Findings on Happiness and HELPING

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HELPING
Subject Code: H11

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H11HELPING0
H11aaHelping career0
H11aa01Earlier helping0
H11aa02Change in helping1
H11aa03Later helping0
H11abCurrent helping5
H11acAttitudes to helping0
H11ab01Care giving5
H11ab02Charity3
H11ac01Satisfaction with helping2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HELPING
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H11
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in helping
Subject code: H11aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in familycare
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationChange in helping, code H11aa02
Operationalization
1: Change (not reported what change)
0: No Change
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.01 p < .NS
CURRENT familycare by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.05 ns
CURRENT familycare by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.06 ns
CHANGE familycare by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current helping
Subject code: H11ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly helping friends
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent helping, code H11ab
Operationalization
1 help at least once a month friends, relatives or 
neighbours
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=159378 M=0.4 sd=0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.07 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Other social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current helping
Subject code: H11ab

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelInfrequent participation in helping friends and relatives
Page in Source 253
Our classificationCurrent helping, code H11ab
Operationalization
Self report on frequency of participation in helping 
friends and relatives. Text is not reported.
1: infrequent participation in helping friends and 
relatives
0: frequent participation in helping friends and 
relatives

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=0.6 p < .05
CI95 [0.5-0.7]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current helping
Subject code: H11ab

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelHelping neighbours
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent helping, code H11ab
Operationalization
Full items not reported; questions on helping 
neighbours.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current helping
Subject code: H11ab

StudyCharness & Grosskopf (2001): study ES 1998
TitleRelative Pay offs and Happiness: An Experimental Study.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2001, Vol. 45, 301 - 328
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00148-2
PublicUniversity students, Barcelona, Spain, 1998
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =121

Correlate
Author's labelDecision 1: egalitarian over other-rewarding
Page in Source 307
Our classificationCurrent helping, code H11ab
Operationalization
Ss met in one large room and were explained that they 
would randomly be assigned one of two roles in an 
experiment:
A: Passive role (dead), no say in the decision, only 
asked what they would do if they had been in the other 
role and/or to predict the choice of B
B: Active role (live), makes two decisions about 
partition of money between A and B.
After this introduction Ss were randomly assigned 
either role A or role B. 
Next Ss answered written questions about respectively 
general happiness (GH), comparative happiness (CH) and 
momentary happiness (MH)
Then B's were asked to choose between two options for 
partition between all A and B subjects, which were 
equally rewarding for themselves:
1 other-rewarding: 900 for A, 600 for B
2 egalitarian:     600 for A, 600 for B
Observed distributionEgalitarian 34 %, Other-rewarding 66 %
Remarks
Values were in Spanish Peseta's: 150 = US$ 1
Only active subjects (B) considered here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM=+ ns
Other-rewarding choice:  GH=6.60 (MH=5.98)
Egalitarian choice:      GH=6.71 (MH=6.24)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ars=+.04 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=+.04 ns
rpc controled for mood of the moment (MH)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current helping
Subject code: H11ab

StudyCharness & Grosskopf (2001): study ES 1998
TitleRelative Pay offs and Happiness: An Experimental Study.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2001, Vol. 45, 301 - 328
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00148-2
PublicUniversity students, Barcelona, Spain, 1998
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response0 %
Respondents N =121

Correlate
Author's labelDecision 2 (egalitarian vs downgrading choice)
Page in Source 307
Our classificationCurrent helping, code H11ab
Operationalization
Ss met in one large room and were explained that they 
would randomly be assigned one of two roles in an 
experiment:
A: Passive role (dead), no say in the decision, only 
asked what they would do if they had been in the other 
role and/or to predict the choice of B
B: Active role (live), makes two decisions about 
partition of money between A and B

After this introduction Ss were randomly assigned 
either role A or role B. Next Ss answered written 
questions about respectively general happiness (GH), 
comparative happiness (CH) and momentary happiness (MH)

Then B's were asked to choose between two options for 
partition between all A and B subjects, which were 
equally rewarding for themselves:
1 downgrading: 400 for A, 600 for B
2 egalitarian: 600 for A, 600 for B
Observed distributionEgalitarian 88%, downgrading 12%
Remarks
Values were in Spanish Peseta's: 150 = US$ 1
Only active subjects (B) considered here.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM= ns
Downgrading: GH = 5.86 (MH=5.43)
Egalitarian: GH = 6.74 (MH=6.15)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-ars=-.13 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-arpc=-.13 ns
rpc controled for mood of the moment (MH)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Care giving
Subject code: H11ab01

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold member in need of care
Page in Source 295
Our classificationCare giving, code H11ab01
Operationalization
Household member in need of care
1) yes
0) no
Observed distributionM=0.039; SD=0.194

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.53 p < .01
b's controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Care giving
Subject code: H11ab01

StudyDeBoer & VanCampen (2007): study NL 2004
TitleInformele Helpers en o zo Gelukkig. (Informal Caregivers are happy; up to a point!)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.; "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 72 - 76.
Public16+aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2300

Correlate
Author's labelInfomal helpers
Page in Source 73
Our classificationCare giving, code H11ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport of average number of hours per week spend on 
unpaid help to sick or handicapped family-members, 
friends or neighbours.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
Hours unpaid help per week
0:     M=3,60
1:     M=3,71
2:     M=3,78
3:     M=3,82
4:     M=3,81
5:     M=3,77
6:     M=3,69
7-8:   M=3,57
9-10:  M=3,41
11-20: M=3,21
21-40: M=2,97
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Care giving
Subject code: H11ab01

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in familycare
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationCare giving, code H11ab01
Operationalization
1: Change (not reported what change)
0: No Change
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.01 p < .NS
CURRENT familycare by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.05 ns
CURRENT familycare by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.06 ns
CHANGE familycare by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Care giving
Subject code: H11ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelCare hours (mid point)
Page in Source 6, 18, 19, 21, 22
Our classificationCare giving, code H11ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
a  "Is there anyone living with you who is 
sick,handicapped or elderly whom you look after or give 
special help to (for example, a sick or handicapped (or 
elderly) relative/ husband/ wife/ friend, etc)?"
b  "Do you provide some regular service or help for any 
sick, handicapped or elderly person not living with 
you?"
c  "In total, how many hours do you spend each week 
looking after or helping (him/her/them)?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 p < .05
MALES (N=58674/10085)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 p < .01
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)

B's controlled for: 
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Care giving
Subject code: H11ab01

StudyMoen et al. (1995): study US 1956
TitleCaregiving and Women's Well-Being: A Life Course Approach.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, Vol. 36, 259 - 273
PublicMothers USA, followed 30 years 1956-1986
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20
Respondents N =313

Correlate
Author's labelCaregiving
Page in Source 265-266
Our classificationCare giving, code H11ab01
Operationalization
0 not currently caregiver
1 current caregiver

Caregiving includes respondents’reports of providing 
assistance to ill, handicapped, of older relatives, 
including spouse and adult children, and in a few cases 
“fictive’ kin in the form of a close neighbor or 
friend.
Observed distributionCaregivers: N= 53, Non-caregiver: N=240

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=- ns
T2 caregiving by T2 happiness

Unaffected by:
- T1 happiness (so no change in happiness)
- T1 religious involvement
- T1 volunteering
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=
                    T2 happiness
T1 self-esteem      caregivers  non-caregivers
- low               Ma = 2,34   Ma = 2,70 (10)
- high              Ma = 2,96   Ma = 2,76
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa=
                    T2 happiness
T1 Multiple role occupancy
                    caregivers  non-caregivers
- low               Ma = 2,58   Ma = 2,25 (05)
- high              Ma = 2,48   Ma = 2,65
M-CO---mq-v-3-aDMa= ns
T2 caregiving by T1 happiness (30 years ago)

Ma controled for:
- age
- T2 marital status
- T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Charity
Subject code: H11ab02

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelCharity work
Page in Source 38,39,54,55,57
Our classificationCharity, code H11ab02
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.31 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.05 p < .05
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
    - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
    - Widowed
    - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance 
  - Religious denomination

When additionally controlled for education, family 
income, labor force participation and spouse in 
labor force:
B=    +.36 (p<.05)
beta= +.06 (p<.05)

Plus additionally controlled for hours worked, 
occupational status, job security and 
unemployment:
B=    +0.33 (p<.05)
beta= +0.04 (p<.05)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.36 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.06 p < .05
Beta and previous B additionally controlled for:
- education
- family income
- labor force participation
- spouse in labor force
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.33 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.04 p < .05
Beta and previous B additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Charity
Subject code: H11ab02

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =632

Correlate
Author's labelspending
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCharity, code H11ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on two questions on how much one spends in a 
typical month on:
A for oneself
  - bills and expenses
  - gifts for themselves
B for others
  - gifts for others
  - donation to charity
Observed distributionpersonal M=$1713.91, SD=1895.65; prosocial M=$145.96, SD=306.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR ONESELF
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- spending for others
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.04 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR OTHERS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.11 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.11 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- spending for one-self
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.10 p < .03
Beta additonally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Charity
Subject code: H11ab02

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelspending
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCharity, code H11ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions on percentage of money from 
the bonus one has spent for:
A ONE-SELF
  - bills and expensed
  - rent or mortgage
  - buying something for themselves
B OTHERS
  - buying something for someone else
  - donating to charity
Observed distributionpersonal M=63.44, SD=38.20; prosocial M=$12.19, SD=18.35
Remarks
T1: one month before bonus
T2: 3 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
% BONUS SPEND FOR ONE-SELF
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=-.48 ns
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=-.55 p < .05
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- % spend to others
- income
- T1 happiness indicating CHANGE in happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
% BONUS SPEND FOR OTHERS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.67 p < .01
T1 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.70 p < .01
T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.81 p < .02
Beta controlled for:
- % spend for one-self
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE of happiness)
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.96 p < .02
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.81 p < .03
Beta additonally controlled for:
- bonus amount


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with helping
Subject code: H11ac01

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with care of sick persons
Page in Source 307
Our classificationSatisfaction with helping, code H11ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel  on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: care of sick persons.
Observed distributionN= 0:5%, 1:16, 2:7%, 3:8%, 4:7%, 5:10%, 6:13%, 7:15%, 8:12%, 9:8%, 10:4, DKNA:4%
Remarks
N=265.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 6.3  M = 5.1             +1.2 
top 3:  M = 6.1  M = 4.7             +1.4 
top 5:  M = 5.8  M = 4.3             +1.5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N=  64, Others: 8-0 N= 201
Top 3: 10-8 N= 129, Others: 7-0 N= 136
Top 5: 10-6 N= 197, Others: 5-0 N=  68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with helping
Subject code: H11ac01

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with helping friends, neighbours, family
Page in Source 340
Our classificationSatisfaction with helping, code H11ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: helping with friends, neighbours or family.
Observed distributionN= 0:1%, 1:*%, 2:2%, 3:3%, 4:3%, 5:11%, 6:14%, 7:19%, 8:26%, 9:13%, 10:7%, DKNA:2%
Remarks
N=2063

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 7.9  M = 6.7             +1.2
top 3:  M = 7.5  M = 6.4             +1.1 
top 5:  M = 7.2  M = 6.0             +1.2
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 483, Others: 8-0 N=1580
Top 3: 10-8 N=1052, Others: 7-0 N=1012
Top 5: 10-6 N=1634, Others: 5-0 N= 430


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
1 no
2 rarely
3 sometimes
4 most of the time
5 yes
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H11HELPINGS11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED
H11ab01Care givingS11ab01Amount of support provided
H11ab02CharityS11ab02bFinancial
H11ac01Satisfaction with helpingM13ad07Mood when helping

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings