Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS OF OTHERS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS OF OTHERS
Subject Code: H08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS0
H08aaEarlier/ later happiness of others1
H08abCurrent happiness of others1
H08acAttitudes to happiness of others4
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS OF OTHERS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier/ later happiness of others
Subject code: H08aa

StudySchimmack & Lucas (2007): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleMarriage Matters, Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction.
SourceSchmollers Jahrbuch, 2007, Vol. 1, 1 - 7
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.44710.de/dp623.pdf
PublicCouples, followed 21 years, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1728

Correlate
Author's labelspousal similarity in life-satisfaction
Page in Source 4
Our classificationEarlier/ later happiness of others, code H08aa
Operationalization
Correlation in response to single question: 

"Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days? 
10 totally satisfied
.
.
0  totally unsatisfied

Both spouses answered this question independently each 
year between 1984 and 2004
Remarks
847 couples that participated in all 21 waves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.52
Average correlation spousal similarity for each of 
the 21 waves from 1984 to 2004"

Same year correlations are higher than cross 
lagged correlations

The correlation declines slightly over the years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.64
Average correlation of own happiness with spouces 
happiness one year later
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.35
T1 own happiness by happiness of spouse 21 years 
later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current happiness of others
Subject code: H08ab

StudySchimmack & Lucas (2007): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleMarriage Matters, Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction.
SourceSchmollers Jahrbuch, 2007, Vol. 1, 1 - 7
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.44710.de/dp623.pdf
PublicCouples, followed 21 years, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1728

Correlate
Author's labelspousal similarity in life-satisfaction
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent happiness of others, code H08ab
Operationalization
Correlation in response to single question: 

"Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days? 
10 totally satisfied
.
.
0  totally unsatisfied

Both spouses answered this question independently each 
year between 1984 and 2004
Remarks
847 couples that participated in all 21 waves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.52
Average correlation spousal similarity for each of 
the 21 waves from 1984 to 2004"

Same year correlations are higher than cross 
lagged correlations

The correlation declines slightly over the years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.64
Average correlation of own happiness with spouces 
happiness one year later
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.35
T1 own happiness by happiness of spouse 21 years 
later


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to happiness of others
Subject code: H08ac

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness for the next generation
Page in Source 109
Our classificationAttitudes to happiness of others, code H08ac
Operationalization
How happy do you think the next generation will be with 
the Netherlands?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 neither unhgappy nor happy
4 happy
5 very happy
- DK/NA
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual expected 
happiness with the Netherlands for the next 
generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode area by average 
expected happiness in zipcode area with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average 
expected happiness in communities with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.51 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average expected 
happiness in provinces with the Netherlands for 
the next generation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to happiness of others
Subject code: H08ac

StudyAknin et al. (2009): study US 2004
TitleFrom Wealth to Well-being? Money Matters, but Less than people Think.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, Vol. 4, 523 - 527
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760903271421
DOIDOI: 10.1080/17439760903271421
PublicUS laypeople, United States, 200?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =744

Correlate
Author's labelpredicted happiness other - Study 1
Page in Source 524
Our classificationAttitudes to happiness of others, code H08ac
Operationalization
scale 0-10
Remarks
Consider 10 different household incomes and predict 
happiness of someone at each income level

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-b
Underestimation of happiness of people earning 
lower levels of household income (< 55,000 USD), 
accurate predictions for high income categories


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to happiness of others
Subject code: H08ac

StudyAknin et al. (2009): study US 2004
TitleFrom Wealth to Well-being? Money Matters, but Less than people Think.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, Vol. 4, 523 - 527
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760903271421
DOIDOI: 10.1080/17439760903271421
PublicUS laypeople, United States, 200?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =744

Correlate
Author's labelpredicted happiness other - Study 2
Page in Source 525, 527
Our classificationAttitudes to happiness of others, code H08ac
Operationalization
Consider 10 different household incomes and predict 
happiness of someone at each income level; scale 0 - 
100
Observed distributionM = 49.6, SD = 21.2
Remarks
Study 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-b
Underestimation of happiness at lower levels of 
household income, accurate predictions for high 
income categories


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to happiness of others
Subject code: H08ac

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness relative to neighbor
Page in Source 241
Our classificationAttitudes to happiness of others, code H08ac
Operationalization
Difference between:
a perceived happiness of neighbor
b own happiness
Both rated on a 7-point scale: 
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatified
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
Estimate for neighbor: M=5.12  Mt'=6.90
Own rating           : M=5.42  Mt'=7.40
- difference:            +.30      +.50

No correlation reported


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H08abCurrent happiness of othersC04ab05Happiness of one's children
H08abCurrent happiness of othersF01af01dHappiness of parents
H08abCurrent happiness of othersF01af02dHappiness of siblings
H08abCurrent happiness of othersM04ae01Happiness of spouse
H08acAttitudes to happiness of othersH03ab02bPerceived sources of every-bodies happiness
H08acAttitudes to happiness of othersH03ab03Perceived happiness of others
H08acAttitudes to happiness of othersM02ag02aPerceived happiness of the married

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings