Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: CAREER

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: CAREER
Subject Code: H05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER0
H05aaPerceived happiness career1
H05aa01Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified)4
H05aa01aIn recent past15
H05aa01bIn specific periods in the past6
H05aa01cHappiest period in life1
H05aa01dExtremes of happiness experienced6
H05aa02Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)4
H05aa02aRecent change8
H05aa02bLong term change1
H05aa02cPerceived stability of feelings about life2
H05aa03Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)7
H05aa03aIn the near future (up to 5 years)10
H05aa03bIn the long run0
H05aa03cIn specific phases in the future0
H05aa04Expected change in happiness (period unspecified)1
H05aa04aIn the near future (up to 5 years)9
H05aa04bIn the long run4
H05aa04cIn specific phases of life0
H05abActual happiness-career (assessed in follow-up)0
H05ab01Actual level of earlier/later happiness2
H05ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago)55
H05ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)55
H05ab01cLong term happiness (< 10 years ago)21
H05ab02Actual changes in happiness11
H05ab02aChange over life time3
H05acAttitudes to happiness career0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and HAPPINESS: CAREER
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=H05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived happiness career
Subject code: H05aa

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1974): study US 1959
TitlePatterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1974, Vol. 10, 534 - 545
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response17% incomplete information
Respondents N =1294

Correlate
Author's labelType of deprivation
Page in Source 539
Our classificationPerceived happiness career, code H05aa
Operationalization
Ss were classified on the basis of present-self, 
past-self and future-self ratings using the Cantril 
(1965) question on "best possible life".
(See CANTR 1965)

TD  temporary deprivation:
    present lower than past: future
    higher than present

CD  continuous deprivation:
    present lower than past: future
    lower than present

GED great expectative deprivation:
    present higher than past: future 
    higher than present

SND Stereotyped non-deprivation:
    present higher than past: future
    slightly higher than present

AD  anticipatory deprivation:
    present higher than past: future
    lower than present.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aDM= +
Non-significant differences between TD and CD, 
between CD and GED and between SND and AD. Other 
differences are significant (05). 
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aDM= +
Non-significant differences between TD and CD, and 
between GED, SND and AD. Other differences are 
significant (05).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa01

StudyShmotkin & Hadari (1996): study IL 1991
TitleAn Outlook on Subjective Well-Being in Older Israeli Adults: A Unified Formulation.
SourceThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1996, Vol. 42, 271 - 289
Public60+ aged, Israel, 1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =830

Correlate
Author's labelPresent happiness
Page in Source 279,284
Our classificationRetrospective level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions:
a: These are the best years of my life
b: I am just as happy as I was younger
c: my life could be happier than it is now
d: I am as happy now as when I was younger
e: In site of what people say, the lot of average man 
is getting worse, not better
Remarks
tems that load high on a factor derived from responses 
to several  geriatric adjustment scales

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.54 p < .0001
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aar=+.46 p < .0001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cr=+.51 p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa01

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelPast good
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationRetrospective level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa01
Operationalization
Survey question: How often on balance do you look back 
to your life with a sense of happiness?
Observed distributionM= 3,38 SD = 0,76 N = 32172

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+.37
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.26 p < .01
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa01

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Page in Source 372
Our classificationRetrospective level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa01
Operationalization
Direct question: "Has your life been 
disappointing/rewarding, enjoyable/     miserable, or 
in between?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-ar=+
Males  : r = +.32
Females: r = +.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappy life history
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRetrospective level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa01
Operationalization
Clinical rank on 'happy - unhappy life story', 
stressing auto-biographic re- ports and information for 
three years, concerning past life experiences up to the 
time of entering college.
Remarks
Assessed 6 months after entering college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.48 p < . 05
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale: AFF 3.1) 
scored each night for the highest, lowest and 
average of the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.42
Mean daily average mood : r = +.48
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyMellor et al. (2003): study AU 2003
TitleThe Management of Subjective Quality of Life by Short-stay Hospital Patients: An Exploratory Study.
SourceHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2003, Vol. 1, 1 - 17
DOIDOI:10.1186/1477-7525-1-39
PublicShort-stay in-ward surgery patients, shortly before and after treatment, Australia 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =148

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness before and after surgery
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 10 days prior to admission
T2: 2 days after surgery
T3: 1 week after discharge
Observed distributionT1 10 days prior to admission M=2.31 T2 2 days after surgery M=0.82 T3 1 week after discharge M=2.40
Remarks
Affect Balance computed by us, substracting NA from PA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BH-g-mq-v-5-aDM=+
T1 10 days prior to admission M=2.31
T2 2 days after surgery       M=0.82
T3 1 week after discharge     M=2.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyGfellner (1989): study CA 1984
TitlePerceptions of Health, Abilities, and Life Satisfaction among very Old Adults.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1989, Vol. 68, 203 -209
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2928048
Public80+ aged, hospitalized within 2 years, Canada, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelPast Satisfaction
Page in Source 206
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Self report on single question on life satisfaction 5 
years ago.
Rated on 0-10 best-worst possible scale.
Observed distributionM=7.6 SD=2.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.26 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral impression mother and child in the first year
Page in Source 84
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Mean of mean score of 3 domains: maternal situation,  
pregnancy and birth, and the first year of life Ratings 
based on medical file
1: very poor
2: poor
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all :4355, 1:3%, 2:15%, 3:35%, 4: 36%, 5:12%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.74
 2: Mt=7.73
 3: Mt=7.70
 4: Mt=7.75
 5: Mt=7.74
All Mt=7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 p < .7530
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.35
 2: Mt=7.38
 3: Mt=7.39
 4: Mt=7.43
 5: Mt=7.40
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .6140
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.91
 2: Mt=7.01
 3: Mt=6.96
 4: Mt=7.08
 5: Mt=6.96
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .5099


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelLife-satisfaction 5 years ago
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Question :' What do you think, how satisfied were you 
with your life, 5 years ago ? '
0  very unsatisfied
10 very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.20       +.25       +.17       +.20
1980      +.20       +.26       +.17       +.20
1984      +.19       +.25       +.16       +.18
1988      +.20       +.23       +.14       +.21

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.52       +.55       +.50       +.51
1980      +.48       +.48       +.43       +.48
1984      +.43       +.46       +.38       +.42
1988      +.48       +.73       +.69       +.49

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelPast satisfaction
Page in Source 373
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Direct question, rated on a 10 point scale (higher 
numbers indicating higher satisfaction in past):"How 
satisfied or dissatisfied would you say you were 5 
years back?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.18
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.16
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.12
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.17
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.18
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.13
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.23
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.31
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.20
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=<.10
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.18
EC

ß's controlled for happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 
2.3); satisfaction with health,income and family 
life; age, income, education, marital status, 
having children, male sex, work; urbanisation, 
type of dwelling, own home, religiousness, social 
participation; uncertainty about future, expected 
negative changes in income; satisfaction 5 years 
in future; tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, 
hopeless about life and sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyBjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975
TitleDo Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 163 - 182
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
DOIDoi:10.1007/s10902-013-9442-y
Public14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelLagged satisfaction
Page in Source 174,176
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Average happiness in nation one year before

Crisis = episodes  in which the year-to-year change in 
purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita is negative
Remarks
Data: Eurobarometer

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.69 p < .01
CHANGE AVERAGE happiness in nations, by AVERAGE 
happiness in the previous year in nations.
B controlled for:
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics 
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Openness economy
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year 
change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita 
is negative)

Random effects model. Fixed effects: B = +.31 
(.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.69 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.69 p < .01
No significant change B additionally controlled 
for interaction:
- Growth*crisis
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.70 p < .01
No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for interactions:
- Legal quality*crisis
- Social trust*crisis
- Government size*crisis
- Regulations*crisis
- Ideology*crisis


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudySnekkevik et al. (2003): study SE 1993
TitleIs Sense of Coherence Stable after Multiple Trauma.
SourceClinical Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 17, 443 - 453
PublicRehabilitation patients, followed 2 years after trauma, Sweden 1993-1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelinjury sequale
Page in Source 106
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: Within one week after admission (median 35 days, 
range 6-80 days after injury)
T2:  Shortly before discharge ( median 161 days, range 
73-290 days after injure)
T3: at follow up (median 24 months, range 12-41 months 
after injure)
Observed distribution% satisfied (score 5 or 6) Before T1: 85%, T2: 58%, T3: 31%
Remarks
Report at T1 concerns retrospective happiness before 
injure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cD%=- p < .05
T1: 85% satisfied before injury (retrospect)
T2: 58% satisfied shortly before discharge
T3: 31% satisfied at follow-up
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cBMCT=
T1 < T2 < T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudySheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006a): study US 2001
TitleAchieving Sustainable Gains in Happiness: Change Your Actions not Your Circumstances.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol.7, 55 - 86
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-0868-8
PublicPsychology students, USA, followed 12 weeks, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =669

Correlate
Author's labelchange in wellbeing
Page in Source 70
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
1: at beginning of semester
2: 6 weeks later
3: 12 weeks later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aDM=-
T1: M = 4.93, SD = 1.66
T2: M = 4.67, SD = 1.67
T3: M = 4.69, SD = 1.73
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.66 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.56 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness

Beta's controlled for retrospective T1-T2 change 
in
- activity
- circumstances


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudySheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006a): study US 2001 /1
TitleAchieving Sustainable Gains in Happiness: Change Your Actions not Your Circumstances.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol.7, 55 - 86
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-0868-8
PublicPsychology students, USA, followed 12 weeks, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =204

Correlate
Author's labelChange in SWB
Page in Source 77
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: at the beginning of the semester
T2: 6 weeks later
T3: 12 weeks later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aDM=
T1 M = 3.99, SD = 0.42
T2 M = 3.99, SD = 0.42
T3 M = 3.98, SD = 0.45
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.64 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.48 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness

Beta's controlled for T1-T2 retrospective change 
in
- activity 
- circumstances


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelRecent happiness
Page in Source 92
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Weighed sum of possible answers to closed question: 
"Think back over what your life has been like during 
the past ten weeks. It may help to try to remember some 
of the specific things that happened to you, or which 
you did during this period. Your answers should add up 
to ten weeks. For what part of the time did you feel 
delighted about your life as a whole (answer A)... 
pleased (B)...mostly satisfied (C)...
mixed-about equally satisfied and dissatisfied 
(D)...moslty dissatisfied (E)...unhappy (F)...terrible 
(G)?"
Remarks
Two measures were derived:
a weighed sum: (1*A) + (2*B) + (3*C) + (4*D) + (5*E) + 
(6*F) + (7*G)
b Regression weighted sum: 52.366 + (1.244*A) + 
(.869*B) - (1.507*E) -    (2.373*F)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.50
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.60
Measure a: (weighed sum)
Index of positive affects: r=-.40
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.50
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.40
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.50
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.50
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.50
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:  
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
Measure 1: (simple weighted sum)
O-DT asked first : r=+.50
O-DT asked second: r=+.50
O-DT asked third : r=+.50
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.50
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.60
Measure b: (regression weighed sum)
Index of negative affects: r=+.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.50
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.57
O-DT asked first : r=+.50
O-DT asked second: r=+.60
O-DT asked third : r=+.60
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.50
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.50
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness: Ladder:5 years ago
Page in Source 78
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Closed question: 
Where was your life five years ago?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.18
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.30
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.26
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.17
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.18
at the end of the interview:       r=+.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness Ladder: 5 years ago
Page in Source 92
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a graphic scale: "Where 
was your life five years ago?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.20
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.20
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.13
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
0-DT asked first : r=+.10
O-DT asked second: r=+.10
O-DT asked third : r=+.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.00
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.10
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived happiness 5 years ago
Page in Source 215/-216
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale (Cantril past per- sonal rating).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.00 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.27 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1972): study US 1959
TitlePersonal Time Perspective in Adulthood.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1972, Vol. 7, 98 - 103
Public20-88 aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1409

Correlate
Author's labelRetrotension
Page in Source 102
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Present assessment in comparaison with five years 
backward (retrotension)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.18 ns
RETROTENSION (5 years backward)

Beta controlled for:
- age
- worried & afraid
- country protension
- economic level
- self-respect
- success in  goals
- country future 
- occupation
- opportunity
- country past
- satisfied country
- self-confidence
- troubles and obstacles
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aR²=.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and In recent past
Subject code: H05aa01a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction 5 years ago
Page in Source 44
Our classificationIn recent past, code H05aa01a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale, (Cantril past personal rating; see CANTR, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.11
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.18
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with prepension or pension state.
Page in Source 381
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How much more happy do 
you usually feel on a scale of 0 to 10 since you are in 
pre-retirement or retirement?
Error EstimatesN= 0:2%, 1:2%, 2:3%, 3:4%, 4:2%, 5:8%, 6:8%, 7:14%, 8:19%, 9:17%, 10:17%,DKNA:3%
Remarks
Retired subjects only N=322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.1  M = 6.9             +1.2
top 3:  M = 8.1  M = 6.2             +1.9 
top 5:  M = 7.6  M = 5.5             +2.1
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N=  67, Others: 8-0 N= 255
Top 3: 10-8 N= 159, Others: 7-0 N= 164
Top 5: 10-6 N= 252, Others: 5-0 N=  70


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, general public, New-Zealand and Tonga, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =254

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness
Page in Source 6
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
a) Happiness at T1: 2005
b) Happiness at T2: 2008
Remarks
Sample split into:
- Tongans who migrated to New-Zealand in 2004
- Non-migrants
Migrants were randomly selected (experimental set-up)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=-
MIGRANTS
T1:          M=4.01
T2:          M=3.66
- difference:  0.35
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+
NON-MIGRANTS
T1:          M=4.14
T2:          M=4.33
- difference:  0.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelUnhappy childhood
Page in Source 351
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
Rated by the interviewer on a 3-point scale 
(3=unhappy).
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.24 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 unhappy childhood as judged by 
Ss. 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.24 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 unhappy childhood as judged by 
interviewer.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelPercieved past happiness
Page in Source 21
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
Past happiness rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale (Cantril, 1965).
Ss were shown a ladder going from complete 
dissatisfaction, 0 to complete satisfaction, 10 and 
asked: "Where would you put yourself as you were about 
4 or 5 years ago?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.62


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

StudyCritelli (1977): study US 1975
TitleRomantic Attraction and Happiness.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1977, Vol. 41, 721 - 722
PublicDating couples, midwest university, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =61

Correlate
Author's labelPrevious happiness
Page in Source 721
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
Question on how happy respondents were at time just 
before dating partner:
Unhappy, not very happy, fairly happy,
happy, very happy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-ar=+
Males     r=+.09    (ns)
Females   r=+.27    (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In specific periods in the past
Subject code: H05aa01b

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with marriage
Page in Source 192
Our classificationIn specific periods in the past, code H05aa01b
Operationalization
Question whether one was happier when single: 
0: No 
1: Yes
Remarks
Computed for marrieds only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.39 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiest period in life
Subject code: H05aa01c

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived happiest period
Page in Source 220
Our classificationHappiest period in life, code H05aa01c
Operationalization
Open-ended question on happiest period in life
1: Mentioned:
   a. Childhood, school days, college, when I was 
single
   b. Now, recently, until now
   c. Married life
   d. Having babies, raising children, when children 
were small
   e. Failing in love, getting married, early married 
life
   f. When family was together, before husband or wife 
died
   g. Early working days
   h. Always happy
   i. Never happy
   j. No opinion
0: Not menstioned
Remarks



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.32 p < . 01
a: Childhood
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.23 p < . 01
b: Now
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.36 p < . 01
c: Married live
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.10 ns
d: Children
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns
e: Love
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.16 ns
f: Family
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.48 p < . 01
g: Early working day's
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.47 p < . 01
h: Always happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-1.0 p < . 01
i: Never happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.37 p < . 01
j: No opinion
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.17 p < .01
c+d+e+f: marriage and family life
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.35 p < .01
a+g: childhood, youth and early adulthood
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.05 ns
other than family matters

Gamma's computed on the basis of % mentioned


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-best
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and the best you ever had
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.43 SD: 1.26 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.59 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.64 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.61 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelHighest overall happiness: Ladder best
Page in Source 78
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Closed question: "Where on the ladder was your best 
week in the past year
-on which rung would you put it?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.48
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.68
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.52
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.45
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.45
at the end of the interview:       r=+.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelLowest overall happiness: Ladder: worst
Page in Source 78
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Closed question: "Where on the ladder was your worst  
week in the past year
- on which rung?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.33
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.52
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.41
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.31
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.32
at the end       of the interview: r=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast years extremes: Ladder:best-worst
Page in Source 78
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Difference in response to two questions
a  "Where on the ladder was your best 
    week in the past year - on which
    rung would you put it?"
b  "Where on the ladder was your worst
    week during the past year - on 
    which rung?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale 
ranging from best life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.04
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.00
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.00
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.04
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.03
at the end of the interview:       r=+.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelHighest happiness in past year Ladder: best
Page in Source 92
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a graphic scale: "Where on the 
ladder was your best week in the past year - on which 
rung would you put it?"
Rated on a 9-point scale ranging from best life (9) to 
worst life (0).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.50
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.27
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
Correlations with 'best week' (asked once):
O-DT asked first : r=+.30
O-DT asked second: r=+.20
O-DT asked third : r=+.30
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.30
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.30
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Extremes of happiness experienced
Subject code: H05aa01d

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelLowest happiness in the past year Ladder: worst
Page in Source 92
Our classificationExtremes of happiness experienced, code H05aa01d
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a graphic scale: "Where on the 
ladder was your worst week - on which rung?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.40
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.30
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
Correlations with 'worst week' (asked once):
O-DT asked first : r=+.30
O-DT asked second: r=+.30
O-Dt asked third : r=+.30
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.20
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa02

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-progress
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationRetrospective changes in happiness (unspecified), code H05aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and expected 3 years ago to have
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.59 SD: 1.17 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.59 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.61 p < .01
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.60 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelPast,present,future discrepancies in satisfaction
Page in Source 198
Our classificationRetrospective changes in happiness (unspecified), code H05aa02
Operationalization
Three direct questions, each rated on a 10 point scale: 
"How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life 
as a whole these days?", "And how about your life five 
years back?" and "How satisfied or dissatisfied you 
think you'll be five years from now?".

Respondents were grouped into 9 categories to present 
satisfaction with life being:
1 Higher than past, lower than future
2 Higher than past, equal to future
3 Higher than past, higher than future
4 Equal to past, lower than future
5 Equal to past, equal to future
6 Equal to past, higher than future    
7 Lower than past, lower than future
8 Lower than past, equal to future
9 Lower than past, higher than future 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa02

StudyEden et al. (1998): study SE 1992
TitleIs Disability Pension related to Quality of Life?
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 1998, Vol. 7, 300 - 309
Public25-59 aged disability pensioners, Kristianstad, Sweden, 1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16.4%
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life since unfit to work
Page in Source 302-303
Our classificationRetrospective changes in happiness (unspecified), code H05aa02
Operationalization
Self report on single question: 
Do you think they your life as a whole has become 
better or worse since you got your early retirement 
pension compared to the year just before this pension?
5 much better
4 better
3 unchanged
2 worse
1 much worse

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ltc=+.28 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Retrospective changes in happiness (unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa02

StudyBrooks & McKinlay (1983): study GB 1980
TitlePersonality and Behavioral Change after Severe Blunt Head Injury - A Relative`s View.
SourceJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1983, Vol. 46, 336 - 340
DOIDOI:10.1136/jnnp.46.4.336
PublicSeverely head injured patients, Glasgow UK, 1980-82
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelchange happiness after injury
Page in Source 337
Our classificationRetrospective changes in happiness (unspecified), code H05aa02
Operationalization
Rating happiness by close relatives
a before injury (retropectively)
b 12 months after injury

This rating was part of an 'personality adjective 
checklist which intimate informats rated as the patient 
was BEFORE injury and NOW at the time of the interview
Remarks
Only Ss whose personality had changed after injury (N 
=33)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aD%=- p < .01
% rated happy by close relative
Before injury   85%
After injury    50%
-difference    -35%
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyHeadey & Wearing (1986): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleChains of Well-Being, Chains of Ill-Being. An Australian Panel Study, 1981-1985.
SourcePaper presented at the International Conference of Sociology, 1986, New Delhi, India
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981-985
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =942

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life-as-a-whole
Page in Source 21
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Happiness was measured by asking twice in the 
interview: 

"How do you feel about your life as a whole......?"

Scored on a 1-7 DT rating scale, taking the arithmetic 
mean
Remarks
Happiness was assessed at 1981, 1983 and 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.63
Happiness at T1 by Happiness at T2 (24 months)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.56
Happiness at T2 by Happiness at T3 (24 months)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.43
Happiness at T1 by Happiness at T3 (48 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived increase in satisfaction during 4 - 5 years
Page in Source 21
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Closed question on satisfaction now compared with 4 or 
5 years ago
lot less / little less / same /little
more / lot more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in satisfaction during 4 - 5years
Page in Source 21
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in scores on questions on satisfaction with 
life now, and 5 years ago. Each rated on an 11-point 
self-
anchoring scale (Cantril,1965)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.62


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelPast change in overall happiness: Past progress
Page in Source 78
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in response to the following questions:
a  "Where was your life most of the
    time during the past year?"
b  "Where was your life five years 
    ago?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best 
life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.19
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.37
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.15
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.18
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.17
at the end       of the interview: r=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelPast change in happiness Past progress
Page in Source 92
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two
questions:
a  "Where was your life most of the time during the 
past year?"
b  "Where was your life five years ago?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (0)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.20
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.40
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.20
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=+.20
O-DT asked second: r=+.20
O-DT asked third : r=+.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.10
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelVariation in past happiness Ladder: best-worst
Page in Source 92
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two single
direct questions:
a  "Where on the ladder was your best week in the past 
year - on which rung would you put it?"
b "Where on the ladder was your worst week during the 
past year - on which rung?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale
ranging from best life (9) to worst
life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.00
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.00
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.00
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=-.00
O-DT asked second: r=-.00
O-DT asked third : r=-.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.00
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived improvement of life
Page in Source 215-216
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Actual differences in scores on questions on 
satisfaction with life now, and 5 years ago (Cantril 
present and past personal ratings; see Cantril, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.09 ns
See also "Perceived past happiness" (H 1.4.1)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change
Subject code: H05aa02a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelBeing more satisfiedwith life than 5 yrsago (retrotension)
Page in Source 44
Our classificationRecent change, code H05aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in scores on questions on satisfaction with 
life now, and 5 years ago (Cantril present and past 
personal ratings; see CANTR, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.45
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.16
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term change
Subject code: H05aa02b

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction over time
Page in Source 251
Our classificationLong term change, code H05aa02b
Operationalization
'Over your lifetime, has the quality of  your life: 
improved/ stayed the same/  gotten worse'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.31 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived stability of feelings about life
Subject code: H05aa02c

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelStability in feelings about life
Page in Source 92
Our classificationPerceived stability of feelings about life, code H05aa02c
Operationalization
Closed question on variability in feelings about life, 
rated on a 7-point scale: up and down and 
changing...even and steady and stays the same."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.17
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:  
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=+.20
O-DT asked second: r=+.20
O-DT asked third : r=+.10
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.00
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.10
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
Index of positive affects: r=-.10
Index of negative affects: r=-.30
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.10
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.10
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived stability of feelings about life
Subject code: H05aa02c

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelAmount of change in feelings about life
Page in Source 92
Our classificationPerceived stability of feelings about life, code H05aa02c
Operationalization
Closed question: "Please indicate how much your 
feelings about life as a whole change from month to 
month", rated on a 7-point scale, ranging from "my 
feelings about this never change" to "my feelings about 
this change a great deal".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.27
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:  
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=-.30
O-DT asked second: r=-.20
O-DT asked third : r=-.30
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.20
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.20
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.20
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.30
Index of positive affects: r=-.20
Index of negative affects: r=+.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.20
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=-.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study AU 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1104

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 41/5
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.51 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.52 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.32 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.31 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-future
Page in Source 410, 411, 415
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the gap between what you 
have and expect to have in 5 years
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 4.76 SD: 0.98 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Multiple Discrepancies Theory 
(MDT, Michalos 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.34 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.40 p < .01
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.42 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness for the next generation
Page in Source 109
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
How happy do you think the next generation will be with 
the Netherlands?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 neither unhgappy nor happy
4 happy
5 very happy
- DK/NA
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.30 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual expected 
happiness with the Netherlands for the next 
generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in zipcode area by average 
expected happiness in zipcode area with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.38 p < .05
Average happiness in communities by average 
expected happiness in communities with the 
Netherlands for the next generation.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.51 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average expected 
happiness in provinces with the Netherlands for 
the next generation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelFelt best years are over
Page in Source 74
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"I feel as though the best years of my life are over"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=-.43 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=-.35 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study PH 1979 /1
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Phillippines, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelHope for future life
Page in Source 447/51
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How much hope or expectation 
do you have for your future life?"
1. not hopeful at all
2. fairly hopeless
3. neither hopeful nor hopeless
4. fairly hopefull
5. very hopeful

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.31 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.26 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atb=+.20 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etb=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness
Page in Source 372
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Direct question: "Will your life be 
disappointing/rewarding, enjoyable/
miserable, or in between?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-ar=+
Males  : r = +.52
Females: r = +.46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa03

StudyCasas et al. (2007): study ES 2003 /1
TitleThe Well-Being of 12-to-16-Year-Old Adolescents and their Parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish Samples.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 83, 87 - 115
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1
PublicParents and adolescents, Spain, 2003 Middle class families, Catalonia.
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2341

Correlate
Author's labelSecurity for the future satisfaction
Page in Source 107
Our classificationExpected level of happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa03
Operationalization
Self report on security for the future satisfaction.
Full questionaire not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-ar=+.09 p < .025


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyGfellner (1989): study CA 1984
TitlePerceptions of Health, Abilities, and Life Satisfaction among very Old Adults.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1989, Vol. 68, 203 -209
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2928048
Public80+ aged, hospitalized within 2 years, Canada, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelExpected Satisfaction
Page in Source 206
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Self report on single question on expected life 
satisfaction 5 years later.
Rated on 0-10 best-worst possible scale.
Observed distributionM=6.2 SD=2.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.64 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelLife- satisfaction over 5 years
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Question: 'What do you think how satisfied will you 
with your life over 5 years ?'
0  very unsatisfied
10 very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.42       +.57       +.41       +.37
1980      +.38       +.49       +.37       +.35
1984      +.40       +.53       +.38       +.39
1988      +.37       +.49       +.35       +.33

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

1978      +.75       +.80       +.73       +.74
1980      +.68       +.69       +.67       +.69
1984      +.70       +.73       +.69       +.69
1988      +.70       +.76       +.69       +.70

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyDekker (2007): study ZZ EU 25 2001
TitleZeer Tevreden Nederlanders in Europees Perspectief. (The Dutch are very Happy in European Perspective).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007,The Hague, Netherlands, 152 - 158
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 25 member states, 2001-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25

Correlate
Author's labelEstimated development personal situation in last five years
Page in Source 154
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
If you compare your actual personal situation with your 
personal situation five years ago, would you say your 
personal situation has improved, deteriorated, or 
remained unchanged?
1: deteriorared
2: remained unchanged
3: improved

Computation: % of people estimating their personal 
situation has improved in the past 5 years (score 3), 
minus % of people estimating their personal situation 
has deteriorated (score 1).
Observed distribution Minimum: -20; maximum +52 (range 0-100)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.61 p < .001
% happy by % (3-1)

Figure 1 shows relationship between surplus % 
people perceiving an improvement in the past 5 
years instead of deterioration (horizontally; six 
nations have a negative score) and surplus % of 
people expecting an improvement in the next 5 
years instead of deterioration (vertically, no 
negative scores). (r=0,84; p<0,01; n=25)

The dots represent nations; the size of the dots 
represents % happy people in these nations.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelFuture satisfaction
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Direct question, rated on a 10 point scale (higher 
numbers indicating higher expected satisfaction): "How 
satisfied or dissatisfied you think you'll be 5 years 
from now?".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.40
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.38
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.37
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.40
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.37
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.38
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.42
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.32
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.41
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.58
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.38
EC

ß's controlled for: happiness(HAPP 1.1), 
affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction with health,income 
and family life; age, income, education, marital 
status, having children, male sex, work; 
urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, 
religiousness, social participation; uncertainty 
about future, expected negative changes in income; 
satisfaction 5 years in past; tolerance, 
loneliness, misantropy, hopeless about life and 
sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyMolnar (1985): study US 1981
TitleDeterminants of Subjective Well-Being among Farm Operators.
SourceRural Sociology, 1985, Vol. 50, 141 - 162
PublicFarm operators, Alabama, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response29,9%
Respondents N =705

Correlate
Author's labelExpected well-being in five years
Page in Source 150
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Single direct question 'Where do you expect your life 
to be five years from now?'. Rated on a 9-point ladder 
scale ranging from 'worst' to 'best I could expect'. 
(Cantril 1965)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.46 p < .05
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.46 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness Ladder:5 years hence
Page in Source 78
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Single closed question: "Where do you expect your life 
to be five years from now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.45
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.48
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.42
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.42
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.42
at the end of the interview:       r=+.42


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness Ladder: 5 years hence
Page in Source 92
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Single closed question rated on a graphic scale: "Where 
do you expect your life to be five years from now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.40
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.37
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=+.40
O-DT asked second: r=+.40
O-DT asked third : r=+.30
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.40
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.30
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.30
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness 5 years from now
Page in Source 215-216
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale (Cantrol past personal rating).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.23 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.44 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelExpected life satisfaction 5 years from now
Page in Source 44
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale (Cantril future personal ratings; see CANTR, 
1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.28
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.27
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa03a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1972): study US 1959
TitlePersonal Time Perspective in Adulthood.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1972, Vol. 7, 98 - 103
Public20-88 aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1409

Correlate
Author's labelProtension (5 years forward)
Page in Source 102
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa03a
Operationalization
Present assessment in comparaison with  5 years forward

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=.09 ns
Beta controlled for:

- age
- country tension
- worried and afraid
- satisfied country
- race
- efficacy
- country present
- occupation
- religion
- marital status
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aR²=.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Expected change in happiness (period unspecified)
Subject code: H05aa04

StudyMatlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977
TitleIndividual Differences in Pollyannaism.
SourceJournal of Personality Assesment. 1979, Vol. 43, 411 - 412
PublicUniversity students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelBrighter Future
Page in Source 412
Our classificationExpected change in happiness (period unspecified), code H05aa04
Operationalization
Difference between selfratings of "future happiness" 
and "present happiness" on Cantril's Ladder of Life 
Scale. (C-BW)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.23 s
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelExpected level of happiness
Page in Source 20
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
+5: higher level of happiness
 0: same happiness level in 5 years
-5: lower level of happiness
Full question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-er=+.30 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbr=+.27 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyCohen et al. (1982): study US 1979
TitleCommunity Stressors, Mediating Conditions and Well-Being in Urban Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1982, Vol. 10, 377 - 391.
DOIdoi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198210)10:4<377::AID-JCOP2290100408>3.0.CO;2-T
Public18-55 aged, general public, New York City, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =602

Correlate
Author's labelHope
Page in Source 384
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference between:
- expected happiness 5 years
  from now
- retrospective happiness 5 years
  ago
Both rated on Cantril 11-step ladder
scale, ranging from best (10) to worst
possible life (0).
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-ar=+.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness
Page in Source 78
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two identical questions asked 
twice in the interview:
"Where do you expect your life to be five years from 
now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.03
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.41
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.10
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.03
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=-.04
at the end of the interview:       r=-.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness: Progress past & future
Page in Source 78
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two questions 1."Where was 
your life five years ago?"
2."Where do you expect your life to be
   five years from now?"
Both rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best 
life (9) to worst life (1)
Remarks
Question asked twice. Summation: arithmetic mean.
Happiness measure type O-DT

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.13
Mean of coded answers at beginning and end of the 
interview (see remarks).
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.04
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=+.05
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.13
O-DT asked twice:
at the beginning of the interview: r=+.11
at the end of the interview:       r=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness: Future progress
Page in Source 92
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two single direct questions:
a "Where do you expect your life
    to be five years from now?"
b  "Where was your life most of the   time during the 
past year?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (0)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=-.00
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=-.50
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=-.07
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=-.00
O-DT asked second: r=-.10
O-DT asked third : r=-.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.00
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.10
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelExpected change in happiness: Progress:past&future
Page in Source 92
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference in response to two
questions:
a "Where was your life five years ago?"
b "Where do you expect your life to be five years from 
now?"
Rated on a 9-point graphic scale ranging from best life 
(9) to worst life (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-ar=+.10
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-ar=+.00
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-amr=+.07
O-DT asked thrice during the interview:
at the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
O-DT asked first : r=+.10
O-DT asked second: r=+.10
O-DT asked third : r=+.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.20
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-br=+.10
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-ar=-.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelExpected improvementof life
Page in Source 215-216
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Actual difference in scores on ques- tions on 
satisfaction with life now, and expected satisfaction 5 
years from now (Cantril present and future perso- nal 
ratings; see Cantril 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=-.11 ns
See also second instrument in excerpt (Part II), 
and under 'Future Happiness' (Part III, H 1.5).
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.74 p < . 01
See also under "Future Happiness" (H 1.5)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyGorman (1971): study US 1970
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Respondents N =67

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective confidence and hope
Page in Source 215-216
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Actual difference in scores on ques- tions on 
satisfaction with life 5 years ago, and expected 
satisfaction 5 years from now (Cantril past and future 
per- sonal ratiangs; see Cantril, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-br=+.11 ns
For past and future personal ratings see resp. 
under 'Perceived Past Happiness' (H 1.4.1) and 
under 'Future Happiness' (H 1.5).
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-br=-.06 ns
For past and future personal ratings see resp. 
under "Perceived Past Happiness" (H 1.4.1) and 
under "Future Happiness" (H 1.5).


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the near future (up to 5 years)
Subject code: H05aa04a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelExpected improv. in life satisf. during next 5 yr protension
Page in Source 44
Our classificationIn the near future (up to 5 years), code H05aa04a
Operationalization
Difference in scores on questions on satisfaction with 
life now, and expected satisfaction 5 years from now 
(Cantril present and future personal ratings: see 
CANTR, 1965).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.10
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.04
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the long run
Subject code: H05aa04b

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelExpected happiness
Page in Source 52
Our classificationIn the long run, code H05aa04b
Operationalization
Compared to your life today, how do you think things 
will 5 or 10 years from now?
- Happier
- About the same
- Less happy
- Don't know - won't be here
- Not ascertained

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.21 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=-.13 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.00 ns
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.00 ns
% very happy:            1957         1976

- Happier                 43           38
- About the same          38           37
- Less happy               6            8
- Don't know -
     Won't be here        11           10
- Not ascertained          2            6


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the long run
Subject code: H05aa04b

StudyGonzalez (1967): study US 1967
TitleStudy of Student Teachers' Life Adjustment.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1967, Chapel Hill, USA
PublicStudents teachers,University of California, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelExpected future happiness
Page in Source 75
Our classificationIn the long run, code H05aa04b
Operationalization
Closed question on anticipation of happiness 5 or 10 
years from now, compared with present life. Less happy 
/ about the same / happier

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cG=-.43 p < .05
G' based on proportion very happy (vs not very 
happy).


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the long run
Subject code: H05aa04b

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelExpected future happiness
Page in Source 196
Our classificationIn the long run, code H05aa04b
Operationalization
Closed question on anticipation of happiness 5 or 10 
years from now, compared with present life: not as 
happy / about the same / happier.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= ns
Males   : _b = +.04 (ns)
Females : _b = -.04 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and In the long run
Subject code: H05aa04b

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelExpected future happiness
Page in Source 34
Our classificationIn the long run, code H05aa04b
Operationalization
Closed question on anticipation of hap- piness 5 or 10 
years from now, compared with present life. Less happy 
/ about the same / happier.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.16 p < . 01
Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual level of earlier/later happiness
Subject code: H05ab01

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction
Page in Source 126
Our classificationActual level of earlier/later happiness, code H05ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your 
life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how 
satisfied you are.
0  totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
Remarks
Happiness assessed with yearly intervals at: T1, T2, T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=
CURRENT happiness by LATER happiness
                                  raw corrected
T1 happiness by T2 happiness: r = +.31  +.75
T1 happiness by T3 happiness: r = +.21  +.52
T2 Happiness by T3 happiness: r = +.29  +.70
Correction for measurement error in happiness 
(disattenuation)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual level of earlier/later happiness
Subject code: H05ab01

StudyFarage et al. (2010): study US 2007
TitleThe Farage Quality of Life Measure for Consumer Products: Development and Initial Implementation.
SourceApplied Research in Quality of Life, 2010, Vol. 5, 1 - 25
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11482-009-9087-5
PublicWomen, aged 18-55, before and after menstruation, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelTest-retest reliability
Page in Source 5
Our classificationActual level of earlier/later happiness, code H05ab01
Operationalization
Same questions on happiness repeated after 3 days
Remarks
Subsample: N = 20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-ar=+.56 p < .05
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-cr=+.64 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction over time
Page in Source 47, 48
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question asked twice
'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1  terrible
2  very unhappy
3  unhappy
4  mostly dissatisfied
5  mixed feelings
6  mostly satisfied
7  pleased
8  very pleased
9  delighted
Assessed at T1 (1981), T2 (1983), T3 (1985) and T5 
(1989)
Error EstimatesCorrelations of responses on same item at beginning and end of the interview: r=+.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.64 p < .05
T1 happines by T2 happines: raw correlation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.70 p < .05
T1 happines by T2 happines: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.47 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.49 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 happiness by T4 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 happiness by T4 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.47 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.49 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlations were obtained assuming 
a validity of 0.8
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aD%=
QUINTILE TRANSITION MATRIX 1981 - 1989:
Life Satisfaction     Life Satisfaction 1989   
1981               Q1    Q2    Q3    Q4    Q5
-----------------------------------------------
Q1                50.0% 27.3% 12.1%  7.6%  3.0%
Q2                28.8% 26.3% 23.8% 12.5%  8.8%
Q3                10.5% 31.4% 20.9% 29.1%  8.1%
Q4                12.0% 14.7% 26.7% 22.7% 24.0%
Q5                10.8%  8.4% 12.0% 16.9% 51.8%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1984): study AU 1980
TitleThe Effects of Unemployment on the Mood, Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Depressive Affect of School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1984, Vol. 57, 33 - 42
PublicSchool leavers, Australia, 1980-81, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =761

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (vs unemployed)
Page in Source 37
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: males=58, females 86 1: males=310; females=307
Remarks
T1:August 1980, when still at school; T2:August 1981, 
after leaving school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T1 happiness (when still at school) by T2 
employment

MALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,7
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,1
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=0
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      3,2      0,8
1: employed        3,2      0,7
-difference        0,0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T2 happiness by T2 employment (1 year later)

MALES
                    M        SD        
0: unemployed      2,8      0,8       
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,8
1:employed         3,3      0,7
- difference      +0,4
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

MALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     2,9         3,0
T2 happiness:     M=     2,8         3,0
-difference             -0,1         0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
FEMALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     3,2         3,2
T2 happiness:     M=     2,9         3.3
-difference             -0,3        +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1980): study AU 1978
TitleSome Psychological Effects of Unemployment in School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Social Issues, 1980, Vol. 15, 269 - 276
PublicSchool-leavers, South Australia, followed 1978-1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed vs Unemployed
Page in Source 272, 274
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: 25%; 1: 53% ; (22% still in school)
Remarks
T1: november 1978 (when still in school); T2: June 1979

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ ns
T1  happiness (when still in school) by T2 
employment          
                   Me
0: unemployed      3,0  
1: employed        3,2
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 employment (half year after 
leaving school)           
                   Me
0: unemployed      2,7
1: employed        3,3
-difference       +0,6
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

                          Unemployed  Employed
T1 happiness:      Me =    3,0        3,2
T2 happiness:      Me =    2,7        3,3
- difference              -0,3       +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGehmacher (1988a): study AT 1985
TitleWohlbefinden und Lebensqualität. (Feeling Well and Quality of Life).
SourcePaper, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1988, Vienna, Austria
PublicAdults, followed 6 months, Austria, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life in general
Page in Source 45
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-br=+.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGehmacher (1988a): study AT 1985
TitleWohlbefinden und Lebensqualität. (Feeling Well and Quality of Life).
SourcePaper, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1988, Vienna, Austria
PublicAdults, followed 6 months, Austria, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelHappy person
Page in Source 54
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGehmacher (1988a): study AT 1985
TitleWohlbefinden und Lebensqualität. (Feeling Well and Quality of Life).
SourcePaper, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1988, Vienna, Austria
PublicAdults, followed 6 months, Austria, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelHappy time
Page in Source 54
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGehmacher (1988a): study AT 1985
TitleWohlbefinden und Lebensqualität. (Feeling Well and Quality of Life).
SourcePaper, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung (IFES), 1988, Vienna, Austria
PublicAdults, followed 6 months, Austria, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 54
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.70


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyKozma & Stones (1980): study CA 1975 /1
TitleThe Measurement of Happiness: Development of the Measurement of Happiness: Development of the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (M.U.N.S.H.).
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1980, Vol. 35, 906 - 912
PublicEldery, living in old age home,New Foundland, Canada, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelAffect Balance (ABS)
Page in Source 911
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:

We would like to ask you some questions about how 
things have been going. Please answer 'yes' id a 
statement is true for you and 'no' if it does not apply 
to you. In the past months have you been feeling
A  On top of the world?
B  In high spirits
C  Particular content with lige?
D  Lucky?
E  Bored?
F  Very lonely or remote from people?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H  Flustered because you didn't know what was expected 
of you/
I  Generally satisfied with the way your life has 
turned out?

Response options:
2  yes
1  don't know
0  no

Computation: (A+B+C+D+I) - (E+F+G+H)

MUNSH Affect Balance Scale
Remarks
Assessed with 6 to 12 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-ar=+.27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyKozma & Stones (1980): study CA 1975 /1
TitleThe Measurement of Happiness: Development of the Measurement of Happiness: Development of the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (M.U.N.S.H.).
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1980, Vol. 35, 906 - 912
PublicEldery, living in old age home,New Foundland, Canada, 197?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55

Correlate
Author's labelAvowed Happiness
Page in Source 911
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
2 item index (AVHT) of direct questions, scored on 7 
point scales:
a. happiness `at this moment of time'  (AVH)
b. happiness `over the past month'  (AVH30)
(precise items not reported)
Remarks
Assessed with 6 to 12 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-mq-?-6-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness 84 / Happiness 91
Page in Source 17+22
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days? Please answer with the help of 
this scale. For instance, when you are totally 
satisfied wioth your life, please tick '10'. When you 
are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick 
'0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that 
you are neither totally satisfied nor totally 
unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied…..0  totally unsatisfied

Assessed at T1 (1984) and T2 (1991)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.30 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness: raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.47 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness: disattenuated r
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlation is obtained by assuming 
validity coefficient of 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /3
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
PublicCarowners, followed 1 year, West-Germany, 1976-77
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful appearance
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Interviewer rating of cheerful appearance on the 
following 8 aspects: look, mouth, posture, movements, 
eyes, elbos, lips and general cheerful appearance. 
(Allensbacher Ausdrücktest) AFF 5.3. Assessed at T1 and 
T2 (6 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aD%=+
- 78% identical ratings at T1 and T2 with the
  same interviewer.
- 64% identical ratings at T1 and T2 with other
  interviewers.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyRudolf & Priebe (1999): study DE 1994
TitleSubjective Quality of Life in Female In-Patients with a Depression: a Longitudional Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol.45, 238 - 247
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00183-1
PublicFemale mental patients, Berlin, followed 6 month,199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsedrop out at T2: 33%
Respondents N =185

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life
Page in Source 243
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: With 3 weeks after admission to mental hospital
T2: 6 month later
Remarks
Depressive patients only (n= 28)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cDM=+ p < .001
Happiness at:
T1:         M = 2,7 CI95 [1,2-4,3]
T2          M = 3,9 CI95 [2,3-5,5]
Difference     +1,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993 /1
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Germany, 199?, followed 4 month
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =127

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional wellbeing
Page in Source 502
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 12 questions: 

..how frequent one experienced moods in the past week..
A  happy
B  joyful
C  contented
D cheerful
E  pleasant
F  elated
G  frustrated
H  sad
I   depressed
J  dissatisfied
K  gloomy
L  dejected

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D+ E+ F) - (G+H+I+J+K+L)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist 
(Mathews et. al. 1990)
Observed distributionT1+T2: M=6.10, SD=6.94 T3+T4: M=6.72, SD=6.82
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: T1+2: .89, T3+4: .94
Remarks
Assessed at 
T1: early in November
T2: early in December
T3: mid-January
T4: mid-February

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-br=+.54 p < .001
T1+T2 happiness by T3+T4 happiness (Six week 
interval)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBrunstein et al. (1998): study DE 1993
TitlePersonal Goals and Emotional Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Motive Dispositions.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 75, 494 - 508
PublicUniversity students, Erlangen, Germany,199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =98

Correlate
Author's labelDaily emotional well being
Page in Source 498
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions, twice a day during two 
weeks:
..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A  happy
B  joyful
C  contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist 
(Mathews et. al. 1990)
Observed distributionM=4.62, SD=5.11
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha=.92
Remarks
Average of 12 occasions: two times in every second day 
for 2 weeks (6 days * 2 administrations = 12 occasions)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-ar=+.33 p < .01
Correlation of mood assessed on the same scale: 
initial mood by by next 2 weeks average daily mood

Similar for males and females
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyHeadey & Headey (2003): study DE 1990
TitleGerman Reunification: Welfare Gains and Losses East and West.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 64, 107 - 138
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024780114892
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 40%
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in Source 111, 116/7
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question asking about 
'satisfaction with life'on a 0-10 scale ranging from 
0 entirely dissatisfied
to
10 entirely satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
               1990      1992        1997

East            6.9       6.1         6.3
West            7.3       7.3         6.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyHeadey et al. (1995): study DE East Germany 1990
TitlePolitical Legitimicy versus Economic Imperatives in System Transformation: Hungary and East Germany 1990 - 93.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1995, Vol. 36, 247 - 273
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078816
Public16+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response± 30%
Respondents N =4453

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Life-as-a-whole
Page in Source 267
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about 'satisfaction with 
life-as-a-whole' rated 
0 entirely dissatisfied
to
10 entirely satisfied
Remarks
Assessed in 1990, 1991 and 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
1990    M = 6.6     SD = 1.4

1991    M = 6.0     SD = 2.0       

1992    M = 6.1     SD = 1.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBrunstein (1993): study DE 1988
TitlePersonal Goals and Subjective Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 65, 1061 - 1070
PublicStudents, Germany, 1988, followed 14 weeks
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response9
Respondents N =97

Correlate
Author's labelWell-being over time
Page in Source 1065
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions:

A  8 questions about current mood
… extent to which moods were experienced during the 
past few days (full text not reported}
a happy
b  joyful
c  pleased
d  confident
e  sad
f  depressed
g  frustrated
h  anxious
Rated: 1  not at all   … 7  very frequently

B  2 questions on life satisfaction
a  At present I am completely satisfied with my life
b  In the near future a lot of things will have to 
change before I feel satisfied with my life
Rated: 1  completely disagree  .. 7  completelt agree

Computation: (A+B)/2
Observed distributionSatisfaction with life measured by substracting scores on depressed mood from scores on elated mood (the original scores are divided by 4). M = T1: 5.42, T2 = 5.39, T3: 6.99, T4: 6.03 SD = T1: 1.09, T2: 1.44, T3: 0.18, T4: 0.50
Remarks
Assessed with 4 week intervals at T1, T2, T3 and T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.50 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness (4 weeks interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.42 p < .001
T1 happiness by T3 happiness (10 weeks interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.41 p < .001
T1 happiness by T4 happiness (14 weeks interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.59 p < .001
T2 happiness by T3 happiness (6 weeks interval)
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.50 p < .001
T2 happiness by T4 happiness (10 weeks interval)
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-ar=+.66 p < .001
T3 happiness by T4 happiness (4 weeks interval)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyKobayashi et al. (2005): study JP 2001
TitleValidation of the Care Notebook for Measuring Physical Mental and Life Well-Being of Patiens with Cancer.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1035 - 1043
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-2958-1
PublicCancer out-patients, followed 4 weeks, Japan, 2001
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =249

Correlate
Author's labelConvergent validity
Page in Source 1037
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 4 weeks
Observed distributionT1 happiness: M=7.05 SD=2.38
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha 0.91

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cw-mq-n-11-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyAbdel-Khalek (2004): study KW 2002
TitleHappiness among Kuwaiti College Students.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2004, Vol. 5, 93 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000021715.45981.40
PublicCollege students in Kuwait, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelreliability
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Same question on happiness assessed twice with one week 
interval
Observed distributionM = 6,41, SD = 2.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=+.86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 88
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
10 item index of specific affects in the past few weeks 
(Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale AFF 2.3)

Assessed at T1 and T2
(1 year interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.48 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyArnold et al. (2006): study NL 2001
TitleChanges in Personal Control as a Predictor of Quality of Life after Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
SourcePatient Educational and Counseling, 2006, Vol. 61, 99 - 108
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.02.015
PublicCOPD patients, before and after 20 week rehabilitation programme, Netherlands, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelChange happiness over 20 weeks
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: at start of rehabilitation program
T2: 20 weeks later
Observed distributionT1: M = 5,3 SD = 1,4; T2: M = 5,9 SD = 1,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.30 ns
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.23 ns
Beta controled for:
- age, gender
- T1 self perceived control
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.38 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- age, gender
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- T!-T2 change in perceived control

T1-T2: before-after 20 week rehabilitation program


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1993
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
Public12-18 aged migraine patients and controls, followed 26 months, The Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responseat T0: 4%
Respondents N =159

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with life in general
Page in Source 54
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Satisfaction with Life in general assessed at:
T0: baseline
T1: Week 1 (one after Week 0 completion)
T2: week 2 (two weeks after Week 0)
T3: week 3 (three weeks after Week 0)
T4: week 26 (26 weeks after Week 0)
Observed distributionT1:N=153; T2: N=153; T3: N=154; T4: N=135)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.47 p < .001
T0 by T1
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.44 p < .001
T0 by T2
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.41 p < .001
T0 by T3
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.41 p < .001
T0 by T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1990 /1
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
Public12-18 aged chronic headache patients, Netherlands 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response50%
Respondents N =64

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life in general
Page in Source 71
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
How satisfied of unsatisfied were you last week with 
your life in general?
Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on 
the line
completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied
Observed distributionN=65?
Remarks
Assessed at 
- T0: baseline
- T1: one week after T0 
- T2: two weeks 2 after T0
- T3: three weeks after T0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aDM=+
            M         SD         
T0        6,65      3,01
T1        7,67      2,49     
T2        7,61      2,54     
T3        7,96      2,46
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelPositive affects
Page in Source 350
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
4-item additive index of positive affects in the past 
few weeks (PA index from Bradburns Affect Balance 
Scale: part of happiness indicator AFF 2.3). Assessed 
at T2(1976) and T3(1977).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.72 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 positive affects
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.32 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 positive affects
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.32 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 positive affects
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.74 p < .01
T3 happiness by T3 positive affects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelChronological age
Page in Source 350
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Age at T1(1970):
16-29 (1)
30-44 (2)
45-59 (3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.06 ns
T2 happiness by T1 age
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.11 p < .05
T3 happiness by T1 age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicAdults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =23

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness (retest)
Page in Source 60
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at T1 by affectometer 1 short form, 
T2 (T1+ 4 weeks) and T3 (T1+ 10 weeks)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.95 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-br=+.94 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
Control group, only  (N=13) 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyNaess et al. (2004): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleDiabetes Mellitus and Psychological Well-Being. Change between 1984-1986 and 1995-1997. Results of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.
SourceJournal of Diabetes and its Complications, 2004, Vol. 18,141 - 147.
DOIDOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(03)00036-9
Public20-90 aged, general public, Nord-Trondelag, Norway followed 1 year, 1985-1996
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =65599

Correlate
Author's labellife satisfaction
Page in Source 144
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering how you feel these days, are you generally 
satisfied with your life or are you generally 
dissatisfied?
7  extremely satisfied
6  very satisfied
5  quite satisfied
4  both satisfied and dissatisfied
3  quite dissatisfied
2  very dissatisfied
1  extremely dissatisfied
Remarks
Happiness assessed at T1: (1984-86) anf T2 (1995-97). 
Average time difference 11 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cr=+.67
Two week follow-up at T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cr=+.37
+.34 with same item in paralel questionnaire at T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cES= ns
No T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyMoum (1988): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleYea-saying and Mood-of-the-Day Effects in Self-Reported Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 117 - 139
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00302458
Public20+ aged, general public, Noth Trondelag county, followed 2 years, Norway, 1984-1986
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =622

Correlate
Author's labelActual past happiness
Page in Source 134
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at three points in time. The 
intervals varierd from several days to several months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+.69
T2 happiness by T1 happiness
females: young +.73
         old   +.45
males  : young +.76
         old   +.66
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+.57
T3 happiness by T1 happiness
females: young +.43
         old   +.47
males    young +.59
         old   +.55
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-ar=+.54
T3 happiness by T2 happiness
females: young +.51
         old   +.43
males    young +.65
         old   +.55


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyZhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9037-7
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8439

Correlate
Author's labelLife-satisfaction previous year
Page in Source 346
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
To what extent are you satisfied with your life in 
general at present?
1  not at all satisfied
2  less than satisfied
3  both yes and no
4  rather satisfied
5  fully satisfied
Remarks
Assessed at:
T1:  1994
T2:  1995
T3:  1996
T4:  1997
T5:  1998
T6:  1999
T7:  2000
T8:  2001
T9:  2002
T10: 2003
T11: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.19 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.23 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.24 p < .01
T4 happiness by T5 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.26 p < .01
T6 happiness by T7 happiness

Beta's controled for:
- income
- workstatus
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyFugl-Meyer et al. (1991a): study SE 1984
TitleVocational Rehabilitation in Northern Sweden III. Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1991, Vol. 23, 83 - 87
PublicHandicapped referred for vocational rehabilitation,followed 2 years, Umea, Sweden, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with life as a whole
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Retest after 2 months
Remarks
N = 53: randomly selected from sample at follow-up (N = 
126)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-ars=+.66 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBernow (1985): study SE 1982
TitleLivskvaliteten i Sverige. (Quality of Life in Sweden).
SourceStockholm Läns Landsting, 1985, Stockholm, Sweden
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bernow_r_1982.pdf
Public18-70 aged, general public, Sweden, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1558

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in Source 89
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
All in all, how much happiness do you find in life 
today....?
1  almost none
2  some but not very much
3  a good deal
Remarks
Same question answered at the beginning and at the end 
of the interview

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-ar=+.57


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008 /1
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, employees, followed 3 months before and after receiving a bonus, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral Happiness
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
"Do you feel happy, in general?"
1   no
2   rarely
3   sometimes
4   most of the time
5   yes
Remarks
Assessed at T1: one month before bonus, T2: 3 months 
later
Question type O-HL

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.29 ns
T2 happiness by T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyKross et al. (2013): study US 2008
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Ann Arbor, Michigan, followed 14 days, USA, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelPre/Post life satisfaction
Page in Source Page 3
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Below are five statements that you may agree or 
disagree with. Using the 1 - 7 scale below, indicate 
your agreement with each item by placing the 
appropriate number on the line preceding that item. 
Please be open and honest in your responding.

_ In most ways my life is close to my ideal. 
_ The conditions of my life are excellent.
_ I am satisfied with my life.
_ So far I have gotten the important things I want in 
life.
_ If I could live my life over, I would change almost 
nothing.
	
7 - Strongly agree 
	6 - Agree 
	5 - Slightly agree 
	4 - Neither agree nor disagree 
	3 - Slightly disagree 
	2 - Disagree 
	1 - Strongly disagree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ar=+.55 p < .001
T1 life satisfaction by T1-T2; average mood.
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ar=+.66 p < .001
T1-T2 average happiness in the moment by T2 life 
satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudySegrin et al. (2005): study US 2000
TitleDyadic Interdependence on Affect and Quality-of-Life Trajectories among Women with Breast Cancer and Their Partners.
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, Vol. 22, 673 - 689
DOIDOI:10.1177/0265407505056443
PublicBreast cancer patients and partners, USA, 2000.
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =96

Correlate
Author's labelCounseling program
Page in Source 678
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
The women and their partners were randomly assigned to 
participate in one of two different 6 week counseling 
programs, after wich they once again completed the 
measures over the phone at T2.
The other half of the sample was assigned to an 
attentinal control condition in wich the women with 
breast cancer also received six weekly calls an dtheir 
partners received two bimonthy calls.
However, their was no substantive counseling offered in 
these brief contacts.
Remarks
T1 baseline, T2 6 weeks, T3 10 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dDM=+
Patients happiness at
T1 M= 16,59
T2 M= 18.11
T3 M= 18.68
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dDM=-
partners happiness
T1 M= 17.27
T2 M= 15.57
T3 M= 13.68

Difference between experimental group and control 
group not reported in this paper


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelPleasantness well-being
Page in Source 216
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions:
Here is a list that describes some of the ways people 
feel at different times. How often do you feel each of 
these ways?
A  On top of the world
B  Very lonely or remote from other people
C  Particularly excited or interested in something
D  Pleased about having accomplished something
E  Bored
F  Depressed or very unhappy
G  So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H  Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Reponse options: never (0), sometimes (1), often (3)

Scoring: 
PA  =  A+C+D           (range 0-9)
NA  =  B+E+F+G+H       (range 0-15)
ABS =  PA-NA           (range 1-7)
Observed distributionT1: M=3,40 SD=1,48 T2: M=3,52 SD=1,53
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: T1 = .69, T2 = .74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.77 p < .0001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.95 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T1 happiness
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.95 p < .0001
T1+T2 happiness by T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyLepper (1998): study US California 1993
TitleUse of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006872027638
PublicRetirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =971

Correlate
Author's labelOver time correlation from wave 1 to wave 2 (9-month lag)
Page in Source 372,373
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
consistency of SWB measures from wave 1 to wave 2 
(9-month lag)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.52 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ar=+.61 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er=+.53 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
O-HL---mq-v-16-ar=+.71 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.55 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cr=+.75 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)
M-AO---mqr-*-0-ar=+.73 p < .0001
T1 by T2 happiness (9 month lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyMilman (1998): study US 1993
TitleThe Impact of Tourism and Travel Experience on Senior Travelers' Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Travel Research, 1998, Vol. 37. 166 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1177/004728759803700208
Public50+ aged, before and after holiday trip, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response59%
Respondents N =124

Correlate
Author's labelBefore/after trip
Page in Source 168
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: first day of trip
T2: last day of trip

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-aDM=0- ns
T1 first day: PA = 1,46, NA = 0,11, ABS = 1,35
T2 last day : PA = 1,45, NA = 0,12, ABS = 1,33
difference                               -0.02
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bDM== ns
T1 first day: M = 1,86
T2 last day : M = 1,87
difference       +0.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyYardley & Rice (1991): study US 1988
TitleThe Relationship between Mood and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 101 - 111
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00292653
PublicUniversity students, State University of New York at Buffalo, followed 10 weeks, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =65

Correlate
Author's labelAffect Balance in 10 weeks
Page in Source 106
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 9 item scale
Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt 
today'
A  happy
B  depressed, blue
C  joyfull
D  pleased
E  frustrated
F  angry,hostile
G  enjoyment, fun
H  worried, anxious
I  unhappy

Answer options:
1  not at all
2  very slight
3  somewhat
4  moderate amount
5  much
6  very much
7 extremely much
Computation: (A+C+D+G)-(B+E+F+H+I)
Name: Diener's 'Daily Mood scale'

Assessed at T1 and T2 with 10 weeks difference
Observed distributionT1: M = 42,95, SD=9,25 T2: M = 46,74, SD=11,27
Error EstimatesT1: Cronbach alpha = .81 T2: Cronbach alpha = .86

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD1-md-mq-v-7-ar=+.48
T1 Mood by T2 Mood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyWright & Bonett (1993): study US 1988
TitleMental Health and Work Performance: Results of a Longitudinal Field Study.
SourceJournal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 1993, Vol. 66, 277 - 284
PublicHuman services personel; USA; followed for 2 years, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 208
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions:
Here is a list that describes some of the ways people 
feel at different times. How often do you feel each of 
these ways?
A  On top of the world
B  Very lonely or remote from other people
C  Particularly excited or interested in something
D  Pleased about having accomplished something
E  Bored
F  Depressed or very unhappy
G  So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H  Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Reponse options:
never (0, sometimes (1), often (3)

Scoring: 
PA  =  A+C+D           (range 0-9)
NA  =  B+E+F+G+H       (range 0-15)
ABS =  PA-NA           (range 1-7)
Observed distributionT1: M=3,42 SD = 1,41 T2: M=3,64 SD = 1,52
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: PA: T1: .76 T2 .71, NA T1: .69 T2 .68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.76 p < .0001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.93 p < .0001
T1 + T2 happiness by  T1 happiness
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.94 p < .0001
T1 + T2 happiness by  T2 (happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudySeidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
Sample
Non-ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 661
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Fordyce's 'Happiness-Measure'; 4 item index of 
questions about how happy one generally feels           
  (MIX 1.2)

Assessed at T1 and T2
(11 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-ar=+.77 p < .001
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-arpc=+.70
rpc controled for T1 current mood
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-arpc=+.71
rpc controled for T2 current mood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyPlomin et al. (1993): study US Colorado 1986
TitleGenetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study
SourceSociety for Research in Child Development; Child Development, 1993, 64, 1354-1376
PublicSame-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 20 months, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness at 14 and 20 months
Page in Source 1362
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
T1: at 14 months
T2: at 20 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mi-tsb-?-4-aDM=+
               boys      girls
T1: 14 months  M=0.89    M=1.01
T2: 20 months  M=1.05    M=1.09
- difference:   +0.16     +0.08
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-aDM=+
               boys      girls
T1: 14 months  M=4.6     M=4.9
T2: 20 months  M=4.9     M=5.0
- difference:   +0.3      +0.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyMagnus & Diener (1991): study US 1986
TitleA Longitudinal Analysis of Personality, Life Events, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, 1991, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/magnus_k_1991.pdf
PublicUniversity students, USA, followed 4 years 1986-1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =130

Correlate
Author's labelTime
Page in Source 25
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how (much) do you feel happy? What 
score do you give if we put ten for 'extremely happy, 
zero for extremely unhappy' and five for neither happy 
nor unhappy'?
10 extremely happy
9
8
7
6
5  neither happy nor unhappy
4
3
2
1
0  extremely unhappy
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= +.73
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1986) and T2(1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-ar=+.85 p < .00
r disattenuated


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 227
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale'  
(original version)
Remarks
Happiness measure type O-DT
Assessed at T1 and T2; 
T1: right after induction of salience
    of positive or negative thinking
T2: 8 weeks later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-arpc=+.55 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness controlled for T1 
stress.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
T1: 1 month after birth of child
T2: 8 months after birth of child
T3: 18 months after birth of child

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.61
Tl happiness by T2 happiness
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.51
Tl happiness by T3 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral Life Satisfaction
Page in Source 55
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question, asked twice in interview
How do you feel about your life as a whole......?"
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Summation: arthmetic mean
Error EstimatesInter-item correlation between response to this question at the beginning and at the end of the interview r=+.74 Los Angeles r=+.79 Rochester

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.71
One Week Test-Rtest Correlation(N=45)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBell (1975a): study US 1973
TitleThe Limitations of Crisis Theory as an Explanatory Mechanism in Social Gerontology.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1975, Vol. 6, 153 - 168
PublicMales shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement
Page in Source 160
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
T1: pre-retirement
T2: Post-retirement
Difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eD%=- p < .005
t=-.3.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study US 1971
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public25-74 aged general public, United States, 1971-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4942

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 203
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.47 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyConstantinople (1967): study US NewYork 1966
TitlePerceived Instrumentality of the College as a Measure of Attitudes toward College.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, Vol. 5, 196 - 201
PublicUniversity students, Rochester, USA, 1966
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =165

Correlate
Author's labelTest-retest reliability
Page in Source 198
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question, repeated after 6 weeks:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or 
depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last 
year?
10  Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9    Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous  
delight  and buoyancy.
8    Elated and in high spirits.
7    Feeling very good and cheerful.
6    Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5    Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4    Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3    Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2    Tremendously depressed.  Feeling terrible, really 
miserable, "just awful".
1    Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All 
is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Remarks
T1 Within 6 weeks between administrations (N = 150)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-ar=+.85
T1-T2 difference: 6 weeks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 86
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: Taking all things together. How 
happy would you say you are: Would you say you are;
- very happy    (3)
- pretty happy  (2)
- not too happy (1)
(O-HL)

Assessed at 
T1: January 1963
T3: Oktober 1963
Remarks
CHANGE in overall happiness (O-HL) by
CHANGE in hedonic level of affect (A-AB)

Hedonic level of affect assessed at T1, T2 and T3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
CHANGE in overall happiness by CHANGE in hedonic 
level of affect
Hedonic level of affect in average ridits (RT):
                T3 happiness
T1 happiness    very      pretty    not too
- very          .51       .44       .19     (05)
- pretty        .57       .51       .39     (05)
- not too       .66       .60       .44     (05)
                (05)      (05)      (05)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
Change in       T1-T2     T2-T3     T3-T4
happiness
- increase      .69       .58       .66
- stable        .52       .46       .45
- decrease      .42       .38       .38

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.
                    


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 90
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Single direct question: Taking all together, how happy 
would you say you are these days? Would you say you are 
very happy, pretty happy or not too happy?"

Assessed at T1 and T2 
(8 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.48 p < .00
Between T1 and T2 the Cuban missile-crisis 
tookplace.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelAffect Balance
Page in Source 92
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
10 item index of specific affects in the past few 
weeks.(Bradburn Affect Balance Scale)

Assessed at T1 and T2
(8 month interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-er=+.41 p < .001
Negative Affect scale
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-er=.36 p < .001
Positive Affect scale
Turnover in full ABS not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness_B
Page in Source 103
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Composite clinical rank order of happi- ness by 6 staff 
psychologists, based on two years of experience with 
the sub- jects  

Assessed 6 months earlier.
Remarks
Happiness measure M-ACO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.71
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale) scored 
each night for the highest, lowest and average of 
the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.44
Mean daily average mood : r = +.71
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappy life history
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Clinical rank on 'happy - unhappy life story', 
stressing auto-biographic re- ports and information for 
three years, concerning past life experiences up to the 
time of entering college.
Remarks
Assessed 6 months after entering college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.48 p < . 05
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale: AFF 3.1) 
scored each night for the highest, lowest and 
average of the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.42
Mean daily average mood : r = +.48
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness_A
Page in Source 104
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Clinical rank  on present happiness - unhappiness, 
stressing possible aware subjective feelings

Assessed 6 months after assessment of hedonic level.
Remarks
Happiness measure type M-ACO

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.76
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale) scored 
each night for highest, lowest and average of the 
day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.57
Mean daily average mood : r = +.76
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.56


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H05ab01a

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's label2-week stability
Page in Source 1949-1951, 1956
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H05ab01a
Operationalization
Rating of cheerful appearance in laboratory; 2 
assessments with interval of 2 weeks;
The child is (or both twins are) placed in a high 
chair.
Peekaboo-Game:
On signal from familiar experimenter, th mother holds a 
cloth between her face and the child's face (just one 
of the twins). When lowering the cloth she says: 
"peekaboo" in a playful voice.
Procedure repeted 4 times. Then mother and 
experiementer changed roles.

Walking Finger Game:
With fingers, Mother walked her fingers up the chair 
toward the child saying: "I'm going to get you!" in a 
playful voice. Then she tickles the infant's tummy. 
This episode coninues for 15min and is assessed two 
times to each child (for twins alternatingly). Then 
mother and experimenter changed roles.
Observed distributionN ranges from 120 to 159

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-br=+.55 p < .05
JOY/PLEASURE (broad)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.42 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Peekaboo with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.37 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Peekaboo with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.35 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Walking Finger with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.20 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Walking Finger with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.50 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Peekaboo with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.50 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Peekaboo with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.26 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Walking Finger with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.46 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Walking Finger with experimenter


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyHeadey & Veenhoven (1989): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDoes Happiness Induce a Rosy Outlook?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.:"How Harmful is Happiness?", Universitaire Pers Rotterdam, 1989, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 106 - 127
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/89c-full.pdf
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 6 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1981-87
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T4: 31%
Respondents N =649

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 114
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question asked twice: "How do you feel 
about your life-as-a-whole?" Rated on a 9 point scale. 
1: terrible to 9: delightful.
Happiness assessed at: T1 (1981), T2 (1983), T3 (1985), 
T4 (1987)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.68 p < .05
Current happiness by earlier happiness:       
(T4 by T3, T3 by T2, T2 by T1). 

ßL is a path coefficients in a 4-wave LISREL model 
in which coefficients are assumed to be equal for 
all waves. Controls: satisfaction with marriage 
(T1, T2, T3 and T4), and T1 sex, age, SES, 
extraversion and neuroticism.

O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aßL=+.77 p < .05
T4 happiness by T3 happiness. 

ßL is a path coefficient in a two wave LISREL 
model. Controls: earlier net life-events (reported 
at T3 and T4) and T1 sex, age, SES, extraversion 
and neuroticism.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyHeadey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978
TitleThe Impact of Life Events and Changes in Domain Satisfactions on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 203 - 227
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00668671
Public18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Page in Source 211
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Affect Balance Score, 10 item index of closed questions 
on occurrence of specific positive or negative affects 
during the past few weeks. (AFF 2.3) 
Assessed at: - T1 (1978)
             - T2 (1981)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.30
ß controlled for: 
- Satisfaction with standard of living at T1
- Satisfaction with standard of living at T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMichalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleHealth and Quality of Life of Older People: A Replication after Six Years.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 84, 127 - 158
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9080-4
PublicElderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =656

Correlate
Author's labelChange average happiness
Page in Source 133
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1999
T2: 2005
Remarks
Average scores only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gDM=- ns
             T1     T2     T1-T2 difference
All      M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
males    M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
females  M   5,6    5,6     0,0
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=+ ns
All      M   5,5    5,6    +0,1
males    M   5,4    5,6    +0,2
females  M   5,5    5,6    +0,1
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=0 ns
All      M   5,6    5,6     0,0
males    M   5,7    5,6    -0,1
females  M   5,6    5,6     0,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life as a whole
Page in Source 411, 413
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them 
today.  Please indicate how satisfied you are with each 
of them.... 
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1  very dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
3  a little dissatisfied
4  about evenly balanced
5  a little satisfied
6  somewhat satisfied
7  very satisfied
Observed distributionMean: 5.65 SD: 1.10 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005), T2 (2006) and T3 (2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.67 p < .01
T1 happiness (life-satisfaction) by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=+.65 p < .01
T1 happiness (life-satisfaction) by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-f
Similar retest correlations in the three 
subsamples.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 411, 413
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you 
say you are?
1  very unhappy
2  somewhat unhappy
3  a little unhappy
4  evenly balanced
5  a little happy
6  somewhat happy
7  very happy
Observed distributionMean: 5.85 SD: 1.22 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005), T2 (2006) and T3 (2007)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+61 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.64 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-f
Similar retest correlations in the three 
subsamples


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMichalos & Kahlke (2010): study CA British Columbia 2005
TitleStability and Sensitivity in Perceived Quality of Life Measures: Some Panel Results.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 403 - 434
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9554-2
PublicAdults, British Comumbia, Canada, followed 3 years, 2005-2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =462

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with quality of life
Page in Source 411, 413
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

In general my present quality of life is:
1  as bad as it could possibly be
2
3
4  neither good nor bad
5
6
7  as good as it could possibly be

Response options labeled as:  +3 (as good as it could 
possibly be), 0 (neither good nor bad) and -3  (as bad 
as it could possibly be).
Observed distributionMean: 5,72 SD: 1.04 Average 3 waves, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005), T2 (2006) and T3 (2007)
Item in ADDQoL (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of 
Life)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.63 p < .01
T1 happiness (satisfaction with quality of life) 
by T3 happiness
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.59 p < .01
T1 happiness (satisfaction with quality of life)by 
T2 happiness
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-a
Similar retest correlations in the three 
subsamples.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelPrevious Happiness
Page in Source 139
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
see time serie

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-b
Time serie happiness:

        T1:1998 T2:2000 T3:2002 T4:2005 T5:2008
Mean       2,93    2,88    2,71    2,72    2,70
SD         0,72    0,80    0,79    0,80    0,78

All: Mean 2,77; SD: 0,79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelPast life-satisfaction at T1
Page in Source 225
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days? Please answer with the help of 
this scale. For instance, when you are totally 
satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you 
are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick 
'0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that 
you are neither totally satisfied nor totally 
unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0  totally unsatisfied
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
5-6% of respondents went up 1,5 standard deviation or 
more between T1 and T3; 10-12% went down 1,5 standard 
deviation or more.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.57 p < .001
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness by T1 LEVEL of happiness

Beta controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-partner in 2004
-years of education
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Page in Source 10
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
T1: Happiness 5 years ago
T2: Last year's happiness
T3: Current happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.44
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.59
T2 happiness by T3 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelAgeing
Page in Source 76,77
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1 (1987)
T2 (1991)
T3 (1995)
T4 (1999
12 year interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
Positive among people with a partner
Negative among singles
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelCorrelation of happiness scores over time
Page in Source 53
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on four questions:
Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of 
the following statements applies for you in the last 18 
months.
A  In most ways my life is close to ideal
B  The conditions of my life are excellent
C  I am satisfied with my life
D  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in 
life

Answers rated:
7  applies completely
6  apllies
5  apllies slightly
4  neither applies nor does not apply
3  slightly not applicable
2  not applicable
1  applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4
Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale 
(SWLS), last years version
Observed distributionN: 1987 by 1991 = 1245; 1987 by 1995 = 928; 1987 by 1999 = 822; 1991 by 1995 = 936; 1991 by 1999 = 830; 1995 by 1999 = 682 All respondents All rounds Ss only N Mt SD N Mt SD T1 1750 7,25 1,91 676 7,49 1,83 T3 1256 7,47 1,78 676 7,63 1,69 T4 936 7,49 1,85 676 7,54 1,83 T5 830 7,72 1,71 676 7,76 1,70
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.40
T1 by T3: 4 years     N=1245
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.36
T1 by T4: 8 years     N=928
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.31
T1 by T5: 12 years    N=822
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.44
T3 by T4: 4 years     N=936
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.34
T3 by T5: 8 year      N= 830
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ar=+.43
T4 by T5: 4 year      N=682


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyPerquin (2002): study NL 1976
TitleChronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Observational Studies.
SourceUniversity Press TU Eindhoven, 2002, Netherlands
URLhttp://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/31977/021002_Perquin,%20Christiana%20Wilhelmina.pdf
Public12-18 aged, in chronic pain. Rotterdam, Netherlands, followed 2 years, 1996-99
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =5336

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with life in general
Page in Source 77
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
T1: June 1974
T2: June 1998
T3: June 1999
Observed distributionN = T1: 245, T2: 150, T3: 118

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aDM= p < .-
             Mean    SD
T1           62,2    24,2
T2           66,0    25,4
T3           64,6    21,8

Difference 
T1-T2        +3,8
T1-T3        -2,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Page in Source 350
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
8-item additive index of specific affects in the past 
few weeks (Bradburn Affect Balance Scale: AFF 2.3)
Assessed at: - T2 (1976)
             - T3 (1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.52 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 happiness 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyTyssen et al. (2009): study NO 1993
TitleLower Life Satisfaction in Physicians Compared with a General Population Sample: A 10-year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study of Course and Predictors.
SourceSocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2009, Vol. 44, 47 - 54
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00127-008-0403-4
PublicPhysicians followed 9 years after graduating, Norway, 1993-2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-ResponseResp. 17% , 38% at 1 year, 33% at 4 years, 38 % at 9 years.
Respondents N =631

Correlate
Author's labelStep of career
Page in Source 50
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: graduating
T2: one year after graduating
T3: four years after
T4: nine years after

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cDM=+ p < .005
T1: M = 5.0, SD = 1.2
T2: M = 5.2, SD = 1.1
T3: M = 5.2, SD = 1.0
T4: M = 5.2, SD = 1.0

T1 < T2, T3, T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 330
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Observed distribution1: 33%; 2: 28%; 3: 25%; 4:25% 5: 40%
Remarks
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naD%=-
became less happy      ??%
remained equally happy ??%
Got happier            ??%
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-natc=-.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudySnekkevik et al. (2003): study SE 1993
TitleIs Sense of Coherence Stable after Multiple Trauma.
SourceClinical Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 17, 443 - 453
PublicRehabilitation patients, followed 2 years after trauma, Sweden 1993-1999
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelinjury sequale
Page in Source 106
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: Within one week after admission (median 35 days, 
range 6-80 days after injury)
T2:  Shortly before discharge ( median 161 days, range 
73-290 days after injure)
T3: at follow up (median 24 months, range 12-41 months 
after injure)
Observed distribution% satisfied (score 5 or 6) Before T1: 85%, T2: 58%, T3: 31%
Remarks
Report at T1 concerns retrospective happiness before 
injure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cD%=- p < .05
T1: 85% satisfied before injury (retrospect)
T2: 58% satisfied shortly before discharge
T3: 31% satisfied at follow-up
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cBMCT=
T1 < T2 < T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyEvans & Huxley (2005): study GB 1999
TitleAdaptation, Response-shift and Quality of Life Ratings in Mentally Well and Unwell Groups.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1719 - 1732
DOIDOI:10.1007/s 1136-005-1742-I
Public18-65 aged, differing in mental health, followed 2 years, UK, 1999-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-ResponseNon-response at T1: 83% Drop-out at T2: 50%)
Respondents N =1912

Correlate
Author's labelChange in quality of life
Page in Source 1726-29
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in response to question: How do you feel 
about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Observed distributionM = 4,79; SD = 1,06
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2, 22 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=-
Ss in GOOD mental health
-T1 happiness     M=5,37  SD=0,86
-T2 happiness     M=5,12  SD=0,96
difference         -0.25
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.06
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
Ss in MODERATE mental health (common mental 
disorder)
-T1 happiness     M=4,15  SD=1,26
-T2 happiness     M=4,25  SD=1,31
difference         +0.1
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=+
Ss in BAD mental health (psychotic mental 
patients)
-T1 happiness     M=3,87  SD=1,44
-T2 happiness     M=4,44  SD=1,38
difference         +0.57
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelMental health
Page in Source 23
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
a: Severe mental illness(SMI)
   Patients of mental hospital
   - aged 18-65
   - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement 
b: Common mental disorder(CMD)
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
c: Healthy population
   18+ aged community residents
   - participants in postal survey
   - scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire
Observed distributionN at T1/T2 = 1: 149/126; 2: 794/354; 3: 1119/583
Remarks
a: Non-probability chunk sample, data 1994 (T1) and 
1996 (T2)
b+c: Probility sample of community residents: data 1999 
(T1) and 2001 (T2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
a: Mental patients     T1  M = 3.86  SD = 1.43
                       T2  M = 4.45  SD = 1.40
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,59      -0,03
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=+
b: Common disorder     T1  M = 4,19  SD = 1.29
                       T2  M = 4.25  SD = 1.30
       T1-T2 (2 yr) change    +0,06      +0,01
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bDM=-
c: Mentally healthy    T1  M = 5,39  SD = 0,86
                       T2  M = 5,12  SD = 0,96
        T1-T2 (2 yr)change    -0,27      +0,10
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T1: c>a, b>a
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bBMCT= p < .05
T2: c>b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyLewis & Joseph (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1993
TitleThe Depression-Happiness Scale: A Measure of a State or Trait? Test-Retest Data over Two Years.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1997, Vol. 81, 1313 - 1314
PublicFemale university students, Northern Ireland, followed 2 years, 1993-1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =14

Correlate
Author's labelStability of happiness
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: November 1993
T2: November 1995
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: T1: .87, T2: .93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aDM=-
T1:      M=51,1  SD=10,7
T2:      M=49,6  SD=11,3
difference -1,5
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-at.=56 p < .58
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=+55 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyWright & Staw (1999): study US 1994
TitleAffect and Favorable Work Outcomes: Two Longitudinal Tests of the Happy - Productive Worker Thesis.
SourceJournal of Organizational Behavior, 1999, Vol. 20, 1 - 23
PublicSocial welfare department employees, USA, 199?, followed 4 years
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelPositive and Negative mood
Page in Source 6
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
PANAS scale; 'this day'version.
Subjects indicated the extent to which they experienced 
each mood state that day on a five point scale ranging 
from 'very slightly or not at all' to extremely'. 
Postive and negative mood are measured separately.
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: Positive mood T2: 0.91 T3 0.86 Negative mood T2: 0.93 T3 0.90

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.49 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 positive mood (3 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.49 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 positive mood (4 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=-.31 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 negative mood (3 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=-.39 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 negative mood (4 years lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.41 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 positive mood
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.42 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 positive mood (1 year lag)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=-.46 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 negative mood
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=-.44 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 negative mood (1 years lag)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 18 months, 1989
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction at T1
Page in Source 181
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Sel-report on single question:
How satisfied are you with your ife as a whole these 
days?
1: very dissatisfied
.
.
10: very satisfied
Remarks
T1-T2 lag: 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.44 p < .01
T2 happiness, by T1 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - marital status
  - education
  - income
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborhood satisfaction
- housing type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyRohe & Basolo (1997): study US Baltimore, Maryland 1989
TitleLong-Term Effects of Homeownership on the Self-Perceptions and Social Interaction of Low-Income Persons.
SourceEnvironment and Behavior, 1997, Vol. 29, 793 - 819
URLhttp://eab.sagepub.com/content/29/6/793
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0013916597296004
Public18+ aged, heads of low-income households, Baltimore city, United States, followed 36 months, 1989-1991
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction at T3
Page in Source 809
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these 
days:
1: very dissatisfied
.
.
.
5: very satisfied
Remarks
T1-T3 lag: 36 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.30 p < .01
T3 happiness, by T1 happiness.

Beta controlled for:
- Form of tenure
- demographic characteristics
  - age
  - sex
  - marital status
  - education
  - income
- occupational status
- housing condition
- neighborthood satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelGlobal Life Quality at initial interview
Page in Source 265
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:

A  .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole'  (full item 
not reported)
      1  very dissatisfied
      2
      3
      4
      5  very satisfied
B   … happiness… (full item not reported)
     1
     2
     3
     Response options not reported
Summation: not reported
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1988, T2: 1989 and T3: 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.48 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.45 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.44 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+.44 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74

Beta's controled for got a child or not)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier life satisfaction
Page in Source 443
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
We have talked about various parts of your life, now I 
want to ask you about your life as a whole. How 
satisfied are you with your life as a whole these 
days.....?
7  completely satisfied
6
5
4  neutral
3
2
1  completely dissatisfied
Observed distributionM = 5,6, SD = 1,5
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1987) and T2 (1989)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.56 p < .001
T1 happiness by T2 happiness (3 year lag)
B (+.556) controlled for:
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
- T1 health
- T1 kind of activities 
   - physical activity
   - social activities
   - religious participation
- T1 social support network 
- T1 participation in voluntary organization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyThoits & Hewitt (2001): study US 1986
TitleVolunteer Work and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2001, Vol. 42, 115 - 131
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1986-1989
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseT1: 33% T2: 21%
Respondents N =2867

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness 3 years ago
Page in Source 126
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport of happiness at: 

T1: My life could be happier than it is now
1  strongly agree
2  somewhat agree
3  somewhat disagree
4  stronly disagree

T2: Taking all together, how would you say things are 
these days? Would you say you are .....?
3   very happy
2   pretty happy
1   not too happy

T1-T2 difference 3 years
Observed distributionT1: M = 2,13, Sd = 0,95. T2: M = 1,84, SD = 0,63 Note that scales are not identical!

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.04 p < .000
T1 happiness (4-step) by T2 happiness (3-step)
B controled for T2 social integration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyThoits & Hewitt (2001): study US 1986
TitleVolunteer Work and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2001, Vol. 42, 115 - 131
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1986-1989
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseT1: 33% T2: 21%
Respondents N =2867

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction 3 years ago
Page in Source 216
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on slightly different questions

T1: How satisfied are you with your life in general?
5  completely satisfied
4  very satisfied
3  somewhat satisfied
2  not very satisfied
1  not at all satisfied

T2: How satisfied are you with your life in general?"
1  completely unsatisfied
2  very unsatisfied
3  unsatisfied
4  unsatisfied nor satisfied
5  satisfied
6  very satisfied
7  completely satisfied

T1-T2 difference 3 years
Observed distributionT1: M = 3,75, SD = 0,94. T2: M = 5,36, SD = 1,48 Note that scales are not identical!

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-ab=+.36 p < .000
T1 life-satisfaction (5-step) by T2 
lifesatisfaction (7-step)
B controled for T2 social integration


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyAdams (1988): study US 1981
TitleWhich comes First: Poor Psychological Well-Being or Decreased Friendship Activity?
SourceActivities, Adaptation and Aging, 1988, Vol. 12, 27 - 41
DOIDOI:10.1300/J016v12n01_03
Public62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
Sample
Non-ResponseDropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier affect
Page in Source 35
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Bradburn Affect Balance Scale (see BRADB 1969) (AFF 
2.3)

Assessed at: 
- T1: 1981
- T2: 1984

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.38 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyAdams (1997): study US 1980
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006806601848
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
Respondents N =623

Correlate
Author's labelStability over time
Page in Source 215
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1980
T2: 1987/1988
T3: 1989
T4: 1992
Observed distributionGeneral Life Satisfaction: Happiness T1: M=3.08; N=620; T1: M=2.19; N=615 T2: M=3.20; N=613; T2: M=2.07; N=616 T3: M=3.24; N=621; T3: M=2.09; N=619 T4: M=3.21; N=621; T4: M=2.07; N=617

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+.36 p < .001
T1-T2
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+33 p < .001
T1-T3
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+.33 p < .001
T1-T4
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+45 p < .001
T2-T3
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+.40 p < .001
T2-T4
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-br=+.39 p < .001
T3-T4
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.34 p < .001
T1-T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.24 p < .001
T1-T3
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.29 p < .001
T1-T4
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.43 p < .001
T2-T3
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.41 p < .001
T2-T4
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-ar=+.42 p < .001
T3-T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyFreeman et al. (1986): study US 1979
TitleAdolescence and its Recollections: Toward an Interpretive Model of Development.
SourceMerrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 32, 267 - 185
PublicAdolescents, USA followed 2 years, 1979-1981
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in immediate experience from T1 to T2.
Page in Source 174
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Self report of momentary affect, repeated every 2 hours 
during two weeks

Lead question not reported
A  Happy vs Sad
B  Friendly vs Angry
C  Cheerful vs Irritable
D  Sociable  vs Lonely

Rated on 7 step numerical scale (semantic 
differential).

Average mood as assessed using Experience Sampling 
during 2 weeks at
T1: 1979
T2: 1981
Remarks
Average reports per respondent: 31.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bDM=-.10
T1 average affect:   M= 4,83
T2 average affect:   M= 4,73
-difference            -0,10
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-br=+.77 p < .00
Correlation between T1 and T2.
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bt.=-1,4
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-b
While there was virtually no difference in the 
reported quality of immediate experience over the 
2-year span, respondents believed a strongly 
positive change to have taken place.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelActual past happiness_C
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
10-item index of closed questions on specific affects 
Bradburn Affect Balance Score (AFF 2.3).

Assessed at: 
- T1: 1979 
- T2: 1981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.51 p < .01
T2 happiness (full ABS) by T1 happiness (full ABS) 
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.51 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T1 happiness (ABS: 
AFF 2.3)
        
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T1 positive affect
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.37 p < .01
T2 happiness (full ABS) by T1 positive affect    
(part ABS)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.39 p < .01
T2 happiness (full ABS) by T1 negative affect    
(part ABS) 
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.39 p < .01
T2 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T1 negative affect


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelActual past happiness_A
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How do you feel about your 
life as a whole?" Rated on a 7-point terrible-delighted 
scale (HAP 4.1).

Assessed at:
- T1: 1979
- T2: 1981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.40 p < .01
T2 happiness (ABS: AFF 2.3) by T1 happiness
(LS: HAPP 2.1)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.61 p < .01
T2 happiness(LS: HAPP 2.1) by T1 happiness
(LS: HAPP 2.1)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMcCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =429

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness
Page in Source 22
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question: "How do you feel about your 
life as a whole?" Rated on a 7-point terrible-delighted 
scale (HAP 4.1).

Assessed at:
- T1: 1979
- t2: 1981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.40 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T2 happiness 
(ABS: AFF 2.3) 
                          
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.51 p < .01
T1 happiness (full ABS) by T2 happiness (full ABS) 
 
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.61 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T2 happiness
(LS: HAPP 2.1)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.51 p < .01
T1 happiness (ABS: AFF 2.3) by T2 happiness 
(LS: HAPP 2.1)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.25 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T2 positive affect
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.39 p < .01
T1 happiness (full ABS) by T2 positive affect    
(part ABS)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.36 p < .01
T1 happiness (LS: HAPP 2.1) by T2 negative affect
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.39 p < .01
T1 happiness (full ABS) by T2 negative affect    
(part ABS)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyYeo et al. (1987): study US 1979
TitleEffects of Geriatric Clinic on Functional Health and Well-Being of Elders.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 252 - 258
Public65+ aged, patients, ambulatory medical center, followed 18 mth, California, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-ResponseRefusal 15.91%, unable 6.17%, to 1st question. 11.36%, to 2nd question. 21.43%
Respondents N =139

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Page in Source 256
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
10 item index of closed questions on specific affects 
in the past few weeks.
(Bradburn Affect Balance Scale)

Assessed at
- T1: 1979
- T2: 18 months later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34
geriatric clinic
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34
general medical clinic

(r' computed from b and SD in table)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyKivett (2000): study US 1976
TitleVery-Old Rural Adults: Functional Status and Social Support.
SourceJournal of Applied Gerontology, 2000, Vol. 19, 58 - 77
PublicVery old, rural area USA, followed 20 years, 1976-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response> 10%
Respondents N =49

Correlate
Author's labelChange life satisfaction
Page in Source 13 (table 1)
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1976
T2: 1986
T3: 1989
T4: 1996/7
Remarks
Survivors in 1996/7 of a follow-up of 418 65+ aged that 
started in 1976

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caW=-2.1 p < .05
T1 to T3 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=2.84 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caW=-1.0
T3 to T4 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=2.07 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caW=-1.7
T1 to T4 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=3.97 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca
Negative W values denote a rise in happiness over 
time each of the time periods.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelEvaluation of happiness in 1972-1973
Page in Source 710
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
"Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to 
use these in describing how you feel about your present 
life."
1  not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7  very happy
Observed distributionAssesed at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelEvaluation of life satisfaction in 1972-1973
Page in Source 710
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
"Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to 
use these in describing how you feel about your present 
life."
1  not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7  completely satisfying
Observed distributionAssessed at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.81
This correlation is reported as insignificant. 
Probably an error


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMartin & Lichter (1983): study US Michigan 1973
TitleGeographic Mobility and Satisfaction with Life and Work.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 64, 524 - 534
Public16+ aged, employees, Michigan/US, followed 4 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response(43%)
Respondents N =827

Correlate
Author's labelPast subjective well-being
Page in Source 531
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) Taking all things together, how would you say things 
are these days? Would you say you are:
  1: not too happy
  2: pretty happy
  3: very happy
b) In general, how satisfying do you find the ways 
you're spending your life these days? Would you call 
it:
  1: not very satisfying
  2: pretty satisfying
  3: very satisfying

Computation: A+B
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1973) and T2 (1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.38 p < .01
T2 happiness by T1 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- T1-T2 residential moving
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.37 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- T1 income
- T1 age
- T1 education
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dBeta=+.39 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- T1-T2 change in perceived intrinsic job rewards
- T1-T2 change in perceived extrinsic job rewards


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyCosta et al. (1987a): study US 1971
TitleLongitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55
Public25-74 aged, USA, followed 9 years, 1971-1984
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4942

Correlate
Author's labelBirth cohort (cross sequentional analysis)
Page in Source 52, 53
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness assessed with 9 year interval:
T1: 1971-75
T2: 1981-84
Observed distributionN = 4942 (responded both at T1 and T2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM=
Average happiness of same people over 9 year 
period
              1971-74   1981-84   CHANGE
 
All:          3.06      3,13      +0,07  (ns)

Females       1,47      1,60      +0,13  (ns)
born 1938-47  0.78      1,30      +0,68  (05)
born 1928-37  0,68      1,84      +1,16  (05)
born 1918-27  1,50      2,16      +0,66  (05)
born 1908-17  2,35      2,18      -0,17  (ns)
born 1898-07  2.97      1,25      -1,72  (05)

Males         5,08      4,25      -0,83  (05)
born 1938-47  5.24      3,95      -1,29  (05)  
born 1928-37  4,44      4,24      -0,20  (ns)
born 1918-27  4,65      3,91      -0,74  (05)
born 1908-17  4,94      6,17      +1,23  (05)
born 1898-07  7.30      3,85      -3,45  (05)

Affect Balance (M) computed by WDH-staff, 
subtracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect 
score


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyStacey & Gatz (1991): study US 1971
TitleCross-Sectional Age Differences and Longitudinal Change on the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1991, Vol. 46, 76 - 78
PublicThree generations of family members, followed 14 years, USA, 1971-85
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition T1-T2: 43%
Respondents N =1159

Correlate
Author's labelOverall psychological well-being
Page in Source 77
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
10 item index of specific affects in the past few weeks
(Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale)
(AFF 2.3)

Assessed at:
 - T1: 1971
 - T2: 1985 
(14 year interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32
Age (years)        Happiness (Ms')
T1      T2         T1      T2
15-19   29-33      5.81    6.70
20-34   34-48      6.02    6.82
35-49   49-63      6.93    7.40
50-64   64-78      7.23    7.62
65-86   79-100     7.51    6.38

Significant effect of age.
Both positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) 
decline with age. Negative affect declines most. 
As a result Affect Balance (Hedonic level) rises. 
This appears both in cross-sectional and 
longitudinal comparison.

Unaffected by sex

Negative affect: overtime correlation +.44
Positive affect: overtime correlatiom +.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyChiriboga (1989): study US 1969
TitleStress and Loss in Middle Age.
SourceKalish, R.A., Ed.: "Midlife Loss: Coping Strategies.", Sage, 1989, London, UK, 42 - 88
PublicPeople in transition, followed 4 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness
Page in Source 65
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Affect Balance Score (AFF 3.2)
8-item index of specific affects (Bradburn 1969), 
scored "never", "once", "several times" or "often" 
during the past week.

Assessed at:
- T1 (1969)
- T2 (1972)
- T3 (1974)
- T4 (1976)
- T5 (1980; 11 years interval) 
Remarks
HIGH STRESS GROUP (N=21)
         

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.38 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T2 pos.affect r=+.53 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T2 neg.affect r=+.36 ns 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.46 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T3 pos.affect r=+.55 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T3 neg.affect r=+.34 ns   
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.57 p < .01
T1 happiness by T4 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T4 pos.affect r=+.44 (05)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.50 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.04 ns
T1 happiness by T5 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T5 pos.affect r=+.48 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T5 neg.affect r=+.01 ns 


LOW STRESS GROUP (N=51)
        
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.45 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T2 pos.affect r=+.30 (05)
-T1 negative affect by T2 neg.affect r=+.39 (01) 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.37 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T3 pos.affect r=+.52 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T3 neg.affect r=+.37 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.39 p < .01
T1 happiness by T4 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T4 pos.affect r=+.55 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.48 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.26 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T5 pos.affect r=+.36 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.29 (05)

Stress measured by a 48-item list of burdening 
life events, similar to Holmes & Rahe(1967) and 
Horowitz(1976). Scores assessed at T3, T4 and T5 
and added. Ss were then subdivided into groups 
with high stress (N=21) and low stress(N=51).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 414
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single closed question, rated on a 3-point scale: 
Taking things altogether, how happy would you say you 
are these days? Would you say you are..?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Measure type O-HL
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+
T1 happiness by T2 happiness among:
Widowed            r= +.36 (ns)   ß= +.30 (05)
Divorced/Separated r= +.33 (ns)   ß= +.30 (05)
Never married      r= +.34 (ns)   ß= +.23 (05)

ß's controlled for:
- sexe
- earlier education
- age
- earlier occupation
- retirement attitudes
- health
- income
- employment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelchange in life satisfaction
Page in Source 98
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Assessed at:
T1  1968/70
T2  1970/72
T3  1972/74
T4  1974/76

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM=ns
Lines in picture show change in age groups over 6 
years
No change among men
Slight decline among women past age 55
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bDM=
Big increase fromd T1 to T2 and erratic decrease 
to T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier life-satisfaction
Page in Source 314
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the 
top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible 
life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst 
possible life for you.  Where on the ladder do you feel 
personally stand at the present time?
9: best possible life for you
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life 
(adapted version)
Observed distributionT1: M= 7.1, T2: M= 7.2, T3: M= 7.0
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.40 p < .05
T1 life satisfaction by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.36 p < .05
Beta controled for T1 selfrated health
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.56 p < .05
T2 life satisfaction by T3 life satisfaction
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caBeta=+.45 p < .05
Beta controled for T2 selfrated health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier Happiness
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Six item index of closed questions:
"Describe the kind of person you are.
 1. I feel like smiling
 2. I generally feel in good spirits
 3. I feel happy
 4. I am satisfied with life
 5. I find a good deal of happiness in
    life
 6. I feel sad"
Scored: almost always true, often true,
sometimes true,seldom true, never true

Assessed at:
T1 Fall   1966
T2 Spring 1968
T3 Spring 1969

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.63
T2 - T3  (12 month)
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.54
T1 - T2  (18 months)
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.47
T1 - T3 (30 months)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 291
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Six item index of closed questions:
"Describe the kind of person you are:
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am satisfied with my life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in   life
6 I feel sad"
Scored: Almost always true,often true, sometimes true, 
seldon true, never true

Assessed at:
T1 Fall 1966
T2 Spring 1968
T3 Spring 1969
T4 Spring 1970
Remarks
Raw correlations provided by the author:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.54 p < .001
T1-T2  1.5 yr
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.45 p < .001
T1-T3  2.5 yr
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .001
T1-T4  3.5 yr
 
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.64 p < .001
T2-T3  1   yr
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.53 p < .001
T2-T4  1   yr
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.54 p < .001
T3-T4  1   yr

Attenuated overtime correlations: 
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.75 p < .001
T1-T2
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.84
T2-T3
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.89 p < .001
T3-T4

Estimated yearly stability:
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.84 p < .001
T1-T2
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.84 p < .001
T2-T3
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+.89 p < .001
T3-T4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier affect
Page in Source 82
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
10-item index of specific affects in the past few weeks 
(Bradburns' Affect Balance Scale AFF 2.3)

Assessed at:
T1: January 1963
T2: June    1963
T3: Oktober 1963
T4: January 1964

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=
Data Detroit Suburban sample only (N=408).

Happiness level (Affect Balance) in average 
ridits. (RT)
T1: RT=.47
T2: RT=.54
T3: RT=.53
T4: RT=.50

Only T1-T2 difference significant.

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMortimer & Lorence (1981): study US 1962
TitleSelf-Concept Stability and Change from Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood.
SourceResearch in Community and Mental Health, 1981, Vol. 2, 5 - 42
PublicUniversity graduates 1966/67, followed into adulthood, Michigan, USA, 1962-76
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition: 12%
Respondents N =442

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness
Page in Source 16
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on 7 point scale.
Happy..................Unhappy
(lead sentence not reported)

Assessed at:
T1: 1962/63
T2: 1966
T3: 1976

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.33
T1-T2
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.14
T1-T3
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.26
T2-T3

overtime correlations (r') computed from Lisrel 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyHenley & Davis (1967): study US 1959
TitleSatisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Study of the Chronically-Ill Aged Patient.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, Vol. 8, 65 - 75
Public60+ aged chronically-ill, followed three years, USA, 1959-62
Sample
Non-Response24% not available because of death, mental deterioration, unknown address or r
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"In general, how satisfied are you with your way of 
life? Quite satisfied, fairly satisfied, sometimes 
dissatisfied, usually disssatisfied?"

Assessed at: 
- T1 (1959)
- T2 (1962; 3 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aG=+.65 p < .01
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-atb=+.33 p < .01
                 T1 happy    T1 unhappy
T2 happy          50           10
T2 unhappy        14           13

T1: 74% happy   T2: 69% happy
Change in happiness between T1 and T2: 28%
Both decrease and turnover greater in 
domainsatisfactions than in overall satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyHenley & Davis (1967): study US 1959
TitleSatisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Study of the Chronically-Ill Aged Patient.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, Vol. 8, 65 - 75
Public60+ aged chronically-ill, followed three years, USA, 1959-62
Sample
Non-Response24% not available because of death, mental deterioration, unknown address or r
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelAging
Page in Source 72
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"ingeneral, how satisfied are yiu with your life? Quite 
satisfied, fairly satisfied, sometimes dissatisfied, 
usually dissatisfied?"

Assessed at T1 and T2
(three years interval)


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aG=+.65 p < .01
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-atb=+.33 p < .01
             T1 happy  T1 unhappy
T2 happy       50          10
T2 unhappy     14          13

T1: 74% happy   T2: 69% happy
Change between T1 and T2: 28%
Both decrease and turnover greater in 
domainsatisfactions than in overall satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelPast contentment
Page in Source 81
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about what you 
have accomplished in life: well satisfied, reasonably 
satisfied or dissatisfied ?'
Assessed at:
- T1 (1958-1963)
- T2 (1964-1969; mean interval 5.3 yr)
- T3 (1969-1975; mean interval 12.6 yr)  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.49
T1 by T2
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.46
T1 by T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelAvowed happiness
Page in Source 103
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Questionnaire items indicative of avowed happiness - 
unhappiness. 

Assessed two years earlier.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=+.67
Hedonic level (Elation-Depression Scale) scored 
each night for the highest, lowest and average of 
the day.

Mean daily highest mood : r = +.66
Mean daily average mood : r = +.67
Mean daily lowest  mood : r = +.32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness.
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Happiness (M-AO) assessed at: T1 (1952) and T2 (1954)
1 got less happy: from happy to unhappy
2 got more happy: from unhappy to happy
Observed distributionN = 1: 788, 2: 771
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aD%=-
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness from  happy   unhappy
                                to      to
                                unhappy happy
Gainfull employed thoughout      34%     22%
Retired
- willing voluntary              31%     29%
- willing administrative         39%     42%
- reluctant voluntary            64%     26%
- reluctant administrative       57%     19%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyBlock (1971): study US 1936
TitleLives through Time.
SourceBancroft Books, 1971, Berkeley, USA
PublicHighschool pupils, followed from age 11 to 35, USA, 1936-1957
Sample
Non-Response65% dropout, 11% incomplete data
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier cheerfulness
Page in Source 302-307
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 
independent judges of cheerfulness as personality 
descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most 
characteristic of the subject. Rated on a scale ranging 
from 1 to 9.

Happiness assessed at:
T1: junior high school: age 11-14,±1936
T2: senior high school: age 14-17,±1942
T3: fourth decade:      age 28-35,±1957

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-amr=+.54
T1 by T2 happiness:
males:   r=+.57 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.75
females: r=+.50 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.69  
Females tend to become less happy between T1 and 
T2. The individual rankorder is largly maintained 
(conclusion based on corrected r).

A-CP-g-rc-?-9-amr=+.31
T2 by T3 happiness:
males:   r=+.26 (05) 
         r corrected for attenuation =+.34
females: r=+.36 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.46
Females tend to become more happy between T2 and 
T3. The individual rankorder changes considerably
(conclusion based on corrected r).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1930
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley, USA, 1930-70
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with lot
Page in Source 337
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
Rating of satisfaction with lot on 7 point scales by 
independent interviewers.

T1 (1930): Ratings by two interviewers:
   - Clinical psychologist on the
     basis of an interview
   - Social worker on the basis of
     observations at home and during
     tests of the child at university.
   Inter-rater agreement: r=+.60.
T2 (1970): Rating by one interviewer on    the basis of 
an extensive interview
Remarks
Guidance group only (N=53)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=+.15 ns
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bDMt=-.07
T1:  M=4.0  SD=1.2  Mt'=5.01
T2:  M=3.6  SD=1.3  Mt'=4.34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01b

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicGirls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional tone in babyhood (age 0-3)
Page in Source 105
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H05ab01b
Operationalization
T1: age 0-3 (1929)
Clinical ratings on the basis of repeated observations 
of expressive behavior (AFF 5.1). Ratings were scored 
on a 7 point scale, that ranged from `happy' to 
`unhappy'. These ratings were part of wider 
observations on social and psychological functioning.
Ratings were made in the following ages in months: 10, 
11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 27, 30, 36. 

T2: age 12-18 (1947)
Happiness assessed in adolescence. 
HAP 7.3 based on various interviews and observations in 
adolescence.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=-.03
month 11        r=-.09 (ns)
month 14        r=-.07 (ns)
month 21        r=-.02 (ns)
month 30        r=+.07 (ns)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=-.11
month 11    r=-.14 (ns)
month 14    r=-.21 (ns)
month 21    r=-.19 (ns)
month 30    r=+.09 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudySchimmack & Lucas (2007): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleMarriage Matters, Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction.
SourceSchmollers Jahrbuch, 2007, Vol. 1, 1 - 7
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.44710.de/dp623.pdf
PublicCouples, followed 21 years, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1728

Correlate
Author's labelstability of happiness
Page in Source 5
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with 
your life these days?
10 totally satisfied
.
.
0  totally unsatisfied
Remarks
Assessed every year between 1984 and 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.96
Average correlation with next year (e.g T1 by T2, 
T2 by T3, etc…)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.53
T1 by T21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyEhrhardt et al. (2000): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleStability of Life-Satisfaction over Time. Analysis of Change in Ranks in National Population.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2000, Vol. 1, 177 - 205
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8851
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1010084410679
Public18+ aged general public West-Germany, followed 10 years, 1984-1994
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5483

Correlate
Author's labelstabillity of life satisfaction over time
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at 
T1: 1984
T2: 1985
T3: 1986
T4: 1987
T5:1988
T6:1989
T7: 1990
T8: 1991
T9: 1992
T10: 1993
T11:1994

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.45
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.38
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.36
T1 happiness by T4 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.34
T1 happiness by T5 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.32
T1 happiness by T6 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.34
T1 happiness by T7 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.32
T1 happiness by T8 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.31
T1 happiness by T9 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.28
T1 happiness by T10 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.29
T1 happiness by T11 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.44
Average over all years
- young >35:    r = +.44
- Middle 35-54: r = +.50
- Old >55:      r = +.53
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyVeenhoven (1994c): study ZZ Western nations 1940
TitleIs Happiness a Trait? Test of the Theory that a Better Society does not Make People any Happier.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1994, Vol. 32, 101 - 160
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16155
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01078732
PublicVarious panels, followed 1 to 40 years, 1940-1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labeltimespan in years
Page in Source 111
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Various measures of happiness, assessed repeatedly over 
time
Remarks
Meta-analysis of findings drawn from this database. 
Detail about stidies on appendix 1 of the paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO---*-*-0-ar=+.35
Average over-time-correlation: +.35
Range of over-time-correlations: -.10 to +.70
Over-time-correlations decrease over time
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot older
Page in Source 66, 67, 72, 73
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Growing older, from age 18 to 34
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 20
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
age in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.06 p < .001
Interpretation: most Ss got a bit happier between 
age 18 and 34
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.01 ns
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.01 ns
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.04 ns
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.08 p < .05
additional control for years since transition 
squared:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Interpretation: Ss who did not experience life 
transitions over this period became less happy
Unaffected by squaring the above years of 
transition variables

Unaffected by gender

B's indicate change within individuals over this 
12 year period (fixed effect)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyNaess et al. (2004): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleDiabetes Mellitus and Psychological Well-Being. Change between 1984-1986 and 1995-1997. Results of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.
SourceJournal of Diabetes and its Complications, 2004, Vol. 18,141 - 147.
DOIDOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(03)00036-9
Public20-90 aged, general public, Nord-Trondelag, Norway followed 1 year, 1985-1996
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =65599

Correlate
Author's labellife satisfaction
Page in Source 144
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering how you feel these days, are you generally 
satisfied with your life or are you generally 
dissatisfied?
7  extremely satisfied
6  very satisfied
5  quite satisfied
4  both satisfied and dissatisfied
3  quite dissatisfied
2  very dissatisfied
1  extremely dissatisfied
Remarks
Happiness assessed at T1: (1984-86) anf T2 (1995-97). 
Average time difference 11 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cr=+.67
Two week follow-up at T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cr=+.37
+.34 with same item in paralel questionnaire at T2
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cES= ns
No T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyNaess et al. (2004): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleDiabetes Mellitus and Psychological Well-Being. Change between 1984-1986 and 1995-1997. Results of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.
SourceJournal of Diabetes and its Complications, 2004, Vol. 18,141 - 147.
DOIDOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(03)00036-9
Public20-90 aged, general public, Nord-Trondelag, Norway followed 1 year, 1985-1996
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =65599

Correlate
Author's labelCheerfulness over time
Page in Source 144
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Would you say you are usually cheerful or dejected?
1  extremely dejected
2  dejected
3  quite dejected
4  both dejected and cheerful
5  quite cheerful
6  very cheerful
7  extremely cheerful
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1984-86) and T2 (1995-97); average 11 
years difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-7-ar=+.39
T1 retest
A-AOL-g-sq-v-7-aES=+.18
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Cheerfulness increased slightly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Age at T1 (1980)
Observed distributionM=35.46, SD=8.94, Range 19-54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.05 ns
T1 age by T1 happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=.00 ns
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Overall happiness at T1
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.11 p < .01
T1 age by T4 happiness (12 year interval)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyChiriboga (1989): study US 1969
TitleStress and Loss in Middle Age.
SourceKalish, R.A., Ed.: "Midlife Loss: Coping Strategies.", Sage, 1989, London, UK, 42 - 88
PublicPeople in transition, followed 4 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelFuture happiness
Page in Source 65
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Affect Balance Score (AFF 3.2)
8-item index of specific affects (Bradburn 1969), 
scored "never", "once", "several times" or "often" 
during the past week.

Assessed at:
- T1 (1969)
- T2 (1972)
- T3 (1974)
- T4 (1976)
- T5 (1980; 11 years interval) 
Remarks
HIGH STRESS GROUP (N=21)
         

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.38 p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T2 pos.affect r=+.53 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T2 neg.affect r=+.36 ns 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.46 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T3 pos.affect r=+.55 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T3 neg.affect r=+.34 ns   
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.57 p < .01
T1 happiness by T4 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T4 pos.affect r=+.44 (05)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.50 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.04 ns
T1 happiness by T5 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T5 pos.affect r=+.48 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T5 neg.affect r=+.01 ns 


LOW STRESS GROUP (N=51)
        
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.45 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T2 pos.affect r=+.30 (05)
-T1 negative affect by T2 neg.affect r=+.39 (01) 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.37 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T3 pos.affect r=+.52 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T3 neg.affect r=+.37 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.39 p < .01
T1 happiness by T4 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T4 pos.affect r=+.55 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.48 (01)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.26 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness
-T1 positive affect by T5 pos.affect r=+.36 (01)
-T1 negative affect by T4 neg.affect r=+.29 (05)

Stress measured by a 48-item list of burdening 
life events, similar to Holmes & Rahe(1967) and 
Horowitz(1976). Scores assessed at T3, T4 and T5 
and added. Ss were then subdivided into groups 
with high stress (N=21) and low stress(N=51).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyChiriboga (1982a): study US 1969
TitleConsistency in Adult Functioning. The Influence of Stress.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1982, Vol. 2, 7 - 29
PublicPeople in transition followed 11 years, metropolis, USA, 1969-1980
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition after 11 years 24%
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 23
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Happiness (HAPP 1.1) as assessed 11 years ago at T1 
(1969).
Closed question rated on a 3-point scale:"In general 
how happy are you these days?" Very happy:1, pretty 
happy:2, not too happy:3 (order reversed).

Assessed at: 
- T1 (1969)
- T5 (1980; 11 years interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr=+ ns
Males:   r= +.03  ns        
Females: r= +.18  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyDobson (1985): study US 1964
TitleAttitudes and Perceptions.
SourcePowers, E.A.;et al,;Eds.: "Late Life Transitions", Kluwer, 1985, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 123 - 136
Public50+ aged males, fulltime employed at T1, followed ten years, Iowa, USA, 1964-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-ResponseT1 refusals: 8% T1-T2 drop-out: 29%, of which 20% deceased
Respondents N =1870

Correlate
Author's labelGeneral sense of well-being
Page in Source 124
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Single direct question:
"How do you feel things have worked out for you 
generally?
4. very well
3. fairly well
2. not very well
1. not at all well           (CON 1.1)

Assessed at T1 and T2 (10 yr interval)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.39 p < .001
                T2      T2      T2
                very    fairly  not
 
T1: very         71%     32%     23%
T1: fairly       28%     65%     62%
T1: not           1%      3%     15%

T1: M=3.52  SD= 0.54  Mt'=8.40
T2: M=3.53  SD=0.55   Mt'=8.43

About one-third changed their estimate of 
well-being. The average remained the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyCosta et al. (1981): study US 1958
TitlePersonal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85
Public17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelPast contentment
Page in Source 81
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about what you 
have accomplished in life: well satisfied, reasonably 
satisfied or dissatisfied ?'
Assessed at:
- T1 (1958-1963)
- T2 (1964-1969; mean interval 5.3 yr)
- T3 (1969-1975; mean interval 12.6 yr)  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.49
T1 by T2
C-A-h-sq-v-3-ar=+.46
T1 by T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyTuddenham (1962): study US 1938
TitleConstancy of Personal Morale over a Fifteen-Year Interval.
SourceChild Development, 1962, Vol. 33, 663 - 673
PublicSenior high-school pupils, followed into adulthood, USA, 1938-53
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal morale_A
Page in Source 666
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Is it fun to be alive?"
4. I enjoy life so much that it is   really just fun to 
be alive
3. There are only a few things in life   that are 
really dis appointing
2. There are many things in life that
   are really disappointing
1. Sometimes life seems just a series   of 
disappointments

Assessed at:
 - T1 (1938)
 - T2 (1953)
(25 year interval)
Remarks
Temporal stability:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 ns
males
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.19 ns
females

Temporal shift:
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=.06
males    T1:  M=3.21  Mt'=7.35
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aChi²=+ ns
           T2:  M=3.25  Mt'=7.49
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=.00
females  T1:  M=3.18  Mt'=7.25
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aChi²=+ ns
         T2:  M=3.18  Mt'=7.25

Fewer adults than adolescents say to enjoy life
(score 4), but also fewer emphasize 
disappointments (scores 2 and 1)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyTuddenham (1962): study US 1938
TitleConstancy of Personal Morale over a Fifteen-Year Interval.
SourceChild Development, 1962, Vol. 33, 663 - 673
PublicSenior high-school pupils, followed into adulthood, USA, 1938-53
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal morale_B
Page in Source 666
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Single direct question: "Will people of your age get 
the things they want most of life?"
4. I expect to get almost all the   things I really 
want in life
3. I will probably get more of the   things I really 
want than not
2. There are several things I want in   life but will 
probably never have
1. I will probably never have most of   the things I 
really want in life

Assessed at:
 - T1 (1938)
 - T2 (1953)
(25 year interval)
Remarks
Temporal stability:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.23 p < .05
- males
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 ns
- females

Temporal shift:
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+1.1
- males    T1:  M=2.79  Mt'=5.96
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aChi²=+ p < .05
           T2:  M=3.13  Mt'=7.09
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+1.0
- females  T1:  M=2.90  Mt'=6.32
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aChi²=+ ns
           T2:  M=3.19  Mt'=7.29

Both males and females get more contented


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyBlock (1971): study US 1936
TitleLives through Time.
SourceBancroft Books, 1971, Berkeley, USA
PublicHighschool pupils, followed from age 11 to 35, USA, 1936-1957
Sample
Non-Response65% dropout, 11% incomplete data
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier cheerfulness
Page in Source 302-307
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 
independent judges of cheerfulness as personality 
descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most 
characteristic of the subject. Rated on a scale ranging 
from 1 to 9.

Happiness assessed at:
T1: junior high school: age 11-14,±1936
T2: senior high school: age 14-17,±1942
T3: fourth decade:      age 28-35,±1957

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-amr=+.54
T1 by T2 happiness:
males:   r=+.57 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.75
females: r=+.50 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.69  
Females tend to become less happy between T1 and 
T2. The individual rankorder is largly maintained 
(conclusion based on corrected r).

A-CP-g-rc-?-9-amr=+.31
T2 by T3 happiness:
males:   r=+.26 (05) 
         r corrected for attenuation =+.34
females: r=+.36 (001)
         r corrected for attenuation =+.46
Females tend to become more happy between T2 and 
T3. The individual rankorder changes considerably
(conclusion based on corrected r).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyBlock (1971): study US 1936 /1
TitleLives through Time.
SourceBancroft Books, 1971, Berkeley, USA
PublicHighschool pupils, followed from age 11 to 32, USA, 1936-51
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful vs Glum
Page in Source 81
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Rating on the basis of interview protocols.
T1: adolescence age 11 to 17 ± 1936.
T2: adulthood   age 32       ± 1951.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-amr=+.23
T1 by T2 happiness:
- males   : r= +.26 (ns)
- females : r= +.20 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyTuddenham (1959): study US 1934
TitleThe Constancy of Personality Ratings over Two Decades.
SourceGenetic Psychology Monographs,1959, Vol. 60, 3 - 29
PublicHigh school pupils, followed into adulthood, California USA, 1934-53
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelCheerful vs glum
Page in Source 16
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Clinical rating by two independant observers:
T1: Observation on playground by two
    female staff members
T2: Ratings onthe basis of clinical
    interviews with two psychologists
    (interviews with one week interval)
Error EstimatesInterrater agreement: T1: boys r=+.66 girls r=+.80 T2: men r=+.78 women r=+.78
Remarks
T1: 1934, T2: 1954

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-c-rc-n-9-ar=+.26 ns
men
A-CP-c-rc-n-9-ar=+.20 ns
women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1930
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley, USA, 1930-70
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelCheerfulness
Page in Source 337
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Rating of cheerfulness (vs gloomy) on 7 point scales by 
independent interviewers.

T1 (1930): Ratings by two interviewers:
   - Clinical psychologist on the
     basis of an interview
   - Social worker on the basis of
     observations at home and during
     tests of the child at university.
   Inter-rater agreement: r=+.59
T2 (1970): Rating by one interviewer on    the basis of 
an extensive interview

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.28 p < .05
Guidance group (N=53)
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-ar=+.27 ns
Control group (N=28)



A-CP-g-fi-n-7-aDMt=0
T1:  M=3.7  SD=1.1  Mt'=4.51
T2:  M=3.7  Sd=1.2  Mt'=4.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1930
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley, USA, 1930-70
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Page in Source 337
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
Rating of cheerfulness (vs gloomy) on 7 point scale by 
independent interviewers
T1 (1930): Rating by two independent interviewers:
- clinical psychologist on the basis   of an interview, 
and  
- social worker on the basis of   observations during 
visits at home   and during tests of the child at   
university
T2 (1970): Rating by one interviewer on the basis of an 
extensive interview
Remarks
Guidance group only (N=53)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bDMt=-0.7
T1:  M=4.0  SD=1.2  Mt'=5.01
T2:  M=3.6  Sd=1.3  Mt'=4.34
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-aDMt=0
T1:  M=3.7  SD=1.1  Mt'=4.51
T2:  M=3.7  SD=1.2  Mt'=4.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicGirls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional tone in babyhood (age 0-3)
Page in Source 105
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
T1: age 0-3 (1929)
Clinical ratings on the basis of repeated observations 
of expressive behavior (AFF 5.1). Ratings were scored 
on a 7 point scale, that ranged from `happy' to 
`unhappy'. These ratings were part of wider 
observations on social and psychological functioning.
Ratings were made in the following ages in months: 10, 
11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 27, 30, 36. 

T2: age 12-18 (1947)
Happiness assessed in adolescence. 
HAP 7.3 based on various interviews and observations in 
adolescence.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-amr=-.03
month 11        r=-.09 (ns)
month 14        r=-.07 (ns)
month 21        r=-.02 (ns)
month 30        r=+.07 (ns)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-amr=-.11
month 11    r=-.14 (ns)
month 14    r=-.21 (ns)
month 21    r=-.19 (ns)
month 30    r=+.09 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness at age 12 - 18
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
T1: (1929)
Happiness,(hedonic level) rated 12 times between 10-36 
months of age. Ratings combined: measered A-CP months 
10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 
36.

T2: (1947)
Ratings by two judges on the basis of notes from 
observations and interviews between age 12-18. 
(inter-rater agreement rather low)
 
a.  4-item index involving:
    - discontented
    - unhappy
    - dissatisfied
    - complains     O-HL

b.  2-item index involving:
    - gloomy
    - not cheerful  A-AOL
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 10-17 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
T1 happiness by T2 happiness 
             T1 happiness age
             Month    Month    Month    Month
              10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
T2:a (happiness O-HL)
   a.       -.09(ns) -.07(ns) -.02(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
T2:b (happiness A-AOL)
   b.       -.14(ns) -.21(ns) -.19(ns) +.09(ns)

Computed for girls only (N = 19).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Subject code: H05ab01c

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928 /1
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers of preschool-aged-children, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness at age 30
Page in Source 337
Our classificationLong term happiness (< 10 years ago), code H05ab01c
Operationalization
T1 happiness (age ± 30) assessed by interviewer ratings 
of cheerfulness.
Index of two ratings by a psychologist and a 
psychiatric social worker, who interviewed the subject 
independently.

T2 happiness (age ± 70) assessed by an index of two 
independent ratings: one by the interviewer and the 
other by a clinical psychologist who read the interview 
protocol.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction at T1
Page in Source 177,181
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Life satisfaction at T1:
Selfreport on single question:
Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are 
with various aspects of your life at the present time… 
Are you with your life as a whole…?"
5  very satisfied
4  somewhat satisfied
3  about evenly satisfied and dissatisfied
2  somewhat dissatisfied
1  very dissatisfied

Question preceded by items on satisfaction with aspects 
of life.
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=+.44 p < .05
T2 happiness by T1 happiness.
Beta controlled for:
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Marital status 
  - Education
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyCaligiuri et al. (2012): study CA 2000
TitleChanges in food group consumption and associations with self-rated diet, health, life satisfaction, and menatl and physical functioning over 5 years in very old Canadian men: The Manitoba follow up study
SourceThe Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16 (8) 707-712
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/articles/23076513/#affiliation-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0055-7
Public790 + aged men, Canada, followed 5 years, 200-2005
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =2061

Correlate
Author's labelChange in Life Satisfaction
Page in Source 709
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How  would you describe your satisfaction with life in 
general at present?
4  excellent
3  good
2  fair
1  less than fair
Remarks
Assessed on: T1 2000 and T2 2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tD%=-
                    T1: 2000     T2: 2005
4  excellent        39,4%        24,5%
3  good             52,7%        58,9%
2  fair              6,8%        13,5%
1  less than fair    1,1%        3,1%
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tD%=
CHANGE in happiness TI by TII (2000- 2005)

Still excellent                          17.0%
Still Good or improved                   42.6%
Improvement from fair, poor or bad to at least 
good                                      4.3%
Decline from excellent                   22.4%
Decline from good                        10,0%
Still fair, poor or bad                   3.7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyZimmermann & Easterlin (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleHappily ever After? Cohabition, Marriage, Divorce, and Happines in Germany.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2006, Vol. 32, 511 - 528
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2006.00135.x
PublicFirst married, followed 7 years, Germany, 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1582

Correlate
Author's labeladded life satisfaction before and after marriage
Page in Source 517
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
T1: 4 years before marriage
T2: 2 years before marriage
T3: in year of marriage
T4: 2 years after marriage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.10 p < .10
T1 baseline
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .00
T2 cohabitation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.37 p < .00
T3 reaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.17 p < .00
T4 adaptation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Beta denotes difference from average population 
mean in the same year.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyVanWeert et al. (2004): study NL 2001
TitleBehavioral and Mood Effects of Snoezelen Integrated in 24-h Dementia Care.
SourceVanWeert, J.M.: "Multi-Sensory Stimulation in 24-Hour Dementia Care", Thesis University Utrecht, 2004, Netherlands, 139 - 163
URLhttp://www.nivel.nl
PublicDemented elderly and controls, before and after sensory stimulation program,The Netherlands, 2001-2003
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =125

Correlate
Author's labelSensory Stimulation Program
Page in Source 156
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Snoezelen or Multi-Sensory Stimulation (MSS) is a 
widely used and accepted approach to nursing home 
residents suffering from dementia. It is an approach 
which actively stimulates the senses by light, sound, 
smell and touch. Treatment was integrated in daily 
care.

Patients were treated according to an individualized 
plan by trained caregivers.

Controls were randomly selected from the same nursing 
homes.
Observed distributionPre-test : Experimental 62, Controls: 63 Pre-test and post-test completers: Experimental: 29, Controls 32 Newly included in post-test: Experimentals 37, Controls 31
Remarks
Demented patients selected for treatment were 1) not 
bed riden 2) their hearing and vision was completely or 
partly unimpaired and 3) had no additional psychiatric 
diagnosis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-rdv-n-5-aDM=+ p < .001
               Experimentals  Controls  
Pre-test    M =  2.74          3.07        
Post-test   M =  3.47          2.63        
-difference     +0.73 (001)   -0.44 (ns)
A-CA-mh-rdv-f-3-aDM=+
               Experimentals  Controls  
Pre-test    M =  2.10          2.17        
Post-test   M =  2.49          2.16        
- change        +0.39 (001)   -0.01 (ns)

Pre-test posttest lag 18 months


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyNaess et al. (2004): study NO Nord-Trøndelag 1984
TitleDiabetes Mellitus and Psychological Well-Being. Change between 1984-1986 and 1995-1997. Results of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.
SourceJournal of Diabetes and its Complications, 2004, Vol. 18,141 - 147.
DOIDOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(03)00036-9
Public20-90 aged, general public, Nord-Trondelag, Norway followed 1 year, 1985-1996
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =65599

Correlate
Author's labelCheerfulness over time
Page in Source 144
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Would you say you are usually cheerful or dejected?
1  extremely dejected
2  dejected
3  quite dejected
4  both dejected and cheerful
5  quite cheerful
6  very cheerful
7  extremely cheerful
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1984-86) and T2 (1995-97); average 11 
years difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-7-ar=+.39
T1 retest
A-AOL-g-sq-v-7-aES=+.18
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Cheerfulness increased slightly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyFugl-Meyer et al. (1991a): study SE 1984
TitleVocational Rehabilitation in Northern Sweden III. Aspects of Life Satisfaction.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1991, Vol. 23, 83 - 87
PublicHandicapped referred for vocational rehabilitation,followed 2 years, Umea, Sweden, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelchange in life satisfaction
Page in Source 90
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Difference in life-satisfaction at:
T1: before start of vocational training
T2: two years after

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aW= ns
Same job T1 and T2 (N = 24)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aW= p < .02
New job/ vocationally activated at T2 (N = 50)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aW= p < .03
In training/education at T2 (N = 21)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aW= ns
Sick/umemployed at T1 and T2 (N = 31)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyJanz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996
TitleFactors Influencing Quality of Life in Older Women With Heart Disease.
SourceMEDICAL CARE, 2001, V ol. 39, 588 - 598 ,
URLhttp://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Abstract/2001/06000/Factors_Influencing_Quality_of_Life_in_Older_Women.7.aspx
PublicMedical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =570

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier quality of life
Page in Source 591,594,596
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
"How has the overall quality of your life been during 
the past 4 weeks - that is, how have things been going 
foor you lately?" 
Ratings from 1="not well at all" to 5="very well"

1 Same or better
0 Deteriorated
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2: 12 months difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aDM=+
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness:
     - improved:     24.6 %
     - the same:     45.9 %
     - deteriorated: 29.4 %
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aOR=.25 p < .01
CI95[0.17, 0.36]

Initially least happy improved most, initially 
most happy improved least.

T1 happiness by T1-T2 maintenance or improvement.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelVacation
Page in Source 136,137
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Three or more days off from work
Remarks
Happiness assessed at:
T1: one week before vacation
T3: The week after vacation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+ p < .05
T1 = one week before  M=5,30
T3 = one week after   M=5,43
Difference =            +0,13, t=3.29

Vacation satisfaction explains 3% extra variance 
in T3 happiness in addition to T1 happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyAdams (1997): study US 1980
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006806601848
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
Respondents N =623

Correlate
Author's labelChange over time
Page in Source 215
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1980
T2: 1987/1988
T3: 1989
T4: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bDMt=+
T1: M=3.08  SD=0.77
T2: M=3.20  SD=0.73
T3: M=3.24  SD=0.73
T4: M=3.21  SD=0.77
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bF=8.95 p < .00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+4.5 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=-1.9 p < .06
quadratic trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aDMt=-
T1: M=2.19  SD=0.62
T2: M=2.07  SD=0.64
T3: M=2.09  SD=0.61
T4: M=2.07  SD=0.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aF=7.47 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=-4.1 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=+1.5 p < .12
quadratic trend in means

The divergence in trend of happiness 
general-satisfaction-item cannot be explained by 
response bias or other methodological issues


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyPalmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968
TitleChange in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316
Public46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =378

Correlate
Author's labelage
Page in Source 313
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Age at T1
46-50
51-55
56-60
61-65
66-70
Remarks
T1: 1968/70, T2: 1970/72, T3: 1972/74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM= ns
Females: Mean happiness at:  Difference  N
         T1    T2    T3       T1-T3
46-50    7.1   7.2   6.9      -.2       37
51-55    7.2   7.5   7.1      -.1       30  
56-60    7.5   7.3   7.3      -.2       35
61-65    6.7   6.9   6.8      +.1       36
66-70    6.8   7.2   7.0      +.1       43
Total    7.0   7.2   7.0       .0      181
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM=0 ns
Males:  Mean happiness at:   Difference  N
        T1    T2    T3       T1-T3
46-50   7.1   7.6   7.3      +.2         36
51-55   6.9   6.8   7.1      +.2         35
56-60   7.2   7.3   7.2       .0         49
61-65   7.3   7.2   6.9      -.4         38 
66-70   7.2   7.3   7.1      -.2         39
Total   7.2   7.3   7.1      -.1        197


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H05ab02

StudyThompson et al. (1960): study US 1952
TitleThe Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1960, Vol. 15, 165 - 169
Public60+ aged, employed at start, followed 2 years, USA, 1952-54
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1559

Correlate
Author's labelPast happiness.
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H05ab02
Operationalization
Happiness (M-AO) assessed at: T1 (1952) and T2 (1954)
1 got less happy: from happy to unhappy
2 got more happy: from unhappy to happy
Observed distributionN = 1: 788, 2: 771
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1,5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aD%=-
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness from  happy   unhappy
                                to      to
                                unhappy happy
Gainfull employed thoughout      34%     22%
Retired
- willing voluntary              31%     29%
- willing administrative         39%     42%
- reluctant voluntary            64%     26%
- reluctant administrative       57%     19%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change over life time
Subject code: H05ab02a

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness
Page in Source 235
Our classificationChange over life time, code H05ab02a
Operationalization
Increase in happiness over T2-T3.
8-item additive index of specific affects in the past 
few weeks (Bradburn Affect Balance Scale: AFF 2.3)
Assessed at T2(1976) and T3(1977).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.18 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2-T3 increase in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change over life time
Subject code: H05ab02a

StudyThomas & Hughes (1986): study US 1972
TitleThe Continuing Significance of Race: A study of Race, Class, and Quality of Life in America, 1972- 1985.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1986, Vol. 51, 830 - 841
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-85
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18000

Correlate
Author's labelAgeing
Page in Source 838
Our classificationChange over life time, code H05ab02a
Operationalization
1972
.
.
.
1985
Remarks
cross-sectional analysis
split-up by age cohorts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa= ns
youngest cohort (turned 18 in 1970 or later)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa= ns
young/middle cohort (turned 18 between 1960-69)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa= p < .05
middle cohort (turned 18 between 1950-59)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa= ns
middle/old cohort (turned 18 between 46-49)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa= p < .05
eldest cohort (turned 18 prior to 1940)

Means adjusted for social class, age and marital 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change over life time
Subject code: H05ab02a

StudyThurnher (1983): study US 1969
TitleTurning Points and Developmental Change: Subjective and 'Objective' Assessments.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1983, Vol. 53, 52 - 60
PublicPeople in transition, followed 8 years, Metropolis USA, 1969-77
Sample
Non-ResponseSample attrition: 17%
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelChange in happiness
Page in Source 56
Our classificationChange over life time, code H05ab02a
Operationalization
Index (HAP 3.2) consisting of:
- "Dissatisfied" and "unhappy"   responses on the Block 
(1961)     Adjective Rating List
-  Overall happiness
-  Present-year score on the   Life-Evaluation Chart
 
Assessed at T1 (1969) and T2 (1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dAoV=+ p < .01
T2 Happiness by change in happiness (T2-T1).
Change in happiness over the 8 years period 
indicated by including 'time' in ANOVA.
No interaction with age and sex.

O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aAoV= ns
T2 Happiness by change in happiness (T2-T1).
Change in happiness over the 8 years period 
indicated by including 'time' in ANOVA.
No interaction with age and sex.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dE²=+.18 p < .01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cq-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

We would like to ask you some questions about how things have been going. Please answer 'yes' if a statement is true for you and 'no' if it does not apply to you. In the past months have you been feeling
A On top of the world?
B In high spirits
C Particular content with lige?
D Lucky?
E Bored?
F Very lonely or remote from people?
G Depressed or very unhappy?
H Flustered because you didn't know what was expected of you/
I Generally satisfied with the way your life has turned out?

Response options:
1 yes
0 no

Computation: (A+B+C+D+I) - (E+F+G+H)

MUNSH Affect Balance Scale
A-AB-cw-mq-n-5-bSelfreport on 12 questions:

..how frequent one experienced moods in the past week..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E pleasant
F elated
G frustrated
H sad
I depressed
J dissatisfied
K gloomy
L dejected

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D+ E+ F) - (G+H+I+J+K+L)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AB-mi-tsb-?-4-aTime sampled ratings of positive and negative affect made from video recordings of child behavior; 30 second intervals across 15 minutes of free play and 1minute intervals for 4 alternate 5 minute segments of the Bayley test

Assessment of discrete behaviors; observation schedule not reported

Rated on 4 step scale, scale labels not reported
A-AB-mp-mq-n-5-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

..how frequent one experienced in the past half day..
A happy
B joyful
C contented
D cheerful
E frustrated
F sad
G depressed
H dissatisfied

Rated 1: scarcely … 5: very frequently

Summation: (A+B+C+D) - (E+F+G+H)

Name: adapted from UWIST mood adjective checklist (Mathews et. al. 1990)
A-AOL-c-rdf-n-5-aFamily rating on single question:

… personality of the patient now .. (full lead question not reported)
1 unhappy
2
3
4
5 happy

Item in longer adjective checklist
A-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8 Elated and in high spirits.
7 Feeling very good and cheerful.
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"

B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
nor unhappy)?
Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A : 0.- 10
- Question B : % happy
Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2
A-AOL-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Would you say you are usually cheerful or dejected?
1 extremely dejected
2 dejected
3 quite dejected
4 both dejected and cheerful
5 quite cheerful
6 very cheerful
7 extremely cheerful
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day

How do you feel right now?
0 very positive
:
:
:
:
100 very negative
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bSelf report of momentary affect, repeated every 2 hours during two weeks

Lead question not reported
A Happy vs Sad
B Friendly vs Angry
C Cheerful vs Irritable
D Sociable vs Lonely

Rated on 7 step numerical scale (semantic differential)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aSelf report on 8 questions

A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month?
B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month?
C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month?
D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month?
E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month?
F How have you been feeling in general during the past month?
G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month?
H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month?

Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options

Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E)

Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-eSelfreport on 8 questions:

Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?
A On top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F Depressed or very unhappy
G So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
H Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Reponse options:
0 never
1 sometimes
3 often

Scoring:
PA = A+C+D (range 0-9)
NA = B+E+F+G+H (range 0-15)
ABS = PA-NA (range 1-7)

Name: Index of Psychological Wellbeing
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past month, did you ever feel.....?"

A. Exited or pleased about something you were doing
B. That important things in life are going your way
C. Happy, satisfied, or pleased with your personal life.
D. Exited or pleased with something you did or a problem you
solved
E. That you have a lot of friends you can count on
F. Nervous or tense
G. So restless and irritated you couldn't sit still
H. Down-hearted or depressed
I. Felt concerned or worried about your health
J. Guilty about something you shouldn't have done
K. Unable to get a good night's sleep
L. That your mind was not working the way it should
M. Miserable or discouraged about your future

Answer options:
1 none of the time
2
3
4 most of the time

Summation:
Positive Affect Scale (PAS):A+B+C+D+E
Negative Affect Scale (NAS):F+G+H+I+J+K+L+M
Affect Balance Scale (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -32 to + 20

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variation by Cohen)
A-BD1-md-mq-v-7-aSelfreport of daily mood on 9 questions

'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt today
A happy
B depressed, blue
C joyful
D pleased
E frustrated
F angry, hostile
G enjoyment, fun
H worried, anxious
I unhappy

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 very slight
3 somewhat
4 moderate amount
5 much
6 very much
7 extremely much
Options presented horizontally

Computation: (A+C+D+G)-(B+E+F+H+I)

Name: Diener's 'Daily Mood scale'
A-BH-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions

How do you feel on the average?
A Active
B Energetic
C Lively
D Vigorous
E Exhausted
F Fatigued
G Tired
H Weary
I Worn out
J Aggravated
K Agitated
L Hostile
M Irritable
N Upset
O Uptight
P Calm
Q Peaceful
R Relaxed
S Serene
T Tranquil

Rating scale
1 very slightly to not at all
2
3
4
5 extremely

Computation: PA-NA: PA = A-D, P-T, NA = E-O
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last month
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past week?:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past week' version)
A-CA-mh-rdv-f-3-aRating of mood by two independent observers from videotaped session
Rated using smilies
1 frowning face
2 neutral face
3 smiling face
A-CA-mh-rdv-n-5-aRating of non-verbal behavior on four aspects

A tearful/sad
B happy/content
C fearful/anxious
D confused

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 nearly all the time

Subscale of Baker & Dowling (1995) INTERACT schedule
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aInterviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects

A The look is
2) open
1) evasive
- impossible to say
B The corners of the mouth turn
2) up
1) down
- impossible to say
C The posture is
2) relaxed, at ease
1) rather tense
- impossible to say
D The movements are
2) relaxed, at ease
1) limited, withdrawn
- impossible to say
E The eyes are
2) big, open
1) small, screw up
- impossible to say
F The elbows are kept
2) not close to the body
1) close to the body
- impossible to say
G The lips are more
2) broad, full
1) thin, pent up
- impossible to say
H All in all the subject looks
2) quite cheerful
1) not very cheerful
- difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each episode rated for the amount of pleasure during that period.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-baTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to smile
b: duration of smiling
or rated on 3-step scale:
c: peak intensity of smile

Computation: (a+b+c)/3
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking Finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to laugh
b: duration of laughing

Computation: (a+b)/2
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-aTime sampling of happy behaviors during free play and Bayley testing. Analysis of 1 minute intervals during Bayley tests and 30 second intervals during free play

Rated:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Computation: average over all observations

Interviewer rating of happiness, using flexible standards relative to the age of the subject.

Full instructions not reported.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-aTime sampling of prevalent mood during free play and Bayley test. Average of observations at 30 second intervals across 15 minutes of free play and 1 minute intervals for 4 alternate 5 minute segments of the Bayley test

Rated on 7 step scale, scale labels not reported
A-CP-c-rc-n-9-aClinical rating of cheerfulness:

Based on independent interviews by two psychologists with one week interval.

Rating cheerful - glum on 9 step scale (rating scale not reported)
A-CP-g-fi-n-7-aSelfreport in focused interview:

Rating of cheerfulness by interviewer on the basis of an extensive interview.

Rating options:
7 cheerful
6
5
4
3
2
1 gloomy
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4 usually good-humored air
3
2
1 dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
A-CP-g-rc-?-9-aClinical rating of cheerfulness.

Rating on the basis of interview-protocols by 2 or 3 independent judges of cheerfulness as personality descriptive variable from most uncharacteristic to most characteristic of the subject.

Rating options: scale rating from 1 to 9 (scale options not reported)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-aTime sampling of happy behaviors

The children were rated during the first 3 years of their lives, after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 36 months of living for 'Emotional tone: unhappy - happy' on a 7-point scale.
Scoring rated on 7-step numerical scale.

Summation:
Later the ratings of 10 - 12, 13 - 15, 18 - 24, and 27 - 36 months were combined.

Rated on 7-step numerical scale.
C-A-h-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about what you have accomplished in life...?
3 well satisfied
2 reasonable satisfied
1 dissatisfied:
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
C-W-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Will people of your age get the things they want most in life.....?
4 I expect to get almost all the things I really want in life
3 I will probably get more of the things I want than not
2 There are several things I want in life but will probably not get
1 I will probably never get most of the things I really want in life
M-ACO---*-*-0-aSelfreport on questions:

Various items about Overall happiness, Affect and Contentment
M-AO---mq-v*-10-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in life today......?
3 a great deal
2 some but not very much
1 almost none

B In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits.....?
1 I am usually in low spirits
2 I am sometimes in good spirits, sometimes in low spirits
3 I am mostly in good spirits

C On the whole, how satisfied are you with your way of life today.....?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not satisfied at all

Items selected by Guttman scaling.
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-c-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

A 8 questions about current mood
… extent to which moods were experienced during the past few days (full text not reported}
a happy
b joyful
c pleased
d confident
e sad
f depressed
g frustrated
h anxious
Rated: 1 not at all … 7 very frequently

B 2 questions on life satisfaction
a At present I am completely satisfied with my life
b In the near future a lot of things will have to change before I feel satisfied with my life
Rated: 1 completely disagree .. 7 completelt agree

Computation: (A+B)/2
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A 20-item PANAS
To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life?
Aa nervous
Ab distressed
Ac afraid
Ad jittery
Ae irritable
Af upset
Ag scared
Ah exiled
Ai ashamed
Aj guilty
Ak hostile
Al active
Am determined
An inspired
Ao enthusiastic
Ap alert
Aq attentive
Ar proud
As strong
At interested

B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener)
Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal
Bb The conditions of my life are excellent
Bc I am satisfied with my life
Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are.....?"
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy

B "How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life.....?"
1 rarely
2 now and than
3 fairly often
4 all the time

Summation: factor score
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1 completely unhappy
M-CO-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel things have worked out for you generally?
4 very well
3 fairly well
2 not very well
1 not at all well
M-FH-c-mq-?-6-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A " ........avowed happiness at this moment of life......"
B " ........avowed happiness over the past month......"
(Full questions not reported)

Response options:
1
2
3
4
5
6
(response labels not reported)

Summation : not reported
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate the last month of your life. Was it a happy or an unhappy time for you......?
5 very happy time
4 fairly happy time
3 happy nor unhappy
2 rather unhappy time
1 very unhappy time
M-FH-cw-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

Thinking about the past week, please answer the questions below by circling one number.
Your life over the past week

A 10 the most peaceful feeling
.
.
0 none at all

B 10 the happiest feeling
.
.
0 none at all

C 10 the best quality of life
.
.
0 the worst

D 10 the most satisfaction with life
.
.
0 none at all

Summation: A+B+C+D/4
M-FH-cw-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question

Over the past 7 days, I have felt
5 extremely happy
4 mostly happy
3 moderately happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not at all happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking, how (much) do you feel happy? What score do you give if we put ten for 'extremely happy, zero for extremely unhappy' and five for neither happy nor unhappy'?"
10 extremely happy
9
8
7
6
5 neither happy nor unhappy
4
3
2
1
0 extremely unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bSelf report on single question

How often do you feel happy?
4 almost always
3 quite often
2 sometimes
1 never
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
1 no
2 rarely
3 sometimes
4 most of the time
5 yes
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very pleased
5 pleased
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-10-aSelfreport on single question asked twice in interview,

"How do you feel about your life as a whole......?"
10 delightful
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 terrible

Summation: mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delightful-Terrible Scale' (modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 could not be better
6
5
4
3
2
1 could not be worse

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version).
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-H?-?-sq-?-0-aSelfreport on single question:

".......happiness....."
(Full text not reported)
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
Response options:
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 unhappy
(Originally scored on a horizontal scale)
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
1 unhappy
2 not very happy
3 fairly happy
4 happy
5 very happy
O-HL---mq-v-16-aSelf report on three questions:

A During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time
B Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?"
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy
C Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you these days?

Response options not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you
are these days.....?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you feel as you live now? Please choose one item on this card that comes closest to your feeling.
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

Would you say you are:......?
1 unhappy?
2 reasonably happy?
3 happy ?
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-eSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?
1 very unhappy
2 unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mixed
5 happy
6 happy
7 very happy

lVerbal abel 'unhappy' used for numerical options 2 and 3 together. Likewise verbal label 'happy'used for both numerical options 5 and 6.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"When you take everything into consideration, your child, your adult life, etc, how would you describe your current life situation.....?'
1 things are very bad right now
2
3
4
5 things are very good
(Response options not fully reported)
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

In general my present quality of life is:
1 as bad as it could possibly be
2
3
4 neither good nor bad
5
6
7 as good as it could possibly be

Response options labeled as: +3 (as good as it could possibly be), 0 (neither good nor bad) and -3 (as bad as it could possibly be).

Item in ADDQoL (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life)
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How have things been going for you during the past 4 weeks?
4 very well
3 pretty good
3 good and bad parts about equal
2 pretty bad
1 bad
O-QOL-cw-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

Over the past 7 days, how satisfied were you with your quality of life?
5 extremely satisfied
4 mostly satisfied
3 moderately satisfied
2 a little satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-?-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........."
(Full item not reported)
0 not at all satisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSelfreport in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1 tremendously satisfied
2
3
4 average
5
6
7 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your way of life.......?
4 quite satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 sometimes dissatisfied
1 usually dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfrport on single question:

On the whole are you with the life you lead?
4 satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 as yet unsatisfied
1 unbearably dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
- Don't know
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfying

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-SLu-c-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied are you with your life currently?"
0 Not at all
1
2
3
4 neutral
5
6
7
8 A great deal
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your present life.......?
Please choose from this card that is closest to your feeling.
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 very good
4 rather good
3 neither good nor bad
2 rather bad
1 very bad
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life at the moment, would you say that you are by and large satisfied with life or are you mostly dissatisfied
7 very much satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 so-so
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 very much dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life in general?"
1 completely unsatisfied
2 very unsatisfied
3 unsatisfied
4 unsatisfied nor satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
7 completely satisfied
O-SLu-md-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

I am satisfied with my life today
0 no
1 don't know
2 yes

Item in Munsh Happiness inventory
O-SLW-c-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A At present I am completely satisfied with my life
B In the near future a lot of things will have to change before I feel satisfied with my life

Rated
1 completely disagree
2
3
4
5
6
7 completelt agree

Computation: (A+B)/2, B reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question;

Now, let's talk about your life as a whole. All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with.your life as a whole these days?
(Full question not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration, how satisfied are you with life in general at the present time? Would you say you are.....?
5 extremely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebSelfreport on single question:

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general at present?
1 not at all satisfied
2 less than satisfied
3 both yes and no
4 rather satisfied
5 fully satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with various aspects of your life at the present time... Are you with your life as a whole...?"
5 very satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 about evenly satisfied and dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied

Question preceded by items on satisfaction with aspects of life.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tSelfreport on single question:

How would you describe your satisfaction with life in general at present......?
1 bad
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 excellent
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-cSelfreport on single question:

"Considering how you feel these days, are you generally satisfied with your life or are you generally dissatisfied?"
7 extremely satisfied
6 very satisfied
5 quite satisfied
4 both satisfied and dissatisfied
3 quite dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice during the interview:

Are you at this moment satisfied or dissatisfied with life in general......?
7 very satisfied
6 for the greater part satisfied
5 rather more satisfied than dissatisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat more dissatisfied than satisfied
2 for the greater part dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- Do not know, difficult to say
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-aSelfreport on single question;

How satisfied or unsatisfied were you last week with your life in general?
Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on the line

_________________________________________
completely completely

Scoring: mm on this 100 mm line
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
Rated on a seven step quality of life ladder was marked with a smiling face and marked ''GOOD'. The bottom marked with a frowning face and the word 'BAD'
[ 7 ] Good, picture of smiling face
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Bad, picture of frowning face
(Pictures not reproduced here)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole.....?
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 not at all satisfied

Numbers presented in reversed order (very satisfied '1', not t all satisfied '5')
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?'
4 completely satisfied
3 very satisfied
2 moderately satisfied
1 slightly satisfied
0 not satisfied at all
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfying are these different aspects of your life? Indicate the number which best suits your situation. Life as a whole is....."
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

This item was followed by eight questions on life domain satisfactions.
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-cSelf report on single question:

My life as a whole is ..
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 rather satisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
1 very dissatisfying
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B … happiness… (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-c-mq-v-7-dSelf-report on two questions:

A) Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are:
1: not too happy
2: pretty happy
3: very happy

B) In general, how satisfying do you find the ways you're spending your life these days? Would you call it:
1: not very satisfying
2: pretty satisfying
3: very satisfying

Computation: A+B
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate how much each of the following statements applies for you in the last 18 months.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 applies completely
6 apllies
5 apllies slightly
4 neither applies nor does not apply
3 slightly not applicable
2 not applicable
1 applies not at all

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), last years version
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-aClinical rating.

Ratings by four judges on the basis of notes from observations and interviews between age 12-18.

Ratings were made on the following dimensions:
A. discontented
B. unhappy
C. dissatisfied
D. complaints

Rating options:
1 not at all true
2
3
4 average
5
6
7
8 extremely true

Summation: not reported
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aSelfreport on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A In most ways my life is close to ideal
B The conditions of my life are excellent
C I am satisfied with my life
D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMeDIFFERENCE IN MEDIAN
Type: descriptive statistic
Measurement level: happiness metric
correlate; dichotomous or nominal
Seldom used in happiness research.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ESEFFECT SIZE
Type; descriptive statistic
Range: [-1;+1]

Meaning:

Computation: T1-T2 mean devided by pooled SD

Interpretation: ES<.20 trivial, .20>ES>.50 small, .50>ES>.80 medium, >.80 large effect

Reference: Cohen
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.
WWILCOXON's SIGNED RANK TEST.
Type: test statistic
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
ZZZZZWILCOXON's SIGNED RANK TEST.
Type: test statistic
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
H05HAPPINESS: CAREERH06aaEarlier conditions for happiness
H05HAPPINESS: CAREERL08LIFE HISTORY
H05aa01dExtremes of happiness experiencedA03ab02Intensity of affects
H05aa02aRecent changeT02THERAPY
H05aa02cPerceived stability of feelings about lifeH05abActual happiness-career (assessed in follow-up)
H05aa03Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)H12HOPE
H05aa03Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)W07WORRIES
H05ab01Actual level of earlier/later happinessA04aaAge career
H05ab02Actual changes in happinessL05LIFE CHANGE

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings