Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS
Subject Code: H09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS0
H09aaReputation of happiness career0
H09abCurrent reputation of happiness1
H09acAttitude to reputation of happiness0
H09aa01Earlier reputation of happiness0
H09aa02Change in reputation of happiness0
H09ab01Rating of happiness by parents7
H09ab02Rating of happiness by peers3
H09ab03Rating of happiness by spouse1
H09ab04Rating of happiness by interviewer7
H09ab05Rating of happiness by nurse1
H09ab06Rating of happiness by clinician3
H09ab07Rating of happiness by teacher0
H09adInter-rated agreement3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current reputation of happiness
Subject code: H09ab

StudyLepper (1998): study US California 1993
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =971

Correlate
Author's labelOther reports for SWB measures
Page in Source 374,376
Our classificationCurrent reputation of happiness, code H09ab
Operationalization
Other(by spouse or close friend/relative) reports of 
happiness (using the same question as used for self 
reports)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---mq-v-16-aDM=0,02 ns
   Self rating           Other rating
T1 M = 1.22    SD = 0,26 M = 1.24
O-HL---mq-v-16-aDM=+.08 p < .001
   Self rating           Other rating
T2 M = 1.28    SD = 0,03 M = 1.29 (verschil in M 
klopt niet)
O-HL---mq-v-16-ar=+.59 p < .0001
T1 self rating by T1 other rating
O-HL---mq-v-16-ar=+.54 p < .0001
T2 self rating by T2 other rating
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-.05 p < .001
   Self rating          Other rating
T1 M = 0,59    SD = 0.41 M = 0,64
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+.00 ns
   Self rating           Other rating
T2 M = 0,65    SD = 0,03 M = 0,67
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.53 p < .0001
T1 self rating by T1 other rating
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.47 p < .0001
T2 self rating by T2 other rating
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aDM=-.13 p < .05
SD= 1.71
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aDM=+.08 ns
SD = 0,08
M-AO---mqr-*-0-ar=+.64 p < .0001
T1 self rating by T1 other rating
M-AO---mqr-*-0-ar=+.57 p < .001
T2 self rating by T2 other rating


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudyAnthony et al. (2009): study CA 2008
TitleChild and Parental Perspectives of Multidimensional Quality of Life Outcomes after Kidney Transplantation.
SourcePediatricTransplantation, 2010, Vol. 14, 249 - 256
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19686446
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2009.01214.x
PublicKidney transplants , 3 years after transplant, Toronto, Canada, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response2
Respondents N =21

Correlate
Author's labelparent's rating of child's quality of life
Page in Source 251
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
Rating of chil's quality of life on single question, 
text not reported
0      lowest quality
:
100 highest quality

A  children's self-rating
b  parent's rating of the quality of life of the child
Observed distributionRange: 1.2 to 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aDM=-0.4 p < .54
child's selfrating      M=7.7
parent's rating         M=7.3
- difference             -0.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudyHolder et al. (2010): study CA 2005
TitleSpiritualilty, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children aged 8-12 Years.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2010, Vol.11, 131 - 150
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9126-1
Public8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelParent rating of child happiness
Page in Source 138
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
Rating by parents in response to single question: 
Overall how does your child usually feel?
1  sad face
2
3
4
5
6
7  happy face

Seven faces presented ranging from sad to happy, 
without verbal or numerical labels
Observed distributionM= 5,74, SD= 0.77
Remarks
Assessed 10 days before children rated their happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-ar=+.35 p < .05
Child's self rating of happiness on the same scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudySpijkerboer et al. (2006): study NL 2006
TitleHealth-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents after Invasive Treatment for Congenital Hearth Disease.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2006, Vol. 5, 663 - 673
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-005-3692-z
PublicChildren treated for heart disease 8 years ago, Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response27%
Respondents N =113

Correlate
Author's labelParents rating of child's happinees
Page in Source 668-9
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
A Parents rating of childs happiness 
B Child's self rating of own happiness

using the same Affect Balance Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-rdf-v-3-aDM=
                      boy's    girl's   all
parents rating        1,8      2,2      2,0
child's self rating   0,9      1,0      0,9
difference           -0,9     -1,2     -1,1

Parents overrate child's happiness in all cardiac 
diagnostic groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudySturms et al. (2003): study NL 1999
TitleYoung Traffic Victims' Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life: Child Self-Reports and Parental Reports.
SourceArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 84, 431 - 436
DOIdoi:10.1053/apmr.2003.50015
Public8-15 aged, 3 year after a trafic accident, The Netherlands, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelParent's rating of child's happiness
Page in Source 92
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
A Parents rating of child's happiness
B Child's selfrating of own happiness
Using the same Affect Balance Scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-rdf-v-3-aDM=+ p < .05
Parent's rating of child's happiness  M = 2,69
Child's selfrating of own happiness   M = 1,62
Difference                           DM = 1,07
                                 CI [0,19;1,95]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudyVerrips et al. (1999): study NL 1994
TitleMeasuring Health-Related Qality of Life in a Child Population.
SourceEuropean Journal of Public Health, 1999, Vol. 9, 188 - 193
Public8-11 aged, children . The Netherlands, 199?
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =1159

Correlate
Author's labelParents rating of child's happiness
Page in Source 189
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
In the recent weeks, did your child feel
A Joyfull
B In good spirits
C Contented
E Enthusiastic
F Relaxed
G Happy
H Confident
J Cheerfull
K Short-tempered
L Jealous
M Anxious
N Sad
O Angry
P Worried
Q Gloomy
R Aggressive

Rated:0 never, 1 sometimes, 2 often

Summation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+J) - (K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R)
Name: TACQOL Positive and Negative emotional 
functioning scales (part of TNO-AZL Child Quality Of 
Life questionnaire)
Remarks
Affect Balance Scores computed by us by substracting 
Positive Affect Scale from Negative Affect

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-rdf-v-3-aDM=
Parent rating of child                 M = 3,2
Child's self rating on the same scale  M = 2,0
Difference                               = 1,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1993
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
Public12-18 aged migraine patients and controls, followed 26 months, The Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responseat T0: 4%
Respondents N =159

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of Life at different times - interrate correlations
Page in Source 39, 55
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
Parent's rating of child's happiness
Remarks
Satisfaction assessed at:
- T0: baseline
- T1: one week after Week 0 completion
- T2: two weeks after Week 0
- T3: three weeks after Week 0
- T4: 26 weeks after Week 0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.33 p < .000
T0 happiness by T1 happiness
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.34 p < .000
T0 happiness by T2 happiness
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.31 p < .000
T0 happiness by T3 happiness
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.31 p < .000
T0 happiness by T4 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by parents
Subject code: H09ab01

StudyMcKnight-Hexdall & Huebner (2007): study US 2004
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Pedriatic Oncology Patients.
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2007, Vol.2, 189 - 208.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-008-9037-7
Public11-21 aged lymphoma patients and controls, USA, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response45 %
Respondents N =29

Correlate
Author's labelparent rating of child happiness
Page in Source 201
Our classificationRating of happiness by parents, code H09ab01
Operationalization
Positive affect: To what extend do you believe your 
child declares an zest for life, is active, energetic, 
interested and joyful? 
Negative affect: To what extend do you believe your 
child reports feeling upset or unpleasantly aroused, is 
distressed, hostile and fearful?

Rated 
1: very slightly to not at all, 
2:a little, 
3: moderately, 
4: quite a bit, 
5: extremely
Observed distributionABS: 1.5
Remarks
ABS computed by WDH-team, subtracting NA(2,5) from PA 
(4,0)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-u-rdf-v-5-ar=+
Parents estimate of child's happiness by child 
rating on PANAS-C: 
PA: r=+.54  p<.01
NA: r=+.03  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by peers
Subject code: H09ab02

StudyMagnus & Diener (1991): study US 1986
TitleA Longitudinal Analysis of Personality, Life Events, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, 1991, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/magnus_k_1991.pdf
PublicUniversity students, USA, followed 4 years 1986-1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelPeer satisfaction with life
Page in Source 26
Our classificationRating of happiness by peers, code H09ab02
Operationalization
Ratings of informant on four questions:

Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with 
each of the items by placing the appropriate number on 
the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest 
in your responding.
A  In most ways life is close to ideal
B  The conditions of life are excellent
C  He/she is satisfied with life
D  So far, he/she has gotten the important things 
he/she wants in life
E  If he/she could live life over, he/she would change 
nothing 

Answers rated:
5  strongly agree
4  slightly agree
3  neither agree nor disagree
2  slightly disagree
1  strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D+E divided by 5
Remarks
At least seven informants for each participant: at 
least three from family members and three others from 
friends.
Assessed at T1(1986) and T2(1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=+.43 p < .05
T1 peer SWLS by T2 happiness
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=+.52 p < .05
T2 peer SWLS by T2 happiness
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.53 p < .05
T2 peer SWLS by T1 happiness
O-Sum-g-fi-?-7-ar=+.44 p < .05
T2 peer SWLS by T1 happiness
M-FH-g-rdp-v-10-ar=+.45 p < .05
T2 peer SWLS by T1 happiness
M-FH-g-rdp-v-10-ar=+.43 p < .05
T1 peer SWLS by T2 happiness

T1-T2 4 years interval


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by peers
Subject code: H09ab02

StudyCrandall (1976): study US Ohio 1973
TitleValidation of Self-Report Measures Using Ratings by Others.
SourceSociological Methods and Measures, 1976, Vol. 4, 380 -400
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/3/380.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, Toledo, USA, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =771

Correlate
Author's labelLife as a whole
Page in Source 388
Our classificationRating of happiness by peers, code H09ab02
Operationalization
Participants were asked permission to contact two or 
three people "who know you pretty well" and provide the 
adresses. These peers were contacted by mail and asked 
to rate how the participant felt in 14 areas of life 
and about life as a whole. 

Life as a whole was rated using the same question on 
which participants had rated their own happiness:
How do you think X feels about his/her life as a whole?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Observed distributionN = 318
Remarks
The purpose of the study was explained in a cover 
letter and confidentiality was stressed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.37 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by peers
Subject code: H09ab02

StudyJoshi (1964): study US California 1963
TitlePersonality Correlates of Happiness.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1964, USA
PublicUniversity students, California, United States, 1963
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response45
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelAttributed Happiness
Page in Source 62, 172
Our classificationRating of happiness by peers, code H09ab02
Operationalization
Rating by fraternity members.Each member of a 
fraternity was asked to nominate three most happy, 
three moderately happy and three least happy 
co-members. Nominations were made from a roster with 
names. Nominations were made anonimously.Persons 
recieving the largest proportion of nominations in each 
of the 3 groups were separated out.
Observed distribution3:High: N= 26; 2: Moderate: N=31; 1: Low: N=23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-mq-v-9-aDM=+
              M         SD
High        2.38        .56
Moderate    2.09        .53
Low         1.61        .49
A-AB-g-mq-n-3-aDM=+
               M           
High:        9.15           
Moderate:    2.68
Low:         -.65

scores calculated bij WDH-team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by spouse
Subject code: H09ab03

StudyHinton (1979): study GB 1978
TitleComparison of Places and Policies for Terminal Care.
SourceThe Lancet, 1979, 6 January, 29 - 32
PublicEnd stage cancer patients, UK,1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelMood assessments
Page in Source 30
Our classificationRating of happiness by spouse, code H09ab03
Operationalization
Rating of patients mood by:
A: Interviewer on the basis of a bedside open interview
B: Nurse
C: Spouce

All ratings expressed on scale
1  depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9  elated
Observed distributionInterviewer rating - depressed 6% - sad 39% - average 26% - cheerful 9% - elated 0% Spouce rating of patient -depressed 7% -sad 37% -average 20% -cheerful 16% -elated 0% Nurse rating of patient -depressed 9% -sad 24% -average 31% -cheerful 16% -elated 0%
Remarks
Ratings collapsed to 5 categories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.65
patient - spouce
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.59
patient- nurse
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-ar=+.45
spouce - nurse


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1975 /1
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8309

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful appearance
Page in Source 222
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Allenbacher Ausdrücktest: Interviewer-rating of 
cheerful appearance on the following aspects:
1 look
2 mouth
3 posture
4 movements
5 eyes
6 elbows 
7 lips
8 general appearance 

(AFF 5.3)
Remarks
AFF 5.3a is the last item in the Allensbacher 
Ausdrücktest (general appearance).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.44
1. Look
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.34
2. Mouth
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.47
3. Attitude
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.43
4. Movements
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.33
5. Eyes
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.24
6. Elbows
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-br=+.26
7. Lips


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 /6
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1041

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful appearance
Page in Source 223
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Interviewer rating of cheerful appearance on the 
following aspects:
- look
- mouth
- posture
- movements
- eyes
- elbow
- lips
- general cheerful appearance
Remarks
Allensbacher Ausdrücktest

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.31
- total
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.34
- look
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.28
- mouth
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.28
- posture
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.29
- movements
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.14
- eyes
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.09
- elbows
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.12
- lips
AFF 5.3a is the last item in the Allensbacher 
Ausdrücktest (general cheerfull appearance).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1041

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful appearance
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Interviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects
A  The look is
     2)  open
     1)  evasive
     -   impossible to say
B  The corners of the mouth turn
     2)  up
     1)  down  
     -   impossible to say
C  The posture is
     2)  relaxed, at ease
     1)  rather tense
     -   impossible to say
D  The movements are
     2)  relaxed, at ease
     1)  limited, withdrawn 
     -   impossible to say 
E   The eyes are
     2)  big, open
     1)  small, screw up
     -   impossible to say
F   The elbows are kept
     2)  not close to the body
     1)  close to the body
     -   impossible to say
G   The lips are more
      2)  broad, full
      1)  thin, pent up
      -   impossible to say
H   All in all the subject looks
      2) quite cheerful
      1)  not very cheerful
      -   difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
Remarks
happiness measure type A-CA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.44
Males
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.40
Females
      
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.40
Age 45-
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.39
Age 45+
    
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.35
Good health
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.36
Bad health

Data reported in NOELL 1978 table 12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyHinton (1979): study GB 1978
TitleComparison of Places and Policies for Terminal Care.
SourceThe Lancet, 1979, 6 January, 29 - 32
PublicEnd stage cancer patients, UK,1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelMood assessments
Page in Source 30
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Rating of patients mood by:
A: Interviewer on the basis of a bedside open interview
B: Nurse
C: Spouce

All ratings expressed on scale
1  depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9  elated
Observed distributionInterviewer rating - depressed 6% - sad 39% - average 26% - cheerful 9% - elated 0% Spouce rating of patient -depressed 7% -sad 37% -average 20% -cheerful 16% -elated 0% Nurse rating of patient -depressed 9% -sad 24% -average 31% -cheerful 16% -elated 0%
Remarks
Ratings collapsed to 5 categories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.65
patient - spouce
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.59
patient- nurse
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-ar=+.45
spouce - nurse


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelInterviewer rating of life satisfaction
Page in Source 78
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Rating by interviewer of how respondent feels about 
life as a whole.
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/
unhappy/ mostly dissatisfied/ mixed/
mostly satisfied/ pleased/ delighted
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.45
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.53
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.53
at the endof the interview:        r=+.52
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.57
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness_C
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Overall composite clinical rank on 'happiness - 
unhappiness'; using all clinical data and knowledge 
over a period of three years, including evidence of 
possible repressed or latent problems at deeper levels 
of the personality
Remarks
Happiness measure type M-ACO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.69
This clinical rank on happiness was made a half 
year after the Elation-Depression Scale (AFF 3.1) 
was administered (during 6 weeks).
Correlations between this clinical rank on happi- 
ness and hedonic level, as assessed by the 
Elation-Depression Scale, were as follows:
-with mean daily average mood   : r = +.69
-with mean daily highest mood   : r = +.48
-with mean daily lowest  mood   : r = +.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by interviewer
Subject code: H09ab04

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicGirls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelCheerfulness
Page in Source 39
Our classificationRating of happiness by interviewer, code H09ab04
Operationalization
Rating by four judges on the basis of notes on 
observations and interviews between age 12-18.

Ratings were made on two bi=polar 7 point adjective 
scales. Sumscore based on ratings of:
- gloomy
- not cheerfull
Remarks
Happiness measure type A-CA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-ar=+.60 p < .05
Overall happiness assessed in the same vein.
Sumscore of ratings on the adjectives:
- discontented
- unhappy
- dissatisfied
- complaining


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by nurse
Subject code: H09ab05

StudyHinton (1979): study GB 1978
TitleComparison of Places and Policies for Terminal Care.
SourceThe Lancet, 1979, 6 January, 29 - 32
PublicEnd stage cancer patients, UK,1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response2%
Respondents N =80

Correlate
Author's labelMood assessments
Page in Source 30
Our classificationRating of happiness by nurse, code H09ab05
Operationalization
Rating of patients mood by:
A: Interviewer on the basis of a bedside open interview
B: Nurse
C: Spouce

All ratings expressed on scale
1  depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9  elated
Observed distributionInterviewer rating - depressed 6% - sad 39% - average 26% - cheerful 9% - elated 0% Spouce rating of patient -depressed 7% -sad 37% -average 20% -cheerful 16% -elated 0% Nurse rating of patient -depressed 9% -sad 24% -average 31% -cheerful 16% -elated 0%
Remarks
Ratings collapsed to 5 categories

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.65
patient - spouce
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-ar=+.59
patient- nurse
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-ar=+.45
spouce - nurse


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by clinician
Subject code: H09ab06

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978
TitleAustralians' Priorities, Satisfaction and Well-Being.
SourceMonograph in Public Policy Studies, nr. 4, University of Melbourne, 1981, Australia
PublicAdults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, 1978-1981
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelIn-depth interview
Page in Source 25
Our classificationRating of happiness by clinician, code H09ab06
Operationalization
In-depths interview by a qualified psychologist 
involving open questions and probes about various 
topics, such as activities, friendships, sources of 
self-fullfiment and life-satisfaction. Transcripts of 
the interviews were then scored by two coders, who were 
unaware of the surveys results. 

The coders scored life-satisfaction using the 1-9 
Delighted-Terrible scale
Remarks
only 23 of 31 respondents interviewed were available 
for scores of the survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.43 p < .05
Self-rating (from survey) by coder(1)-rating (from 
interview) both on the same 1-9 D-T scale
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.33 ns
Self-rating (from survey) by coder(2)-rating (from 
interview) both on the same 1-9 D-T scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by clinician
Subject code: H09ab06

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness_B
Page in Source 103
Our classificationRating of happiness by clinician, code H09ab06
Operationalization
Composite clinical rank order of happi- ness by 6 staff 
psychologists, based on two years of experience with 
the sub- jects  

Assessed 6 months earlier.
Remarks
Happiness measure M-ACO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.71
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale) scored 
each night for the highest, lowest and average of 
the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.44
Mean daily average mood : r = +.71
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rating of happiness by clinician
Subject code: H09ab06

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappy life history
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRating of happiness by clinician, code H09ab06
Operationalization
Clinical rank on 'happy - unhappy life story', 
stressing auto-biographic re- ports and information for 
three years, concerning past life experiences up to the 
time of entering college.
Remarks
Assessed 6 months after entering college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.48 p < . 05
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale: AFF 3.1) 
scored each night for the highest, lowest and 
average of the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.42
Mean daily average mood : r = +.48
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-rated agreement
Subject code: H09ad

StudyNewman (1946): study US 1937
TitleThe Adolescent in Social Groups. Studies in the Observation of Personality.
SourceOxford University Press, Applied Psychology Monographs, 1946, Nr 9, London, UK
URLhttp://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/395546
PublicTeenage clubhouse members, USA, 194?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful - Glum
Page in Source 78,77,30
Our classificationInter-rated agreement, code H09ad
Operationalization
Rating of happy appearance on the basis of observation 
of behavior at playground by staff members
Observed distributionN = 96 boys and 99 girls.
Remarks
Item in institute scales (composite scale)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-ar=+.61 ns
Boys: 2 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-ars=+.76 ns
Boys: 2 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-ar=+.74 ns
Girls: 2 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-ars=+.85 ns
Girls: 2 raters


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-rated agreement
Subject code: H09ad

StudyNewman (1946): study US 1937
TitleThe Adolescent in Social Groups. Studies in the Observation of Personality.
SourceOxford University Press, Applied Psychology Monographs, 1946, Nr 9, London, UK
URLhttp://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/395546
PublicTeenage clubhouse members, USA, 194?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelContent - dissatisfied
Page in Source 80,30
Our classificationInter-rated agreement, code H09ad
Operationalization
Rating of happy appearance on the basis of observation 
of behavior at playground by staff members
Observed distributionN = 78 boys and 77 girls
Remarks
Items in Clubhouse scale D.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-br=+.57 ns
Boys: 3 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-brs=+.73 ns
Boys: 4 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-br=+.59 ns
Girls: 3 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-brs=+.74 ns
Girls; 4 raters


Correlational finding on Happiness and Inter-rated agreement
Subject code: H09ad

StudyNewman (1946): study US 1937
TitleThe Adolescent in Social Groups. Studies in the Observation of Personality.
SourceOxford University Press, Applied Psychology Monographs, 1946, Nr 9, London, UK
URLhttp://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/395546
PublicTeenage clubhouse members, USA, 194?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelHappy - sad
Page in Source 80,30
Our classificationInter-rated agreement, code H09ad
Operationalization
Rating of happy appearance on the basis of observation 
of behavior at playground by staff members
Observed distributionN = 78 boys and 77 girls
Remarks
Items in Clubhouse scale D

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-cr=+.54 ns
Boys: 3 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-crs=+.70 ns
Boys: 4 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-cr=+.61 ns
Girls: 3 raters
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-crs=+.76 ns
Girls: 4 raters


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-rdf-v-3-aParent's rating of child on 16 questions:

In the recent weeks, did your child feel
A Joyfull
B Contented
E Enthusiastic
F Relaxed
G Happy
H Confident
J Cheerfull
K Short-tempered
L Jealous
M Anxious
N Sad
O Angry
P Worried
Q Gloomy
R Aggressive

Rated:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+J) - (K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R)
Name: TACQOL Positive and Negative emotional functioning scales
A-AB-g-mq-n-3-aSelfreport on 60 questions

Thera are different kinds of feelings of happiness and unhappiness. Here are a large number of words and phrases describing these, those describing happiness at one side and those describing unhappiness at the other. Please put one check mark besides nau tah tell you THE WAY YOU OFTEN FEEL.. If two of more mean the same to you, mark them in the same way. Put two check marks in front of any that describes you ESPECCIALLY WELL.

HAPPINESS
Aa gloomy
Ab cross
Ac anxious
Ad afraid
Ae lonely
Af dull
Ag bored
Ah uneasy
AI ashamed
Aj unlucky
Ak feeling hurt
Al struggling
Am discouraged
An everyone is against you
Ao no pleasure in anything
Ap think you are a failure
Aq councience hurts
Ar you are getting worse and worse
As restless
At troubled
Au sorrowful
Av annoyed
Aw impatient
Ax repressed, helddown
Ay confused
Az uncertain
Aaa embarassed
Aab regretful
Aac in physical pain
Aad disconterted
Aae full of longing
UNHAPPINESS
Ba free
Bb lucky
Bc thrilled
Bd laughing
Be cheerful
Bf peaceful
Bg exicted
Bh safe and secure
Bji successful
Bj in tune with everything
Bk jolly
Bl enthusiastic
Bm carefree
Bn confortable
Bo contented
Bp amused
Bq full of life
Br optimistic
Bs satisfied
Bt life full of interesting things
Bu confident
Bv things getting better
Bw God is behind you
Byx life entirely worthwhile
By light-hearted
Bz everyone is friendly to you
Baa things are bound to turn out right
Bab full of deep joy
Bac everything goes right
Bad life goes smoothly
Bae your duty well done
Baf when tackling something

Rating:
0 no check mark
1 one check mark
2 two checkmarks

Computation: Average B minus average A
A-AB-u-rdf-v-5-aParents rating of child's affects on 2 questions

A: To what extend do you believe your child declares a zest for life, is active, energitic and joyfull?
B: To waht extend do you believe that your reports feeling upset or unpleasantly aroused, is disstrssed, hostile and fearful?

Rated:
1: very slightly or not at all
2: a little
3: moderately
4: quite a bit
5: extremely

Computation A-B
A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall how do you usually feel?
1 sad face
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy face

Seven faces presented ranging from sad to happy, without verbal or numerical labels
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ASA-cm-fi-n-9-aInterviewer rating based on open interview

1 depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 elated
A-ASA-cm-rdf-n-9-aRating by spouce

1 depressed
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 elated
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"

A So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
B Proud, because someone had complimented you
C Very lonely or remote from people?
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F On top of the world?
G Depressed
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?
J Could not do anything, simply because you could not start?

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on B,D F,H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A,C,E,G,I,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -6 to +4

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-aRating by staff members of children's behaviour in clubhouse setting
1 glum
2
3
4
5
6
7 cheerful
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-bRating by staff members of children's behaviour in clubhouse setting
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 content
A-CA-m-rdt-v-7-cRating by staff members of children's behaviour in clubhouse setting
1 sad
2
3
4
5
6
7 happy
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-FH-g-rdp-v-10-aPeerrating using single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DOES X USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes his/her average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item, peer rating version
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, how (much) do you feel happy? What score do you give if we put ten for 'extremely happy, zero for extremely unhappy' and five for neither happy nor unhappy'?"
10 extremely happy
9
8
7
6
5 neither happy nor unhappy
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-HL---mq-v-16-aSelf report on three questions:

A During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time
B Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?"
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy
C Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-mq-v-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a series of statements about life as it is for people. Check the one that is closest to how you feel
1 Life is worthless and unhappy
2 Life is pretty unhappy
3 There are many good things in life, but unfortunately the troubles are more frequent than the joys
4 happiness and unhappiness are bound to even out as about equal in any one's experience
5 Whether life is happy or unhappy depends on how you make it
6 There are usually more good things than bad things in life
7 Usually, the troubles one has do not last and are not nearly as important as the joys
8 Life on the whole is fine and happy
9 Every aspect of life can be seen as worthwhile and therefore be viewed with happiness
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question:

.. Global life quality.. (full text not reported)
0 lowest quality
.
.
100 highest quality

Rated on line scale with 10 point demarcations between 0 and 100

Name: Spitzer Uniscale
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question;

How satisfied or unsatisfied were you last week with your life in general?
Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on the line

_________________________________________
completely completely

Scoring: mm on this 100 mm line
O-Sum-g-fi-?-7-aSelfreport in in-depth interview about affective nature of one's life.
Rated on the level of happiness by an expert rater on a 1-7 scale
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-aClinical rating.

Ratings by four judges on the basis of notes from observations and interviews between age 12-18.

Ratings were made on the following dimensions:
A. discontented
B. unhappy
C. dissatisfied
D. complaints

Rating options:
1 not at all true
2
3
4 average
5
6
7
8 extremely true

Summation: not reported


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESSS02SELF-IMAGE
H09ab03Rating of happiness by spouseM04ae01Happiness of spouse
H09acAttitude to reputation of happinessH03adPerceived reputation of happiness
H09adInter-rated agreementI05aa03Method of interrogation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings