Findings on Happiness and HEALTH-BEHAVIOR

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HEALTH-BEHAVIOR
Subject Code: H10

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR1
H10aaHealth-behavior career0
H10aa01Earlier health-behavior1
H10aa02Change in health-behavior2
H10aa03Later health-behavior1
H10abCurrent healthy life-style8
H10ab01Health inspection4
H10ab02Hygiene1
H10acCurrent medical consumption3
H10ac01Use of medicaments8
H10adAttitudes to health-maintenance3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HEALTH-BEHAVIOR
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H10
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and HEALTH-BEHAVIOR
Subject code: H10

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /1
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Bhopalpani, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response108
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelHospital
Page in Source 263
Our classificationHEALTH-BEHAVIOR, code H10
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 0,80; 1: 42,2; 2: 39,4; 3: 14,7; M: 3,7
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.07 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier health-behavior
Subject code: H10aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelHow clothes are washed at age 1
Page in Source 122
Our classificationEarlier health-behavior, code H10aa01
Operationalization
How clothes are washed at age 1 as reported in medical 
file
a: in machine
b: soap
c: detergent
Observed distributionN: 221, a:5%, b:16%, c:78%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=8.54
b: Mt=7.64
c: Mt=7.81
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=8.54
b: Mt=7.23
c: Mt=7.73
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a: Mt=8.34
b: Mt=7.15
c: Mt=7.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in health-behavior
Subject code: H10aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in mental health consultations
Page in Source 1730
Our classificationChange in health-behavior, code H10aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in reponse to question: Seen a doctor for 
your nerves in the last year?
0 no
1 yes
Observed distribution0: 89,1%, 1: 10,9%
Remarks
T1-T2 2 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.72 p < .001
T1-T2 INCREASE in mental health consultations ny 
T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.32 p < .05
T1-T2 DECREASE in  mental health consultations by 
T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in health-behavior
Subject code: H10aa02

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in health consultations
Page in Source 1729
Our classificationChange in health-behavior, code H10aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in response to question: Seen a doctor for 
physical illness in the last year?
0 no
1 yas
Observed distributionO; 37,4% 1: 62,6%
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 (2 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.10
T1-T2 INCREASE in health consultations by T2 
happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=+.17 p < .10
T1-T2 DECREASE in health consultations by T2 
happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.72 p < .0001
Changes in mental health
T1-T2 INCREASE inmental health by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ab=-.32 p < .05
Changes in mental health
T1-T2 DECREASE in income by T2 happiness

B's controled for:
- T1 happiness
- T1 mental health status (good, moderate, poor)
- T1 objective conditions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later health-behavior
Subject code: H10aa03

StudyWahl et al. (2007): study ZZ Various nation sets 2000
TitleEnvironmental Aspects of Quality of life in Old Age.
SourceMollenkopf, H.;Walker, A.;Eds: '''Quality of Life and Old Age", Springer, 2007, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 101 - 122
Public55+aged, urban and rural regions in 5 EU nations 2000-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseExcept for Eastern Germany rural areas 32%, urban areas 48%, rural Italy 18.6%, urban The Netherlands 65.8%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with health
Page in Source 116
Our classificationLater health-behavior, code H10aa03
Operationalization
Self-report on satisfaction with health assessed by 
11-point rating scale (0=completely unsatisfied to 
10=completely satisfied). Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.20 p < .001
Finland
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.34 p < .001
The Netherlands
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.23 p < .001
Germany
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.29 p < .001
Hungary
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.29 p < .001
Italy

Control variables are not reported.
The publication presents only significant Beta's 
(05. Not mentioned Beta's are added to this 
excerpt by WDH-team and assumed to be 
insignificant (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy lifestyle
Page in Source 76
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 15 questions about
- use of caffiene
- use of alcohol
- smoking
- exercise
- diet
- weight
- sleep disturbance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.16 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelhealthy lifestyle
Page in Source 462
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Lifestyle and Quality of Life
1: very unhealthy lifestyle
2: unhealthy lifestyle
3: neither healthy, nor unhealthy lifestyle
4: healthy lifestyle
5: very healthy lifestyle
Observed distributionN: All:4597; %;1:1,8; 2:15,6; 3:42,0; 4:35,0; 5:5,6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.12 p < .00
1: Ms=6.63
2: Ms=7.39
3: Ms=7.68
4: Ms=7.96
5: Ms=8.16
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.12 p < .00
1: Ms=6.24
2: Ms=7.01
3: Ms=7.36
4: Ms=7.69
5: Ms=7.69
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.11 p < .00
1: Ms=6.00
2: Ms=6.65
3: Ms=7.01
4: Ms=7.21
5: Ms=7.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelEating healthy
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Now, please think 
about yesterday, from the morning until the end of the 
day. Think about where you were, what you were doing, 
who you were with, and how you felt. Did you eat 
healthy all day yesterday?"
0= yes
1= no
Remarks
For the analysis of 'healthy eating' at least 18.000 
responses per region were used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = healthy,     M = 4,6 
1 = not healthy, M = 3,8
        Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = healthy,     M = 6,0 
1 = not healthy, M = 5,4
        Difference =-0,6
Asia
0 = healthy,     M = 5,4
1 = not healthy, M = 5,0
        Difference =-0,4

Europe
0 = healthy,     M = 6,8 
1 = not healthy, M = 6,6
        Difference =-0,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelhealth
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
1 very good reference 
2 good
3 fair
4 bad
5 very bad

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.47 p < .01
good (compared to very good)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.0 p < .01
fair (compared to very good)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.9 p < .01
bad (compared to very good)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-3.0 p < .01
very bad 9compared to very good)

B's controlled for 
- gender
- age
- family situation
- income
- ocuupation
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyDeJonge et al. (2009): study NL 2006
TitleLiving a Happy, Healthy and Satisfying Life.
SourceStatisics Netherlands, 2009, Netherlands
URLHTTP://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/3/43705841.pdf
Public12+ aged, The Netherlands, 2006-2009
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23000

Correlate
Author's labellifestyle
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
a: Gets enough physical excersice
b: drinks moderately
c: Does not smoke
e: Is not overweight

1: a+b+c+d only
0: all

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% happy:
1: 92,5
0: 89,0
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1: 89,7
0: 88,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyHofoss (2004): study NO 1984
TitleHealthy Living Does not Reduce Life Satisfaction among Physically Handicapped Persons.
SourcePatient Education and Counseling, 2004, Vol. 52, 17 - 22
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0738-3991(02)00244-6
Public25 -50 aged physically handicapped, Norway, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11,9%
Respondents N =5572

Correlate
Author's labelLifestyle
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 health-related behaviors:
(a) no daily smoking - as opposed to smoking every day
(b) temperate use of alcohol - as opposed to having 
tasted alcohole more than five times during the last 14 
days or being a teetotaller
(c) engaging in some sort of exercising - as opposed to 
reporting never doing so
(d) no overeating, that is, not being very much 
overweiht - as opposed to having a BMI of above 30

Respondents were dichotomised by life-style into those 
entertaining
0 two or fewer of these four healthy habits
1 three or four healthy habits

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cD%=+
SMALL HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
0 unhealthy lifestyle 63,83      36,17
1 healthy lifestyle   69,63      30,37
  difference         + 5,80     - 5,80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=1.30
CI95%[1.10-1.54]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cDM=+
MEDIUM/LARGE HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
0 unhealthy lifestyle 52,83      47,17
1 healthy lifestyle   61,72      38,28
  difference         + 8,89     - 8,89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=1.44
CI95% [1.19-1.74]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-clgt= ns
lgt controlled for:
- education
- occupational employment
- married or cohabiting
- degree of handicap
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-clgt=
Best fitting model does not suggest that being 
handicapped leads to an unhealthy lifestyle and 
improves happiness in that way
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelHealth habits
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Jogging, running, swimming, golfing or other 
strenuous exercise for 15 minutes or more
Rated 1: never to 6 daily
Observed distributionM = 4.21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current healthy life-style
Subject code: H10ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelHealth habits
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent healthy life-style, code H10ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- eating: eating 3 meals a day
- sleeping: getting an adequate amount of sleep at 
night
- alcohol: use alcohol beverages( beer, wine liquor)
- smoking: cigarettes
- snacking: eating frequent snacks during the day or in 
the evening
Rated 1: never  to 6 daily
Observed distributionM = Eating: 4.85, Sleeping 5.15, Drinking 3.70, Smoking 1.30, Snacking 3.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=.+14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health inspection
Subject code: H10ab01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal weight control
Page in Source 52,54
Our classificationHealth inspection, code H10ab01
Operationalization
Direct question:"How often do you control your weight?"
Answer categories: never, less than once a week, at 
least weekly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.13
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, community size, 
education, professional status, marital status, 
income, body weight, healthy eating habits, 
alcohol consumption, physical fittness activity, 
psychosomatic complains, illness and satisfaction 
with health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health inspection
Subject code: H10ab01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelPediatric checks on first year of life
Page in Source 544
Our classificationHealth inspection, code H10ab01
Operationalization
Pediatric checks on first year of life as reported in 
medical file
a: child care clinic
b: own physician
Observed distributionN: a:898, b:1572

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
a: Mt=7.76
b: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
a: Mt=7.41
b: Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
a: Mt=7.00
b: Mt=7.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health inspection
Subject code: H10ab01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelExaminig doctor shortly after birth
Page in Source 448,450
Our classificationHealth inspection, code H10ab01
Operationalization
Examinig doctor shortly after birth as reported in 
medical file
a:examination by Q
b:examination by JP
c:examination by ZC
d:examination by other
Assessed at day 1 and day 5
Observed distributionN day 1 all:4213, %:a:4,5, b:7,9, c:82,5, d:5,1 N day 5 all:4101, %:a:2,6, b:5,2, c:83,2, d:9.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
day 1       day 5
a:Mt=7.65   a:7.99
b:Mt=7.85   b:7.63
c:Mt=7.71   c:7.71
d:Mt=7.98   d:7.90
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
day 1        day 5
a:Mt=7.58   a:7.64
b:Mt=7.51   b:7.46
c:Mt=7.39   c:7.40
d:Mt=7.55   d:7.53
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
day 1        day 5
a:Mt=7.06   a:7.23
b:Mt=7.09   b:7.09
c:Mt=7.00   c:7.01
d:Mt=7.14   d:7.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Health inspection
Subject code: H10ab01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelPaediatric checks in first year of life
Page in Source 544
Our classificationHealth inspection, code H10ab01
Operationalization
Paediatric checks in first year of life as reported in 
medical file
1: 5 week examination undertaken
2: 5 month examination undertaken
3: 10 month examination undertaken
4: all three examinations undertaken
Observed distributionN: 1:693, 2:975, 3:505, 4:2091,
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.74
2: Mt=7.78
3: Mt=7.69
4: Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.43
2: Mt=7.39
3: Mt=7.30
4: Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=7.04
3: Mt=6.93
4: Mt=7.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hygiene
Subject code: H10ab02

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of bathing
Page in Source 28
Our classificationHygiene, code H10ab02
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 6-point scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current medical consumption
Subject code: H10ac

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelTaking action on symptoms of illness
Page in Source 350
Our classificationCurrent medical consumption, code H10ac
Operationalization
Ss were confronted with a list of 16 symptoms and asked 
what they would do.
Doing nothing vs self-medication/ consulting a doctor.  
Additive index.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.09 p < .05
T2 happiness by T2 readiness to take action on 
symptoms.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.07 ns
T3 happiness by T2 readiness to take action on 
symptoms.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current medical consumption
Subject code: H10ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelUnder treatment/therapy
Our classificationCurrent medical consumption, code H10ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: Are you currently 
taking any kind of medication or under any kind of 
therapy?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distribution0: 20% 1: 80%
Remarks
Ill people only (N=30)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=- p < .05
0: M= 4,17 SD= 2,40
1: M= 6,33 SD= 2,04
Difference:   -2,16
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.85
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM=- ns
0: M= 6,17 SD= 2,04
1: M= 6,88 SD= 1,96
Difference:    -,71
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current medical consumption
Subject code: H10ac

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of Medical Care
Page in Source 57
Our classificationCurrent medical consumption, code H10ac
Operationalization
self report of frequcy of medical care in the past year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.14 p < .05
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.30 p < .01
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyChow (2012): study CA Calgary, Alberta 2007
TitleHealth Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 106, 347 - 358
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9810-0
Public65+aged Chinese migrants, Calgary, Canada, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelMedication use
Page in Source 351-353
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Medication use was operationalized as the number of 
medications that respondents are required to take on a 
daily basis.
Observed distributionM: 1.70, SD: 1.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.94 ns
Beta controled for:
- Socio-economic status
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - financial need
- migration history
  - country of origin 
  - length of residence in Canada
- Health
  - physical mobility
  - perceived needs for services
- Social network
- quality of neighbouhood
- Psychological well-being


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelUse of medicaments
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Question: 'Do you regularly use medicine?'
1 yes  
2 no   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.09       +.18       +.09       +.06
1980
1984      +.12       +.25       +.12       +.10
1988      +.10       +.19       +.10       +.07

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelLasting sickness or disabled
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Question: 'Do you have some lasting 
sickness or disablement that forced you to change your 
profession or your complete life?'
1 yes  
2 no   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.08       +.09       +.08       +.11
1980
1984      +.12       +.16       +.12       +.14
1988      +.12       +.12       +.12       +.14

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyJol (1985a): study NL 1974
TitleLiever Samen dan Alleen? Veranderingen in Levensomstandigheden én Welbevinden van Alleenstaanden, 1974-1983. (Better together than Alone? Changes in Life Situations ánd Well-Being of Singles,1974-1983).
SourceC.B.S. Select, Nr. 3, Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985, The Hague, Netherlands, 171 - 184
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1983
Sample
Non-Response1974: 28%, 1983: 43%
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelUse of medicaments
Page in Source 178
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
0 = uses no medicaments
1 = uses medicaments

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.09 p < .05
1983 only
ß controlled for sex and age.
Results not significantly different from 1974.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelNervousness.
Page in Source 37
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Direct question: Have you taken 'something against the 
nerves' during the last 14 days? 
0: Nothing
1: Swallowed something

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.41 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelMedicine use.
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Direct question on medicine use during the last two 
weeks.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSNR= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyBenyamini et al. (2004): study US 1998
TitleSelf-Rated Oral Health as an Independent Predictor of Self-Rated General Health, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2004, Vol. 59, 1109 - 1116
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.12.021
PublicResidents retirement community, USA, 1998
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =850

Correlate
Author's labelMedication use
Page in Source 1112-4
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
Number of medications reported to be taken daily by 
doctor's recommmendation.
Observed distributionM= 2,16; SD= 2,09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-v-5-br=-.17 p < .01
O-Sum---mq-v-5-bBeta= ns
Beta controled for
-age
-gender
-education
-functional disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of medicaments
Subject code: H10ac01

StudyGoldberg et al. (1980): study US Maryland 1971
TitlePsychosocial Factors and Blood Pressure.
SourcePsychological Medicine, 1980, Vol. 10, 243 - 255
Public18+ aged, general public, county, Maryland, USA 1971-1974
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelUse of medication with depressive side effects
Page in Source 251
Our classificationUse of medicaments, code H10ac01
Operationalization
1: users drug with depression side effect
0: any other drug or no drug
Observed distributionN=1: 35,0:29
Remarks
Only subjects in treatment for high bloodpressure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=-
% happy (<2)
1           85,7
0           93,1
difference  -7,4
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aD%=-
% happy (<5)
1          91,4
0          93,1
difference -1,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to health-maintenance
Subject code: H10ad

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulties in getting (medical) care
Page in Source 261
Our classificationAttitudes to health-maintenance, code H10ad
Operationalization
Have you experienced difficulties in getting (medical) 
care 
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2291 Ever in your life: N = 146

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.04
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.09
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.57
95% CI for difference:   [0.14 ; 0.48]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to health-maintenance
Subject code: H10ad

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelinternal health control
Page in Source 241, 245
Our classificationAttitudes to health-maintenance, code H10ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 items. 
Typical item: "If I take good care of myself, I can 
prevent diseases."
Dutch version of Internal health locus of control 
scale.
Observed distributionM= 18,56 (sd= 5,58)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .78
Remarks
data available for 46 Ss

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=-.21 ns
positive affect = -.27 (05)
negative affect = -.02


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to health-maintenance
Subject code: H10ad

StudyBowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032656.01524.07
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response23%
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelHealth value score
Page in Source 15
Our classificationAttitudes to health-maintenance, code H10ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
a: There are many things I care about more than my 
health
b: There are few things more important than good health

Rated 
1: strongly disagree
:
5: strongly agree'
Remarks
(Lau et al., 1986)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.09 p < .05
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.05
Beta controlled for:
- social comparisons and expectations
- personality
- health
- social capital
- age
- gender
- socioeconomic status


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few months, have you ever felt.....
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
3 often
2 sometimes
1 never

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +12
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?"
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
1 not at all
2 sometimes
3 often
4 very often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +15

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about the good and bad things in your life, which of the answers best describes your life-as-a-whole?
1 as bas as can be
2 very bad
3 bad
4 allright
5 good
6 very good
7 as good as can be
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life at the moment, would you say that you are by and large satisfied with life or are you mostly dissatisfied
7 very much satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 so-so
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 very much dissatisfied
O-SLW-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

… satisfied with overall life.. (full text not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-Sum---mq-*-0-aSelf report on 8 items

A How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale
Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval

B a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree to 1 strongly disagree

C How do you feel usually?
0 extremely unhappy
.
.
10 extremely happy

Computation: factor
O-Sum---mq-v-5-bSelf report on four questions:

A I am very satisfied with my life
B These are the best years of my life
C My life could be better than it is now
D The quality of my life is poor

Scoring
1 disagree strongly
2
3
4
5 agree strongly

Computation: A+B+C+D/4 (C and D reversed)
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
lgtLOGIT COEFFICIENT
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: unlimited

Meaning:
lgt = 0 « no association at all;
lgt -> -/+ infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows a perfect prediction of the happiness.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIORP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
H10aaHealth-behavior careerM06aaMedical career
H10ab01Health inspectionM06ab01Visits to doctor
H10acCurrent medical consumptionM06MEDICAL TREATMENT
H10ac01Use of medicamentsS13STIMULANTS
H10adAttitudes to health-maintenanceC08ab02Specific concerns
H10adAttitudes to health-maintenanceM06aeAttitudes to medical treatment
H10adAttitudes to health-maintenanceV01VALUES: CAREER
H10adAttitudes to health-maintenanceV02aaGeneral value-principles

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings