Findings on Happiness and FREEDOM

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and FREEDOM
Subject Code: F05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
F05FREEDOM1
F05aaFreedom career0
F05aa01Earlier freedom0
F05aa02Change in freedom3
F05aa03Later freedom0
F05ab01Ability to choose (psychological freedom)2
F05ab03Current absence of restrictions (social freedom) 8
F05ab03aAmount of restrictions perceived22
F05ab03bSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual)8
F05acAttitudes to freedom3
F05ac01Concern about freedom0
F05ac02Satisfaction with freedom6
F05ac03Satisfaction with opportunity to change things2
F05abCurrent freedom1
F05ab02Informedness for choice (potential freedom)0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and FREEDOM
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=F05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and FREEDOM
Subject code: F05

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom
Page in Source 8
Our classificationFREEDOM, code F05
Operationalization
The degree of freedom of choice and control an 
individual has over his life, on a 1-10 scale (1= not 
at all, 10= a great deal)
Observed distributionRange 1-10, M= 6.63 SD= 2.45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+3.1 p < .05
B (+3,12) controlled for: 
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra freedom goes with 0.30 point 
greater happiness on scale 1-10 (3.12 on scale 
10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in freedom
Subject code: F05aa02

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelBecoming dependent upon others
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in freedom, code F05aa02
Operationalization
Have you experienced becoming dependent upon others
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2153 Ever in your life: N = 275

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.08
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.12
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.90
ever in your life:       M = 3.58
95% CI for difference:   [0.20 ; 0.44]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in freedom
Subject code: F05aa02

StudyLanger & Rodin (1976): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibilty for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, Vol. 34, 191 - 198
PublicNursing home residents, Hamden, Connecticut, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response51%
Respondents N =45

Correlate
Author's labelBoosting of responsibility and choice
Page in Source 196
Our classificationChange in freedom, code F05aa02
Operationalization
In nursing home two floors selected because of 
similarity in residents' characteristics. A different 
floor was randomly selected for each treatment. The 
nursing home administrator called a meeting in the 
lounge of each floor where she delivered two 
communications. 0 Comparison group: 2nd floor, the 
  administrator stressed staff
  responsibility
1 Experimental group: 4th floor, the 
  administrator emphasized respondents
  responsibility for themselves

Happiness was assessed 1 week prior to the 
communication (T1) and 3 weeks after (T2).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aDMt=+ p < .05
Mean happiness (Mt) pre and post treatment.
                     T1      T2      CHANGE
-Experiment       :  6.31    6.65    + 0.34
-Comparison group :  5.99    5.84    - 0.15

The difference in change was significant at  05 
level.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in freedom
Subject code: F05aa02

StudyGraney (1973): study US 1967
TitleThe Affect Balance Scale and Old Age.
SourcePaper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, 1973, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelGains in social status over 4 years
Page in Source 7
Our classificationChange in freedom, code F05aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of T1 and T2.
A significant move to a fully independent household, 
marriage, and taking paying employment were defined as 
status gains. Institutionalization, the death of 
supportive family members and friends, and recent 
geographic dispersion of supportive children were 
defined as losses. Ss classified as having experienced: 
losses / no change / gains

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.13 ns
At T1 all Ss were in good health, able to care for 
themselves and lived alone.
Happiness assessed at T2.

% happy at T2:
- losses     22%
- no change  28%
- gains      40%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current freedom
Subject code: F05ab

StudyBrulé & Veenhoven (2015a): study ZZ Developed nations 2000
TitleParticipatory Teaching and Happiness in developed Nations.
SourceJournal Advances in Applied Sociology, 2015, Vol. 4, 235 - 245
URLhttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=51393
DOIDOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
PublicAdults, developed nations, 2000
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom
Page in Source 243
Our classificationCurrent freedom, code F05ab
Operationalization
a: Social freedom: opportunitiy to choose
b: Psychological freedom: capability to choose
c: Potential freedom: information about option for 
choice

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-arpc=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Ability to choose (psychological freedom)
Subject code: F05ab01

StudyWelzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleAgency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model
SourceJournal of happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 97, 43 - 63
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9557-z
Public18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelAgency feeling
Page in Source 59
Our classificationAbility to choose (psychological freedom), code F05ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: "Some people feel they 
have completely free choice and control over their 
lives, while other people feel that what they do has no 
real effect on what happens to them. 
Please use this scale where 1 means 'no choice at all' 
and 10 means 'a great deal of choice' to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way your life turns out."
Normalized scale from 0 for the least agentic position 
to 1 for the most agentic position.
Remarks
Normalized scale from 0 for the least agentic position 
to 1 for the most agentic position.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.21 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL agency feeling 
in 76 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
For the same level of agentic strategies:
Agency feelings are positively associated with 
happiness (b interaction=+.49, p<.001).
.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab= ns
Unaffected by:
-Western tradition
-interaction with communion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
For the same level of monetary saturation: 
Agency feelings are positively associated with 
happiness (b interaction=-.06, p<.001).

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
 -Western tradition
 -agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
 -biological age
 -female sex
 -income level
 -education level
-interaction between societal characteristics 
(agentic strategy and Western tradition) with 
individual characteristics:
 -communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family 
and friends as important life domains)
 -monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial 
situation of household)
 -agency feeling
 -agency feeling*monetary saturation
 -agency feeling*communion
 -communion*monetary saturation


Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aR²=.42
1995-2005 CHANGE AVERAGE life satisfaction by 
CHANGE AVERAGE agency feeling in 76 nations
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Ability to choose (psychological freedom)
Subject code: F05ab01

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom and control
Page in Source 94
Our classificationAbility to choose (psychological freedom), code F05ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Please use this scale where 1 means 'none at all' and 
10 means 'a great deal' to indicate how much freedom of 
choice and control you feel you have over they way your 
life turns out."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.36 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL sense of 
freedom and control

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
In 74 nations separately.
Significantly positive in all 74 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=
Coefficient of 'freedom and control' in the life 
satisfaction regressions by GDP per capita.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal control: self rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Self report on 9 questions concerning choices in their 
everyday setting

- Did you choose where tho live(in which institution, 
group home or aprtment)
- Do you have a key to your own apartment or to your 
own room?
- Can you take a snack whenever you want?
- Do you cook at least once a week?
- Do you have your own bank account where you can draw 
money?
- Do you have any domestic chores that you are 
responsible for?
- Can you ask your friends to visit whenever you want 
to?
- Does anybody read your mail without your permission?
- Did someone else choose your furniture or carpets?

reponse option: 'yes', 'no', 'don't know'
Observed distributionM=74.22, SD=(20.68
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.62
Remarks
The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-3.5 p < .01
Mean control score 
Happy     = 75.76(SD=19.38)
Not happy = 65.45(SD=25.42)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyMatikka & Ojanen (2002): study FI 1994
TitleHappiness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.
SourcePaper 2002, FAMR Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/matikka_lm_2002.pdf
Public18-77 aged intellectually disabled, Finland, 1994-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =376

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal control: proxi rating
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Report of proxy, usually a staff member who knew the 
subject well, on 6 questions 

- Does the person have his/her own room?
- Can the person invite his/her family and friends 
over, even for the night?
- Does the person move freely around the area close to 
his/her home?
- Has the person been able to choose furniture or 
fabrics in the home him/herself?
- Does the person have a key to his/her own home or 
room?
- Can the person decide who he/she lives with?

reponse option: 'yes', 'no', 'don't know'
Observed distributionM= 80.54, SD=23.47
Error EstimatesAlpha=+.68
Remarks
The theoretical range of the scale is 0-100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aT=-1.5 ns
Mean control:
Happy     = 81.26(SD=23.16)
Not happy = 75.58(SD=25.23)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Survey question: How often do you feel that you can do 
things that you want to do?
Observed distributionM = 3,23 SD = 0,89 N = 32458

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+,31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.09 p < .05
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelSense of freedom and control
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.29 p < .01
B controlled for:
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom in life
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=.50
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom in 
life in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.24
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom at work
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.74
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom at 
work in 41 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.47
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived feeling of freedom
Page in Source question 25
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Do you feel yourself free in our society?
1 not
2 rather not
3 rather yes
4 yes
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 24,3% 2: 29,2% 3: 20,4% 4: 10,7% DK/NA: 15,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,23
2: M = 2,42
3: M = 2,76
4: M = 3,06
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.44 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current absence of restrictions (social freedom)
Subject code: F05ab03

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTechnical Self Reliance
Page in Source 192
Our classificationCurrent absence of restrictions (social freedom) , code F05ab03
Operationalization
Index calculated by multiplying tools or technology, 
possessed by a respondent by the efficiency rating 
claimed for the particular technology, resulting in the 
sum of the efficiency rating for each of the 25 tools.

The tools are: 1.garden, 2. greenhouse, 3.root cellar, 
4.fish pond, 5. solar heat, 6.pigs, 7.wood lot, 8.wood 
stove heat, 9.wood stove cooking, 10.composting privy, 
11.hydro-electric system, 12.graywater(waste water) 
13.solar water heater, 14.chickens, 15.goats, 16.beef 
cattle, 17.milk cow(s) 18.sheep, 19.wind power, 
20.weeder geese, 21.bees, 22.fruit trees, 23.butcher 
larger anaimals, 24.photo voltaic power, 45.work 
horses.

Efficiency is evaluated by asking the respondents about 
the effectiveness of the tool items of 'providing your 
family with independence or self-reliance from a one 
(not at all effective) to four(very effective point 
sequence. 
The TSR index-scores have a theoretical range between 
0-100
Remarks
Named technological Self Rliance (TSR)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+.05
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.26 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.27 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.18 p<.005

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.32 p<.005
-high Homestead Production   r=+.32 p<.005
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.22 p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.019

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.32 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.026

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.37 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.025

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.18 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.019

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.31 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.028

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.35 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Observed distributions.e.=.04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.26 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilities to decide on matters concerning one's life
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Answer categories:great, small, no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.15
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, number of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feelings of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to 
succeed, gets sufficient attention, satisfaction 
with income, age, gender, no. of communities in 
which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on a single question:
"Some people feel they have completely freedom of 
choice and control over their lives, while other people 
feel that what they do has no real effect on what 
happens to them. Please use this scale to indicate how 
much freedom of choice and control you feel you have 
over the way you have over the way your life turns 
out."
1:     No choice at all
.
.
.
10:   A great deal of choice
Error Estimatess.e.=.034

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.36 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation  
    - income  
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilities to decide on matters concerning one's life
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Answer categories:great, small, no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.26
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, number of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feelings of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to 
succeed, gets sufficient attention, satisfaction 
with income, age, gender, no. of communities in 
which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived freedom and control in life
Page in Source 369
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Some people feel they have completely free choice and 
control over their lives, while other people feel that 
what they do has no real effect on what happens to 
them. Please use this scale where 1 means "none at all" 
and 10 means "a great deal" to indicate how much 
freedom of choice and control you feel you have over 
the way your life turns out.
Remarks
Data weighed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aGs=>.15
Gs controlled for
- country of residence
- report of living in an stable relationship
- life-satisfaction (see below)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aGs=+.37
Gs controlled for:
- country of residence
- stable relationship or not
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Very satisfied Ss only (score 10, N = 1,892)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of choice and control
Page in Source 15,36
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self perceived view on freedom of choice and control on 
a 10-point scale:
1:     No choice at all
10:   A great deal of choice

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.19 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by NATIONAL freedom of choice
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.51 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 ns
AVERAGE happiness by NATIONAL freedom of choice

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - unemployment (ind.)
     - unemployment rates
     - education
  - air pollution in nation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom of Choice
Page in Source 461, 466, 471
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How much freedom of choice and control you feel you 
have over the way your life turns out
1  none at all
:
10 a great deal
Observed distributionM= 6.65, SD=2.44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.09 p < .01
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.28 p < .01
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom in life
Page in Source 22
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=.50
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom in 
life in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.24
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom at work
Page in Source 22
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.74
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom at 
work in 41 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.47
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyAllardt (1973): study NO 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilities to decide on matters concerning one's life
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Answer categories:great, small, no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.19
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, freq. of 
meetings with relatives, opportunities to make 
personal contacts, possibilities to decide on 
matters concerning one's own personal life, no. of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feeling of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to suceed, 
gets sufficient attention, satisfaction with 
income, age, gender, no. of communities in which 
lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived feeling of freedom
Page in Source question 25
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Do you feel yourself free in our society?
1 not
2 rather not
3 rather yes
4 yes
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = 1: 24,3% 2: 29,2% 3: 20,4% 4: 10,7% DK/NA: 15,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 2,23
2: M = 2,42
3: M = 2,76
4: M = 3,06
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.44 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyAllardt (1973): study SE 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Sweden, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelPossibilities to decide on matters conc. one's life
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Answer categories:great, small, no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.15
Controlled for:Income, housing density, education, 
social status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency 
of meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, number of 
memberships in clubs and associations, interesting 
life, easyness of life, loneliness, feelings of 
being liked, feeling of being able to use 
knowledge and skills, feeling of chance to 
succeed, gets sufficient attention, satisfaction 
with income, age, gender, no. of communities in 
which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom
Page in Source 262
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on the following questions:
-I can spend time by myself (in privicy) whem I want to
-I choose how my home is decorated
-I myself choose in the present house
-I have a bank or post office account from which I can 
withdraw money
-Mealtimes are changed to fit in my plans
-I choose for myself what I do in spare time
-I have voted in elections
-I have my own personal possessions
-I earn some money (other than benefit or pension)
-I choose my own clothes
Remarks
Subscale of Life Experience Checklist(LEC) [Ager 1990]

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.35 p < .006
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.39 p < .005
rpc controled for depression as measured with Beck 
Depression Inventory


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelNot tied down
Page in Source 192
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.10 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.08 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.15 p<.01

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=±280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.06 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.03 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyTownsend & Gurin (1981): study US 1972
TitleRe-examining the frustrated homemaker hypothesis: Role fit, personal dissatisfaction, and collective discontent.
SourceSociology of Work and Occupations, 1981, Vol. 8, 464 - 488
URLhttp://wox.sagepub.com/content/8/4/464.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, white women, USA, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =946

Correlate
Author's labelSense of restriction
Page in Source 486
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
1: Do you think you have had a fair 
opportunity to make the most of 
yourself in life?
or 
2: have you been held back in some ways?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-br=-.22
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-ar=-.37
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-ar=-.37
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-br=-.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's labelOpportunities to do what you would like to do
Page in Source 44
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.33
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.43
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.39


Correlational finding on Happiness and Amount of restrictions perceived
Subject code: F05ab03a

StudyCantril (1965): study US 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1549

Correlate
Author's labelExtent of opportunity to do what one likes
Page in Source 268-415
Our classificationAmount of restrictions perceived, code F05ab03a
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point self-anchoring 
scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.36
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.46
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelNo family responsibility
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Survey question: How often do you feel that family 
responsibililties prevent you from doing what you want 
to do?
Observed distributionM = 3,03 SD = 0,97 N = 32458

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=+,16
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.07 p < .01
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelNo lack money
Page in Source 15,21
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Survey question: How often do you feel that shortage of 
money stops you from doing the things that you want to 
do?
Observed distributionM = 2,56 SD = 1,10 N = 32467

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-er=0,33
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.22 p < .01
b controlled for
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyWelsch (2002): study ZZ World samples 2000
TitleFreedom and Rationality as Predictors of Cross-National Happiness. Patterns: The Role of Income as a Mediating Variable.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, vol. 4, 295 - 321
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026249123711
Public18+ aged, general public, 54 countries, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =55000

Correlate
Author's labelPolitical freedom
Page in Source 303
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Degree to which civil rights and liberties are held in 
respect, on a scale of 1 (low levels of liberties) to 7 
(high levels).
Observed distributionM=5,722 SD=1,445
Remarks
Source: Freedom House (2000).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.07 p < .10
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE political freedom in 
54 countries.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.03 ns
b controls for:
-income (GNP per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.07 p < .10
b controls for:
-rationality (number of scientists and engineers 
per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.03 ns
b controls for:
-rationality (number of scientists and engineers 
per capita)
-income (GNP per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.28 ns
b controls for:
-political freedom-squared
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=+.09 ns
b controls for:
-political freedom-squared
-income (GNP per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.37 p < .05
b controls for:
-political freedom-squared
-rationality (number of scientists and engineers 
per capita)
-rationality-squared
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ab=-.12 ns
b additionally controls for:
-income (GNP per capita)

Similar results are obtained when b additionally 
controls for income squared.

Analysis with political freedom-squared yields 
similar results.

Analysis using seemingly unrelated regressions 
also show that political freedom has no 
association with happiness.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Total marginal impact of freedom on happiness.
The positive impact of freedom on happiness is 
greater among rich nations.

The y-axis shows the relationship between freedom 
and happiness for each country, based on the 
regression coefficients.

The x-axis shows national income (GNP per capita).

Political freedom affects happiness indirectly 
through income. Political freedom relates 
negatively to happiness at low levels of income 
and positively at high levels of income.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyVeenhoven (2002): study ZZ 1990
TitleBevrijde Sexualiteit. (Liberated Sexuality).
SourceDe Psycholoog, Juli/Augustus 2002, Vol. 42, 377 - 382
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8749
PublicAdults, general public, 42 nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =50000

Correlate
Author's labelSexual freedom
Page in Source 380, 382
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Public acceptance of homosexuality indicated by 
response to survey question:
Please ell me for each of the following statements 
whether you think it can always be justified, never be 
justified, or something in between. "Homosexuality"
1 never justifiable … 10 always justifiable.
Remarks
Data: WVS (World Value Surveys Cumulative file 6160, 
ICPRS, Ann Arbor Michagan)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.72
Happy Life Years by Acceptatance of homosexuality 
in 42 nations
Set Image size:   

Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.38
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelAcceptation of homosexuality
Page in Source 42
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Average response to survey question:
Please tell me for homosexuality  whether it can 
 1: never be justified
 .
 .
10: always be justified
Remarks
Data: World Value Survey 2 1990-92, Ann Arbor, 
Michagan, USA

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=+.72
Happy Life Years by Acceptation of homosexuality 
in 42 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=+.38
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelacceptance of homosexuality
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Public opinion surveys
Remarks
Source:World Values Survey 2 items 307 and 308

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.62
Average happiness by acceptance of homosexuality 
in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.20
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom in life
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=.50
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom in 
life in 42 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.24
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific restrictions (perceived and actual)
Subject code: F05ab03b

StudyVeenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1
TitleWhat We Know about Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at the Dialogue on 'Gross National Happiness', 2001, Woudschoten, Zeist, The Netherlands.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8778
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived freedom at work
Page in Source 22
Our classificationSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual), code F05ab03b
Operationalization
Public opinion
Remarks
Source: World Values Survey 2. Items 95 and 117.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.74
Average happiness by self-perceived freedom at 
work in 41 nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.47
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to freedom
Subject code: F05ac

StudyDeen et al. (2005): study NL 2005
TitleHet Geluk van Werkend Nederland 2005. (The Happiness of Working People in the Netherlands in 2005).
SourceProjectpaper I0164 Motivaction i.o.o.Randstad (Temp Agency), 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/deen_n_2005.pdf
Public16-64 aged workers, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =3202

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with possibility to escape daily life
Page in Source 38,39
Our classificationAttitudes to freedom, code F05ac
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with possibility to escape 
daily life
Rated 1 very dissatisfied tot 5 very satisfied.
Observed distribution(very) dissatisfied:19%; neutral: 23%; (very) satisfied: 58%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-10-aDM=+
dissatisfied: M=6,2
satisfied:    M=7,5
O-HP-u-sq-n-10-ar=+.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to freedom
Subject code: F05ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal autonomy and independence
Our classificationAttitudes to freedom, code F05ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal autonomy and independence"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,52 SD: 2,04, Non-exercisers: M: 7,10 SD: 2,29
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.36 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.44 p < .00
Beta after accounting for: Perceived contribution 
of:
Personal strengths, skills and resources
Self-confidence and self-assurance
Family and family relationships
Friendship and social relationships
Faith, religion, ethic or moral values
Health, well-being, and quality of life
Power, status, and importance of yourself in 
society
Money, wealth, and luxuries
Satisfaction of basic needs (e.g. food, housing, 
etc.)
Love, loving and being loved
Partnership and sexuality
Sense of humour, attitudes and positive emotions
Work and work relationships
Goals, challenges and vital commitments
The way you are or personality
Sense of belonging
Habits and lifestyles
Self-image and self-esteem
Genes and heredity

when ONLY exercisers are considered


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to freedom
Subject code: F05ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal autonomy and independence
Our classificationAttitudes to freedom, code F05ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal autonomy and independence"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 7,09 SD: 1,74
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.09 p < .21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelPrivacy index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
Index of 3 single questions on satisfaction with:
a: The extent to which you are in touch with your own 
feelings
b: Your independence or freedom: the chance you have to 
do what you want
c: The privacy you have: being alone when you  want to
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Observed distributionM = 6.6 SD = 1.2
Remarks
All items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.40 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction when you feel free.
Page in Source 359
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 when you have the feeling to 
be free.
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:1%, 4:1%, 5:4%, 6:5%, 7:10%, 8:21%, 9:21%, 10:31%,DKNA:4%
Remarks
N=1873

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.1  M = 8.1             +1.0
top 3:  M = 8.8  M = 7.7             +1.1 
top 5:  M = 8.6  M = 7.3             +1.3
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 468, Others: 8-0 N=1405
Top 3: 10-8 N=1001, Others: 7-0 N= 872
Top 5: 10-6 N=1535, Others: 5-0 N= 338


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

StudyHelliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleEmperical Linkages between Good Government and National Well-Being.
SourceNBER, 2014, Working Paper No 20686, 1 - 33, Canada
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/20686.html
Public15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =900000

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom to make life choices
Page in Source 27
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
National average of self-reports for the question, "Are 
you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to 
choose what you do with your life?"
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distributionM=0,71 SD=0,15
Remarks
Source: Gallup World Poll
Binary responses assumed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+1.2 p < .01
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE freedom to make life 
choices in 154 nations in the period 2005-2012 
(n=776).
- Without country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.95 p < .01
- With country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.79 p < .05
Countries with high delivery quality (greater than 
0) (n=303)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.96 p < .01
Countries with low delivery quality (lower than 0) 
(n=473)

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- generosity
- social support
- year fixed effects

Similar patterns are obtained when b additionally 
controls for:
- Regional fixed effects

A similar result is also obtained when a 
regression is conducted for 2005-2012 averages at 
the country level without regional fixed effects.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.60 ns
Regression with 2005-2012 country averages.

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- delivery quality
- log GDP per capita
- healthy life expectancy
- generosity
- social support
- year fixed effects
- regional fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cb=+.52 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE democratic quality in 
146 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=696).

b controls for:
- Confidence in the national government (Gallup)
- Logged GDP
- Democratic quality
- Delivery quality
- Country fixed effects
- Year fixed effects
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support

Similar results are obtained when some controls 
are removed.

In sum: Freedom to make life choices has a 
significant positive effect on life satisfaction 
in all model specifications except for one.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with independance
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about your 
independence or freedom - the chance you have to do 
what you want."
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE²=+.43


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

StudyCrandall (1976): study US Ohio 1973
TitleValidation of Self-Report Measures Using Ratings by Others.
SourceSociological Methods and Measures, 1976, Vol. 4, 380 -400
URLhttp://smr.sagepub.com/content/4/3/380.full.pdf+html
PublicAdults, Toledo, USA, 1973
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =771

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom
Page in Source 388
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your freedom?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Remarks
Correlation (+.27) with peer rating of the participants 
satisfaction with his/her freedom.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.29 ns
Own happiness by own satisfaction with freedom.

Similar correlation (+.15) between ratings of 
participants happiness and satisfaction with 
freedom.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with freedom
Subject code: F05ac02

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with independence
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with freedom, code F05ac02
Operationalization
2-item index of questions "How do you
feel about....?"
a. the variety and diversity in life
b. independence and freedom (i.e. the
   change you have to do what you want)
Rated:
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.62


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with opportunity to change things
Subject code: F05ac03

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with oppertunity to change things
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with opportunity to change things, code F05ac03
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the opportunity 
to change things around that you don't like?"
Rated:
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with opportunity to change things
Subject code: F05ac03

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with opportunity to change things
Page in Source 112
Our classificationSatisfaction with opportunity to change things, code F05ac03
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the opportunity 
to change things around that you don't like?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-RA-h-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question.:

Up to now, have you been able to satisfy most of your ambitions in life or have you had to settle for less than you had hoped for .....?
2 able to satisfy ambitions
1 settled for less
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-n-8-aSelfreport on single question:

"How happy would you say you were in general?"
1 -
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 +

(Full response options not reported)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

Are you happy with your life?
2 yes
1 no
- don't know
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HP-u-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

To what degree you consider yourself as a happy person?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how satisfying do you find your life these days? Would you call it....?."
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not satisfying
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
CORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h² or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E² x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E² = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E² = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GsPARTIAL GAMMA. See: GAMMA
Range: [-1, +1].
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
TTSCHUPROW'S T
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0 ; SQRT[[min(r,c)-1]/[max(r,c) -1]]], c and r being the numbers of colums resp. rows in a cross tabulation.

Meaning:
T = 0 « no association
T -> 1 « strongest possible association.

NOTE: sometimes the square value is reported instead !
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
F05FREEDOMR02RESOURCES
F05aa01Earlier freedomP01ab14Earlier independence
F05aa01Earlier freedomP01ab16Earlier inner-control
F05abCurrent freedomN04ao05Effect of freedom on happiness
F05ab01Ability to choose (psychological freedom)C10ab02Current coping-capacity
F05ab01Ability to choose (psychological freedom)N03ayModal psychological freedom
F05ab02Informedness for choice (potential freedom)N04ao02aFreedom of press
F05ab02Informedness for choice (potential freedom)E01EDUCATION
F05ab03aAmount of restrictions perceivedN08acAverage perceived freedom
F05ab03bSpecific restrictions (perceived and actual)C09aeControl over consumption
F05acAttitudes to freedomN04ak03Prevalence of individualistic values
F05acAttitudes to freedomN04ao04Valuation of freedom

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings