly
4 half as well as your goal
5 fairly
6 well
7 matches your goal
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
0 minimum score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 maximal score
Numbers presented on a horizontal line scale.
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel.....?
3 happy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".......happiness....."
(Full text not reported)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you feel as you live now? Please choose one item on this card that comes closest to your feeling.
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general my present quality of life is:
1 as bad as it could possibly be
2
3
4 neither good nor bad
5
6
7 as good as it could possibly be

Response options labeled as: +3 (as good as it could possibly be), 0 (neither good nor bad) and -3 (as bad as it could possibly be).

Item in ADDQoL (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life)
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfrport on single question:

On the whole are you with the life you lead?
4 satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 as yet unsatisfied
1 unbearably dissatisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your present life.......?
Please choose from this card that is closest to your feeling.
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abOverall, how satisfied are you with your present life.......?
Please choose from this card that is closest to your feeling.
5 very satisfied
4 quite happy
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 frustrated
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dSelf-report on single question

Are you satisfied with life in general?
1: unsatisfied
2: moderate satisfied
3: very satisfied
O-SLu-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Ss were asked to pretend for a moment that their life would end next week end then indicate how happy they felt about the life they been able to live. (Full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question;

How satisfied or unsatisfied were you last week with your life in general?
Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on the line

_________________________________________
completely completely

Scoring: mm on this 100 mm line
O-SLW-m-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

'.satisfied with global life right now.'
(full question not reported)
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 neither unsatisfied nor satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used since 2005)
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-bSelfreport on five questions:

A I am very content with my life
B Nothing is currently lacking in my life
C When I examine my life as a whole, I feel I am not meeting my aspirations*
D I feel dissatisfied because I'm not doing everything that I want to be doing in my life*

Rating:
1 strongly disagree
.
.
7 strongly agree
* reversed keyed item

Name: Contentment with life assesment Scale (CLASS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
aFACTOR LOADING
Type: descriptive statistic
A factor loading is the correlation coefficient between an observed variable and a factor in the underlying Factor Analysis Model.
Range: [-1, +1]

Meaning:
A high factor loading means that the factor is very similar to that observed variable.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
CPearson's CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [0; SQRT(1-1/s)], where s = the lesser of c and r, the number of columns and rows respectively.

Meaning:
C = 0 no association.
C = SQRT( 1-1/s) strongest possible association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H12HOPEH05aa03Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
H12HOPEM13ac03cFeeling hopeless (vs not)
H12HOPEP04ccOptimistic
H12HOPET01ab04cOrientation on the future
H12HOPEW07WORRIES
H12aa01Earlier hopeP01ab19Earlier optimism
H12ab01Specific personal hopes W07ab02Specific worries
H12ab01Specific personal hopes P06af07Expected health
H12ab01Specific personal hopes L07ab02Object of life-goals
H12ab02Specific hopes for the countryN06ab05Hopes for the country
H12acAttitudes to hopeP04anCritical
H12acAttitudes to hopeP04byNaive

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings