Findings on Happiness and FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)
Subject Code: F01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)0
F01aaFamily career 0
F01aa01Earlier family situation 14
F01aa02Recent change in family situation3
F01aa03Later family situation9
F01abFamily composition (earlier for adults, current for young)4
F01ab01Number of siblings10
F01ab02Number of parents (broken home)32
F01acPosition in family 2
F01ac01Only child5
F01ac02Birth order4
F01adFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young)10
F01ad01Relations with siblings6
F01ad02Relations with parents11
F01ad02bCloseness to parents1
F01ad02cAgreement with parents4
F01ad03Relation between parents4
F01ad03aEquality between parents1
F01ad03bParents marital satisfaction6
F01aeParental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young)2
F01ae01Presence of parents2
F01ae02Rearing-style of parents2
F01ae02aDemanding3
F01ae02bPunitive3
F01ae02cPermissive vs dominant4
F01ae02dSupportive2
F01ae03Abuse by parents2
F01afCharacteristics of family-members (earlier for adults)2
F01af01Parents characteristics20
F01af01bAttitudes of parents4
F01af01cCapacities of parents2
F01af01hPersonality of parents6
F01af01dHappiness of parents2
F01af02Characteristics of siblings3
F01af02aAttitudes of siblings0
F01af02bCapacities of siblings0
F01af02cPersonality of siblings0
F01af02dHappiness of siblings8
F01agSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)13
F01ag01Parents education18
F01ag02Parents income6
F01ag03Parents occupation14
F01ahSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young)3
F01ah01Religious upbringing1
F01ah02Rural upbringing7
F01aiHardship in family of origin4
F01ai01Illness in family10
F01ai02Unemployment of parents6
F01ajWorking mother17
F01alAttitudes to family of origin11
F01ac03Non-biological child6
F01ac04Twin or triplet child6
F01ab03Mixed kin sibblings1
F01ab04Gender of sibblings1
F01af01aAge of parents0
F01akPrime caregiver in family0
F01af01fMarriage of parents0
F01ad02aAcceptance by parents1
F01af01gMigration of parents2
F01ab02aOne parent family0
F01ab02bNo living parents0
F01ai03Death of parent0
F01aa02a Change working hours of mother0
F01af01eHealth behavior of parents0
F01af01eaSmoking of parents0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=F01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelHousing situation at age 1
Page in Source 118
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Housing situation at age 1 as reported in medical file
A: own home, good
B: own home, poor
C: rented room
D: living in with family
Observed distributionN: A:2455, B:560, C:46, D:73

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
A: Mt=7.76
B: Mt=7.76
C: Mt=7.61
D: Mt=7.88
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT= ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
A: Mt=7.45
B: Mt=7.37
C: Mt=7.01
D: Mt=7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
A: Mt=7.08
B: Mt=6.99
C: Mt=6.84
D: Mt=6.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelFamily situation at age 1
Page in Source 118-120
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Family situation at age 1 as reported in medical file
a: lives with parents
b: lives with mother
c: lives with foster parents
d: lives with relatives
Observed distributionN: all:3836, a:3134, b:533, c:4, d:57,
Remarks
The answer-catagories in the book were transformed to 
only family-situation- catagories(a,b,c,d)
For the other information from the book, see the 
finding about Housing situation

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.76
b: Mt=7.61
c: Mt=7.50
d: Mt=7.50
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.44
b: Mt=7.24
c: Mt=7.50
d: Mt=7.24
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a: Mt=7.06
b: Mt=6.83
c: Mt=6.25
d: Mt=6.80


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelLiving with parents at 16
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 35
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
1 living with own parents at 16 years old
0 other
Observed distributionN=338730 M=1.65 sd=0.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.00 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelFamily psychosocial
Page in Source 6,14,16,17,18,19,24,25
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
a: Mother's emotional health (age 5,10, average)
b: Child conceived within marriage
c: Both parents still together (age 10)
Error Estimatess.e.=0.01
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbR²=+.02
Adjusted R2 when information on family in 
childhood only.
When family background limited to:
- age 5:        R2= +.02
- up to age 10: R2= +.03
- up to age 16: R2= +.07
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
Beta controlled for:
- Good conduct (at age 5,10,16)
- Intellectual performance (at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Gender (female)

Indirect effect of childhood family psychosocial:
Simulated: 
beta= +.02
Subtraction of total variance in family 
psychosocial from childhood family psychosocial:
beta= +.01

When limiting family psychosocial up to:
- age 5: beta= +.03
- age 10:beta= +.07
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Additionally controlling for:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct (at age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health (at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.07
Beta when only controlled for:
- family economic
- gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelresult all variables
Page in Source 179
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
a lived with both parents
b lived with mother only
c lived with mother and other adult(s)
d lived with mother and stepfather
e lived with mother, father and other adult(s)
f lived with grandparents
g mother's education
h education
i family income
j sex
k married
l age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bR²=.065
a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k+l


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyWilson et al. (1975): study US 1973
TitleStepfathers and Stepchildren: An Exploratory Analysis from Two National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, Vol. 37, 526 -536
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2445
Public18+ aged, USA
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelReared in stepfather family (vs not)
Page in Source 531
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
1 reared by natural mother and  stepfather (SF)
0 reared by both natural parents (NF)
Observed distributionN =1: 43, 0: 1174.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aChi²=3,65 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of books in home
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many books are in 
your home?
1 = none, or very few (0 - 10);
2 = a few (11 - 25);
3 = one bookcase full (26 - 100);
4 = two bookcases full (101 - 250);
5 = three or four bookcases full (251 -
    500)
6 = a room full; a library (501 or     more)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelParent's education
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many grades of school 
did your father/mother complete?
1 = less that HS;
2 = some HS (9-11 years)
3 = some HS plus noncollege training;
4 = completed HS (12 years);
5 = completed HS plus noncollege 
    training;
6 = some college;
7 = completed college;
8 = post-graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
- Father's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
- Mother's education
T1 happiness         tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelParental punitiveness
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Index of 10 items at T1 in which the respondent rated 
his parents on how often they did such things as 'take 
away your privileges', 'threaten to slap you', 'yell, 
shout or scream at you', 'disagree about punishing 
you', etc. Scale: 1.00 = never, 5.00 = always

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
T1 happiness:        tau = -.27  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.21  (001)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.17  (001)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.16  (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of rooms per person in home
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Number of rooms in home divided by 
number of people in home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelPossessions in home
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
The number of items from a list of 19 which the 
respondent indicates he has in his home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Occupation of father at T1 recoded to Duncan status 
score (Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness         tau = -.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPositive evaluation of family relations
Page in Source 211
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
21-item index containing closeness to father (4 items), 
closeness to mother (3 items), amount of reasoning with 
son (4 items), and parental punitiveness (10 items).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aE²=+.37 p < .001
Both variables assessed at T1, T2 and T3.
Family relations T1 x happiness T1 r = +.38
Family relations T1 x happiness T2 r = +.32
Family relations T1 x happiness T3 r = +.23
Family relations T2 x happiness T1 r = +.30
Family relations T2 x happiness T2 r = +.41
Family relations T2 x happiness T3 r = +.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier family situation
Subject code: F01aa01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelFamily's socioeconomic level
Our classificationEarlier family situation , code F01aa01
Operationalization
Index consisting of six equally weighted components: 
father's occupational status; father's educational 
level; mother's educational level; number of rooms per 
person in home; number of books in home; checklist of 
other possesions in the home. Scale: 1.00 to 8.00. 
Assessed at T1 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in family situation
Subject code: F01aa02

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold size
Page in Source 8+17
Our classificationRecent change in family situation, code F01aa02
Operationalization
Number of invididuals in the household
Observed distributionMean: 2.2774; SD: 1.229

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06 p < .05
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by CHANGE 
in household size (log)

b controlled for:
- Household income
- Years of education
- Home owner
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in family situation
Subject code: F01aa02

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labeltime since (step)family formation
Page in Source 149
Our classificationRecent change in family situation, code F01aa02
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.14 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- stepmother/stepfather family
- frequency of contact with nonresident parent
- social class of stepfamily
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent change in family situation
Subject code: F01aa02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since left parental home
Page in Source 62
Our classificationRecent change in family situation, code F01aa02
Operationalization
Years since leaving parental home
Remarks
Family situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.03 p < .05
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
and years since transition
- no job
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.05 ns
B additionally controlled for above years since 
transition squared


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Occupation of father at T1 recoded to Duncan status 
score (Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness         tau = -.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of rooms per person in home
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Number of rooms in home divided by 
number of people in home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelParental punitiveness
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Index of 10 items at T1 in which the respondent rated 
his parents on how often they did such things as 'take 
away your privileges', 'threaten to slap you', 'yell, 
shout or scream at you', 'disagree about punishing 
you', etc. Scale: 1.00 = never, 5.00 = always

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
T1 happiness:        tau = -.27  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.21  (001)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.17  (001)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.16  (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelPossessions in home
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
The number of items from a list of 19 which the 
respondent indicates he has in his home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelFamily's socioeconomic level
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Index consisting of six equally weighted components: 
father's occupational status; father's educational 
level; mother's educational level; number of rooms per 
person in home; number of books in home; checklist of 
other possesions in the home. Scale: 1.00 to 8.00. 
Assessed at T1 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelParent's education
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many grades of school 
did your father/mother complete?
1 = less that HS;
2 = some HS (9-11 years)
3 = some HS plus noncollege training;
4 = completed HS (12 years);
5 = completed HS plus noncollege 
    training;
6 = some college;
7 = completed college;
8 = post-graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
- Father's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
- Mother's education
T1 happiness         tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of books in home
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many books are in 
your home?
1 = none, or very few (0 - 10);
2 = a few (11 - 25);
3 = one bookcase full (26 - 100);
4 = two bookcases full (101 - 250);
5 = three or four bookcases full (251 -
    500)
6 = a room full; a library (501 or     more)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness         tau = +.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPositive evaluation of family relations
Page in Source 211
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
21-item index containing closeness to father (4 items), 
closeness to mother (3 items), amount of reasoning with 
son (4 items), and parental punitiveness (10 items).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aE²=+.37 p < .001
Both variables assessed at T1, T2 and T3.
Family relations T1 x happiness T1 r = +.38
Family relations T1 x happiness T2 r = +.32
Family relations T1 x happiness T3 r = +.23
Family relations T2 x happiness T1 r = +.30
Family relations T2 x happiness T2 r = +.41
Family relations T2 x happiness T3 r = +.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later family situation
Subject code: F01aa03

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelMother's characteristics (at Ss age 9-14)
Page in Source 117/118
Our classificationLater family situation, code F01aa03
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of interview 
protocols (one to three interviews).

Assessed  ±10 years after rating of baby happiness.

 a . Ignoring
'Does the mother ignore or reject her child?' (5-item 
index).

 b. Perceives child as a burden
'Does this mother perceive the child as more a burden 
and inconvenience than a source of happiness?' (5-item 
index).

 c. Use of fear to control
'Does this mother attempt to use fear as a way of 
controlling and teaching the child?' (5-item index).

 d. Wish to control the child 
'Does this mother seem to wish to control the child?' 
(5-item index).

 e. Keeps child socially isolated
'Does this mother tend to keep her child socially 
isolated?'(5-item index).

 f. Intrusiveness
'Does this mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a 
child has a mind of his own and that he should be able 
to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by 
the mother?'(4-item index).

 g. Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely 
attached to herself?' (5-item index).

 h. Fostering dependency in child
'Does this mother tend to baby her child or foster 
dependency in him?' (5-item index).

 i. Achievement demand
'Does the mother set high standards of achievement for 
the child?' (6-item index).

 j. Emotional involvement with child
'Extent and intensity of emotional and behavioral 
involvement with the child' (6-item index).

 k. Positive evaluation of child
'Does this mother have a positive evaluation of the 
child?'(6-item index)

 l. Expression of affection for child
'Does this mother openly express her love and affection 
for the child?' (5-item index).

 m. Equalitarianism
'Does this mother relate to the child as an equal?' 
(4-item index).

 n. Positive mother-child relationship
'Positiveness of mother-child rela-tionship?' 
(differentiated from
over-possessiveness) (7-item index).

 o. Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act 
independently and should be allowed to work or play 
apart from his parents?' 5-item index).

 p. Punitiveness
'Does the mother seem positive and unkind?' (6-item 
index).

 q. Irritability
'Does this mother tend to be irri-table?' (5-item 
index).

 r. Strictness
'Does this mother believe in rigid rules and strict 
enforcement of those rules?' (4-item index).

 s. Anxiety
'Does the mother appear overtly anxious?' (5-item 
index).

 t. Emotional withdrawal
'Does this mother withdraw from external involvements?' 
(6-item index).

 u. Dependency
'Is she a dependent mother?' (8-item index).

 v. Sociability
'Is this mother a sociable person?'
(6-item index).

 w. Cooperativeness
'Does this mother seem cooperative overtly?' (excluding 
officiousness, interventions, selfabasing cooperation) 
(7-item index).

 x. Positive emotional state
'Does this mother tend towards positive emotional 
states?' (7-item index).

 y. Communicativeness
'Does this mother communicate freely in the interview?' 
(5-item index).

 z. Rejection of homemaking role
'Does this mother seem to reject the role of 
homemaker?' (5-item index).

aa. Estimated intelligence
'Does this mother have a high intelli-gence?' (6-item 
index).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times 
between 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

            Months   Months   Months   Months
            10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.37
a:Ignoring
 -Boys     -.31(ns) -.41(ns) -.39(ns) -.39(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.34
 -Girls    -.27(ns) -.37(ns) -.30(ns) -.44(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.26
b:Perceives child as a burden.
 -Boys     -.40(ns) -.33(ns) -.28(ns) -.03(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.04
 -Girls    +.27(ns) -.28(ns) -.14(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.29
c:Use of fear to control
 -Boys      -.26(ns) -.35(ns) -.28(ns) -.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.05
 -Girls     +.10(ns) -.03(ns) -.07(ns) -.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.15
d:Wish to control the child
 -Boys      -.24(ns) -.19(ns) -.09(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.06
 -Girls     -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.03(ns) -.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.21
e:Keeps child socially isolated
 -Boys      +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
 -Girls     -.01(ns) -.12(ns) -.22(ns) -.49(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
f:Intrusiveness
 -Boys      -.03(ns) +.28(ns) +.16(ns) +.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.25
 -Girls     -.06(ns) -.18(ns) -.30(ns) -.45(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.18
g:Excessive contact with child
 -Boys      +.20(ns) +.29(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.24
 -Girls     -.34(ns) -.17(ns) -.13(ns) -.33(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.43
h:Fostering dependency in child
 -Boys      +.33(ns) +.57(05) +.41(ns) +.41
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.09
 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.27(ns) -.06(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.60
i:Achievement demand
 -Boys      +.48(ns) +.65(05) +.60(05) +.68(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.19
 -Girls     +.32(ns) +.21(ns) +.00(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.67
j:Emotional involvement with child
 -Boys      +.46(ns) +.79(05) +.72(05) +.72(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
 -Girls     -.03(ns) +.06(ns) +.19(ns) +.39(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.27
k:Positive evaluation of child
 -Boys      +.06(ns) +.30(ns) +.36(ns) +.36(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.32
 -Girls     +.31(ns) +.38(ns) +.12(ns) +.48(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.23
l:Expression of affection for child
 -Boys      +.14(ns) +.34(ns) +.22(ns) +.22(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.05
 -Girls     -.12(ns) -.02(ns) -.02(ns) +.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.49
m:Equalitarianism
 -Boys      +.36(ns) +.57(05) +.51(ns) +.51(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
 -Girls     +.03(ns) +.08(ns) +.04(ns) +.40(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.29
n:Positive mother-child relationship
 -Boys      +.29(ns) +.32(ns) +.28(ns) +.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.13(ns) +.05(ns) +.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.33
o:Permits and stimulates autonomy
 -Boys      -.20(ns) -.45(ns) -.34(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.10
 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.05(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.33
p:Punitiveness
 -Boys      -.34(ns) -.33(ns) -.32(ns) -.32(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.10
 -Girls     -.05(ns) -.08(ns) +.03(ns) -.31(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
q:Irritability
 -Boys      -.15(ns) -.24(ns) -.23(ns) -.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
 -Girls     -.03(ns) -.21(ns) -.03(ns) -.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.10
r:Strictness
 -Boys      -.06(ns) -.28(ns) -.12(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.08
 -Girls     +.28(ns) +.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
s:Anxiety
 -Boys      -.24(ns) -.15(ns) +.05(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr= 0
 -Girls     -.21(ns) -.06(ns) +.21(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
t:Emotional withdrawal
 -Boys      +.06(ns) -.08(ns) +.31(ns) +.31(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
 -Girls     -.28(ns) +.01(ns) +.21(ns) -.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
u:Dependency
 -Boys      -.06(ns) +.07(ns) +.18(ns) +.36(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.13
 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.03(ns) +.09(ns) +.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.35
v:Sociability
 -Boys      +.28(ns) +.31(ns) +.40(ns) +.40(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
 -Girls     +.25(ns) +.03(ns) +.02(ns) +.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.26
w:Cooperativeness
 -Boys      +.32(ns) +.20(ns) +.26(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
 -Girls     +.18(ns) +.18(ns) +.14(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.56
x:Positive emotinal state
 -Boys      +.62(05) +.57(05) +.58(05) +.46(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.12
 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.21(ns) -.17(ns) +.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.09
y:Communicativeness
 -Boys      +.34(ns) +.08(ns) -.04(ns) -.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.09
 -Girls     +.14(ns) -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.23
z:Rejection of homemaking role
 -Boys      -.21(ns) -.15(ns) -.28(ns) -.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.09
 -Girls     -.28(ns) -.23(ns) +.14(ns) +.00(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.35
aa:Estimated intelligence
 -Boys      +.33(ns) +.26(ns) +.41(ns) +.41(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.10
 -Girls     +.34(ns) +.02(ns) -.10(ns) +.12(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family composition (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelhalfbrothers and -sisters
Page in Source 332
Our classificationFamily composition (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ab
Operationalization
having half brothers and sisters
1: only full brothers and sisters
2: both full and half brothers and sisters
3: only half brothers and sisters
Observed distributionN: 1:1171, 2:105, 3:82

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1: Mt=7.81
2: Mt=7.74
3: Mt=7.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Mt=7.51
2: Mt=7.21
3: Mt=7.23
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Mt=7.00
2: Mt=6.66
3: Mt=6.74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family composition (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeltype of parents( biological, adoptive)
Page in Source 344
Our classificationFamily composition (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ab
Operationalization
Self report on questions about parents:
a: biological mother and father
b: biological mother and stepfather
c: biological father and stepmother
d: adoptive parents
Observed distributionN All:3731; %: a:70,2; b:21,4; c:3,0; d:5,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.80
b: Mt=7.78
c: Mt=7.19
d: Mt=7.70
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.50
b: Mt=7.38
c: Mt=7.14
d: Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.09
b: Mt=7.01
c: Mt=6.89
d: Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family composition (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ab

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold size
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationFamily composition (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ab
Operationalization
Number of people living regularly as member of 
household
Observed distributionRange:1-15 Mean=2.70; SD=1.40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 p < .001
b(0.0310) controlled for 
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 p < .001
	b(0.0278) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family composition (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ab

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labeleither stepmother or stepfather
Page in Source 149
Our classificationFamily composition (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ab
Operationalization
Lives in family with
1: stepfather
2: stepmother

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.08 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- time since (step)family formation
- frequency of contact with nonresident parent
- social class of stepfamily
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Page in Source 36,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
Number of brothers and sisters

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.01 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.01 ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced

B and beta ns when additionally controlled for:
- marital status
- family size,age
- number of offspring
- quality of marriage
- church attendance
- religious denomination
- charity work, education
- family income
- labour force participation
- spouse in LF
- occupational status
- job security
- personal income
- unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Page in Source 395
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
Number of siblings

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=-.15 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Monthly income
6. Perceived health
7. Days in bed
8. Family size
9. Functional ability
10.Satisfaction with family
   relationships
11.Social contacts 
12.Number of children
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyVeenhoven & Verkuyten (1989): study NL 1986
TitleThe Well-Being of Only Children.
SourceAdolescence, 1989, Vol. 24, 155 - 166
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16144
PublicSecondary school pupils, The Netherlands, 1986
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2511

Correlate
Author's labelonly children
Page in Source 161
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
0  with siblings
1  without siblings
Observed distributionN = 0: 2231, 1: 280,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
with siblings:     M = 7.3
without siblings:  M = 7.5
Difference            +0.2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aF=2.96 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
with siblings:     M = 1.6
without siblings:  M = 1.7
Difference            +0.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aF=.80 p < .10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelSocial background variables
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
a. Fathers occupation low and normal
   family (reference)
b. Father's education
c. Mother's education
d. Fathers occupation intermediate
e. Fathers occupation high
f. Fathers occupation independent
g. Social status low
i. Number of siblings
Observed distributionFathers education: 2,46 Mothers education: 2,25 Number od siblings: 5,02.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06 ns
Fathers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.03 ns
Mothers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.05 ns
Fathers occupation intermediate
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 ns
Fathers occupation high
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02 ns
Fathers occupation independent
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Social status low
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Number of siblings

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling 
-intelligence
-gender and family status
-labour market status
-health status

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation (not 
significant) between social background variables 
and happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Page in Source 26,30,31,45
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
Number of siblings at age 10
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=-.03
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=-.00
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Family income at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=-.01
Beta controlled for family background variables 
only:
- Family income(at age 10)
- Social class of father(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyGlenn & Hoppe (1984): study US 1973
TitleOnly Children as Adults, Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1984, Vol. 5, 363 - 382
Public18+ aged whites, USA, 1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Page in Source 372-375
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
0, 1 or 2, 3_





0 No siblings
1 1 or 2 siblings





0 No siblings
1 3 or more siblings

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= -
  % very happy:        males        females

     0 siblings         39%           37%
1 or 2 siblings         35%           41%
3 or _ siblings         33%           37%

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= -
Males:  -.07 (01)       Females:  +.05 (ns)
B controled for pre-adult background variables

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= 0
Males:  -.06 (05)       Females:  +.06 (ns)
B moreover controled for current education over
family income

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= -
Males:  -.11 (01)       Females: -.02 (ns)
B controled for pre-adult background variables

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= -
Males: -.07 (05)        Females: +.03 (ns)
B moreover controled for current education and 
family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelFamilial roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: 
- spouse
- parent
- grandparent
- sibling
- child
- grandchild

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r=+.37 ns females: r=+.54 01
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.24 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly weds)       
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.42 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 ns
Women only (no curvilinearity has been found in 
the correlation egocentricity and well-being)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.06 ns
men only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
Sum of number of brothers and number of sisters at T1 
Actual number coded (7 = 7 or more)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.03  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelNumbers of children in the family
Page in Source 113/354
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.01
Lower classs            : G = -.11
Middle and upper class  : G =  .00
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.04
Lower class                     : G = -.27
Middle class and upper class    : G = +.01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .06 p < . 02
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of siblings
Subject code: F01ab01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of siblings
Page in Source 250
Our classificationNumber of siblings, code F01ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) Number of siblings by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.10 p < .05
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.10 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.01 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status parents
Page in Source 905
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0) parents together
1) parents divorced or seperated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Past household income
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelParent divorced
Page in Source 36,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Parents divorced:
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-1.2 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=-.04 ns
Beta and B above controlled for:
- Gender
- Migrant
- Family backround:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Number of siblings 

B and Beta not significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance (ln)
  - Religious denomination
- Work status:
  - Volunteer work (hours)
  - Education
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Occupational status
  - Job security
  - Unemployed
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelFamily composition
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Composition of family
a: step family
b: two-parent family
c: lone-parent family
Remarks
See also jones2002C-2.jpg: Chart 2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy
a: step family         23%
b: two-parent family   30%
c: lone-parent family  27%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .939
girls from lone-parent family
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.16 p < .001
boys from lone parent family
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.09 p < .113
girls, stepchild
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.08 p < .146
boys, stepchild
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.11 p < .142
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N= 1192, boys N=1178)

girls, lone parent
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.23 p < .001
boys, lone parent
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.04 p < .547
girls, step child
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.01 p < .869
boys, stepchild

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelRecent change in mother's marital status after birth
Page in Source 130
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Recent change in mother's marital status  after birth 
as reported in medical file
a: mother married to child's father after birth
b: mother married to other after child's birth
c: mother separated/divorced after birth
Observed distributionN: a:346; b:32; c:49
Remarks
only Ss who are mothers with changed marital status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.91
b: Mt=7.35
c: Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.55
b: Mt=6.95
c: Mt=7.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
a: Mt=7.20
b: Mt=6.88
c: Mt=6.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelFamily structure
Page in Source 8,10, 17,18
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0 intact family = living with both parents
1 non-intact family = living with mother only, father 
only or non of the parents.

2) non-intact years: proportion of non-intact yearst 
among the first 15 years of lie in percent.
Observed distributionM=0.210 SD= 0.408 Non-intact years: M = 49,9% SD=27,6 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
Probability of living  in broken home or not at 
different levels of happiness.

   Intact Non-intact Difference
   Family Family 
0  ?      ?            -
1  -      -            -
2  ?      ?            -
3  -      -            -
4  ?      ?            -
5  .08    .11          +.03
6  .07    .09          +.02
7  .21    .25          +.04
8  .33    .31          -.02
9  .19    .15          -.04
10 .10    .06          -.04

(author can you please provide figures?)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=- p < .01
OPRC ( -0,258),CI95=[-0,45 -0,06]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=- ns
OPRC (-0,195) CI95=[-0,50 0,11]controlled for 
non-intact years.
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=- ns
OPRC ( -0,166),CI95=[-0,39 0,02] additionally 
controlled for :
- non-intact family
- having an own room
- being a single child
(not for non-intact years)
probit result=
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for:
-gender
-German nationality
-Territory of West Germany
-Being in school
-Engaged in vocational training
-work
-lives at home
-region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)	
probit result= -0,170
CI95=[-0,38  0,04]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
-type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
-good student
-repeat a grade
-education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
-log number of books in the household
probit result= -0,139
CI95=[-0,35 0,08]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
Effect of non-intact years also controlled for 
non-intact family.
probit result= -0,001
CI95=[-0,01 0,00]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyWeick (1997): study DE 1995
TitleLebensbedingungen und Bewertungen. (Living Conditions and Evaluations).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 1997", Verlag Bonn Aktuell, 1997, Germany, 468 - 480
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1997.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold composition
Page in Source 477
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a children but no partner
   b with partner, no children
   c married, no children
   d married with young children (<6)
   e married with older children (6-16)
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                            West   East
Living alone
 a single                   6,7     6,0
 b divorced                 6,2     5,6
 c widowed                  6,4     6,6
Living together
 a children, no partner     6,6     6,4
 b partner, no children     7,3     6,5
 c married, no children     7,2     6,4
 d married, young children  7,1     6,7
 e married, older children  6,9     6,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelSingle parent
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = 0.16; SD = 0.19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.30 ns
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
-repeated at least one school year
-residence location
-gender
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.38 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.34 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.41 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-parental jobs
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=-.28 ns
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
a: living with both parents 
b: living with mother only
c: half with father, half with mother
d: living with mother and stepfather
e: living with father only 
f: other
g: living independent
h: living with father and stepmother
i: living with foster parents
j: living in children's home
Observed distributionin %: a: 74.9; b: 9.3; c: 6.4; d: 2.9; e : 2.1; f: 1.9; g: 1.1; h: 0,8; i: 0,4; j: 0,3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
a: living with both parents           M= 7.8
b: living with mother only            M= 7.3
c: half with father, half with mother M= 7.5
d: living with mother and stepfather  M= 7.3
e: living with father only            M= 7.4
f: other                              M= 7.3 
g: living independent                 M= 7.3
h: living with father and stepmother  M= 7.3
i: living with foster parents         M= 7.2
j: living in children's home          M= 6.4
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtones only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.83
b:living with mother only            M=7.31 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.32
e:living with father only            M=7.41
f:other                              M=7.38
g:living independent                 M=7.38
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.35 
i:living in children's home          M=7.25
j:living in children's home          M=6.85
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtones (Turkish and Moroccan) only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.52 
b:living with mother only            M=7.60
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=8.12
e:living with father only            M=7.99    
f:living with both parents           M=6.50 
g:living independent                 M=6.57
h:living with father and stepmother  M=4.99
i:living with foster parents         M=6.73
j:living in children's home          M=5.04
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone girls only
a:living with both parents          M=7.69
b:living with mother only           M=7.08
c:half with father,half with mother M=7.13 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=7.25 
e:living with father only           M=7.19
f:other                             M=7.62
g:living independent                M=7.31
h:living with father and stepmother M=7.51 
i:living with foster parents        M=7.41
j:living in children's home         M=5.63
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone boys only
a:living with both parents           M=7.96 
b:living with mother only            M=7.56 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.91 
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.43
e:living with father only            M=7.62    
f:other                              M=7.62
g:living independent                 M=7.31 
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.27 
i:living with foster parents         M=7.08
j:living in children's home          M=7.21
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtone boys only
a:living with both parents          M=7.64
b:living with mother only           M=7.52
c:half with father,half with mother  M=7.12        
 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=8.36
e:living with father only           M=8.00 
f:other                             M=6.59
g:living independent                M=7.56
h:living with father and stepmother  -    i:living 
with foster parents        M=6.00
j:living in children's home         M=5.50.
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-a
Allochtone girls only
a:living with both parents           M=7.41 
b:living with mother only            M=7.66
c:half with father, half with mother M=8.04
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.62
e:living with father only            M=7.99
f:other                              M=6.43 
g:living independent                 M=5.87 
h:living with father and stepmother  -    
i:living with foster parents         M=7.00 
j:living in children's home          M=4.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

Study~CBS (1984b): study NL 1979
TitleDe Leefsituatie van de Nederlandse Jeugd van 13-24 jaar in 1979. Deel 4.(Life Situation of the Dutch Youth of 13-24 in 1979, Vol. 4: An Analysis of Youth in One-Parent Families.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1984, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicAdolescents, The Netherlands, 1979
Sample
Non-Response35%, of which: refusals 62%, no contact 27%, unable 8%
Respondents N =3113

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home
Page in Source 42
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0 Two parent family
1 One parent family

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dG=-.03
% happy of very happy:
- two parents       : 88% 
- one parent;
  - parents divorced: 76% 
  - parent died     : 82%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=.09
Beta controlled for:
- age
- education of head of household
- daytime school
- head of household employed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyWu (2008): study TW 2005
TitleExamining the Appropriateness of Importance Weighting on Satisfaction Score from Range-of-Affect Hypothesis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Within-Subject Data.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 101 - 111
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9103-9
PublicSecondary school pupils, Taiwan, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4502

Correlate
Author's labelfamily structure
Page in Source 63-64
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0 live with both parents
1 other
  a: live with mother only
  b: live with father only
  c: live with others
Observed distribution85,6% live with parents; 9,5% live with mother only; 2,6% with father only; 2,3% with others.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aD%=+
% satisfied with life overal
- live with parents      78,7
- live with mother only  77,1
- live with father only  62,2 
- live with others       65,9
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aOR=+
Chance of DISsatisfaction with life (compared to 
living with parents)
- live with mother only  1,08
- live with father only  1,77 
- live with others       2,07
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aOR=+
OR controled for
- gender
- level of study
- migrant status
- economic status
reveals more negative OR with live with father 
only (2,20) and live with others (2,94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelParental status: step parent
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.08 p < .01
Step parent (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.06 p < .04
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelParental status: lone parent
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.02 ns
Lone parent (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.03 p < .26
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of biological parents in household
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1: both parents
0: 1 or less

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab=+.29 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
 -Lives in England
-Family conposition
 -household income
 -Number of children in household
-Standard og living
 -Household material deprivation index
 -Child material deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelParental divorce
Page in Source 928
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
2:divorced
1:non-divorced
Observed distribution Mean SD males 1.22 0.42 females 1.22 0.41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKalmuss et al. (1992): study US 1989
TitleShort-Term Consequences of Parenting Versus Adoption among Young Unmarried Woman.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 80 - 90
PublicUnmarried teenage mothers, USA, 1989-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response>10%
Respondents N =527

Correlate
Author's labellived with both parents at age 14
Page in Source 83+88
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
lived with both parents at age 14
0: no
1: yes
Observed distribution40% lived with both parents at least till age 14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-ab=+.05 ns
B controlled for:
- pregnancy resolution (parented/placed)
- age in years
- race (black/white)
- received punblic assistance
- high school graduated
- lived in maternity residence while pregnant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGuidubaldi & Perry (1985): study US 1984
TitleDivorce and Mental Health Sequelae for Children: A Two Year Follow-Up of a Nation Wide Sample.
SourceJournal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1985, Vol. 24, 531 - 537
PublicSchool children, first to fitfth grade, USA, 1984
Sample
Non-Response84%
Respondents N =110

Correlate
Author's labelParents divorced vs parents together
Page in Source 533
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0 Parents together
1 Parents divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdt-?-0-aSNR=-
When controlled for Socioeconomic status:
females           (ns)                           
males            - (s)                          

When controlled for IQ:
females           (ns)                           
males            - (s)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelFamily composition:live w. parents vs.live w. mother
Page in Source 179
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Family situation before age 16
1 lived with both parents
2 lived with mother only
Observed distribution1= 50,6%; 2= 12,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- mothers education
- current own education, income
- age, sex
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelfamily composition:live w. parents vs. mother and stepfather
Page in Source 174-197
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Family situation before age 16
1 lived with both parents
2 mother and stepfather
Observed distribution1= 50,6%; 2= 4,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 ns
beta controlled for:
- mothers education
- current own education, income
- age, sex
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelfamily composition:live w. parents vs. other
Page in Source 174-197
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Family situation before age 16
1 lived with both parents
2 mother, father and other adults
Observed distribution1= 50,6%; 2= 19,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 ns
beta controlled for:
- mothers education
- current own education, income
- age, sex
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelfamily composition:live w. parents vs. grandparents
Page in Source 174-197
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Family situation before age 16
1 lived with both parents
2 lived with grandparents
Observed distribution1= 50,6%; 2= 4,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.04 ns
beta controlled for:
- mothers education
- current own education, income
- age, sex
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyNelson (1982): study US 1978 /2
TitleCoping with the Loss of the Father.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1982, Vol. 3, 41 - 60
PublicChildren, Winnipeg, Manitoba, U.S.A., 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =96

Correlate
Author's labelFamily status
Page in Source 53
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
mothers marital status
- widowed
- divorced
- married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaAoV= p < .005
Boys                    Girls
M = 1.13                 1.50
M = 1.45                 1.50
M = 1.83                 1.80
The pattern of difference is similar for boys and 
girls.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home background
Page in Source 454
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Death of one or both parents before age 17.
0 No
1 Yes


Divorce of both parents before age 17.
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns
1976
Controlled for sex, age and education.
             
                
                   
                        
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%= ns
1976
Controlled for sex, age and education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGlenn & Kramer (1985): study US 1973
TitleThe Psychological Well-Being of Adult Children of Divorce.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 905 -912
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/352338
Public18+ aged whites, USA, 1973-82
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9704

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home background
Page in Source 908
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Parents died:
  0 intact
  1 one parent had died

Parents divorced:
  0 intact
  1 divorced

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=- ns
Parent died:
- Females    B= -.03  ns
- Males      B= -.04  ns
                
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=- s
Parents divorced:
- Females    B= -.12  (001)   ß= -.19
- Males      B= -.14  (03)    ß= -.22

Causel paths: children of divorce slightly less 
succesfull in school and more likely to be 
unmarried , in particular females

% of the difference in happiness explained:
Males:   0.5% by education, 3% by marital status,
         6% by age

Females: 7% by education, 18% by marital status,   
      14% by age

B's and ß's controlled for age, father's 
occupational prestige, father's years of school 
completed, mother's years of school completed, 
size of community lived in at age 16, number of 
siblings, religion in which raised and whether or 
not the mother worked outside the home before the 
person was age 6.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyNock (1982): study US 1972
TitleEnduring Effects of Marital Disruption and Subsequent Living Arrangements.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1982, Vol. 3, 25 - 40
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-77
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8224

Correlate
Author's labelFamily disruption in youth
Page in Source 37
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Single closed question about familysituation around the 
time the respondent was 16: "Were you with your own 
mother and father around the time you were 16?" If not, 
the reason for this was asked and with whom the 
respondent was living around that time.
0: lived with both natural parents
1: family disruption

- divorce of parents
    - lived with father and stepmother
    - lived with mother and stepfather
    - lived with mother only
    - lived with father only
- death of parents
    - lived with father and stepmother
    - lived with mother and stepfather
    - lived with mother only
    - lived with father only
Remarks







b controlled for race, sex, number of siblings,
religous denomination, age, education and 
occupational prestige.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ s
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
                       
                    
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+ ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelParents are living together
Page in Source 28
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Direct closed question: divorced / separated / living 
together.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+ s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLived with both parents
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Based on questions at T1 whether respondent's natural 
parents are alive, whether he lives with his own mother 
and father, and wether his parents are divorced of 
separated. 0 = broken home, 1 = home intact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home in childhood
Page in Source 42
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: Did you live with your real 
father/mother during the first 15 years of your life? 
0: yes
1: no 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=- p < .05
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelDisruption of family relationships
Page in Source 113/350
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
2-item index of closed questions on parents living 
together / divorced / separated / separated by death, 
and ever had stepparents, foster parents or guardians.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=-.21
After control for social class: G = -.21
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .07 p < . 01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .04 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home background (separation)
Page in Source 246
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
S lived with both of his real parents until he was 16 
years of age vs separated from at least one of his 
parents through divorce.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.30 p < . 01
G' based on proportion 'not too happy' answers.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyGurin et al. (1960): study US 1957
TitleAmericans View their Mental Health. A Nationwide Interview Survey.
SourceBasic Books, 1960, New York, USA ( Reprint in 1980, Arno Press, New York, USA)
Public21+ aged, general public, USA,1957
Sample
Non-Response13%; 5% not at home, 8% refusals
Respondents N =2460

Correlate
Author's labelBroken home background (death)
Page in Source 246
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
S lived with both of his real parents until he was 16 
years of age vs separation through the death of one or 
both parents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.11 ns
G' based on proportion 'not too happy' answers.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelParents are living together
Page in Source 283
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
0 Broken 
1 Unbroken homes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= + p < . s
L-shaped curve: significant for the 'unhappy' only
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=+ s
L-shaped curve: significant for the 'unhappy' only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of parents (broken home)
Subject code: F01ab02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelParents marital status
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationNumber of parents (broken home), code F01ab02
Operationalization
1 Married
0 Unmarried

a. in 1922
b. in 1928
c. in 1936
d. in 1940
Remarks
Earlier status of parents (1922-1940) by present 
happiness of subject (1972).
                  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 parents married by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1928 parents married by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1936 parents married by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parents married by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Mixed kin sibblings
Subject code: F01ab03

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelFamily composition
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationMixed kin sibblings, code F01ab03
Operationalization
Composition of family
a: step family
b: two-parent family
c: lone-parent family
Remarks
See also jones2002C-2.jpg: Chart 2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy
a: step family         23%
b: two-parent family   30%
c: lone-parent family  27%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .939
girls from lone-parent family
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.16 p < .001
boys from lone parent family
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.09 p < .113
girls, stepchild
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.08 p < .146
boys, stepchild
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.11 p < .142
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N= 1192, boys N=1178)

girls, lone parent
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.23 p < .001
boys, lone parent
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.04 p < .547
girls, step child
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.01 p < .869
boys, stepchild

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gender of sibblings
Subject code: F01ab04

StudySchnitzlein & Wunder (2014): study DE 1984
TitleAre we architects of our own happiness? The Importance of Family Background for Well-being.
SourceSoep Paper, 2014, No. 700, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2529978
DOIdoi: org/10.2139/ssrn.2529978
Public12+ aged, siblings, West Germany, followed 26 years,1984-2010,
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7398

Correlate
Author's labelSiblings sex
Page in Source 24,25,26,27
Our classificationGender of sibblings, code F01ab04
Operationalization
Sexe of sibling
a brother
b sister
c mixed-sex

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
ALL SIBLINGS
a M = 7.27 SD = 1.71
b M = 7.28 SD = 1.73
c M = 7.30 SD = 1.70
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Siblings living with parents
a M = 7.38 SD = 1.76
b M = 7.44 SD = 1.75
c M = 7.42 SD = 1.76
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Siblings moved out of parental home
a M = 7.09 SD = 1.65
b M = 7.11 SD = 1.71
c M = 7.18 SD = 1.63
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Siblings in mixed families
a M = 7.25 SD = 1.66
b M = 7.23 SD = 1.69
c M = 7.24 SD = 1.67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Position in family
Subject code: F01ac

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltwin or triplet
Page in Source 338
Our classificationPosition in family , code F01ac
Operationalization
being a twin or triplet
a: identical twin
b: fraternal twin
c: triplet
d: twin or triplet
e: neither twin nor triplet
Observed distributionN: all:1476, a:8, b:20, c:6, d:34, e:1408

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
 a: Mt=6.56
 b: Mt=7.50
 c: Mt=7.09
 d: Mt=7.20
 e: Mt=7.76
All Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
 a: Mt=6.56
 b: Mt=6.88
 c: Mt=7.50
 d: Mt=6.91
 e: Mt=7.45
All Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
 a: Mt=6.25
 b: Mt=6.38
 c: Mt=6.66
 d: Mt=6.40
 e: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Position in family
Subject code: F01ac

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelBeing oldest or onlychild
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPosition in family , code F01ac
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=- s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Only child
Subject code: F01ac01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelonly child
Page in Source 332-338
Our classificationOnly child, code F01ac01
Operationalization
siblings
0: brothers and sisters
1: only child
Observed distributionN women: 0:312, 1:70 N men: 0:280, 1:68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
women:      men:
0: Mt=7.80  0:8.06
1: Mt=7.11  1:7.61
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
women:      men:
0: Mt=7.51  0:7.51
1: Mt=7.03  1:7.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
women:      men:
0: Mt=6.90  0:7.50
1: Mt=6.63  1:7.20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Only child
Subject code: F01ac01

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelSingle child
Page in Source 7,17,18
Our classificationOnly child, code F01ac01
Operationalization
0 no single child
1 single child
Observed distributionM =0,118 (12%), SD = 0,323

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also  controlled for:
- non-intact family
- log income
- having an own room
probit result= -0,009
CI95=[ -0,26  0,24]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for:
-gender
-German nationality
-Territory of West Germany
-Being in school
-Engaged in vocational training
-work
-lives at home
-region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
probit result= 0,048
CI95=[ -0,21  0,30]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
-type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
-good student
-repeat a grade
-education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
-log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,037
CI95=[ -0,22  0,29]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Only child
Subject code: F01ac01

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationOnly child, code F01ac01
Operationalization
0  No children
1 Children in the household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.16 p < .001
	b(-.162) controlled for 
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.14 p < .001
b(-.142) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Only child
Subject code: F01ac01

StudyPolit et al. (1980): study US 1975
TitleThe Only Child Grows Up: A Look at Some Characteristics of Adults Only Children.
SourceFamily Relations, 1980, Vol. 29, 99 - 106
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/583722
PublicCouples, white, middle/upper class, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1074

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an only child
Page in Source 102
Our classificationOnly child, code F01ac01
Operationalization
0. First borns, later borns.
1. Only children.
Remarks
         first borns   later borns   onlies

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aDMt=+ ns
males:   Mt' =  7.6    Mt' =  7.6    Mt' = 8.0
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.26 p < .01
Males 
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatau=-.11 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aDMt=+ ns
females: Mt' =  7.9    Mt' =  7.9    Mt' = 7.8
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=0 ns
Females: differences computed on the basis of % 
'not too happy'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Only child
Subject code: F01ac01

StudyBlake (1981): study US 1972
TitleThe Only Child in America: Prejudice versus Performance.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 1981, Vol. 7, 43 - 51
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1972763
PublicAdults, general public, English-speaking, USA, 1972-1978.
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =10652

Correlate
Author's labelOnly child
Page in Source 51
Our classificationOnly child, code F01ac01
Operationalization
0 Not only child
1 Only child

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-daDM=0
Compared to subjects with one or two siblings.
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-daDM=+
Compared with subjects with six or more siblings.
Differences controlled for social and economic 
status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth order
Subject code: F01ac02

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBeing twin or triplet
Page in Source 268
Our classificationBirth order, code F01ac02
Operationalization
Being a twin or triplet
1: one child
2: part of twin/triplet
Observed distributionN all:4355, 1:97,6%, 2:2,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=0
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.40
2:  Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=7.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth order
Subject code: F01ac02

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBirth sequence in twin/triplet
Page in Source 268
Our classificationBirth order, code F01ac02
Operationalization
Birth sequence in twin/triplet, as reported in medical 
file
1: first child of twins or triplets
2: second child of twins or triplets
3: third child of twins or triplets
Observed distribution1:63, 2:39, 3:1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.38
2: Mt=7.50
3: Mt=7.50
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.21
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.98
2: Mt=7.36
3: Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth order
Subject code: F01ac02

StudySuhail & Chaudhry (2004): study PK 2000
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim Culture.
SourceJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 23, 359 - 376.
DOIDOI:10.1521/jscp.23.3.359.35451
Public16-80 aged, general public, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =973

Correlate
Author's labelOrder of Birth
Page in Source 368
Our classificationBirth order, code F01ac02
Operationalization
0: eldest
1: middle
2: youngest
Observed distributionN = 0: 244, 1: 567, 2: 100

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aDM=+
0 eldest    M= 4,91   SD= 1,44
1 middle    M= 4,95   SD= 1,27
2 youngest  M= 5,06   SD= 1,35
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bDM=+
0 eldest    M= 6,89   SD= 2,15
1 middle    M= 7,13   SD= 2,01
2 youngest  M= 7,16   SD= 2,14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth order
Subject code: F01ac02

StudyPolit et al. (1980): study US 1975
TitleThe Only Child Grows Up: A Look at Some Characteristics of Adults Only Children.
SourceFamily Relations, 1980, Vol. 29, 99 - 106
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/583722
PublicCouples, white, middle/upper class, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1074

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a first born child
Page in Source 102
Our classificationBirth order, code F01ac02
Operationalization
0. Later-borns
1. First-borns
Remarks
             later born    first born

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bD%=+
Males only.
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aDMt=0 ns
males:       Mt'  = 7.6    Mt' = 7.6
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aDMt=0 ns
females:     Mt'  = 7.9    Mt' = 7.9
Only children left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltype of parents
Page in Source 326
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
type of parents, made up by the questions:
"Were you adopted as a child ?"
"Are both your parents/adoptive parents alive?"
a: biological mother and father
b: biological mother and stepfather
c: biological father and stepmother
d: adoptive parents
Observed distributionN: all:1036, a:889, b:103, c:31, d:13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
 a: Mt=7.80
 b: Mt=7.94
 c: Mt=7.83
 d: Mt=8.08
All Mt=7.81
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
 a: Mt=7.41
 b: Mt=7.38
 c: Mt=7.99
 d: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
 a: Mt=7.01
 b: Mt=7.09
 c: Mt=7.01
 d: Mt=7.11
All Mt=7.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBeing adopted
Page in Source 128
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
Situation at age 1 as reported in medical file
1: not adopted at 1 year(=biological child)
2: adopted
   2a: adopted trough National Council 
   2b: privately adopted
Observed distributionN: all:3880, 1:96%, 2:3,7%, 2a:3%, 2b:1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.81
2a: Mt=7.89
2b: Mt=7.58
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.23
2a: Mt=7.15
2b: Mt=7.09
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.03
2:  Mt=6.84
2a: Mt=6.88
2b: Mt=6.74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeltype of parents( biological, adoptive)
Page in Source 344
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
Self report on questions about parents:
a: biological mother and father
b: biological mother and stepfather
c: biological father and stepmother
d: adoptive parents
Observed distributionN All:3731; %: a:70,2; b:21,4; c:3,0; d:5,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.80
b: Mt=7.78
c: Mt=7.19
d: Mt=7.70
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.50
b: Mt=7.38
c: Mt=7.14
d: Mt=7.29
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.09
b: Mt=7.01
c: Mt=6.89
d: Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelPosition in household
Page in Source 25
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
0 head of the household or spouse(reference group))
1 not-head of the household or spouse
  a children
  b child of the head of the household
  c not child of the head of the household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .10
a: Children happier than the head of household or 
spouse
when trait-happiness is also controled B=+.01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .05
b: Child of the head of the household happier than 
the head of the house hold
when trait-happiness is also controled B=+.07
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.41 p < .01
c: Not child of the head of the household 
unhappier than head of the household or spouse
when trait-happiness is also controled B=-.18

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
a: living with both parents 
b: living with mother only
c: half with father, half with mother
d: living with mother and stepfather
e: living with father only 
f: other
g: living independent
h: living with father and stepmother
i: living with foster parents
j: living in children's home
Observed distributionin %: a: 74.9; b: 9.3; c: 6.4; d: 2.9; e : 2.1; f: 1.9; g: 1.1; h: 0,8; i: 0,4; j: 0,3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
a: living with both parents           M= 7.8
b: living with mother only            M= 7.3
c: half with father, half with mother M= 7.5
d: living with mother and stepfather  M= 7.3
e: living with father only            M= 7.4
f: other                              M= 7.3 
g: living independent                 M= 7.3
h: living with father and stepmother  M= 7.3
i: living with foster parents         M= 7.2
j: living in children's home          M= 6.4
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtones only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.83
b:living with mother only            M=7.31 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.32
e:living with father only            M=7.41
f:other                              M=7.38
g:living independent                 M=7.38
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.35 
i:living in children's home          M=7.25
j:living in children's home          M=6.85
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtones (Turkish and Moroccan) only 
a:living with both parents           M=7.52 
b:living with mother only            M=7.60
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.53
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=8.12
e:living with father only            M=7.99    
f:living with both parents           M=6.50 
g:living independent                 M=6.57
h:living with father and stepmother  M=4.99
i:living with foster parents         M=6.73
j:living in children's home          M=5.04
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone girls only
a:living with both parents          M=7.69
b:living with mother only           M=7.08
c:half with father,half with mother M=7.13 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=7.25 
e:living with father only           M=7.19
f:other                             M=7.62
g:living independent                M=7.31
h:living with father and stepmother M=7.51 
i:living with foster parents        M=7.41
j:living in children's home         M=5.63
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Autochtone boys only
a:living with both parents           M=7.96 
b:living with mother only            M=7.56 
c:half with father, half with mother M=7.91 
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.43
e:living with father only            M=7.62    
f:other                              M=7.62
g:living independent                 M=7.31 
h:living with father and stepmother  M=7.27 
i:living with foster parents         M=7.08
j:living in children's home          M=7.21
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
Allochtone boys only
a:living with both parents          M=7.64
b:living with mother only           M=7.52
c:half with father,half with mother  M=7.12        
 
d:living with mother and stepfather M=8.36
e:living with father only           M=8.00 
f:other                             M=6.59
g:living independent                M=7.56
h:living with father and stepmother  -    i:living 
with foster parents        M=6.00
j:living in children's home         M=5.50.
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-a
Allochtone girls only
a:living with both parents           M=7.41 
b:living with mother only            M=7.66
c:half with father, half with mother M=8.04
d:living with mother and stepfather  M=7.62
e:living with father only            M=7.99
f:other                              M=6.43 
g:living independent                 M=5.87 
h:living with father and stepmother  -    
i:living with foster parents         M=7.00 
j:living in children's home          M=4.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Non-biological child
Subject code: F01ac03

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelParental status: step parent
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationNon-biological child, code F01ac03
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.08 p < .01
Step parent (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.06 p < .04
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeltwin or triplet
Page in Source 338
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
being a twin or triplet
a: identical twin
b: fraternal twin
c: triplet
d: twin or triplet
e: neither twin nor triplet
Observed distributionN: all:1476, a:8, b:20, c:6, d:34, e:1408

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
 a: Mt=6.56
 b: Mt=7.50
 c: Mt=7.09
 d: Mt=7.20
 e: Mt=7.76
All Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
 a: Mt=6.56
 b: Mt=6.88
 c: Mt=7.50
 d: Mt=6.91
 e: Mt=7.45
All Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
 a: Mt=6.25
 b: Mt=6.38
 c: Mt=6.66
 d: Mt=6.40
 e: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBeing twin or triplet
Page in Source 268
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
Being a twin or triplet
1: one child
2: part of twin/triplet
Observed distributionN all:4355, 1:97,6%, 2:2,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=0
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.40
2:  Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=7.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsiblings
Page in Source 332-338
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
brothers and sisters(1)
a1: only sisters
b1: brothers and sisters
c1: only brothers
d1: only child

half brothers and sisters(2)
a2: only full brothers and sisters
b2: both full and half brothers and sisters
c2: only half brothers and sisters
d2: only child

twin or triplet(3)
a3: identical twin
b3: fraternal twin
c3: triplet
d3: twin or triplet
e3: neither twin nor triplet
Observed distributionN women: all:738, a1:165, b1:312, c1:191, d1:70 N men: all:729, a1:193, b1:280, c1:188, d1:68 N(2): all:1483, a2:1157, b2:105, c2:82, d2:139 N(3): all:1476, a3:8, b3:20, c3:6, d3:34, e3:1408

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.56   7.76          a2=7.81        a3=6.56 
Ms b1=7.80   7.74          b2=7.74        b3=7.50
Ms c1=7.88   8.06          c2=7.75        c3=7.09
Ms d1=7.11   7.61          d2=7.35        d3=7.20
                                          e3=7.76
 all :7.70   7.81      all(2)=7.75    all(3)=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.28   7.35          a2=7.51        a3=6.56 
Ms b1=7.51   7.51          b2=7.21        b3=6.88
Ms c1=7.55   7.50          c2=7.23        c3=7.50
Ms d1=7.03   7.20          d2=7.13        d3=6.91
                                          e3=7.45
 all :7.43   7.44      all(2)=7.44    all(3)=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women's      men's
brothers and brothers and  half brothers  twin or
sisters      sisters       and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.06   7.35          a2=7.00        a3=6.25 
Ms b1=6.90   7.51          b2=6.66        b3=6.38
Ms c1=7.14   7.50          c2=6.74        c3=6.66
Ms d1=6.63   7.20          d2=6.66        d3=6.40
                                          e3=6.95
 all :6.98   7.44      all(2)=6.94    all(3)=6.93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBirth sequence in twin/triplet
Page in Source 268
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
Birth sequence in twin/triplet, as reported in medical 
file
1: first child of twins or triplets
2: second child of twins or triplets
3: third child of twins or triplets
Observed distribution1:63, 2:39, 3:1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.38
2: Mt=7.50
3: Mt=7.50
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.21
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.98
2: Mt=7.36
3: Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyDeNeve et al. (2012): study US 2001
TitleGenes, Economics and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2012, Vol. 5, 193 - 211
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_2946.html
PublicYoung adults, USA, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response13
Respondents N =15197

Correlate
Author's labelMonozygotic vs same sex dizygotic twins
Page in Source 8
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
1. monozygotic (MZ)twins
2: dizygotic (DZ)twins
Observed distribution1: N= 217;0: N= 219

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rSNR=+ p < .032
MZ:r  .345
DZ:r  .129


Correlational finding on Happiness and Twin or triplet child
Subject code: F01ac04

StudyLoehlin & Nichols (1976): study US 1963
TitleHeredity, Environment and Personality. A Study of 850 Sets of Twins.
SourceUniversity of Texas Press, 1976, Austin, USA
PublicAdolescent same-sex twins, USA, 1963
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29 %
Respondents N =850

Correlate
Author's labelBeing an identical or fraternal twins
Page in Source 14
Our classificationTwin or triplet child, code F01ac04
Operationalization
A Identical twins
  a male
  b female 
B Fraternal twins
  a male
  b female
Observed distributionN for happiness means = A: 486, Aa: 204, Ab: 282, B: 320, Ba: 130, Bb: 190 N for % cheerful & satisfied = A: 509, Aa: 216, Ab: 293, B: 330, Ba: 135, Bb: 195
Remarks
All twins are same sex.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns
                male      female     all
Identical twin  M = 6,11  M = 6,28   M = 6,21
Fraternal twin  M = 6,03  M = 6,12   M = 6,08
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-bD%= ns
% cheerful           male      female     all
Identical twin       65%        77%       72%
Fraternal twin       69%        76%       73%
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-cD%= ns
% satisfied          male      female     all
Identical twin       83%        77%       80%
Fraternal twin       75%        81%       79%

Significance tests computed by us, assuming that 
these samples are a probability sample of a wider 
population of twins.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelFamily cohesion
Page in Source 76
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Selfreport on Moos (1984) index of family cohesion

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.33 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelAffectionate upbringing
Page in Source 48,T27
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Three item index of direct questions on self perceived 
affectionate upbringing.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.18
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelStepfamily Lifestyle
Page in Source 148
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Both youngsters and one of their parents answered the 
following questions:
A. Stepfamilies fare better living like a first nuclear 
family.
B. After divorce it is better to forget the past.
C. The best family form is still two first married 
partners and their children.
D. Quarrels in a family should be prevented as much as 
possible.
E. looking after a family is more important than work 
outside the home.
F. A mother with young children should not work outside 
the home.
G. It is logical that a man has fewer duties in the 
household than a woman.
Agreement was rated on 5-point scales.
Possible range of traditionalism 7-35. 

Three types of stepfamily lifestyles were 
distinguished:
1. Nontraditional
2. Semi-traditional
3. Traditional
Observed distribution1: 34%, 2: 34%, 3: 32%
Error EstimatesCrohnbach's alpha: 0,78
Remarks
This measure of traditional lifestyle was also based on 
an interview with one of the parents.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aDMt= ns
1: nontraditional    Mt=7,69
2: semi-traditional  Mt=7,95
3: traditional       Mt=7,86
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- time since (step)family formation
- stepmother/stepfather family
- frequency of contact with nonresident parent
- social class of stepfamily
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyBecker & Vink (1984): study NL 1982
TitleWerkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten en Werkenden Vergeleken. ( A Comparison between the Unemployed, Disabled Workers and the Employed).
SourceSocial and Cultural Planning Office, 1984, Rijswijk, Netherlands
URLhttps://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_1996_en_eerder/Werklozen_arbeidsongeschikten_en_werkenden_vergeleken
Public18-64 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1982
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response68-94%
Respondents N =465

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with years spent in family of origin
Page in Source V584
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Single question:
"To what extent are you satisfied with your childhood 
years spent at home
0=very dissatisfied?" 
1=dissatisfied
2=neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3=satisfied
4=very satisfied
Observed distributionM=2.0142 SD=0.8922

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.04 p < .236
working
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.09 p < .033
unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nar=+.25 p < .000
disabled


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelFamily
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Communication with father, mother and elder brothers 
and sisters.
Self report on single question. (Text of question not 
reported.
1 Very easy
2 Easy
3 Difficult
4 Very difficult
5 Don't have or say

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.09 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyDiener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Conflict
Page in Source 84
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Family Conflict(social introversion)of Minnesota 
Multiphasic Personality Inventory Pathology Scales(with 
K corrections);

Tests for a person's tendency to withdraw from social 
contacts and responsibilities.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aE²=.22 p < .05
                     Mean family conflict
a 10% least happy          8.5 
b 27% close to average     6.3  
c 10% most happy           4.9
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aMCT= p < .05
a > b > c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyArmsden & Greenberg (1987): study US 1986
TitleThe Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual Differences and their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence.
SourceJournal of Youth and Adolescence, 1987, Vol. 16, 427 - 454
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF02202939
PublicUndergraduate students, USA, 1982
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =86

Correlate
Author's labelFamily attachement
Page in Source 438
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Index of two subscales derived from 60-item Inventory 
of Parent and Peer
attachement(IPPA):
-Attachement:'trust' and 'communication' 
added,'alienation' subtracted
-Security: high vs low. 
high if both  trust and communication at least medium 
and alienation not high. low if trust and communication 
low and alienation high.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=+.64
Attachement to parents
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=+.33
Attachement to peers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=+.53 p < .01
Security with parents
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-br=+.43 p < .05
Security with peers


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of Family Contacts
Page in Source 57
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
self-report: 1= none 5= dayly

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.09 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.05 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudyBachman et al. (1970): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Sample
Non-Response2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Respondents N =1799

Correlate
Author's labelPositive evaluation of family relations
Page in Source 211
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
21-item index containing closeness to father (4 items), 
closeness to mother (3 items), amount of reasoning with 
son (4 items), and parental punitiveness (10 items).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aE²=+.37 p < .001
Both variables assessed at T1, T2 and T3.
Family relations T1 x happiness T1 r = +.38
Family relations T1 x happiness T2 r = +.32
Family relations T1 x happiness T3 r = +.23
Family relations T2 x happiness T1 r = +.30
Family relations T2 x happiness T2 r = +.41
Family relations T2 x happiness T3 r = +.30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ad

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withfamily relationships
Page in Source 292
Our classificationFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ad
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= -
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant negative among happier students only.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=-
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant negative among happier students only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelrelations with one's siblings
Page in Source 358
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Single question:
" How are your current relations with your brothers and 
sisters ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:3933; %:1:3,5; 2:6,8; 3:23,4; 4:41,9; 5:24,3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .00
1: Mt=7.35
2: Mt=7.15
3: Mt=7.36
4: Mt=7.78
5: Mt=8.30
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=6.75
3: Mt=7.00
4: Mt=7.45
5: Mt=8.06
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Mt=6.84
2: Mt=6.44
3: Mt=6.61
4: Mt=7.05
5: Mt=7.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelrelationship's with one's sibling
Page in Source 340
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Single question:
"How are your current relations with your brothers and 
sisters ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:1277, 1:17, 2:40, 3:225, 4:551, 5:444

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=8.09
 2: Mt=6.73
 3: Mt=7.38
 4: Mt=7.73
 5: Mt=8.21
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.35
 2: Mt=6.31
 3: Mt=7.05
 4: Mt=7.36
 5: Mt=7.88
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.20
 2: Mt=5.94
 3: Mt=6.64
 4: Mt=6.86
 5: Mt=7.39
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelSocial interaction with brothers and sisters
Page in Source 39, 43,44
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions about feeling in the last 
week 
- I got on well with brothers and sisters
- I had an argument with (one of) my brothers or 
sisters

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx=.26; SD/ns=.77 (nx=number of items of the subscale
Error EstimatesAlpha: .66

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelFamily
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Communication with father, mother and elder brothers 
and sisters.
Self report on single question. (Text of question not 
reported.
1 Very easy
2 Easy
3 Difficult
4 Very difficult
5 Don't have or say

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.09 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFather was able to be around the home a lot
Page in Source 28
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9-point scale gone a lot / 
average / home a good deal of the time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with siblings
Subject code: F01ad01

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPast sibling conflict
Page in Source 122
Our classificationRelations with siblings, code F01ad01
Operationalization
Score derived from a 212-item inventory of past life 
experiences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar=-.39 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelParents index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Index of 4 single questions on satisfaction with your 
relationship with
a: your mother when you were a young child
b: your mother when you were a teenager
c: your father when you were a young child
d: your father when you were a teenager
All scored on a 1-9 rating scale, summation by average.
Observed distributionM = 7.1 SD = 1.4
Remarks
All items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelrelations with parents
Page in Source 330
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Single question:
"How are your current relations with your parents ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:1248, 1:15, 2:53, 3:199, 4:471, 5:510

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.18 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.16
 2: Mt=6.79
 3: Mt=7.35
 4: Mt=7.69
 5: Mt=8.20
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.20 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.84
 2: Mt=6.60
 3: Mt=6.94
 4: Mt=7.33
 5: Mt=7.85
All Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.16 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.84
 2: Mt=6.28
 3: Mt=6.59
 4: Mt=6.88
 5: Mt=7.38
All Mt=7.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelfrequency of contact with nonresident parent
Page in Source 149
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.08 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- time since (step)family formation
- stepmother/stepfather family
- social class of stepfamily
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyLangeveld (1998): study NL 1992
TitleQuality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches.
SourceThesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6
PublicSecundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =223

Correlate
Author's labelFunctioning at home and at school
Page in Source 39, 43,44
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 6 questions about feeling in the last 
week
- I got on well with (one of) my parents
- I managed to finish my (home)work in time

Rated on an 4-point numerical scale
0= rarely or never/not at all
1= sometimes/a little
2= often/quite a bit
3= very often or always/very much
Observed distributionM/nx=1.79; SD/nx=.53 (nx= number of items in the subscale)
Error EstimatesAlpha=.68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-ar=+.29 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelFamily
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Communication with father, mother and elder brothers 
and sisters.
Self report on single question. (Text of question not 
reported.
1 Very easy
2 Easy
3 Difficult
4 Very difficult
5 Don't have or say

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.09 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family affluence
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelRelationship with parents
Page in Source 928
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question; text not reported.
Rated (1) very badly to (5) very well.
Observed distribution Mean SD males 3.97 0.96 females 4.09 0.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.32 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelRelationship with parents
Page in Source 928.932
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about relations with 
parents
!  Very badly
2
3
4
5 very well
Remarks
Full questions not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.32 p < .05
PA: r = +.25 (001)
NA: r = -.26 (001)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=.32 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelPositive evaluation of mother and fatheras a parent
Page in Source 42
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Closed question for mother and father separately: All 
in all, how good a job did your mother/father do as a 
parent?
worse/ about the same/ better than most 
mothers/fathers.
Dichotomized into:
0: One or two parents worse or both
   parents the same.
1: All other combinations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=+.08 p < .05
      proportion happy:
0: negative evaluation 42.0%     AR= .46
1: positive evaluation 58.0%     AR= .54
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyMortimer & Lorence (1981): study US 1962
TitleSelf-Concept Stability and Change from Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood.
SourceResearch in Community and Mental Health, 1981, Vol. 2, 5 - 42
PublicUniversity graduates 1966/67, followed into adulthood, Michigan, USA, 1962-76
Sample
Non-ResponseAttrition: 12%
Respondents N =442

Correlate
Author's labelFamily relations
Page in Source 30
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Perception of family relations


a. Father understands


b. Close to father


c. Mother understands


d. Close to mother
Remarks
Same time correlations (T1 happiness by T1 perceptions, 
T2 happiness by T2 perception, etc)
  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.32 p < .05
T1
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.34 p < .05
T2
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.26 p < .05
T3
 
 
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.34 p < .05
T1
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.31 p < .05
T2
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.19 p < .05
T3
 
 
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.23 p < .05
T1
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.25 p < .05
T2
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.17 p < .05
T3
 
 
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.28 p < .05
T1
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.23 p < .05
T2
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.15 p < .05
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudyWessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Respondents N =17

Correlate
Author's labelPast parental treat-ment and relation- ships
Page in Source 122
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Scores derived from a 212-item invento- ry of past life 
experiences.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-ar= ns
A number of scores on parental treatments or re- 
lationships were derived. None of them appeared to 
show much relationship to happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relations with parents
Subject code: F01ad02

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier relation with parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationRelations with parents, code F01ad02
Operationalization
Subjects ratings of relation with:
- Father:
  a. amount of conflict with (1940)
  b. attachment to (1940)
  c. understanding with (1950)
  d. admiration for (1950)
  e. rebellious feelings toward (1950)
  f. encouragement of independance(1950)
  g. rejection (1950)
  h. sollicitous (1950)
  i. dominering (1950)
  j. helpfullness (1950)

- Mother:
  k. amount of conflict with (1940)
  l. attachement to (1940)
  m. understanding with (1950)
  n. admiration for (1950)
  o. rebellious feelings toward(1950)
  p. encouragement of independence(1950)
  q. rejection (1950)
  r. sollicitousness of (1950)
  s. dominering by (1950)
Remarks
Earlier ratings (1940, 1950) by present (1972) 
happiness.          

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ ns
1940 conflict with father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=- p < .01
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 attachment to father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 understanding with father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 admiration for father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ ns
1950 rebellious feelings toward father by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=- p < .05
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=- ns
1950 encouragement of independance by father by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=+ p < .04
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 rejection by father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 solicitous by father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 dominering by father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .01
1950 helpfullness by father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 conflict with mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 attachment to mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .01
1950 understanding with mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM=+ p < .01
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .04
1950 admiration for mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 rebellious feelings towards mother by 1972 
happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 encourouragement of independance by mother by 
1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 rejection by mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 solicitousness of mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 dominering by moteher by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Acceptance by parents
Subject code: F01ad02a

StudyVolk & Quinsey (2002): study CA Ontario 1997
TitleThe influence of infant facial cues on adoption preferences
SourceHuman Nature, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 437-455
PublicInfants, portrait of which rated by parents and non-parents, Kingston, Canada, 1997
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelAdoption Preferences
Page in Source 442, 443
Our classificationAcceptance by parents, code F01ad02a
Operationalization
Raters were asked to rate their desire to fictionally 
adopt each of 20 infants on the basis of pictures of 
faces presented in a slide show
Rated on a 1-10 scale

Ratings made by parents (not the parents of the 
portraits infants) and non-parents. Parents were 
selected from community, mean age 43, Non-parent first 
year undergraduate student, mean age 20 years.
Remarks
The 20 infants had later been rated for cuteness, 
health, resemblance and happiness (independent variable 
in this analysis).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-ar=+ p < .01
Males   r = +.09 (01)
Females r = +.21 (01)
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-arpc=- p < .01
rpc negative among both males and females when 
controled for:
- resemblance
- cuteness
- health
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Closeness to parents
Subject code: F01ad02b

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelAffectioness of parents
Page in Source 28
Our classificationCloseness to parents, code F01ad02b
Operationalization
1. Having an affectionate father:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point 
   scale detached and aloof / quite
   openly affectionate

2. Having an affectionate mother:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale detached and aloof / quite
   openly affectionate

3. Close relationship with father:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not close at all / very close

4. Warmth and spontaneousness of
   motherf: Closed question rated on
   a 9-point scale very cool and res-
   trained / moderately so / very warm
   and spontaneous
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.24 s
             
           
             
               
                
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.21 s
           
             
               
              
                     
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+ s
               
              
                   
                     
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+ s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreement with parents
Subject code: F01ad02c

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelConflict with parents
Page in Source (13)
Our classificationAgreement with parents, code F01ad02c
Operationalization
Retrospective evaluation of relation with parents on 
1-5 scales.
0 good with both parents
1. conflict with one (mostly father)
3. conflicts with both parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.13 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aDM=-
0. M'=2.56
1. M'=2.44
3. M'=2.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreement with parents
Subject code: F01ad02c

StudyBennett (1970): study US 1969
TitleAvowed Happiness in Communities of Religious Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1970, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bennett_fa_1970.pdf
PublicNuns, Catholic congregations, USA, 1969
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response11,5%
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelCognitive dissonance
Page in Source 63
Our classificationAgreement with parents, code F01ad02c
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How did your family 
accept your entrance into religious life?
5: strongly opposed, 
4: somewhat opposed 
3: mixed reaction 
2: approved 
1: strongly approved

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fr=-.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreement with parents
Subject code: F01ad02c

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelParents' opinion of best occupation
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationAgreement with parents, code F01ad02c
Operationalization
Subjects rating in 1936

0 Consonant with own
1 Dissonant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier rating of parents opinion (1936) by 
present happiness of subject (1972).
          
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Agreement with parents
Subject code: F01ad02c

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelConsonance with parents in career-orientation
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationAgreement with parents, code F01ad02c
Operationalization
Direct questions:           
a. Becoming more like father(or mother).
b. Fathers choice of vocation for subject.
c. Mothers choice of vocation for subject.
d. Conflict with father regarding career choice.
e. Conflict with mother regarding career choice.

Assessed retrospectively in 1950.
Remarks
Earlier retrospective rating (1950) by present 
happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 becoming like father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 fathers choice by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers choice by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 conflict with father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 conflict with mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation between parents
Subject code: F01ad03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's marital status at birth
Page in Source 126
Our classificationRelation between parents, code F01ad03
Operationalization
Mother's marital status ar birth as reported in medical 
file
1.unmarried
   1.a. never married
   1.b. widowed
   1.c. seperated
   1.d. divorced
2.married
   2.a. married during pregnancy
   2.b. married
Observed distributionN: all:4346, 1a:30%, 1b:0,3%, 1c:2%, 1d:4%, 2a:12%, 2b:52%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:Mt=7.75
    1a: Mt=7.75
    1b: Mt=7.91
    1c: Mt=7.89
    1d: Mt=7.66
2:Mt=7.72
    2a: Mt=7.84
    2b: Mt=7.70
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:Mt=7.38
    1a: Mt=7.39
    1b: Mt=7.58
    1c: Mt=7.40
    1d: Mt=7.26
2:Mt=7.42
    2a: Mt=7.58
    2b: Mt=7.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:Mt=7.02
    1a: Mt=7.03
    1b: Mt=7.71
    1c: Mt=7.09
    1d: Mt=6.91
2:Mt=7.01
    2a: Mt=7.04
    2b: Mt=7.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation between parents
Subject code: F01ad03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's marital status at age 1
Page in Source 130
Our classificationRelation between parents, code F01ad03
Operationalization
Mother's marital status at age 1 as reported in medical 
file
a: mother married
b: mother single
c: mother separated/divorced
d: mother widowed
Observed distributionN: a:67%, b:18%, c,3%, d:0,1%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.74
b: Mt=7.68
c: Mt=7.69
d: Mt=8.13
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.44
b: Mt=7.30
c: Mt=7.21
d: Mt=8.75
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a: Mt=7.04
b: Mt=6.88
c: Mt=7.03
d: Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation between parents
Subject code: F01ad03

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelRecent change in mother's marital status after birth
Page in Source 130
Our classificationRelation between parents, code F01ad03
Operationalization
Recent change in mother's marital status  after birth 
as reported in medical file
a: mother married to child's father after birth
b: mother married to other after child's birth
c: mother separated/divorced after birth
Observed distributionN: a:346; b:32; c:49
Remarks
only Ss who are mothers with changed marital status

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.91
b: Mt=7.35
c: Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.55
b: Mt=6.95
c: Mt=7.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
a: Mt=7.20
b: Mt=6.88
c: Mt=6.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation between parents
Subject code: F01ad03

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelParents marriage
Page in Source 28
Our classificationRelation between parents, code F01ad03
Operationalization
1. Warm relationship between parents:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale cool and distant / nether cool
   nor warm / very warm and close.

2. Parents enjoy each other's company:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point 
   scale not really / very much so.

3. Parents enjoy doing things together:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale very few / average / a great    many.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.46 s
               
                      
                        
                           
                  
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+ s
                
                       
              
                 
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.39 s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Equality between parents
Subject code: F01ad03a

StudyMeleis (1982): study KW 1982
TitleEffect of Modernization on Kuwaiti Women.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1982, Vol. 16, 965 - 970
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(82)90364-1
Public17-40 aged females, Kuwait, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =248

Correlate
Author's labelShared decision making
Our classificationEquality between parents, code F01ad03a
Operationalization
0 Unilateral decision by the father 
1 Collective decision made by husband
  and wife

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
H07aa01gr=+.18 p < .001
H07aa01gr=+.18 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelParents' sexual intercourse during pregnancy
Page in Source 136
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Parents sexual intercourse during pregnancy as reported 
in medical file
1: none 
2: in the first trimester
3: in the second trimester
4: in the third trimester
5: last month before birth
6: last three days before birth
Observed distributionN: all:4252, 1:6%, 2:7%, 3:16%, 4:57%, 5:12%, 6:2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.80
 2: Mt=7.90
 3: Mt=7.65
 4: Mt=7.71
 5: Mt=7.76
 6: Mt=7.73
All Mt=7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 p < .4837
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.29
 2: Mt=7.61
 3: Mt=7.33
 4: Mt=7.38
 5: Mt=7.50
 6: Mt=7.63
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .5616
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.94
 2: Mt=7.10
 3: Mt=6.95
 4: Mt=7.01
 5: Mt=6.99
 6: Mt=7.50
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .4165


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudyNelson (1981): study US 1978 /1
TitleModerators of Womens and Childrens Adjustment Following Parental Divorce.
SourceJournal of Divorce, 1981, Vol. 4, 71 - 83
DOIDOI: 10.1300/J279v04n03_05
PublicChildren, living with divorced mothers, Manitoba, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelMarital happiness ofparents at the time of separation
Page in Source 78
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Single direct question to the mother

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.29 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFather is 'wearing the pants' in the family
Page in Source 28
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question: mother / neither (equal in influence) 
/
father

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=-.18 s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of parents' marriage inchildhood
Page in Source 42
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Closed question: How happy would you say your parents' 
marriage was when you were growing up?:
0: very unhappy/ unhappy/ somewhat
   unhappy/ somewhat happy
1: happy/ very happy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=+.07 p < .05
   proportion happy:
0: unhappy marriage 39.7%    AR= .46
1: happy marriage   60.3%    AR= .53
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelLater marital happiness of mother
Page in Source 117/118
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Rating made by three judges on the basis of 
interview-protocols (one to three interviews). 8-item 
index: each item scored on a 7-point scale ranging from 
'not at all true' to 'extremely true'.
Assessed at Ss age 9-14. (± 10 years after assessment 
of happiness).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

            Months   Months   Months   Months
            10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.01
Boys       -.04(ns) -.08(ns) +.08(ns) +.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.04
Girls      +.13(ns) -.04(ns) -.25(ns) +.00(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents marital satisfaction
Subject code: F01ad03b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelMarital happiness of parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationParents marital satisfaction, code F01ad03b
Operationalization
Subjects rating in 1940

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier rating (1940) by present happiness of 
subject (1977).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ae

StudyDuimel (2007): study NL 2005
TitleTieners en Geluk: Liever een Leven Online dan een Gezinsleven? ( Teenage Happiness: Link with Familylife and Life On-Line.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 130 - 135
PublicTeenagers, Netherlands, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelspecific activities together with at least one parent
Page in Source 132
Our classificationParental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ae
Operationalization
Selfreported activities together with parents:
-having breakfast/dinner
-watchting tv
-talking

1= less than once a week
2= at least once a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Breakfast together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Supper together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,2
2: M =        7,7
Difference   +0,5
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
TV-watching together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,4
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Talking with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,9
Difference   +0,4
O-SQL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Average activities together with parent(s)
1: M =        7,5
2: M =        7,8
Difference   +0,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ae

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelMother characteristics (at Ss age 0-3)
Page in Source 109/110
Our classificationParental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ae
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of notes on 
observations of about 20 tes-ting sessions in first 3 
years of child.
 a. Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act 
independently and be allowed to work or play apart from 
the parents?' (5-item index).
 b. Ignoring
'Does the mother ignore or reject her child?' (7-item 
index).
 c. Perceives child as burden
'Does the mother perceive the child as more a burden 
and inconvenience than a source of happiness?' (7-item 
index).
 d. Use of fear to control
'Does the mother attempt to use fear as a way of 
controlling and teaching the child?' (5-item index)
 e. Punishment
'Does the mother believe in punishment as an effective 
method of influencing the child's behavior?'(7-item 
index).
 f. Intrusiveness
'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a 
child has a mind of his own and that he should be able 
to do his own thinking without forceful intrusing by 
the mother?(4-item index).
 g. Concern about child's health
'Does this mother seem to be preoccupied with her 
child's health?' (5-item index).
 h. Achievement demand
'Does she concern herself about the child's 
achievement?' (4-item index).
 i. Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely 
attached to herself?'(4-item index).
 j. Fostering dependency on child
'Does this mother tend to baby he child or foster 
dependency on him?'(6-item index).
 k. Emotional involvement with child
'Extent and intensity of emotional and behavioral 
involvement with the child' (5-item index).
 l. Expression of affection for child
'Does the mother openly express her love and affection 
for her child?' (6-item index).
 m. Equalitarianism
'Does the mother tend to relate to the child as an 
equal?' (5-item index).
 n. Positive evaluation of child
'Does the mother tend to have a positive evaluation of 
the child a person?' (6-item index).
 o. Suppression of aggression
'Does the mother's ideal seem to be a quiet, passive 
child rather than an active, aggressive one?' (4-item 
index).
 p. Punitiveness
'Does the mother seem punitive and unkind?' (4-item 
index).
 q. Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict 
enforcement of those rules?' (5-item index) 
 r. Irritability
'Does the mother tend to be irritable?' (6-item index).
 s. Anxiety
'Does this mother appear overtly anxious during the 
session?'
(5- item index).
 t. Negative emotional states
'Does she tend towards negative emotional states?' 
(5-item index).
 u. Mood swings
'Does she show mood swings?' (5-item index).
 v. Dominance
'Does the mother show competitive, domineering behavior 
in the family and examining situation?' (6-item index).
 w. Self-abasement
'Does this mother seem self-abasing?(6-item index)
 x. Dependency
'Is she a dependent mother?' (7-item index).
 y. Over-conscientiousness
'Is she an over-conscientious mother?' (3-item index).
 z. Sociability
'Does this mother tend to be a social person?' (6-item 
index).
aa. Cooperativeness
'Does this mother seem cooperative overtly?' (excluding 
officiousness, interventions, self-abasing 
coope-ration) (7-item index).
ab. Narcissism
'Does she try to draw attention to herself?' (3-item 
index).
ac. Rejection of homemaking role
'Does she seem to reject the role of homemaker?' 
(5-item index).
ad. Estimated intelligence
'Does this mother have a high intelligence?' (4-item 
index).
ae. Poor physical health
'Is this mother physically healthy?' (3-item index).
af. Financial stress
'Does this mother seem to be subject to financial 
strain?' (5-item index).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times 
between 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

            Months   Months   Months   Months
            10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.22
a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
 -Boys     +.18(ns) +.15(ns) +.26(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
 -Girls    -.09(ns) -.08(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.22
b:Ignoring
 -Boys      -.03(ns) -.23(ns) -.26(ns) -.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
 -Girls     +.04(ns) -.11(ns) -.40(05) -.38(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.39
c:Perceives child as burden
 -Boys      -.18(ns) -.32(ns) -.54(05) -.53(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.32
 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.32(ns) -.42(05) -.39(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
d:Use of fear to control
 -Boys      -.13(ns) -.20(ns) -.39(05) -.38(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.39
 -Girls     -.29(ns) -.26(ns) -.49(05) -.52(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.25
e:Punishment
 -Boys     -.06(ns) -.19(ns) -.36(ns) -.41(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.32
 -Girls     -.20(ns) -.26(ns) -.40(05) -.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.36
f:Intrusiveness
 -Boys      -.36(ns) -.34(ns) -.35(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.03
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.10
g:Concern about child's health
 -Boys      -.25(ns) -.11(ns) -.13(ns) +.10(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.12(ns) +.30(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.14
h:Achievement demand
 -Boys      -.22(ns) -.04(ns) -.11(ns) -.18(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.28
 -Girls     +.27(ns) +.18(ns) +.30(ns) +.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.12
i:Excessive contact with child
 -Boys      -.12(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.17
 -Girls     +.00(ns) +.07(ns) +.29(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.29
j:Fostering dependency on child
 -Boys      -.39(05) -.32(ns) -.27(ns) -.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.19
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.08(ns) +.20(ns) +.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
k:Emotional involvement with child
 -Boys      -.08(ns) +.02(ns) +.00(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.35
 -Girls     +.17(ns) +.27(ns) +.46(05) +.49(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.16
l:Expression of affection for child
 -Boys      +.03(ns) +.15(ns) +.23(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.32
 -Girls     +.16(ns) +.22(ns) +.42(05) +.48(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.35
m:Equalitarianism
 -Boys      +.22(ns) +.26(ns) +.49(05) +.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.46
 -Girls     +.37(ns) +.39(05) +.53(05) +.55(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.28
n:Positive evaluation of child
 -Boys      +.17(ns) +.26(ns) +.42(05) +.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.32
 -Girls     +.15(ns) +.22(ns) +.42(05) +.48(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.30
o:Suppression of aggression
 -Boys      -.39(05) -.21(ns) -.30(ns) -.31(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
 -Girls     -.08(ns) -.36(ns) -.40(05) -.22(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.31
p:Punitiveness
 -Boys      -.06(ns) -.25(ns) -.48(05) -.46(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.35
 -Girls     -.28(ns) -.31(ns) -.44(05) -.38(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.15
q:Strictness (rigidity)
 -Boys      -.15(ns) -.06(ns) -.29(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.46
 -Girls     -.33(ns) -.37(ns) -.56(05) -.57(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.49
r:Irritability
 -Boys      -.29(ns) -.42(05) -.57(05) -.69(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.26
 -Girls     -.24(ns) -.30(ns) -.32(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.30
s:Anxiety
 -Boys      -.39(05) -.36(ns) -.58(05) -.62(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.07
 -Girls     -.20(ns) -.19(ns) -.04(ns) +.15(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.29
t:Negative emotional states
 -Boys      -.07(ns) -.34(ns) -.44(05) -.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.41
 -Girls     -.43(ns) -.41(ns) -.44(05) -.37(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.41
u:Mood swings
 -Boys      -.29(ns) -.31(ns) -.50(05) -.56(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.22
 -Girls     -.17(ns) -.25(ns) -.32(ns) -.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
v:Dominance
 -Boys      -.21(ns) -.15(ns) -.34(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.20
 -Girls     +.23(ns) +.14(ns) +.16(ns) +.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.16
w:Self-abasement
 -Boys      -.23(ns) -.02(ns) -.27(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.08
 -Girls     -.08(ns) -.24(ns) -.01(ns) +.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.28
x:Dependency
 -Boys      -.39(05) -.24(ns) -.16(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.21
 -Girls     +.33(ns) +.09(ns) +.13(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.03
y:Over-conscientiousness
 -Boys      -.17(ns) +.06(ns) -.11(ns) +.10(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
 -Girls     +.10(ns) -.07(ns) +.26(ns) +.27(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-aRa²=-.01
z:Sociability
 -Boys     -.02      +.08     +.10     -.22
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.36
 -Girls     +.48(05) +.35(ns) +.37(ns) +.24(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.46
aa:Cooperativeness
 -Boys      +.34(ns) +.35(ns) +.45(05) +.68(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.15
 -Girls     -.09(ns) +.07(ns) +.33(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
ab:Narcissism
 -Boys      -.30(ns) -.23(ns) -.15(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.37
 -Girls     +.55(ns) +.35(ns) +.33(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.16
ac:Rejection of home making role
 -Boys      +.03(ns) -.10(ns) -.21(ns) -.37(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr= 0
 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.15(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.51
ad:Estimated intelligence
 -Boys      +.43(05) +.51(05) +.52(05) +.56(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.22
 -Girls     +.16(ns) +.07(ns) +.30(ns) +.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.27
ae:Poor physical health
 -Boys      -.07(ns) -.27(ns) -.28(ns) -.48(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.02
 -Girls     -.03(ns) -.05(ns) +.09(ns) -.10(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.41
af:Financial stress
 -Boys      -.32(ns) -.38(ns) -.52(05) -.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.20
 -Girls     -.35(ns) -.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.23(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Presence of parents
Subject code: F01ae01

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelfrequency of contact with nonresident parent
Page in Source 149
Our classificationPresence of parents, code F01ae01
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.08 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- time since (step)family formation
- stepmother/stepfather family
- social class of stepfamily
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Presence of parents
Subject code: F01ae01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelBoth natural parents live in household at 10
Page in Source 29,31,51
Our classificationPresence of parents, code F01ae01
Operationalization
Both natural parents live in the household at age 10 
(1980):
1 - Both natural parents live in the household
0 - Other situations
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.07
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.01
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when father left full time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rearing-style of parents
Subject code: F01ae02

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelStyle of upbringing
Page in Source 10, additional inf.
Our classificationRearing-style of parents, code F01ae02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions:
a:authoritative ('If my parents forbid me something, 
they explain why')
b: permissive (' My parents give me much love, and let 
me free in my doings')
c: authoritarian ('My parents forbid and punish me 
often and fast')
d: indifferent ('I often have the impression that my 
parents leave me to my fate')
Observed distributionin %: A: 50,1; B: 37,5; C: 7,2; D: 5,2.
Remarks
Based on preferred statement in questionnaire 
(Baumrind, D.(1978) Parental disciplinary patterns and 
social competence in children.)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=
                    Mean    SD
a:authoritative:    7,77    1,45
b:permissive:       7,71    1,43
c:authoritarian:    6,91    1,75 
d:indifferent:      6,96    1,88
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aBMCT=
a>c
a>d
b>c
b>d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rearing-style of parents
Subject code: F01ae02

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelEncouragement and guidance by parents
Page in Source 28
Our classificationRearing-style of parents, code F01ae02
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9-point scale pretty much on 
my own / some guidance / parents gave lots of guidance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demanding
Subject code: F01ae02a

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelAchievement orientedupbringing
Page in Source 48, T27
Our classificationDemanding, code F01ae02a
Operationalization
Two item index of direct questions on self perceived 
oriented upbringing.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.06
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=-.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demanding
Subject code: F01ae02a

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelEducation oriented upbringing
Page in Source 48,T27
Our classificationDemanding, code F01ae02a
Operationalization
Direct question:"Did your parents highly value good 
school achievements? Yes/No".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.11
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Demanding
Subject code: F01ae02a

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFather has high expectations
Page in Source 28
Our classificationDemanding, code F01ae02a
Operationalization
Closed question: no / to some extent /
yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Punitive
Subject code: F01ae02b

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewältigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelCorporal punishment
Page in Source (12)
Our classificationPunitive, code F01ae02b
Operationalization
Retrospective report
1. never
.
.
5. often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aDM=±
1. M'=2.36
2. M'=2.41
3. M'=2.69
4. M'=2.60
5. M'=2.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Punitive
Subject code: F01ae02b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelParental punitiveness
Our classificationPunitive, code F01ae02b
Operationalization
Index of 10 items at T1 in which the respondent rated 
his parents on how often they did such things as 'take 
away your privileges', 'threaten to slap you', 'yell, 
shout or scream at you', 'disagree about punishing 
you', etc. Scale: 1.00 = never, 5.00 = always

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- p < .001
T1 happiness:        tau = -.27  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.21  (001)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.17  (001)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.16  (001)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Punitive
Subject code: F01ae02b

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelPunishment by parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationPunitive, code F01ae02b
Operationalization
How often punished.
a.Subjects report
b.Parents report

Both assessed in 1940
Remarks
Earlier retrospective ratings (1940) by present 
happiness (1972).      

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 subjects report by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 parents report by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Permissive vs dominant
Subject code: F01ae02c

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelDominance of parents
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPermissive vs dominant, code F01ae02c
Operationalization
1. Having a dominant father:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale very submissive / moderate /
   very dominant

2. Having a dominant mother:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale veru submissive / moderate /
   very dominant

3. Father is demanding very little:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale demands a lot / moderate / 
   very little

4. Mother is demanding very little:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale demands a lot / moderate / 
   very little 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=- s
         
             
                 
                 
                 
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=- s
          
            
             
            
            
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
             
                
                 
                
                     
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.21 s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Permissive vs dominant
Subject code: F01ae02c

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom at home
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPermissive vs dominant, code F01ae02c
Operationalization
 1. Freedom to take own trips or go
    travelling:
    Closed question rated on a 5-point
    scale not at all / parents decided
    / completely free

 2. Freedom to follow own interests:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale not much / some / 
    considerable freedom

 3. Having a dominant father:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale very submissive / moderate /
    very dominant

 4. Having a dominant mother
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale very submissive / moderate /
    very dominant

 5. Father is demanding very little:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale demands a lot / moderate /
    very little

 6. Mother is demanding very little:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale demands a lot / moderate /
    very little

 7. Being often allowed by parents to 
    make own decisions:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale almost never / sometimes / 
    nearly all the time

 8. Parents were permissive and
    lenient:
    Closed question rated on a 9-point
    scale very strict / about average /
    very permissive and lenient
 
 9. Freedom in dating:
    Closed question rated on a 5-point
    scale not at all / parents decided
    / completely free

10. Freedom to decide how late to stay
    out:
    Closed question rated on a 5-point
    scale not at all / parents decided
    / completely free

11. Freedom to stay overnight at
    someone's house:
    Closed question rated on a 5-point
    scale not at all / parents decided
    / completely free

12. Freedom to drink alcohol:
    Closed question rated on a 5-point
    scale not at all / parents decided
    / completely free  
   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
     
       
         
            
          
               
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.30 s
          
           
             
           
                    
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=- s
      
         
           
          
                        
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=- s
         
          
              
            
             
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
       
        
      
          
                        
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.21 s
        
         
            
          
            
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.33 s
           
               
                
                
              
                  
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
         
         
                 
              
             
                    
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
       
             
                 
                
                 
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
        
         
          
            
          
            
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
         
             
            
            
           
               
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Permissive vs dominant
Subject code: F01ae02c

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 0-3)
Page in Source 109-110
Our classificationPermissive vs dominant, code F01ae02c
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of notes on obser- 
vations of about 20 testing sessions in the child's 
first 3 years of life.

a.Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should
be free to act independently and be allowed to work or 
play apart from the parents?' (5-item index).

b.Intrusiveness
'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a 
child has a mind of his own and that he should be able 
to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by 
the mother?'(4-item index).

c.Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict 
enforcement of those rules?" (5-item index).

d.Fostering dependency on child
'Does this mother tend to baby her child or foster 
dependency on him?' (6-item index).

e.Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely 
attached to herself?' (4-item index).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times 
between months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27+ 30 + 36.

Boys N = 15, girls N = 16

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.22
a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
 -Boys      +.18(ns) +.15(ns) +.26(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.11
 -Girls     -.09(ns) -.08(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.36
b:Intrusiveness
 -Boys      -.36(ns) -.34(ns) -.35(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.03
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.15
c:Strictness (rigidity)
 -Boys      -.15(ns) -.06(ns) -.29(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.46
 -Girls     -.33(ns) -.37(ns) -.56(05) -.57(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.29
d:Fostering dependency on child
 -Boys      -.39(05) -.32(ns) -.27(ns) -.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.19
 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.08(ns) +.20(ns) +.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.12
e:Excessive contact with child
 -Boys      -.12(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.17
 -Girls     +.00(ns) +.07(ns) +.29(ns) +.30(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Permissive vs dominant
Subject code: F01ae02c

StudySchaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample
Non-Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Respondents N =54

Correlate
Author's labelFreedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 9-14)
Page in Source 117-118
Our classificationPermissive vs dominant, code F01ae02c
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of 
interview-protocols (one to three interviews).

Assessed ±10 years after rating of baby- happiness.

a.Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act 
independently and should be allowed to work and play 
apart from his parents?' (5-item index).

b.Intrusiveness
'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a 
child has a mind of his own and that he should be able 
to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by 
the mother?'(4-item index).

c.Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict 
enforcement of those rules?' (4-item index).

d.Wish to control the child
'Does the mother seem to wish to control the child?' 
(5-item index).

e.Fostering dependency in child
'Does the mother tend to baby her child or foster 
dependency in him?' (5-item index).

f.Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely 
attached to herself?' (5-item index).

g.Keeps child socially isolated?'
'Does this mother tend to keep her child socially 
isolated?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- 
tween months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: 
months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 
/ 27 + 30 + 36.

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.33
a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
 -Boys      -.20(ns) -.45(ns) -.34(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.10
 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.06(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.14
b:Intrusiveness
 -Boys      -.03(ns) +.28(ns) +.16(ns) +.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.25
 -Girls     -.06(ns) -.18(ns) -.30(ns) -.45(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.10
c:Strictness (rigidity)
 -Boys      -.06(ns) -.28(ns) -.12(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.08
 -Girls     +.28(ns) +.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.15
d:Wish to control the child
 -Boys      -.24(ns) -.19(ns) -.09(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.06
 -Girls     -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.03(ns) -.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.43
e:Fostering dependency in child
 -Boys      +.33(ns) +.57(05) +.41(ns) +.41(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.09
 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.27(ns) -.06(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.18
f:Excessive contact with child
 -Boys      +.20(ns) +.29(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.24
 -Girls     -.34(ns) -.17(ns) -.13(ns) -.33(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=+.21
g:Keeps child socially isolated
 -Boys      +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-amr=-.21
 -Girls     -.01(ns) -.12(ns) -.22(ns) -.49(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Supportive
Subject code: F01ae02d

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelProtection and sup- port from parents inmoments of stress
Page in Source 28
Our classificationSupportive, code F01ae02d
Operationalization
Closed question: no / to some extent / yes. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+ s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Supportive
Subject code: F01ae02d

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelBeing sheltered by parents
Page in Source 28
Our classificationSupportive, code F01ae02d
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 5-point scale not at all / 
very much.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Abuse by parents
Subject code: F01ae03

StudyDosch (1979): study US 1977
TitleChild Abuse: A Comparison of Physical Abusers, Sexual Abusers, and Non-Abusers on Perceived Locus of Control, Self-Acceptance and Avowed Happiness.
SourceDoctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1994, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/dosch_fm_1979.pdf
PublicParents, abusing and non-abusing, Oregon, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response234 questionn. given to case-workers, 76 actually sent out
Respondents N =34

Correlate
Author's labelChild abuse
Page in Source 71
Our classificationAbuse by parents, code F01ae03
Operationalization
0 Non-abusing parents:Matched with
  abusers on 7 demographic variables.
1 Abusing parents:Selected by social
  workers

  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSNR= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 p < .05
Sexual abusers unhappier relatively than physical 
abusers


Correlational finding on Happiness and Abuse by parents
Subject code: F01ae03

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelDiscipline
Page in Source 28
Our classificationAbuse by parents, code F01ae03
Operationalization
1. Parents are sure in their decisions 
   having to do with one's discipline:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale always very doubtful / some-
   times / always certain and sure.

2. Being often allowed by parents to
   make own decisions:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale almost never / sometimes / 
   nearly all the time.

3. Freedom to decide how late to stay 
   out: 
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not at all (parents decide) / 
   completely free.

4. Freedom to drink alcohol:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not at all (parents decide) /
   completely free.

5. Freedom to stay overnight at 
   someone's house:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not at all (parents decide) /
   completely free.

6. Freedom to take own trips or go tra-
   velling:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not at all (parents decide) /
   completely free.

7. Freedom in dating:
   Closed question rated on a 5-point
   scale not at all (parents decide) /
   completely free.

8. Freedom to follow own interests:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale not much / some / considerable
   freedom.

9. Decisions thoroughly discussed in   
   the family: 
   Closed question rated on a 9-point     scale usually 
no discussion / some  
   discussion / very thorough discus-
   sion. 
10 Parents were permissive and lenient:
   Closed question rated on a 9-point
   scale very strict / about average / 
   very permissive and lenient.
   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.20 s
   
           
            
               
             
              
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.33 s
            
                
               
                  
                 
               
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
           
                
               
                  
                 
                  
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
             
               
                 
               
                   
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
            
             
                
              
                
                     
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
             
                   
                 
                   
                  
                   
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns
            
                 
             
            
              
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.30 s
            
                     
               
              
                  
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.33 s
             
               
                
                
             
            
               
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of family-members (earlier for adults)
Subject code: F01af

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence of long-term subjective well-being among spouses
Page in Source 14,18
Our classificationCharacteristics of family-members (earlier for adults), code F01af
Operationalization
Correspondence in reported life satisfaction of spouses 
during this 14 year period.
Observed distribution35% of the cases the responses among spouses coincide exactly as compared to 9 % of perfect agreement to be expected under complete randomness. (14970 person-year observations for 1309 different families)
Remarks
Happiness assessed every year during 14 years. 
Calculated using bi-variate cross-tabulation of 
responses to the same question on life satisfaction at 
the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=3,87
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.20
Control variables are:
- age
- gender
- employment
- self rated health
- family income
- number of persons in the household
- trend over time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of family-members (earlier for adults)
Subject code: F01af

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence of long-term subjective well-being in a family
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCharacteristics of family-members (earlier for adults), code F01af
Operationalization
Correspondence in happiness between members of the same 
family (parents and children)
Observed distribution25168 person-year observations
Remarks
Assessed every year during 14 years. Calculated using 
bivariate cross tabulation of responses to the same 
question on life satisfaction at the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.56
44,4 % of the variance in life satisfaction over 
this period is long-term (as opposed to 
transitory). Of this longterm variance:
- 56 % is shared by all family members
- 44 % is specific to the individual

Control variables are:
- age
- gender
- employment
- self rated health
- family income
- number of persons in the household
- trend over time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelWorship frequency of the mother
Page in Source 5, 10,11
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Frequency of worship attendance of the mother
a: non-worshipper
b: worships 1-2 times yearly
c: worships 3-4 times yearly
d: worships monthly
e: worships weekly

For B: Worship frequency of the family
Remarks
Worship data apply to 1994-95.
See also jones2002C-3.jpg: Chart 3.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=+
% very happy:
a: non-worshipper             24%
b: worships 1-2 times yearly  29%
c: worships 3-4 times yearly  30%
d: worships monthly           30%
e: worships weekly            31%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .002
Children with religious affiliation only:
(boys N=1178, girls N=1192)

girls
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.00 p < .001
boys 

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency of the child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelSmoking of the mother
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
The mother
1: does not smoke
2: smokes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nDMt=
The mother
1: does not smoke  Mt 5,95 [5,94; 5,95]
2: smokes          Mt 5,71 [5,70; 5,72]
Difference         Mt 0,24 [0,24; 0,24]
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ngH=-.08 p < .000
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.01 p < .094
girls, mother smokes, drinks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.02 p < .041
boys, mother smokes, drinks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.01 p < .739
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N=1192, boys N=1178)

girls, mother smokes, drinks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.04 p < .005
boys, mother smokes, drinks 

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- working mother or not
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBlood relation between parents
Page in Source 274
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Blood relation between parents as reported in medical 
file
1.no blood relationship
2: blood relation
   2a: distant relative
   2b: nephew, niece
   2c: cousin
Observed distributionN all:4333, 1:99,4%, a:0,3%, b:0,1%, c:0,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1.  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.21
2a: Mt=6.36
2b: Mt=7.50
2c: Mt=7.95
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1.  Mt=7.40
2:  Mt=7.11
2a: Mt=6.36
2b: Mt=7.50
2c: Mt=7.73
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1.  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=7.02
2a: Mt=6.36
2b: Mt=8.13
2c: Mt=7.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal factors: overview
Page in Source 78
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's life-situation during pregnancy. 
1: very poor
2: poor
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: all:4355, 1:4,8%, 2:16,4%, 3:22,8%, 4:27,8%, 5:28,1%
Remarks
Concerns: health, financial status and social status of 
the mother

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.64
 2: Mt=7.76
 3: Mt=7.65
 4: Mt=7.79
 5: Mt=7.71
All Mt=7,73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 p < .75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.36
 2: Mt=7.33
 3: Mt=7.33
 4: Mt=7.50
 5: Mt=7.40
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.00 p < .23
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.85
 2: Mt=7.01
 3: Mt=6.95
 4: Mt=7.08
 5: Mt=7.03
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.00 p < .25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's age at birth.
Page in Source 92
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's age at birth. Report in medical file
1: under 15
2: 15-19
3: 20-24
4: 25-29
5: 30-39
6: over 39
Observed distributionN: all:4355 1:0,1% 2:21%, 3:30%, 4:23%, 5:23%, 6:3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.50
 2: Mt=7.81
 3: Mt=7.78
 4: Mt=7.61
 5: Mt=7.71
 6: Mt=7.54
All Mt=7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 p < .0782
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
1 < (2, 3, 5)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.88
 2: Mt=7.50
 3: Mt=7.41
 4: Mt=7.31
 5: Mt=7.41
 6: Mt=7.21
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .1797
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.25
 2: Mt=7.08
 3: Mt=7.05
 4: Mt=7.00
 5: Mt=6.91
 6: Mt=7.10
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 p < .1187
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's height at birth
Page in Source 94
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother height. Report in medical file of mother
1: less than 150
2: 150-154
3: 155-159
4: 160-169
5: more than 169
Observed distributionN: all:4318, 1:2%, 2:7%, 3:20%, 4:58%, 5:14%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.80
 2: Mt=7.83
 3: Mt=7.73
 4: Mt=7.74
 5: Mt=7.58
All Mt=7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.02 p < .1456
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT= ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.73
 2: Mt=7.51
 3: Mt=7.43
 4: Mt=7.41
 5: Mt=7.20
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .0207
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=6.85
 2: Mt=7.16
 3: Mt=6.99
 4: Mt=7.01
 5: Mt=6.96
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.01 p < .5539
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelUnder-/ overweight of the mother at birth
Page in Source 96
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's weight in kg as reported in medical file
1: less than average
2: average
3: more than average
Observed distributionN: all:3908, 1:16%, 2:72%, 3:12%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.68
 2: Mt=7.75
 3: Mt=7.60
All Mt=7.71
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 p < .7188
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.31
 2: Mt=7.44
 3: Mt=7.31
All Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.00 p < .9176
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.01
 2: Mt=7.03
 3: Mt=6.90
All Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.01 p < .4372


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's blood type
Page in Source 98
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mothers blood type. Report in medical file
a: O positive
b: O negative
c: A positive
d: A negative
e: B positive
f: B negative
g: AB positive
h: AB negative
i: AB(C?)with immunization
j: Other with immunization
Observed distributionN: all:4182, a:31%, b:8%, c:35%, d:9%, e:8%, f:2%, g:3%, h:1%, i:2%, j:0,5%
Remarks
The major human blood group system. The ABO type of a 
person depends upon the presence or absence of two 
genes, A and B. These genes determine the configuration 
of the red blood cell surface.A child of parents with a 
different blood-group can have health problems.
A person can be A, B, AB, or O. If a person has two A 
genes, their red blood cells are type A. If a person 
has two B genes, their red cells are type B. If the 
person has one A and one B gene, their red cells are 
type AB. If the person has neither the A nor B gene, 
they are type O.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 a: Mt=7.75
 b: Mt=7.78
 c: Mt=7.71
 d: Mt=7.55
 e: Mt=7.70
 f: Mt=7.78
 g: Mt=7.81
 h: Mt=7.50
 i: Mt=8.13
 j: Mt=8.00
All Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 a: Mt=7.41
 b: Mt=7.45
 c: Mt=7.39
 d: Mt=7.31
 e: Mt=7.36
 f: Mt=7.69
 g: Mt=7.51
 h: Mt=7.11
 i: Mt=7.75
 j: Mt=7.63
All Mt=7.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 a: Mt=7.04
 b: Mt=7.06
 c: Mt=6.98
 d: Mt=6.83
 e: Mt=7.03
 f: Mt=7.13
 g: Mt=7.19
 h: Mt=7.16
 i: Mt=7.44
 j: Mt=7.50
All Mt=7.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelTreatment of the mother before pregnancy
Page in Source 108,110
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's medical treatment as reported in medical file 
of mother
1: no treatment
2: one or more treatment(s):
   2a: operation for sterility
   2b: antex-physex
   2c: physex
   2d: estrogen
   2e: progesterin
   2f: corticoids
   2g: thyroidin
   2h: androgen
   2i: unknown hormone
Observed distributionN: 1:3813:, 2:507, 2a:2, 2b:11, 2c:34, 2d:76, 2e:30, 2f:25, 2g:73, 2h:35, 2i:221
Remarks
The treatments can be overlapping, therefore only 
absolute frequencies are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.58
    2a: Mt=7.50
    2b: Mt=7.28
    2c: Mt=7.65
    2d: Mt=7.46
    2e: Mt=7.50
    2f: Mt=7.00
    2g: Mt=7.46
    2h: Mt=7.21
    2i: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.26
    2a: Mt=7.50
    2b: Mt=6.81
    2c: Mt=7.35
    2d: Mt=6.96
    2e: Mt=7.25
    2f: Mt=6.60
    2g: Mt=7.36
    2h: Mt=7.29
    2i: Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.04
2:  Mt=6.83
    2a: Mt=7.50
    2b: Mt=6.81
    2c: Mt=7.06
    2d: Mt=6.81
    2e: Mt=6.59
    2f: Mt=6.60
    2g: Mt=6.71
    2h: Mt=6.79
    2i: Mt=6.86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's post partum conditions
Page in Source 114
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's post partum conditions as reported in medical 
file
1:  no condition
2:  one of more conditions:
    2a: haemorrhagia
    2b: puerperal complications
    2c: sterilization after birth
    2d: other puerperal complications
    2e: proteinura after delivery
    2f: hypertension after delivery
Observed distributionN: 1:3376, 2:1201, 2a:10, 2b:402, 2c:55, 2d:66, 2e:206, 2f:462
Remarks
Because answers can be overlapping, only absolute 
frequencies are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.71
2:  Mt=7.78
2a: Mt=8.00
2b: Mt=7.68
2c: Mt=7.31
2d: Mt=8.23
2e: Mt=7.88
2f: Mt=7.81
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.40
2:  Mt=7.44
2a: Mt=8.00
2b: Mt=7.28
2c: Mt=6.95
2d: Mt=8.03
2e: Mt=7.60
2f: Mt=7.48
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.00
2:  Mt=7.04
2a: Mt=7.75
2b: Mt=7.03
2c: Mt=6.41
2d: Mt=7.24
2e: Mt=7.08
2f: Mt=7.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelFather's age at birth
Page in Source 132
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Fathers age at birth as reported in medical file
1: under 20
2: 20-29
3: 30-39
4: 40-49
5: 50-59
6: 60-69
7: over 69
Observed distributionN: all:4270, 1:8,4%, 2:50,1%, 3:32,3%, 4:87,9%, 5:1,1%, 6:0,2%, 7:0,0%(1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 1: Mt=7.83
 2: Mt=7.74
 3: Mt=7.70
 4: Mt=7.70
 5: Mt=7.60
 6: Mt=7.14
 7: Mt=5.00
All:Mt=7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.02 p < .2360
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.51
 2: Mt=7.44
 3: Mt=7.35
 4: Mt=7.30
 5: Mt=7.45
 6: Mt=7.79
 7: Mt=5.00
All:Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 p < .0798
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1: Mt=7.16
 2: Mt=7.05
 3: Mt=6.95
 4: Mt=7.03
 5: Mt=6.94
 6: Mt=6.79
 7: Mt=5.00
All:Mt=7.03
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .1022


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's number of pregnancies
Page in Source 140
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's pregnancies before birth of subject as 
reported in medical file
1: 1 pregnancy
2: 2 pregnancies
3: 3 pregnancies
4: 4 pregnancies
5: 5 pregnancies
6: 6 pregnancies
7: 7 pregnancies
8: more than 7 pregnancies
Observed distributionN: all:4350, 1:50%, 2:26%, 3:14%, 4:7%, 5:2%, 6:1%, 7:0,2%, 8:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.83
2: Mt=7.64
3: Mt=7.56
4: Mt=7.79
5: Mt=7.53
6: Mt=7.50
7: Mt=8.25
8: Mt=7.50
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 p < .0255
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.48
2: Mt=7.36
3: Mt=7.24
4: Mt=7.36
5: Mt=7.30
6: Mt=7.26
7: Mt=8.00
8: Mt=6.66
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.03 p < .0396
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=7.09
2: Mt=6.91
3: Mt=6.98
4: Mt=6.94
5: Mt=7.00
6: Mt=6.85
7: Mt=8.25
8: Mt=6.39
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 p < .1476


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelPregnancies:outcome of mother's previous pregnancies
Page in Source 142
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Outcomes of mother's earlier pregnancies as reported in 
medical file
a: all children born are living
b: extrauterine pregnancy
c: abortion in month 1-3
d: aborted after 4 months
e: stillborn
f: died at birth
g: died after birth
Observed distributionN: all:2678, a:41,7%, b:1,3%, c31,8%, d:9,4%, e:9.8%, f:1,6%, g:4,4%
Remarks
Ss:only prevous pregnancies
The different answer-catagories don't all exclude each 
other
See also: Pregnancies:previous ones Seq.Nr.:179

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a: Mt=7.63
b: Mt=7.80
c: Mt=7.65
d: Mt=7.70
e: Mt=7.61
f: Mt=8.20
g: Mt=7.39
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a: Mt=7.34
b: Mt=7.80
c: Mt=7.35
d: Mt=7.25
e: Mt=7.40
f: Mt=7.50
g: Mt=7.05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a: Mt=6.98
b: Mt=7.20
c: Mt=6.91
d: Mt=7.06
e: Mt=6.93
f: Mt=6.86
g: Mt=6.63


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelParents' use of contraceptives
Page in Source 144
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Parents use of contraceptives as reported in medical 
file
1: no contraceptives used
2: one of the following contraceptives:
   2a: diaphragm
   2b: cream
   2c: vaginal contraceptive
   2d: condom
   2e: irrigation
   2f: coitus interruptus
   2g: safe period
Observed distributionN: all:4455, 1:93%, 2:9,2%, 2a:2,8%, 2b:2,5%, 2c:0,3%, 2d:2,3%, 2e:0,3%, 2f:0,2%, 2g:1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.75
2:  Mt=7.55
2a: Mt=7.76
2b: Mt=7.75
2c: Mt=7.71
2d: Mt=7.19
2e: Mt=6.73
2f: Mt=7.50
2g: Mt=7.11
All:   7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.23
2a: Mt=7.38
2b: Mt=7.01
2c: Mt=6.66
2d: Mt=7.09
2e: Mt=6.73
2f: Mt=8.13
2g: Mt=7.16
All:   7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.03
2:  Mt=6.88
2a: Mt=7.05
2b: Mt=7.01
2c: Mt=6.66
2d: Mt=6.59
2e: Mt=5.78
2f: Mt=7.50
2g: Mt=6.95
All:   6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's work with chemicals during pregnancy
Page in Source 162
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Mother's wprk with chemicals during pregnancy as 
reported in medical file
1: no
2: yes
Observed distributionN: all: 2818, 1:98%, 2:2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.73
2: Mt=7.88
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1: Mt=7.40
2: Mt=7.36
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1: Mt=7.01
2: Mt=6.66


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelMother's average mental health at 5 and 10
Page in Source 29,31,49-51
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Average score of 2 waves of a 24-item mental health 
index carried out by health visitors at age 5 (1975) 
and 10 (1980).
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.11
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father at age 10
- Family income at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when father left full time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelParental divorce
Page in Source 928
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Self report on single question whether parents are 
divorced or not
1 yes
0  no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns
PA: r = -.05 (ns)
NA: r = +.03 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelFather employed
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Single question about employment of father
3  fulltime
2  part-time
1  unemployed
Remarks
Full text not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
PA: r = +.07 (ns)
NA: r = +.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-20 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents characteristics
Subject code: F01af01

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child;uncritical of child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationParents characteristics, code F01af01
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in old age (T2: age 70). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.29 ns
Happiness assessed at T2 (age 70).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes of parents
Subject code: F01af01b

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's rejection of pregnancy
Page in Source 276
Our classificationAttitudes of parents, code F01af01b
Operationalization
Report in medical file on acceptance of a pregnancy 
from which subject was born
1: firmly wanted
2: wanted
3: not unwanted
4: unwanted (no use of contraceptives)
5: unwanted (failed use of contraceptives)
6: made abortion-attempt

b:Wanted or unwanted
1: wanted (1+2) 
2: unwanted (5+6)
Observed distributionN all:4217, a:1:21,5%, 2:23,6%, 3:0,8%, 4:42%, 5:5%, 6:7,1% N b: 1:45.1%, 2:12.1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.68
2: Mt=7.76
3: Mt=7.80
4: Mt=7.78
5: Mt=7.38
6: Mt=7.71
All=  7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aG=+.00 ns
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
b: wanted (1+2) vs unwanted (5+6)
1: Mt=7.74
2: Mt=7.57
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.41
2: Mt=7.38
3: Mt=7.43
4: Mt=7.46
5: Mt=7.23
6: Mt=7.20
All=  7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.01 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
b: wanted (1+2) vs unwanted (5+6)
1: Mt=7,39
2: Mt=7,21
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=7.03
2: Mt=7.04
3: Mt=7.58
4: Mt=7.04
5: Mt=6.63
6: Mt=6.90
All=  7.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haG=-.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
b: wanted (1+2) vs unwanted (5+6)
1: Mt=7,03
2: Mt=6.79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes of parents
Subject code: F01af01b

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's abortion attempts
Page in Source 278
Our classificationAttitudes of parents, code F01af01b
Operationalization
Report on medical file on (failed) abortion attempts on 
pregnancy from which subject was born
1: no abortion attempted
2: abortion attempted
   2a: abortion with drugs
   2b: abortion with irrigation
   2c: abortion with intravene mechanical efforts
Observed distributionN all:4289, 1:90,5%, 2:9,5%, 2a:5,9%, 2b:1,9%, 2c:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.73
2:  Mt=7,67
2a: Mt=7.70
2b: Mt=7.70
2c: Mt=6.56
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-,01 p < .561
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.17
2a: Mt=7.13
2b: Mt=7.08
2c: Mt=6.56
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=-.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=6.86
2a: Mt=6.89
2b: Mt=6.79
2c: Mt=6.88
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.02 p < .188


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes of parents
Subject code: F01af01b

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFather has clear andstrong beliefs
Page in Source 28
Our classificationAttitudes of parents, code F01af01b
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9-point scale beliefs very 
uncertain / some uncertainty / very strong and clear 
beliefs.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.26 s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes of parents
Subject code: F01af01b

StudyWilson (1965): study US 1960
TitleRelations of Sexual Behaviors, Values and Conflicts to Avowed Happiness.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1965, Vol. 17, 371 - 378
PublicCollege students, undergraduates, Hawaii, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived liberalityof sexual attitudes of parents.
Page in Source 375
Our classificationAttitudes of parents, code F01af01b
Operationalization
6-item questionnaire containig sexual behaviors varying 
in intimacy, scored for sexual behaviors, which one's 
parents would not seriously disapprove.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-11-ar=-.04 ns
Happiness was also correlated with discrepancy 
scores between the attitude of his parents and his 
own pragmatic and ideal sexual attitudes 
(indicative of external sexual conflicts). In both 
cases these correlations were non-significant (see 
under 'Sexuality', S 3)
M-TH-g-sq-v-11-ar=-.04 ns
Happiness was also correlated with discrepancy 
scores between the attitude of his parents and his 
own pragmatic and ideal sexual attitudes 
(indicative of external sexual conflicts). In both 
cases these correlations were non-significant (see 
under 'Sexuality', S 3)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Capacities of parents
Subject code: F01af01c

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelMother employed
Page in Source 928
Our classificationCapacities of parents, code F01af01c
Operationalization
Single question about employment of mother
3  fulltime
2  part-time
1  unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.09 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
PA: -.02 (ns)
NA: +.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Capacities of parents
Subject code: F01af01c

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelParents intelligence
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationCapacities of parents, code F01af01c
Operationalization
Subjects rating of;
a. Fathers intelligence
b. Mothers intelligence

Assessed in 1950
Remarks
Earlier rating (1950) by present happiness (1972)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 fathers intelligence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers intelligence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of parents
Subject code: F01af01d

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelHappy parents
Page in Source 48,T27
Our classificationHappiness of parents, code F01af01d
Operationalization
Two item index ofdirect questions on happiness of 
father, resp. mother. Rated on a 4-point scale ranging 
from very unhappy to very happy.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.27


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of parents
Subject code: F01af01d

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence long-term subjective well-being parents/children
Page in Source 15
Our classificationHappiness of parents, code F01af01d
Operationalization
Correspondence in reported life satisfaction of parents 
and children over 14 year period.
Observed distribution25168 person-year observations for 1309 different families
Remarks
Assessed every year during 14 years. Calculated using 
bivariate cross tabulation of responses to the same 
question on life satisfaction at the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=966
father and child correspondence in happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=1018
Mother and child correspondence in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration of parents
Subject code: F01af01g

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationMigration of parents, code F01af01g
Operationalization
1: Immigrant; not born in Italy
0: Non-migrant; born in Italy
Observed distribution481 (7.1%) immigrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eDM=-
Immigrants:      M=6.90 SD=2.08
Native Italians: M=7.44 SD=1.76
- difference:     -0.54
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.55 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.47 p < .01
Beta is additionally controlled for:
- Family socio-economic status
Set Image size:   

C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=-.40 p < .01
Beta is additionally controlled for:
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Migration of parents
Subject code: F01af01g

StudySenik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =64706

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 50, 55, 56
Our classificationMigration of parents, code F01af01g
Operationalization
1: Migrants
  a) First-generation
  b) Second-generation
  c) 2.5 generation (one non-native parent)
0: Non-migrants in host country (reference)
Observed distribution1a) 5094, 1b) 1339, 1c) 3348, 0) 54925
Remarks
The 'in total' happiness of natives differs when 
comparing natives to 1st generation. 2nd generation, or 
3th generation migrants since it is a weighted mean 
based on the specific number of migrants per country. 
By doing this, endogeneity of a different ratio 
migrants/natives per country is avoided.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1a)
       1st generation Natives difference
Belgium        7.42    7.74    -.32          
Switzerland    7.75    8.12    -.37            
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29            
Denmark        8.11    8.34    -.23       
Spain          7.43    7.66    -.23       
Finland        8.04    8.03    +.01            
France         7.14    7.28    -.14         
UK             7.31    7.49    -.18            
Netherlands    7.51    7.80    -.29            
Norway         7.61    7.93    -.32           
Portugal       6.67    6.77    -.10         
Sweden         7.55    7.89    -.34            
Slovenia       7.11    7.21    -.10

In total       7.36    7.72    -.36
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1b)
       2nd generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.33    7.74    -.41     
Switzerland    7.93    8.12    -.19      
Germany        7.16    7.32    -.16
Denmark        8.17    8.34    -.17            
Spain          8.16    7.66    +.50            
Finland        8.71    8.03    +.78            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             6.99    7.49    -.50            
Netherlands    7.73    7.80    -.07            
Norway         8.00    7.93    +.07           
Portugal       6.84    6.77    +.07            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.89    7.21    +.68

In total       7.52    7.62    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aDM=-
1c)
       2.5 generation Natives difference 
Belgium        7.62    7.74    -.12     
Switzerland    8.00    8.12    -.12      
Germany        7.03    7.32    -.29
Denmark        8.10    8.34    -.24            
Spain          7.62    7.66    -.04            
Finland        7.96    8.03    -.07            
France         7.37    7.28    +.09            
UK             7.38    7.49    -.09
Netherlands    7.66    7.80    -.12            
Norway         7.82    7.93    -.11           
Portugal       6.17    6.77    -.60            
Sweden         7.68    7.89    -.21            
Slovenia       7.32    7.21    +.11

In total       7.59    7.69    -.10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.17 p < .001
FIRST GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.19 p < .001
SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.07 p < .001
2.5 GENERATION

B's controlled for:
- Age and age squared
- Gender
- Log household income
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Region of origin
- Immigrant status*country of residence
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelFather is seen as a strong person
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9-point scale weak and 
passive / neither  weak 
nor strong / very strong.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br=+.47 s


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelMother is seen as a strong person
Page in Source 28
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Closed question rated on a 9-point scale weak and 
passive / neither weak nor strong / very strong.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-20 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligent; interested in child;uncritical of child
Page in Source 342
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in old age (T2: age 70). 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=-.29 ns
Happiness assessed at T2 (age 70).
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-br=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelInterested in child; uncritical of child; talkative
Page in Source 342
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personality of parents
Subject code: F01af01h

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelPersonality of parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationPersonality of parents, code F01af01h
Operationalization
Subjects rating of parents

- Fathers'
  a. self confidence
  b. helpfullness
  c. friendliness

- Mothers'
  d. selfconfidence
  e. helpfullness
  f. friendliness

All assessed in 1950
Remarks
1950 ratings by 1972 happiness.
           
            

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 fathers self confidence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²=+ p < .01
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .01
1950 fathers helpfullness by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 fathers friendliness by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers selfconfidence by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers helpfullness by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 mothers friendliness by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of siblings
Subject code: F01af02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelbrothers and sisters
Page in Source 350-352
Our classificationCharacteristics of siblings, code F01af02
Operationalization
brothers and sisters(1)
a1: only sisters
b1: brothers and sisters
c1: only brothers
d1: only child

half brothers and sisters(2)
a2: only full brothers and sisters
b2: both full and half brothers and sisters
c2: only half brothers and sisters
d2: only child

twin or triplet(3)
a3: identical twin
b3: fraternal twin
c3: triplet
d3: twin or triplet
e3: neither twin nor triplet
Observed distributionN1: WOMEN: All:2475; %:a1:25,2; a2:35,5; a3:29,3; a4:10,0 N1:MEN:All:2118; %: a1:27,9; b1:33,9; c1:26,9; d1:11,3 N2: All:4613; %:a2:59,0, b2:13,6; c2:16,8; c4:10,6 N3: All:4670; %:a3:0,8; b3:2,3; c3:0,2; d3:3,3; e3:96,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet
Ms a1:7.71   a1:7.88       a2:7.80        a3:7.71
Ms b1:7.61   b1:7.64       b2:7.60        b3:7.55
Ms c1:7.81   c1:7.91       c2:7.66        c3:7.14
Ms d1:7.74   d1:7.56       d2:7.65        d3:7.56
                                          e3:7.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet
Ms a1:7.48   a1:7.58       a2:7.50        a3:7.29
Ms b1:7.36   b1:7.16       b2:7.20        b3:7.63
Ms c1:7.53   c1:7.53       c2:7.34        c3:7.50
Ms d1:7.48   d1:7.28       d2:7.38        d3:7.54
                                          e3:7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet
Ms a1:7.10   a1:7.08       a2:7.09        a3:7.29
Ms b1:7.05   b1:6.84       b2:6.85        b3:7.04
Ms c1:7.09   c1:7.01       c2:6.96        c3:6.08
Ms d1:7.10   d1:6.88       d2:7.00        d3:7.05
                                          e3:7.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of siblings
Subject code: F01af02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsiblings
Page in Source 332-338
Our classificationCharacteristics of siblings, code F01af02
Operationalization
brothers and sisters(1)
a1: only sisters
b1: brothers and sisters
c1: only brothers
d1: only child

half brothers and sisters(2)
a2: only full brothers and sisters
b2: both full and half brothers and sisters
c2: only half brothers and sisters
d2: only child

twin or triplet(3)
a3: identical twin
b3: fraternal twin
c3: triplet
d3: twin or triplet
e3: neither twin nor triplet
Observed distributionN women: all:738, a1:165, b1:312, c1:191, d1:70 N men: all:729, a1:193, b1:280, c1:188, d1:68 N(2): all:1483, a2:1157, b2:105, c2:82, d2:139 N(3): all:1476, a3:8, b3:20, c3:6, d3:34, e3:1408

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.56   7.76          a2=7.81        a3=6.56 
Ms b1=7.80   7.74          b2=7.74        b3=7.50
Ms c1=7.88   8.06          c2=7.75        c3=7.09
Ms d1=7.11   7.61          d2=7.35        d3=7.20
                                          e3=7.76
 all :7.70   7.81      all(2)=7.75    all(3)=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women's      men's
brothers     brothers      half brothers  twin or
and sisters  and sisters   and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.28   7.35          a2=7.51        a3=6.56 
Ms b1=7.51   7.51          b2=7.21        b3=6.88
Ms c1=7.55   7.50          c2=7.23        c3=7.50
Ms d1=7.03   7.20          d2=7.13        d3=6.91
                                          e3=7.45
 all :7.43   7.44      all(2)=7.44    all(3)=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women's      men's
brothers and brothers and  half brothers  twin or
sisters      sisters       and sisters    triplet 
Ms a1=7.06   7.35          a2=7.00        a3=6.25 
Ms b1=6.90   7.51          b2=6.66        b3=6.38
Ms c1=7.14   7.50          c2=6.74        c3=6.66
Ms d1=6.63   7.20          d2=6.66        d3=6.40
                                          e3=6.95
 all :6.98   7.44      all(2)=6.94    all(3)=6.93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Characteristics of siblings
Subject code: F01af02

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelCongenital malformations in siblings
Page in Source 530
Our classificationCharacteristics of siblings, code F01af02
Operationalization
Congenital malformations in Siblings
Report in medical file
1:no known
2:one or more of the following:
  2b: skin
  2c: respiratory apparatus
  2d: cardio-vascular system
  2e: gastro-intestinal system
  2f: uro genital system
  2g: central nervous system
  2h: skeleto-muscular system
  2i: endocrine glands
  2j: other
Observed distributionN: 1:4169, 2b:4, 2c:8, 2d:39, 2e:8, 2f:5, 2g:89, 2h:19, 2i:4, 2j:12
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given, because 
malformations are not mutually exclusive
Spearman's Rho is between 1 and 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.73
2:  Mt=7.78
2b: Mt=6.25
2c: Mt=9.06
2d: Mt=7.56
2e: Mt=8.75
2f: Mt=8.50
2g: Mt=7.75
2h: Mt=8.69
2i: Mt=5.63
2j: Mt=6.66
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=+.00 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.03
2:  Mt=7.18
2b: Mt=5.63
2c: Mt=8.13
2d: Mt=7.05
2e: Mt=7.50
2f: Mt=7.50
2g: Mt=6.69
2h: Mt=8.03
2i: Mt=5.00
2j: Mt=6.88
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.00 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=6.97
2b: Mt=5.00
2c: Mt=9.06
2d: Mt=7.05
2e: Mt=8.75
2f: Mt=9.00
2g: Mt=6.91
2h: Mt=8.29
2i: Mt=5.00
2j: Mt=6.25
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelsimilarity in happiness
Page in Source 414
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
within-twinpair correlation
Observed distributionFEMALE 25-45 YEARS: M=1.45, SDwithintwinpair=.52, SDoverall=.59; MALE 25-45 YEARS: M=1.45, SDwithintwinpair=.52, SDoverall=.59; FEMALE 50-70 YEARS: M=1.46, SDwithintwinpair=.49, SDoverall=.57; MALE 50-70 YEARS: M=1.51, SDwithintwinpair=.48, SDoverall=.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gr=+
ALL
20-45 years    +.21 
50-70 years    +.24

FEMALES  
25-45 years    +.21 
50-70 years    +.25 

MALES
25-45 years    +.21 
50-70 years    +.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence of long-term subjective well-being among siblings
Page in Source 18
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
Correspondence in reported life satisfaction of 
siblings over 14 year period.
Observed distribution10198 person-year observations for 1309 different famiilies
Remarks
Assessed every year during 14 years. Calculated using 
bivariate cross tabulation of responses to the same 
question on life satisfaction at the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.47
Control variables are:
- age
- gender
- employment
- self rated health
- family income
- number of persons in the household
- trend over time


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudySchnitzlein & Wunder (2014): study DE 1984
TitleAre we architects of our own happiness? The Importance of Family Background for Well-being.
SourceSoep Paper, 2014, No. 700, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2529978
DOIdoi: org/10.2139/ssrn.2529978
Public12+ aged, siblings, West Germany, followed 26 years,1984-2010,
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7398

Correlate
Author's labelSiblings happiness
Page in Source 29,30,31,32
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
Happiness of sibling
a brother
b sister
c mixed-sex

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.47
ALL SIBLINGS
Brothers (n = 4268)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.48
Sisters (n = 3696)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.43
Mixed gender (n = 3250)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.58
SIBLINGS LIVING WITH PARENTS
Brothers (n = 3905)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.48
Sisters (n = 3293)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.58
Mixed gender (n = 2557)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.18
SIBLINGS MOVED OUT OF PARENTAL HOME
Brothers (n = 1415)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.40
Sisters (n = 1458)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.18
Mixed-sex (n = 786)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.38
SIBLINGS IN MIXED FAMILIES
Brothers (n = 1578)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.42
Sisters (n = 1439)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.34
Mixed-sex (n = 1906)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyBartels & Boomsma (2009): study NL 2005
TitleBorn to be Happy? The Etiology of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceBehavior Genetics, 2009, Vol. 39, 605 - 617
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10519-009-9294-8
Public12+aged, mono- and dizygotic twins and their non-twin sibblings, The Netherlands, 2005-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,9
Respondents N =4052

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of twin sibbling
Page in Source 3,6,9
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
Twin sibbling's happiness reported in response to same 
single questions
Observed distributiongreat mean 8.3 (mean of means of subsample)
Remarks
Question type O-BW (Cantril's Ladder of Life rating), 
both in 'general' variant and in 'this moment' variant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-a
MONO-ZIGOTIC TWIN PAIRS
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-ar=+.42
- males
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-ar=+.53
- females
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-a
DI-ZIGOTIC SAME-SEX TWIN PAIRS
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-ar=+.10
- males
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-ar=+.26
- females
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-ar=+.16
OPPOSITE-SEX TWIN PAIRS
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-aßL=+.22
Estimated additive genetic influences:
95%CI[+.06;+.24]
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-aßL=+.25
Estimated non-additive genetic influences:
95%CI[+.23:+.25]
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-aßL=+.53
Estimated non-shared enviromental influences
95%CI[+.52;+.57]
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-a
MONO-ZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIRS
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-ar=+.40
- males
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-ar=+.32
- females
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-a
DIZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIRS
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-ar=+.09
- males
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-ar=+.15
- females
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-ar=+.21
DI-ZYGOTIC OPPOSITE-SEX TWIN-PAIRS
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-aßL=+.35
Estimated additive genetic influences:
95%CI[+.22;+.41]
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-aßL=+.01
Estimated non-additive genetic influences:
95%CI[+.00:+.01]
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-aßL=+.64
Estimated non-shared environmental influences:
95%CI[+.59;+.69]


Cross-measure correlations are similar, but lower


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyRobinson et al. (2001): study US 1986
TitleDispositional Cheerfullness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
SourceEmde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177
PublicToddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of twin sibling
Page in Source 170, 171
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
Happiness of twin sibling assessed in the same way 
using time sampling of expressive behavior
Remarks
MZ = monozygotic (non-identical twins)
DZ = dizygotic (identical twins)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+ p < .01
MONOZYGOTIC:
at 14 months: r=+.50
at 20 months: r=+.55
at 24 months: r=+.26
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-ar=+ p < .01
DIZYGOTIC:
at 14 months: r=+.39 p<0.01
at 20 months: r=+.34 p<0.01
at 24 months: r=+.18 p<0.05
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a
HERITABILITY:
at 14 months: h²=+.22 ns
at 20 months: h²=+.40 p<.05
at 24 months: h²=+.16 ns

h² computed using regression method of DeFries & 
Fulker (1985)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a
COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:
at 14 months: c²=+.28 ns
at 20 months: c²=+.14 ns
at 24 months: c²=+.10 ns

see Plomin et al. (1990, 1993);
c² computed by using regression method of DeFries 
& Fulker (1985)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyEmde et al. (1992): study US Colorado 1986
TitleTemperament, Emotion, and Cognition at Fourteen Months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study
SourceChild Development, Vol. 63, No. 6 (Dec., 1992), pp.1437-1455
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1131567
Public14 months aged, same-sex twin pairs, Colorado, United States, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of Twin siblings
Page in Source 1445, 1447, 1448
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
at 14 months, twin pairs were first observed at home 
and 2 weeks after that in the laboratory at the 
Institute for Behavioral Genetics in Boulder, behavior 
was videotaped and rated afterwards; parents completed 
questionnaire in the time between the home &  lab 
session;
Observed distributionN: 99 monozygotic twin pairs, 99 dizygotic twin pairs
Remarks
monozygotic (MZ) = identical
dizygotic (DZ) = non-identical

Heritability (h²):
the extent to which observed variance in behavior can 
be attributed to genetic influence:
-> doubling the difference between the MZ and DZ 
correlations, because MZ twins are identical 
genetically, whereas the genetic correlation for DZ 
twins is assumed to be +.50

Shared Environment (c²):
shared environmental influences (c²), estimated in the 
twin method as twin resemblance not explained by 
heritability: twice the DZ correlation minus the MZ 
correlation (only detects major effects of shared 
environment)

for details of computations see DeFries & Fulker, 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .01
Monozygotic Twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
Dizygotic Twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Heritability component:       h²=+.34 (ns)
Shared environment component: c²=-.15 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyPlomin et al. (1993): study US Colorado 1986
TitleGenetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study
SourceSociety for Research in Child Development; Child Development, 1993, 64, 1354-1376
PublicSame-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 20 months, 1986-1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of twin siblings
Page in Source 1364-1367, 1371
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
at 14 and 20 months, twin pairs were first observed at 
home and 1-3 weeks after that in the laboratory at the 
Institute for Behavioral Genetics in Boulder during 
different situations, behavior was videotaped and rated 
afterwards; the mother was interviewed via phone 
between the home & lab sessions;
Remarks
monozygotic (MZ) = identical
dizygotic (DZ) = non-identical

Heritability (h²):
the extent to which observed variance in behavior can 
be attributed to genetic influence:
-> doubling the difference between the MZ and DZ 
correlations, because MZ twins are identical 
genetically, whereas the genetic correlation for DZ 
twins is assumed to be +.50

Shared Environment (c²):
estimated in the twin method as twin resemblance not 
explained by heritability:
-> twice the DZ correlation minus the MZ correlation 
(only detects major effects of shared environment)

for details of computation see DeFries & Fulker, 1985

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
SAME TIME CORRELATION
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.19 p < .05
Monozygotic twins at 14 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
Dizygotic twins at 14 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.27 p < .05
Monozygotic twins at 20 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
Dizygotic twins at 20 months
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Heritability component in this correlation:
- at 14 months h²=+.15 (ns)
- at 20 months h²=+.10 (ns)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Shared Environment component in this correlation:
- at 14 months c²=+.00 (ns)
- at 20 months c²=+.17 (ns)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
CORRELATION OF CHANGE:
Twin correlations based on each individual's 
relative change score (20 months - 14 months) 
using a double entry file.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.03 ns
Monozygotic twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
Dizygotic twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Heritability component:       h²=+.03 (ns)
Shared Environment component: c²=+.00 (ns)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
CORRELATION OF CONTINUITY:
The analysis of continuity is based on cross-twin 
correlations, that is, the correlation between one 
twin's score at 14 months and the co-tin's score 
at 20 months using a double-entry file.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.21 p < .05
Monozygotic twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-ar=+.09 ns
Dizygotic twins
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Heritability component:       h²=+.21 (05)
Shared Environment component: c²=+.00 (ns)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of siblings
Subject code: F01af02d

StudyLoehlin & Nichols (1976): study US 1963
TitleHeredity, Environment and Personality. A Study of 850 Sets of Twins.
SourceUniversity of Texas Press, 1976, Austin, USA
PublicAdolescent same-sex twins, USA, 1963
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29 %
Respondents N =850

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness of twin sibling
Page in Source 14
Our classificationHappiness of siblings, code F01af02d
Operationalization
A Happiness of Identical twins
  a brothers
  b sisters
B Happiness of Fraternal twins
  a brothers
  b sisters
Observed distributionN for happiness = A: 486 Aa: 204, Ab: 282, B: 320 Ba: 130, Bb: 190 N for % cheerful & satisfied = A: 509, Aa: 216, Ab: 293, B: 330, Ba: 135, Bb: 195
Remarks
All twins are same sex

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-v-7-ar=+.37
Happiness of identical twins (average r)
- brothers r = +.41 
- sisters  r = +.34
O-HP-g-sq-v-7-ar=+.21
Happiness of fraternal twins (average r)
- brothers r = +.12
- sisters  r = +.27

Difference betwee correlations among identical & 
fraternal twins significant (p<05)
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-br=+.26
Happiness of identical twins (average r)
- brothers r = +.14 
- sisters  r = +.35
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-br=+.09
Happiness of Fraternal twins(average r)
- brothers r = +.17
- sisters  r = +.03)

Difference between correlations among identical & 
fraternal twins significant (p<.05)
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-cr=+.16
Happiness of identical twins
- brothers r = +.07 
- sisters  r = +.23
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-cr=+.07
Happiness of fraternal twins
- brothers r= +.11 
- sisters  r= +.05 

Difference between correlations among identical & 
fraternal twins ns

Significance tests computed by us, assuming that 
these samples are a probability sample of a wider 
population of twins.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyHomel & Burns (1989): study AU 1987
TitleEnvironmental Quality and the Well-Being of Children.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1989, Vol. 21, 133 - 158
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00300500
PublicBasic school children, Sydney, Australia ,1987
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response29,6%
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelFamily variables
Page in Source 139,146
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
a  Occupational status of parents
b  Parent's education
c  Family income
d  Maternal employment
e  Cultural background
f   Single parent status
g  Urbanicity of parent's background
h  Religion
I  Number of children in the family

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-aR²=.19 p < .01
R2 represents the additional variance explained 
after :
- Child's age and sexe
- Housing
- Street-type
- Neighborhood social problems
- Neighborhood x Street-type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelFather's status
Page in Source 36,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.66 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=ns
B and Beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings

When additionally controlled for marital status, 
age, number of offspring:

Women:B= +1.69 and Beta= +.02
Men:  B= +.19  and Beta= ns

B and Beta ns when controlled for:
- gender
- migration
- parent's education 
- parents divorced
- number of siblings
- number of offspring
- age
- quality of marriage

B and Beta ns when additionally controlled for:
- religious denomination
- church attendance(ln)
- education, family income (ln)
- labor force perticipation
- spouse in lf
- hours worked
- ocupationakl status
- job security
- earnings
- unemployment
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-b


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelSocial status of mother at age 1
Page in Source 154
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Mother's social status as reported in medical file
1: 1-4 
2: 5-6 
3: 7-8
4: 9-10
5: 11-12
6: 13-14
7: 15-16
8: over 16
Observed distributionN: all:3510, 1:3%, 2:18%, 3:24%, 4:18%, 5:12%, 6:11%, 7:9%, 8:5%
Remarks
Social status expressed in the number of points

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.48
2: Mt=7.71
3: Mt=7.89
4: Mt=7.86
5: Mt=7.83
6: Mt=7.61
7: Mt=7.51
8: Mt=7.65
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.03 p < .1353
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.48
2: Mt=7.71
3: Mt=7.89
4: Mt=7.86
5: Mt=7.83
6: Mt=7.61
7: Mt=7.51
8: Mt=7.65
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 p < .4353
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.71
2: Mt=6.99
3: Mt=7.15
4: Mt=7.14
5: Mt=7.09
6: Mt=6.94
7: Mt=6.93
8: Mt=7.03
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.01 p < .6758


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyVieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006
TitleHealth Status in Immigrants and Native Early Adolescents in Italy.
SourceJournal of Community Health, 2009, Vol. 34,181 -187
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9144-2
Public10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6744

Correlate
Author's labelFamily socio-economic status
Page in Source 183, 185
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Self report on 4 question: 
a) Does your family own a car, van or truck?
(No/Yes, one/Yes, two or more)
b) Do you have your own bedroom for yourself? 
(Yes/No)
c) During the past 12 months, how many times
did you travel away on holiday with your family? 
(Not at all/Once/Twice/More than twice)
d) How many computers does your family own?
(None/One/Two/More than two)
Observed distributionM=2.30
Remarks
Family Affluence Scale (FAS)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eBeta=+.45 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant (born in Italy or not)
- Gender
- Age
- Number of friends
- Friends support
- Bullying victimization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

Study~Unicef (2001): study ZZ East Asia 2001
TitleSpeaking Out! Voices of Children and Adolescents in East Asia and the Pacific: Regional Opinion Survey.
SourceUnicef, 2001, Bangkok, Thailand
Public9-17 aged children, 17 countries/regions East Asia and Pacific 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10073

Correlate
Author's labelSES
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
1: Lower class
2: Middle class
3: Upper class
Observed distribution N = 1: 4601, 2: 3507, 3: 1625

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eDM=+
Lower   M=3,45 CI95 [3.43-3.47] SD=0,56
Middle  M=3,51 CI95 [3.49-3.52] SD=0,53   
Upper   M=3,58 CI95 [3.56-3.61] SD=0,52
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eBMCT=
1<2<3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelsocial class stepfamily
Page in Source 149
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
question not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.10 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- time since (step)family formation
- stepmother/stepfather family
- frequency of contact with nonresident parent
- age
- sex
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelFamily economic
Page in Source 6,14,16,17
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
At age 10;
- Father's socio-ecenomic group
- Family income
- Number of siblings
At age 0,5,10 (average):
- Father in work
Mother's and father's age on leaving full-time 
education
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.08
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.06
Beta controlled for:
- Good conduct(at age 5,10,16) 
- Intellectual performance(at age 5,10,16)
- Family psychosicial
- Gender (female)

Indirect effect of childhood family economic:
Simulated:
Beta=+.05
Subtraction of total variance in family economic 
from childhood economic:
Beta=+.03

When limiting family economic up to:
- age 5:  beta=+.06
- age 10: beta=+.06

Beta controlled for:
- Good conduct (at age 5,10,16)
- Intellectual performance (at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
Beta additionally controlling:
- Income
- Employed
- Education
- Good conduct (at age 16,34)
- Self-perceived health (at age 26)
- Emotional health (at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.07
Beta when only controlling for:
- family psychosocial
- gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class of father
Page in Source 29,30,45,49
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Social class of father at age 10:
5- Professional
4- Semi-professional
3- Non-manual skilled
2- Manual skilled
1- Semi-skilled
0- Unsklilled
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.08
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Family income at age 10
- Number of siblings at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.04
Beta controlled for family background variables 
only:
- Family income(at age 10)
- Number of siblings(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelFamily weekly income at 10
Page in Source 19,3045,49
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Log of  gross family weekly income at age 10:
7 - £250 and more per week
6 - Between £200 and £249 per week
5 - Between £150 and £199 per week
4 - Between £100 and £149 per week
3 - Between £50 and £99 per week
2 - Between £35 and £49 per week
1 - Under £35 per week
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.09
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
Beta=+.04 when controlled for family background 
variables only:
- Social class of father(at age 10)
- Number of siblings(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Page in Source 832
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Self reported occupation of father

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelParental Social Class
Page in Source 57
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelFamily's socioeconomic level
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Index consisting of six equally weighted components: 
father's occupational status; father's educational 
level; mother's educational level; number of rooms per 
person in home; number of books in home; checklist of 
other possesions in the home. Scale:1.00 to 8.00. 
Assesed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-ar=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ag

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 113/330
Our classificationSocio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ag
Operationalization
Weighted score based on the medium score of father's 
occupation, father's education and father's primary 
source of income lower / middle / upper.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.05
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.03
- frequency of low mood             : Gs = +.08
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.04
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.03
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.02
- sensivity to criticism            : Gs = +.04
- presenting a false self           : Gs = +.06
- participation in extracurricular
  activities                        : Gs = +.06
- extent of dating                  : Gs = +.07
- hours spent on work for pay       : Gs = +.03
- disruption of family relationships: Gs = +.05
- number of children in the family  : Gs = +.05
- school social class               : Gs = +.05
- tending to be a lonely person,
  and having fun in life            : Gs = +.04
- self-esteem, and having fun in  
  life                              : Gs = +.01
- self-esteem, and tending to be a
  lonely person                     : Gs = +.02
- self-esteem, and having faith in
  people                            : Gs = +.01
- self-esteem, and sensitivity to
  criticism                         : Gs = +.02

When Ss are regrouped, so that the upper third of 
middle class = upper class and the lower third of 
middle class = lower class          : G  = +.01
After control for educational level
of mother                           : Gs =  .00
 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.12
After control for:
- having fun in life                : Gs = +.07
- frequency of low mood             : Gs = +.15
- tending to be a lonely person     : Gs = +.08
- self-esteem                       : Gs = +.08
- having faith in people            : Gs = +.09
- sensitivity to criticism          : Gs = +.09
- presenting a false self           : Gs = +.13
- participation in extracurricular
  activities                        : Gs = +.14
- extent of dating                  : Gs = +.14
- hours spent on work for pay       : Gs = +.12
- disruption of family relationships: Gs = +.12
- number of children in the family  : Gs = +.10
- school social class               : Gs = +.12
- having fun in life, and tending to
  be a lonely person                : Gs = +.07
- having fun in lifee, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.06
- tending to be a lonely person, and
  self-esteem                       : Gs = +.06
- having faith in people, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.07
- sensivity to criticism, and self-
  esteem                            : Gs = +.05

When Ss are regrouped, so that the upper third of 
middle class = upper class, and the lower third of 
middle class = lower class       : G  = +.06
 After control for educational level
 of mother                          : Gs = +.04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .05 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelParent's education
Page in Source 36,44,47,50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.01 p < .05
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.24 p < .05
Beta and above B controlled for:
- Gender
- Migrant
- Family of origin:
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
  - First marriage
  - Second marriage
  - Unmarried partnership
  - Widowed
  - Divorced
  - Family size
  - Age

Females: B=+.19 (p<.05)
Males:   B=+.27 (p<.05)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.03 p < .05
Beta when migration left out.
Females: Beta =+.03 (p<.05)
Males:   Beta= +.04 (p<.05)

B and Beta not significant when additionally 
controlled for:
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance (ln)
  - Religious denomination
- Work status:
  - Volunteer work (hours)
  - Education
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force
  - Hours worked
  - Occupational status
  - Job security
  - Unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelEducation of the mother
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Education of the mother
1: less education
2: university degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nDMt=-
1: less education    Mt = 6,43  [ 6,42;  6,43]
2: university degree Mt = 6.01  [ 5,99;  6,02]
Difference           Mt = -0,42 [-0,42; -0,43]
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ngH=-.16 p < .000
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.02 p < .737
girls, university degree mother
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.05 p < .285
boys, university degree mother
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=+.03 p < .550
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N=1192, boys N=1178)

girls, university degree mother
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.13 p < .019
boys, university degree mother 

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- working mother or not
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelBreadwinner-parent education
Page in Source 156
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Education of bread winning parent as reported in 
medical file
1: remedial school
2: grade school
3: high school
4: college
Observed distributionN: all:3481, 1:1%, 2:64%, 3:23%, 4:12%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.44
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.71
4: Mt=7.53
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.05
2: Mt=7.51
3: Mt=7.38
4: Mt=7.09
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.86
2: Mt=7.08
3: Mt=7.04
4: Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelFather's education
Page in Source 19 + 22
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Years of school education plus years of jobtraining

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984  dissattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1991 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1991 disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for years of 
education and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelIntellectual environment
Page in Source 6,17,18
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
educational attainment of the parents: if the mother or 
father, respectively, completed the highest general 
schooling level
Observed distribution M SD Father gymnasium 0.146 (15 %) 0.354 Mother gymnasium 0.092 (1%) 0.289

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
father gymnasium
probit result= -0,153
CI95=[ -0,42  0,11]
mother gymnasium
probit result= -0,083
CI95=[-0,41  0,24]

also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- Engaged in vocational training
- work
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelSocial background variables
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
a. Fathers occupation low and normal
   family (reference)
b. Father's education
c. Mother's education
d. Fathers occupation intermediate
e. Fathers occupation high
f. Fathers occupation independent
g. Social status low
i. Number of siblings
Observed distributionFathers education: 2,46 Mothers education: 2,25 Number od siblings: 5,02.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06 ns
Fathers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.03 ns
Mothers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.05 ns
Fathers occupation intermediate
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 ns
Fathers occupation high
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02 ns
Fathers occupation independent
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Social status low
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Number of siblings

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling 
-intelligence
-gender and family status
-labour market status
-health status

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation (not 
significant) between social background variables 
and happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelAge when mother left full time education
Page in Source 29,31,45,49
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Age when mother left full time education:
"What was the age of your mother when she finished full 
time education?"
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.04
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.01
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Beta controlled for family background variables 
only:
- Family income(at age 10)
- Social class of father(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelAge when father left full time education
Page in Source 29,30,31,49
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Age when father left full time education:
"What was the age of your father when she finished full 
time education?"
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.05
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.00
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, age 
5 and 10
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)

Beta=+.01 when controlled for family background 
variables only:
- Social background of father at 10
- Family income 10
- Average employment rate of father at birth, 5 
and 10
- Number of siblings at 10
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.01
Beta controlled for family background variables 
only:
- Family income(at age 10)
- Social class of father(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyKiecolt & Acock (1990): study US 1980
TitleChildhood Family Structure and Adult Psychological Well-Being of Black Americans.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1990, Vol. 10, 169 - 186
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1990.9981920
Public18 + aged; Blacks, USA, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =1911

Correlate
Author's labelmothers education
Page in Source 177-179
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
mothers education:
1 up to six years
2 seven or eigth years
3 some high school
4 high school or diploma
5 some college
6 bachelor's degree or higher
Observed distributionM= 2.8; SD= 1.16
Remarks
30% did not report mothers education; therefore mean 
variable for the entire sample

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 ns
beta controlled for:
- family composition before age 16
- current own education, income
- age, sex
- current marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1981): study US 1973 /1
TitleEducation's Effects on Psychological Well-Being.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1981, Vol. 45, 22 - 39
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2748316
Public25-54 aged, general public, ,USA, 1973-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3350

Correlate
Author's labelMother's education
Page in Source 34
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Mother's years of school completed 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+
white men: ß=+.01, white women: ß=+.01      
black men: ß=-.07, black women: ß=+.01
ß controlled for father's years of school and 
occupational prestige, number of siblings, size of 
community of origin, age, family income, 
occupational prestige for men, and work status
for women, marital status, frequency of attendance 
at religious services, and presence-
absence of children in each of three age ranges 
(0-5, 6-12, 13-17).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelParent's education
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many grades of school 
did your father/mother complete? 
1 = less than HS;
2 = some HS (9 - 11 years); 
3 = some HS plus noncollege training;
4 = completed HS (12 years);
5 = completed HS plus noncollege       training;
6 = some college; 
7 = completed college; 
8 = post-graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
- Father's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.03  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
- Mother's education
T1 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of books in home
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1: How many books are in 
your home? 
1 = none, or very few (0 - 10); 
2 = a few (11 - 25); 
3 = one bookcase full (26 - 100); 
4 = two bookcases full (101 - 250); 
5 = three or four bookcases full (251 -     500); 
6 = a room full; a library (501 or     more)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level of father
Page in Source 113/338
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Some grade school or grade school graduate / some high 
school or high school graduate / some college or 
college graduate / post graduate college work.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.03
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.04
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .03 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level of mother
Page in Source 113/334
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Some grade school or grade school graduate / some high 
school or high school graduate / some college or 
college graduate / post graduate college work.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.09
After control for:
- participation in extracurricular activities:
                Gs = +.09
- social class: Gs = +.06
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.04
After control for:
- participation in extracurricular activities:
                        Gs = +.09
- social class:         Gs = +.06
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .04 p < . 05
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelFather's education
Page in Source 250
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) Father's education by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.00 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 p < .05
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.02 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelMother's education
Page in Source 250
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) Mother's education by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.03 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.00 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.10 p < .00
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.07 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelHigh educational status of father
Page in Source 283
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
0 Non-graduate 
1 College graduate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= ±0 ns
U-shaped curve: girls with a non-graduate father 
reporting significantly more 'average happiness'.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=±0 ns
U-shaped curve: girls with a non-graduate father 
reporting significantly more 'average happiness'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents education
Subject code: F01ag01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEducation of parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationParents education, code F01ag01
Operationalization
Direct questions to parents:
a. Schooling of father.
b. Schooling of mother.

Both assessed in 1922
Remarks
Earlier parent characteristic (1922)
by present happiness of subject (1972)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 education of father by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 education of mother by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudyVanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004
TitleThe Influences on Happiness: A Research on Happiness among Students in Utrecht and St. Louis.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht. 2005, Netherlands
PublicUniversity students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelparental income
Page in Source 65
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
Single question: What is your parents income?
1. Lower
2. Middle
3. Upper
Observed distributionM = 2,43, SD = 0,604 1: 5.9%, 2: 44.9%, 3: 49.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBMCT=0 ns
Lower:  M = 8
Middle: M = 7.74
Upper:  M = 8.01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBMCT=+ p < .001
low   : M = 3.24
middle: M = 3.17
upper : M = 3.42
2 < 3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBMCT=+ p < .001
low   : M = 1.43
middle: M = 1.29
upper : M = 2.08
2 < 3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudySimoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001
TitlePersonal and Social Features in Adolescent's Health.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.: "Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, 105 - 116
PublicAdolescents, Portugal, 2001-02
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6109

Correlate
Author's labelFamily financial status
Page in Source 108,112
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
A Family Car:
 1:No
 2:One
 3:Two Or More
B Own Bedroom:
 1:No
 2:Yes
C Vacations:
 1:Not
 2:Once
 3:Twice,
 4:More Than Twice
D Number Of Computers:
 1:None
 2:1
 3:2
 4:More Than Two
E Family Financial Means. Family Well Off:
 1:Very Well Off
 2:Quite Well Off
 3=Average
 4:Not Very Well Off
 5:Not All Well Off

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tBeta=+.10 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- family
- friends
- psychological symptoms
- school
- class mates
- body satisfaction
- life satisfaction
- teachers
- physical symptoms
- food intake
- physical activity
- risk behaviours
- social competency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelParental family's comparative income at age 16
Page in Source 324
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
Single direct question: Thinking about the time you 
were 16 years old.
Compared with American families in general than would 
you say your family income was
0 below average
1 average
2 above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.36 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.12 p < .05
% very happy
0      31
1      36
2      38
The relationship disappears largely when controled 
for perceived income compared to compatriots, 
occupational status and perceived 
increase/decrease in income during the last years.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelPossesions in home
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
The number of items from a list of 19 which the 
respondent indicates he has in his home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of rooms per person in home
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
Number of rooms in home divided by number of people in 
home, at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents income
Subject code: F01ag02

StudyBrenner (1970): study US 1960
TitleSocial Factors in Mental Well-Being at Adolescence.
SourcePhD Dissertation, The American University, 1970, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/brenner_b_1970.pdf
PublicHighschool pupils, New York State, USA, 1960
Sample
Non-Response1%
Respondents N =5204

Correlate
Author's labelIncome level of father's occupation
Page in Source 113/334
Our classificationParents income, code F01ag02
Operationalization
Under $ 3400 / $ 3400-5000 / over 
$ 5000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.07
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bV= .04 ns
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aV= .02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupational prestige
Page in Source 18 + 22
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Place on international ranklist of prestige of 
occupations
top:    chief of state
bottom: garbage collector
(Treiman 1977)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1984  disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01 p < .05
1991 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.01
1991 disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for 
occupational prestige and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyBecchetti & Pisani (2014): study IT 2010
TitleFamily Economic Well-Being, and (Class) Relative Wealth: An Emperical Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Secundary School Students in Three Italian Cities.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 503 -525
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9433-z
Public17-18 aged , secondary school students, Italy, 2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2124

Correlate
Author's labelParental jobs
Page in Source Table 1 - Table 5
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Selfreport on whether your mother works as a civil 
servant
1. yes
0. no
Observed distributionM = .02; SD = .16

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.57 p < .05
TYPE OF SCHOOL FIXED EFFECT

OLRC controlled for:
 -single parent
 -repeated at least one school year
 -residence location
 -gender
-Household economic condition
 -houseownership
 -mortgage
 -current account
-School performance
 -final grade in Italian
 -final grade in maths
 -final grade at middle school
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-fOLRC=+.53 p < .05
OLRC additionally controlled for:
-Relationship
 -trust in family
 -friends

With SCHOOL FIXED EFFECTS and CLASS FIXED EFFECT, 
the results are nearly the same.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyCaudill & Weinstein (1969): study ZZ East-West pairs 1961
TitleMaternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.
SourcePsychiatry, 1969, Vol. 32, 12 - 43
DOIdoi: 10.1177/0022002186017003001
PublicInfants and first born in intact middle class families, Japan and USA, 1961-64
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Page in Source 218
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
0 salaried
1 independent

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-0-arpc=+ ns
Hedonic level assessed by time sampling of happy 
and unhappy vocal utterances.

-Happy vocal    rpc=+.02 (ns)
-Unhappy vocal  rpc=-.21 (ns)

Rpc controlled for nationality (American or 
Japanese) and sex.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelSocial background variables
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
a. Fathers occupation low and normal
   family (reference)
b. Father's education
c. Mother's education
d. Fathers occupation intermediate
e. Fathers occupation high
f. Fathers occupation independent
g. Social status low
i. Number of siblings
Observed distributionFathers education: 2,46 Mothers education: 2,25 Number od siblings: 5,02.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06 ns
Fathers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.03 ns
Mothers education
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.05 ns
Fathers occupation intermediate
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 ns
Fathers occupation high
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.02 ns
Fathers occupation independent
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Social status low
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.09 ns
Number of siblings

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling 
-intelligence
-gender and family status
-labour market status
-health status

OPRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote whether the 
correlation is positive or negative and the 
relative differences in correlation (not 
significant) between social background variables 
and happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyClark & D'Angelo (2013): study GB 1991
TitleUpward Social Mobility, Well-being and Political Preferences: Evidence from the BHPS.
SourceRePec Working Paper 338, 2013, Italy
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/anc/wpaper/338.html
Public18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1991-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90234

Correlate
Author's labelFather's social status
Page in Source 9,13,14,27
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Father's social status: 
Hope-Goldthorpe scale: occupational index that reflects 
the job's reputation and classifies jobs accoording to 
their social desirability.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.11 ns
Father's social status.

Beta controlled for:
- hours of work
- firm size
- gender
- age
- age squared
- education
- marital status
- household size
- region
- wave dummies
- own social status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelFather's Occupation
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Single closed question, rated on an 8-point scale, 
ranging from 
(1) Professional or top-administrative to (8) Manual, 
routine. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.07    (ns)
T2: 1979     r= +.12    (ns)
T3: 1981     r= +.08    (ns)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Page in Source 451
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Professionals
Managers
Clericals/Salespersons
Craftspersons
Operatives/Service workers
Farmers
Unskilled Laborers
Remarks
% very happy:                   1957     1976

- Professionals                  46       38
- Managers                       46       35
- Clerical/Salespersons          40       41
- Craftspersons                  36       32
- Operatives/Service Workers     38       26
- Farmers                        29       28
- Unskilled Laborers             28       38

Effect persists after control for age and sex.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupational prestige
Page in Source 324
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Hodge-Siegel-Rossi Scale
0 0-32
1 33-45
2 46+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.01 p < .01
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.01 p < .05
% very happy
0      33
1      37
2      35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyHeeren (1969): study US 1967
TitleEntrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Fathers as Related to Family Structure, Happiness, and Two Measures of Independence.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1969, USA
PublicMale undergraduates, University of Kansas, USA, 1967
Sample
Non-Response5% incomplete information.
Respondents N =103

Correlate
Author's labelWork setting of father
Page in Source 28
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Direct closed question: father works for himself and / 
or income from profits or fees vs works in organization 
and / or income from wages or a salary.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyBlood (1969): study US 1967
TitleWork Values and Job Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, 456 - 459
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0028653
PublicMilitary, airforce, low rank maintenance jobs, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =420

Correlate
Author's labelFathers occupation
Page in Source 458
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Father occupational level

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
students
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=+.03 ns
workers

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- tenure
- work ethic


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Occupation of father at T1 recoded to Duncan status 
score (Duncan 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelFather's occupation
Page in Source 250
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) Fathers occupation by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.05 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.04 ns
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.02 ns
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation of parents
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
1 Professional
0 Other

- Mothers occupation
  a. 1922
  b. 1927
  c. 1936
  d. 1940
- Fathers occupation 
  a. 1922
  b. 1928
  c. 1936
Remarks
Earlier occupation of parents (1922-1940) by present 
happiness of subject (1972).
          
         

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 mothers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1927 mothers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1936 mothers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 mothers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1922 fathers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1928 fathers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1936 fathers occupation by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parents occupation
Subject code: F01ag03

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelVocational succes of father
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationParents occupation, code F01ag03
Operationalization
Subjects rating in 1950.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .00
1950 rating by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi²= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ah

StudyHomel & Burns (1989): study AU 1987
TitleEnvironmental Quality and the Well-Being of Children.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1989, Vol. 21, 133 - 158
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00300500
PublicBasic school children, Sydney, Australia ,1987
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response29,6%
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelFamily variables
Page in Source 139,146
Our classificationSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ah
Operationalization
a  Occupational status of parents
b  Parent's education
c  Family income
d  Maternal employment
e  Cultural background
f   Single parent status
g  Urbanicity of parent's background
h  Religion
I  Number of children in the family

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Mix---sq-*-11-aR²=.19 p < .01
R2 represents the additional variance explained 
after :
- Child's age and sexe
- Housing
- Street-type
- Neighborhood social problems
- Neighborhood x Street-type


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ah

StudyWu (2008): study TW 2005
TitleExamining the Appropriateness of Importance Weighting on Satisfaction Score from Range-of-Affect Hypothesis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Within-Subject Data.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 101 - 111
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9103-9
PublicSecondary school pupils, Taiwan, 2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4502

Correlate
Author's labelBook allowance
Page in Source 62
Our classificationSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ah
Operationalization
1: did receive book allowance
0: did not receice book allowance
Observed distribution0=54%, 1=46%
Remarks
Students from low-income families receive a book 
allowance on the basis of a means test

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-6-aD%=
% satisfied with life:
- received book allowance  77,7%
- did not receive          77,4%
difference                 +0,3%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Socio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Subject code: F01ah

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class of community
Page in Source 192,195
Our classificationSocio-cultural background (earlier for adults, current for young), code F01ah
Operationalization
1 Poor
2 Working class
3 Middle class
4 Upper-middle class
5 Upper class

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aF=+8.1 p < .0001
Participants were beeped at random moments eight 
times a day from 7:30 am to 10:0 pm for one week. 
At each beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, 
one of which happiness)
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aAoV=-.08 p < .002
ANOVA controlling for: 
- age 
- gender
- SES
- % time in flow


Correlational finding on Happiness and Religious upbringing
Subject code: F01ah01

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelBackground religiousemphasis
Page in Source 619
Our classificationReligious upbringing, code F01ah01
Operationalization
Closed question: "To what extent would you say your 
parents emphasized religion and religious practices as 
you were growing up?"
(0) no emphasis - (4) very strong emphasis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.20 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelHukou status
Page in Source 1192, 1194, 1195
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
1: Urban hukou status
0: Rural hukou status
Remarks
Hukou is the obligatory registration in the Chinese 
birth administration and identifies a person by, inter 
alia, his place of residence which included the 
difference between rural and urban places.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.14 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  b) Gender
  c) Age
  d) Marital status
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelUrban background
Page in Source info extra
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
1. village
2. town
3. city

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDMt=-
Happiness level in Mt' (0-10):
- villlage          males: 7.0   females: 6.9
- town                     6.9            7.3
- city                     7.5            7.6
- mix rural/urban          7.7            7.6
- mix town/city            7.3             -


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyAmos et al. (1982): study US Oklahoma 1978
TitleLife Satisfaction and Regional Development: A Case Study of Oklahoma.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 11, 319 - 331
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351840
Public18+ aged, general public, Oklahoma, USA, 1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelUrbanization of current area of residence
Page in Source 327
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
1: large city
2: suburb
3: small city
4: small town
5: rural

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-101-aAoV= ns
5: M = 88.2  (Ms' = 8.8)
4: M = 87.6  (Ms' = 8.8)
3: M = 86.2  (Ms' = 8.6)
2: M = 88.5  (Ms' = 8.9)
1: M = 86.7  (Ms' = 8.7)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelArea of socialization
Page in Source 253
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
1 Rural         
2 Urban
3 Suburban

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR²=.00 ns
Explained variance in ANOVA.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelChange in living environment
Page in Source 253
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
0 Current living environment (urban, rural, suburban) 
different from the one 1 in childhood

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR²=01 p < .01
Explained variance in ANOVA.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelRaised on farm
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
Based on question asking respondent where he was 
(mostly) brought up.
0 = respondent brought up on a farm;
1 = not brought up on a farm

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.02  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = -.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970


Correlational finding on Happiness and Rural upbringing
Subject code: F01ah02

StudyWashburne (1941): study US 1939
TitleFactors Related to Social Adjustment of College Girls.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology. 1941, Vol. 13, 281 - 289
PublicFemale college students, New York, USA, 194?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =238

Correlate
Author's labelHome background
Page in Source 283
Our classificationRural upbringing, code F01ah02
Operationalization
0 Village or country 
1 City or town

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSNR= - ns
L-shaped curve: Negative relationship among 
unhappier females only.
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aD%=- ns
L-shaped curve: Negative relationship among 
unhappier females only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hardship in family of origin
Subject code: F01ai

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's abortion attempts
Page in Source 278
Our classificationHardship in family of origin, code F01ai
Operationalization
Report on medical file on (failed) abortion attempts on 
pregnancy from which subject was born
1: no abortion attempted
2: abortion attempted
   2a: abortion with drugs
   2b: abortion with irrigation
   2c: abortion with intravene mechanical efforts
Observed distributionN all:4289, 1:90,5%, 2:9,5%, 2a:5,9%, 2b:1,9%, 2c:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.73
2:  Mt=7,67
2a: Mt=7.70
2b: Mt=7.70
2c: Mt=6.56
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-,01 p < .561
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.17
2a: Mt=7.13
2b: Mt=7.08
2c: Mt=6.56
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=-.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=6.86
2a: Mt=6.89
2b: Mt=6.79
2c: Mt=6.88
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.02 p < .188


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hardship in family of origin
Subject code: F01ai

StudyHenggeler & Borduin (1981): study US 1981 /1
TitleSatisfied Working Mothers and their Preschool Sons: Interaction and Psychosocial Adjustment.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1981, Vol. 2, 322 - 335
Public4 year old boys, sons of married white mothers, USA, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =28

Correlate
Author's labelWorking mother
Page in Source 332
Our classificationHardship in family of origin, code F01ai
Operationalization
0 mother does not work
1 mother works

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-tsb-?-0-aDM= ns
Children of working mothers were observed to be no 
less happy in play or command situations either at 
home or in the laboratory, than children of 
non-working mothers.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hardship in family of origin
Subject code: F01ai

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelChildhood stress
Page in Source 43
Our classificationHardship in family of origin, code F01ai
Operationalization
4-item index containing:
1: broken homes in childhood (before 
   age of 15)
2: evaluation of mother and father as
   parents
3: happiness of parents's marriage
   during childhood
4: illness of family members during
   childhood.
Rated on a scale from 0(low stress) to
7(high stress).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-
 proportion happy:
low stress  0      13.9%     AR= .61
            1      16.4%     AR= .55
            2      14.9%     AR= .52
            3      19.8%     AR= .49
            4      20.6%     AR= .44
            5      10.7%     AR= .45
            6       3.5%     AR= .48
high stress 7       1.1%     AR= .42

The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Hardship in family of origin
Subject code: F01ai

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelLong or serious ill-ness in family during childhood
Page in Source 42
Our classificationHardship in family of origin, code F01ai
Operationalization
Closed question: During the time you were growing up, 
did any member of your family have a long or serious 
illness?
0: no
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-.03 p < .05
  proportion happy:
0: no illness      76.0%     AR= .51
1: illness         24.0%     AR= .48
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's bleeding during pregnancy with intercourse
Page in Source 230
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's bleeding during pregnancy with intercourse as 
reported in medical file
1: none
2: spotting
3: heavy bleeding
Observed distributionN : all:4393, 1:76,7%, 2: 11%, 3:12,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
1: Mt=7.75
2: Mt=7.50
3: Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 p < .3087
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
1: Mt=7.40
2: Mt=7.28
3: Mt=7.45
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 p < .9456
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
1: Mt=7.03
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=7.01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.01 p < .4957


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's edema during pregnancy
Page in Source 234
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's edema during pregnancy as reported in medical 
file
1: no 
2: yes
Observed distributionN: 2675, :1:76.6%, 2:23,3%
Remarks
Edema is swelling of both legs from a buildup of extra 
fluid

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.75  
2: Mt=7.71
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.01 p < .7436
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=7.40  
2: Mt=7.45
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .6194
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=6.98  
2: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.03 p < .1744


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's congenital malformations
Page in Source 102
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's congenital malformations as reported in 
medical file of mother
1:  no malformation
2:  one of the following:
    2a: respiratory system
    2b: cardiovascular system
    2c: gastro-intestinal system
    2d: uro-genital system
    2e: central nervous system
    2f: skeleto-muscular system
    2g: endocrine glands
    2h: other
Observed distributionN: all:4333, 1:95%, 2a:0,1%, 2b:0,5%, 2c:0,1%, 2d:0,3%, 2e:1%, 2f:1,1%, 2g:1,0%, 2h:0,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.73
2:  Mt=7.81
2a: Mt=5.84
2b: Mt=7.83
2c: Mt=8.13
2d: Mt=7.89
2e: Mt=7.68
2f: Mt=8.04
2g: Mt=7.68
2h: Mt=8.13
All Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.39
2:  Mt=7.56
2a: Mt=5.84
2b: Mt=8.15
2c: Mt=8.13
2d: Mt=6.54
2e: Mt=7.50
2f: Mt=7.66
2g: Mt=7.44
2h: Mt=7.98
All Mt=7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.00
2:  Mt=7.24
2a: Mt=5.84
2b: Mt=7.39
2c: Mt=6.25
2d: Mt=6.73
2e: Mt=7.21
2f: Mt=7.55
2g: Mt=6.99
2h: Mt=7.81
All Mt=7.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's illness before pregnancy
Page in Source 104, 106
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's illness before pregnancy as reported in 
medical file of mother
1: no illness
2: one or more illnesses
   2a: diabetes
   2b: endocrine glands
   2c: respiratory system
   2d: cardiovascular system
   2e: centralnervous system
   2f: stomach-intestinal tract
   2g: urinary system
   2h: genitalia
   2i: syphilis
   2j: other
Observed distributionN: 1:3043, 2:193, 2a:46, 2b:92, 2c:148, 2d:48, 2e:152, 2f:246, 2g:97, 2h:502, 2i:32, 2j:191
Remarks
The diseases can be overlapping, therefore only 
absolute frequencies are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 1:  Mt=7.79
 2:  Mt=7.56
     2a: Mt=7.88
     2b: Mt=7.59
     2c: Mt=7.36
     2d: Mt=7.29
     2e: Mt=7.75
     2f: Mt=7.61
     2g: Mt=7.91
     2h: Mt=7.49
     2i: Mt=6.80
     2j: Mt=7.66
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
 1:  Mt=7.46
 2:  Mt=7.24
     2a: Mt=7.71
     2b: Mt=7.13
     2c: Mt=6.96
     2d: Mt=7.04
     2e: Mt=7.41
     2f: Mt=7.31
     2g: Mt=7.50
     2h: Mt=7.19
     2i: Mt=6.73
     2j: Mt=7.33
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
 1:  Mt=7.04
 2:  Mt=6.91
     2a: Mt=7.23
     2b: Mt=7.01
     2c: Mt=6.64
     2d: Mt=6.98
     2e: Mt=7.09
     2f: Mt=6.89
     2g: Mt=7.21
     2h: Mt=6.88
     2i: Mt=5.94
     2j: Mt=6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelFather's congenital malformations
Page in Source 134
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Father congenital malformation as reported in medical 
file
1: no malformations reported
2: any of the following malformations
   2a: blood and blood forming organs
   2b: cardiovasular system
   2c: skeleto-musculature system
   2d: endocrine glands
Observed distributionN: 1:4279, 2:48, 2a:14, 2b:6, 2c:13, 2d:15
Remarks
Because answers can be overlapping, only absolute 
frequencies are given

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 1:  Mt=7.74
 2:  Mt=7.65
 2a: Mt=8.21
 2b: Mt=7.91
 2c: Mt=7.50
 2d: Mt=7.16
All: Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=0
 1:  Mt=7.40
 2:  Mt=7.40
 2a: Mt=8.21
 2b: Mt=7.09
 2c: Mt=7.50
 2d: Mt=6.66
All: Mt=7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
 1:  Mt=7.01
 2:  Mt=7.09
 2a: Mt=7.14
 2b: Mt=6.25
 2c: Mt=7.31
 2d: Mt=7.16
All: Mt=7.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelVirus symptoms in mother during pregnancy
Page in Source 174
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's virus symptoms during pregnancy as eported in 
medical file
1: none
2: one of the following conditions:
   2a: measles
   2b: german measles
   2c: chicken pox
   2d: "catharrhaliaa"/herpes
   2e: jaundice during pregnancy
   2f: other
Observed distributionN: 1:3579, 2:727, 2a:6, 2b:9, 2c:4, 2d:696, 2e:6, 2f:6
Remarks
DMt = 1 vs 2
only absolute frequencies are given, because 
answer-catagories are not mutually exclusive

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.74
2:  Mt=7.66
2a: Mt=8.34
2b: Mt=8.05
2c: Mt=8.13
2d: Mt=7.64
2e: Mt=7.91
2f: Mt=8.34
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1:  Mt=7.41
2:  Mt=7.35
2a: Mt=7.91
2b: Mt=8.34
2c: Mt=6.25
2d: Mt=7.34
2e: Mt=7.50
2f: Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=0
1:  Mt=7.01
2:  Mt=7.01
2a: Mt=7.09
2b: Mt=6.39
2c: Mt=7.50
2d: Mt=7.00
2e: Mt=6.66
2f: Mt=7.91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's bleeding during pregnancy
Page in Source 222-230
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's major bleeding during pregnancy as reported in 
medical file
1: no bleeding
2: bleeding:
2.1: in 1st-2nd month
2.2: in 3rd-4th month
2.3: in 5th-6th month
2.4: in 7th-8th month
2.5: in 9th month or later
Observed distributionN: 1:3945; 2.1,191, 2.2:191, 2.3:86, 2.4:139, 2.5:88
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given, because catagories 
of bleeding are not mutually exclusive

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
1: Mt=7.80
2: Mt=7.73
3: Mt=8.14
4: Mt=8.00
5: Mt=7.59
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.44 p < .0047
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
1: Mt=7.59
2: Mt=7.51
3: Mt=7.56
4: Mt=7.70
5: Mt=7.30
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.02 p < .2687
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
1: Mt=7.09
2: Mt=7.03
3: Mt=7.33
4: Mt=7.14
5: Mt=6.81
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.03 p < .0553


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's complications during pregnancy
Page in Source 226,228
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
Mother's complications during pregnancy as reported in 
medical file
1: no complications
2: one of the following complications:
   2b: laparotomy
   2c: other operations with anesthesia
   2d: hydrorrhea
   2e: amniotoic fluid
   2f: hypertension
   2g: proteinurea
   2h: preeclamsia 1st degree
   2i: preeclamsia mild degree
   2j: anemia
   2k: other
Observed distributionN all: 4668, 1:50%, 2:50%, 2b:0,5%, 2c:0,5%, 2d:0,6%, 2e:0,7%, 2f:18,4%, 2g:1,9%, 2h:3,4%, 2i:0,6%, 2j:26,9%, 2k:0,4%
Remarks
DMt and G is 1 vs 2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=0
1:  Mt=7.71    
2:  Mt=7.71
2b: Mt=7.71
2c: Mt=6.88
2d: Mt=7.69
2e: Mt=8.19
2f: Mt=7.69
2g: Mt=7.93
2h: Mt=7.79
2i: Mt=7.60
2j: Mt=7.75
2k: Mt=8.29
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aG=+.18 p < .465
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.40       
2:  Mt=7.43
2b: Mt=7.40
2c: Mt=7.13
2d: Mt=7.79
2e: Mt=7.68
2f: Mt=7.41
2g: Mt=7.56
2h: Mt=7.49
2i: Mt=7.70
2j: Mt=7.38
2k: Mt=8.16
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.03 p < .287
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=0
1:  Mt=7.00    
2:  Mt=7,00
2b: Mt=7.29
2c: Mt=6.38
2d: Mt=6.64
2e: Mt=7.59
2f: Mt=6.99
2g: Mt=7.10
2h: Mt=7.11
2i: Mt=7.30
2j: Mt=7.00
2k: Mt=8.03
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haG=+.10 p < .665


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudyKleiboer (2006): study NL 2001
TitleCouples Dealing with Multiple Sclerosis. A Diary Study Examining the Effects of Spousal Interactions and Well-Being.
SourceThesis, University of Utrecht, 2006, Netherlands
PublicMS patients and their spouse, The Netherlands, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response12,9%
Respondents N =140

Correlate
Author's labelpatient or partner of patient
Page in Source 68-69
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
a: Patient (multiple sclerosis)
b: Spouse of patient
Observed distributionN= a: 61, b: 59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-mi-mqr-v-5-aDM=
Patients              M = +1,03
Spouces of patients   M = +1,03
difference                 0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Illness in family
Subject code: F01ai01

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelIllness of parents
Page in Source -
Our classificationIllness in family, code F01ai01
Operationalization
2-item index of diseases of parents including 
infarction, stroke, hypertension and diabetes.  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.03 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=-.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

Study~CBS (1984b): study NL 1979
TitleDe Leefsituatie van de Nederlandse Jeugd van 13-24 jaar in 1979. Deel 4.(Life Situation of the Dutch Youth of 13-24 in 1979, Vol. 4: An Analysis of Youth in One-Parent Families.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1984, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicAdolescents, The Netherlands, 1979
Sample
Non-Response35%, of which: refusals 62%, no contact 27%, unable 8%
Respondents N =3113

Correlate
Author's labelHead of household employed
Page in Source 49
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
0 Not employed
1 Employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.01 ns
Beta's controlled for:
-  broken home
- age
- education of head of household
- day time school.
O-HP-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment rate of father
Page in Source 29,30,31,45,49
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
Average employment rate of father at birth, age 5 and 
10:
1 - employed
0 - unemployed
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.07
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Beta controlled for:
- Intellectual performance at age 5,10 and 16
- Good conduct at age 5, 10 and 16
- Emotional health at age 5, 10 and 16
- Social class of father when child is 10
- Family income at age 10
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health at 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household at 10
- Gender (female)

Beta=+.03 when controlled for family background 
variables only:
- Social background of father at 10
- Family income 10
- Number of siblings at 10
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother at age 5 and 10
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household at 10
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.03
Beta controlled for family background variables 
only:
- Family income(at age 10)
- Social class of father(at age 10)
- Average employment rate of father (at birth, age 
5 and 10)
- Age when father left full-time education
- Age when mother left full-time education
- Average mental health of mother(at age 5 and 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in the household (at 
age 10)
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelFather's employment
Page in Source 928
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
3:full-time employment 
2:part-time employment 
1:unemployed or other
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.94 0.34 females 2.82 0.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelMother's employment
Page in Source 928
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
3:full-time employment 
2:part-time employment 
1:unemployed or other
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.11 0.85 females 2.19 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.09 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelFather employed
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
Single question about employment of father
3  fulltime
2  part-time
1  unemployed
Remarks
Full text not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.00 ns
PA: r = +.07 (ns)
NA: r = +.06 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployment of parents
Subject code: F01ai02

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelMother employed
Page in Source 928
Our classificationUnemployment of parents, code F01ai02
Operationalization
Single question about employment of mother
3  fulltime
2  part-time
1  unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.09 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
PA: -.02 (ns)
NA: +.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study AT 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Austria , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status of mothers
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full-time
b part-time
c housewife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
Full time  M = 7.86
Part time  M = 7.76
House wife M = 7.88
Unemployed n.a.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study BE 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Belgium , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full-time
b part-time
c housewife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
Full time  M = 7.10
Part time  M = 7.28
House wife M = 7.21
Unemployed M = 6.17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study BG 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Bulgaria , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmpoyment status of mothers
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=-
Full time  M = 5.47
Part time  M = n.a.
Housewife  M = n.a.
Unemployed M = 4.29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyJones (2002a): study CA 1998
TitleHappiness and Optimism among Canada's 12 to 15 Years Old.
SourceReligious Commitment Note 02-12, 2002, Christian Commitment Research Institute, Canada
Public12-15 aged, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =31194

Correlate
Author's labelWork status of the mother
Page in Source 6, 10,11
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
The mother
a: does not work
b: works part-time or part-year
c: works full-time, full year
Remarks
See also jones2002C-1.jpg: Chart 1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nD%=
% very happy
The mother
a: does not work                 34%
b: works part-time or part year  28%
c: works full-time, full year    27%
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.06 p < .010
girls, mother paid work
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.04 p < .083
boys, mother paid work
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.05 p < .061
Children with religious affiliation only: (girls 
N=1192, boys N=1178))

girls, mother paid work
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nb=-.03 p < .346
boys, mother paid work 

B controlled for:
- child's age
- religion
- worship frequency, child
- public school attendee or not
- family composition 
- education of the mother 
- smoking and drinking by the mother
- household income
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study CZ 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Czech Republic , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=-
Full time  M = 6.95
Part time  M = n.a
House wife M = 6.80
Unemployed M = 5.45


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study DK 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Denmark , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployemant status of morthers
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b patr time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=
Full time  M = 8.27
Part time  M = n.a.
House wife M = n.a.
Unemployed M = n.a.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's employment during pregnancy
Page in Source 148
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
Mother's employment during pregnancy as reported in 
medical file
1: not employed during pregnancy
2: employed:
   2a: in first trimester
   2b: in second trimester
   2c: in 7 th month
   2d: in 8 th month
   2e: in 9 th month
   2f: in last week
Observed distributionN: all:4323, 1:35%, 2:6%, 3:15%, 4:10%, 5:15%, 6:10%, 7:10%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=0
 1:  Mt=7.73
 2:  Mt=7.73
 2a: Mt=7.58
 2b: Mt=7.68
 2c: Mt=7.86
 2d: Mt=7.79
 2e: Mt=7.73
 2f: Mt=7.70
All: Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=0
 1:  Mt=7.40
 2:  Mt=7,40
 2a: Mt=7.28
 2b: Mt=7.40
 2c: Mt=7.59
 2d: Mt=7.44
 2e: Mt=7.35
 2f: Mt=7.40
All: Mt=7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
 1:  Mt=7.03
 2:  Mt=7.01
 2a: Mt=7.01
 2b: Mt=6.94
 2c: Mt=7.19
 2d: Mt=7.06
 2e: Mt=7.06
 2f: Mt=6.93
All: Mt=7.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's employment during the first year of life
Page in Source 150,152
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
Mother's employment during the first year of life as 
reported in medical file
1: no work
2: parttime work
3. full day employment in months
   3a: 1-2
   3b: 4-6  
   3c: 7-9 
   3d: 10-12
Observed distributionN1: 2297, 2: 218, 3a:736, 3b:175, 3c:58, 3d:98

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
 1:  Mt=7.73
 2:  Mt=7.61
 3:  Mt=7.77
 3a: Mt=7.76   
 3b: Mt=7.74
 3c: Mt=7.85
 3d: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
 1:  Mt=7.39
 2:  Mt=7.16
 3:  Mt=7.43
 3a: Mt=7.40  
 3b: Mt=7.58
 3c: Mt=7.38
 3d: Mt=7.40
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
 1:  Mt=7.04
 2:  Mt=6.98
 3:  Mt=7.02
 3a: Mt=6.99  
 3b: Mt=7.06
 3c: Mt=7.11
 3d: Mt=7.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelMother's full-day employment during the first year of life
Page in Source 150
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
Mother's full-day employment during first year of life 
as reported in medical file
a: more than 4 months in the first half year
b: more than 4 months in the second half year
Observed distributionN: a:76, b:299
Remarks
Children of full time working mothers only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
a: Mt=7.73
b: Mt=7.61
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.01 p < .887
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
a: Mt=7.28
b: Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.01 p < .815
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
a: Mt=7.24
b: Mt=6.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.06 p < .255


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study EE 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Estonia, 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=-
Full time  M = 5.66
Part time  M = n.a.
House wife M = 5.58
Unemployed M = 4.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study FI 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Finland, 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+
Full time  M = 7.74
Part time  M = n.a.
House wife M = 8.08
Unemployed M = n.a.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study FR 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, France, 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
c unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=
Full time  M = 6.76
Part time  M = 6.73
House wife M = 6.97
Unemployed M = 6.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyMichon (2014a): study DE 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Germany, 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement status
Page in Source 91
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
a full time
b part time
c house wife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
Full time  M = 7.26
Part time  M = 7.26
House wife M = 7.71
Unemployed M = 5.37


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
DOIDOI:10.1016/SO191-8869(02)00078-8
PublicStudents. London, UK, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelMother employed
Page in Source 928
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
Single question about employment of mother
3  fulltime
2  part-time
1  unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.09 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 ns
PA: -.02 (ns)
NA: +.10 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyWalters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2445
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =237

Correlate
Author's labelChildren's support
Page in Source 1068
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
Childrens' support for Mothers'employment outside the 
home
Remarks
Only rural women (N = 165)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.31 p < .05
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.60 p < .05
Controlled for job-family conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyWalters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2445
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =237

Correlate
Author's labelRole model of working mother
Page in Source 1068
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-ar= ns
The paper reports significant correlations only. 
Since no correlation with this variable is 
mentioned we infer it was non-significant.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Working mother
Subject code: F01aj

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971 /1
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicFemale, United States of America, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelTrend female happiness
Page in Source 1067
Our classificationWorking mother, code F01aj
Operationalization
1 Housewives: Women not in labor force
0 Employed:     Women in labor force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+/-
% very happy in 6 studies:
Study     N    Employed Housewives Difference
1971 QAL  252  45,8 %   34,9 %     -10,9 %   
1972 NORC 205  32,1 %   34,2 %      +2,1 %  
1973 NORC 234  39,8 %   43   %      +3,2 %
1974 NORC 224  50   %   45,4 %      -4,6 %
1975 NORC 238  45,8 %   40   %      -5,8 %
1976 NORC 243  47,6 %   34,8 %     -12,8 % 
Sum       1396
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-atau=+/-
Tau in 6 studies:
Study         Tau
1971 QAL  252  +.11   
1972 NORC 205  -.02 
1973 NORC 234  -.03
1974 NORC 224  -.05
1975 NORC 238  +.02
1976 NORC 243  +.11
Sum       1396


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyHeadey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01136197
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =419

Correlate
Author's labelFamily satisfaction
Page in Source 76
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Selfreport on two questions rated on 7-step Delighted 
terrible scale
Questions not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-*-0-ar=+.52 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyMan (1991): study CN 1983
TitleThe Influence of Peers and Parents on Youth Life Satisfaction in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 24, 347 - 365
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00383734
Public13-16 aged students, Hong Kong, 1983-1984.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1906

Correlate
Author's labelparent orientation
Page in Source 360
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Parent orientation index as to the degree to which the 
adolescent feels attached to his parents, consisting of 
5 questions.
Observed distributionRange 3-19. Trichotomized into Low (3-9), Medium (10-13) and High (14-19).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-n-7-aDM=+ p < .01
          Grade 1         Grade 4
Low       M=  3.54        3.33
Medium    M=  4.06        3.99
High      M=  4.29        4.21
All       M=  4.00        3.76

Differences are significant(.01) for both the 
younger(Grade 1) and older (Grade 4) students.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with parents
Page in Source 328
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you at present with your parents ?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: all:1424, 1:34, 2:54, 3:189, 4:583, 5:564

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=7.14 
 2: Mt=7.08
 3: Mt=7.19
 4: Mt=7.59
 5: Mt=8.26
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.55
 2: Mt=7.04
 3: Mt=6.85
 4: Mt=7.30
 5: Mt=7.91
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.61
 2: Mt=6.44
 3: Mt=6.40
 4: Mt=6.68
 5: Mt=7.45
All Mt=6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with parents
Page in Source 346
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you at present with your parents?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN;4591; %: 1:4,8; 2:7,2; 3:15,7; 4:38,4; 5:34,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=6.84
2: Mt=7.09
3: Mt=7.30
4: Mt=7.70
5: Mt=8.26
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.22 p < .00
1: Mt=6.29
2: Mt=6.69
3: Mt=7.03
4: Mt=7.35
5: Mt=8.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.21 p < .00
1: Mt=6.13
2: Mt=6.39
3: Mt=6.60
4: Mt=6.94
5: Mt=7.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of family
Page in Source 94
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question that asks whether 
family is important in life. Responses are on a scale 
of 1 (not at all important) to 4 (very important).
Remarks
Scale of responses are assumed to be recoded such that 
higher values means that family is more important to 
the respondent.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.35 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL importance of 
family

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 23 nations.
Significantly negative in 2 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyKoralewicz & Zagorski (2009): study PL 2007
TitleLiving Conditions and Optimistic Orientation of Poles.
SourceInternational Journal of Sociology, 2009, Vol. 39, 10 - 44
DOIDOI:10.2753/IJS0020-7659390401
PublicAdults, general public, Poland, 2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEvalution of family situation
Page in Source 39
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.41 p < .01
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-aBeta=+.34 p < .01
Beta's controlled for evaluation of :
- the country's situation 
- in locality of residence
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.26 p < .01
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
Beta's additionally controlled for:
- sense of resourcefulness
- alienation
- family income (equivalent)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of family and family relationships
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "family and family relationships"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 8,38 SD: 1,78, Non-exercisers: M: 7,98 SD: 1,45
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.33 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.24 p < .00
Beta after accounting for: Perceived contribution 
of:
Personal strengths, skills and resources
Self-confidence and self-assurance
Friendship and social relationships
Faith, religion, ethic or moral values
Health, well-being, and quality of life
Power, status, and importance of yourself in 
society
Money, wealth, and luxuries
Satisfaction of basic needs (e.g. food, housing, 
etc.)
Love, loving and being loved
Partnership and sexuality
Sense of humour, attitudes and positive emotions
Work and work relationships
Goals, challenges and vital commitments
The way you are or personality
Sense of belonging
Habits and lifestyles
Self-image and self-esteem
Personal autonomy and independence
Genes and heredity

when ONLY exercisers are considered


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of family and family relationships
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "family and family relationships"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 7,96 SD: 1,53
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.10 p < .17


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelQuality of home environment
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Happiness with Home rated on a 11 point scale 0 very 
unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM = 8,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelHappiness with family
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Happiness with family rated on a 11 point scale 0 very 
unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionOverall M = 8,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.56 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to family of origin
Subject code: F01al

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelFamily
Page in Source 262
Our classificationAttitudes to family of origin, code F01al
Operationalization
Selfreport on the follwing questions:
How satisfied are you with:
-your family in general?
-the amount of contact you have with your relatives?
-your marriage? (if applicable)
Remarks
Satisfaction Subscale of Lancashire Quality of Life 
Profile (LQOLP) [Oliver 1991].

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.45
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-arpc=+.44 p < .001
rpc controled for depression as measured with Beck 
Depression Inventory(BDI)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 9 questions

Experience of (full text not reported:
A nervousness
B discouragement, boredom
C lack of control over own life
D helplessness
E unhappiness
F rage
G satisfaction, things went well
H certainty that all is well
I pride in accomplishment
J curiosity

Rated
4 very often
3 often
2 rarely
1 almost never, never

Computation: Average with score on negative items reversed
A-AOL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time - in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
5 very good spirits
4 fairly good spirits
3 neither good spirits nor low spirits
2 fairly low spirits
1 very low spirits.
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

'We would like to know how you are feeling?
0 very bad
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very good
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-aSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling).

"On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?"
1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down.
2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low.
3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down.
4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low.
5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral.
6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral.
7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful.
8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good.
9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated.
10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
A-BW-mi-mqr-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions, answered at the end of the day during 14 days

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('this moment' version) applied in multiple moment assesment (experience sampling method)
A-CA-m-rdv-n-7-aRating of facial expression on photograph

Happiness
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Rater instruction and scale labels not reported
A-CA-mh-tsb-?-0-aTime sampling of happy behaviors

Frequency of positive affect shown during two 20 minute sessions of mother child interaction (both play and command situation) both at home and in a laboratory.
Sessions were video recorded and rated afterwards
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-0-aTime sampling of happy behaviors:

Researchers observed the baby's in the home.
One observation of one second was made every fifteenth second. Any positively voiced sound as observed by the researcher counted as a happy vocal and any negatively voiced sound counted as a unhappy vocal.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-aTime sampling of happy behaviors during free play and Bayley testing. Analysis of 1 minute intervals during Bayley tests and 30 second intervals during free play

Rated:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Computation: average over all observations

Interviewer rating of happiness, using flexible standards relative to the age of the subject.

Full instructions not reported.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-aTime sampling of prevalent mood during free play and Bayley test. Average of observations at 30 second intervals across 15 minutes of free play and 1 minute intervals for 4 alternate 5 minute segments of the Bayley test

Rated on 7 step scale, scale labels not reported
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4 usually good-humored air
3
2
1 dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
A-CP-g-rdt-?-0-aTeacher rating of cheerfulness:

"How happy is he/she?"
Response options not reported.

Item in Achenbach Teacher Rating Scale (Achenbach)
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-aTime sampling of happy behaviors

The children were rated during the first 3 years of their lives, after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 36 months of living for 'Emotional tone: unhappy - happy' on a 7-point scale.
Scoring rated on 7-step numerical scale.

Summation:
Later the ratings of 10 - 12, 13 - 15, 18 - 24, and 27 - 36 months were combined.

Rated on 7-step numerical scale.
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life

Name: Cantril's self anchoring Ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (10) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (1) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life for you
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Think about the quality of your life at the present time. I would like you to give a rating where 0 represents the worst possible life for you and 10 represents the best possible life for you.
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
C-BW-g-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

… your life in general … (full question not reported)
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst possible life
C-BW-m-sq-l-10-aSelfreport on single question:

… your life at the moment … (full question not reported)
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst possible life
H07aa01gSelfreport on single question:

Open question on happiness.
Text not reported.
M-AO---mqr-*-0-aVarious self reports and informant rating

A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree
(Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B Selfreport on 24 questions:
How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
BA LOVE
a Affection
b love
c caring
d fondness
BB JOY
a joy
b happiness
c contentment
d pride
BC FEAR
a fear
b worry
c anxiety
d nervous
BD ANGER
a anger
b irritation
c disgust
d rage
BE SHAME
a shame
b guilt
c regret
d embarrassment
BF SADNES
a sadness
b loneliness
c unhappiness
d depression
Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C Rating of B by five informants

D Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......satisfaction with life........."
(full question not reported)

Responses scored pictorial faces scale consisting on several
smilies, expressing variations from very unhappy to very happy.
(Pictures not presented here)
1 unhappy face
2
3
4 neutral face
5
6
7 happy face
(Pictures not presented here)

Name: Kunin's `Faces Scale'
M-CO-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Questions indicated both happiness and a sense of contentment and well-being (Full questions not reported)

Summation: not reported

Name: `Happiness subtest' of Washburn's `Social Adjustment Scale'.
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
M-TH-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
11 completely and supremely happy, tremendous joy and elation
all the time
10
9
8 very happy most of the time
7
6 happy most of the time
5
4 . not very happy most of the time
3
2.
1 completely utterly unhappy, terrible depression and gloom
all the time
(originally presented horizontally)
M-TH-g-sq-v-4-eSelf report on single question

In general, would you say that you feel happy
4 most of the time
3 only sometimes
2 almost never
1 never
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfied do you feel about your life as a whole...?"
8 delighted
7 very pleased
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed feelings
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-H?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
Response options:
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 unhappy
(Originally scored on a horizontal scale)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

On a scale from 0 to 10, where would you put your current happiness?
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aeSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you are these days?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything that has happened to you recently, how would you say things are with you - would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-nSelfreport on single question:

In general, I am happy with how things are in my life right now
1 disagree strongly
2 disagree
3 agree
4 strongly agree
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-tSelf report on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your present life?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I feel not very happy
1 I feel unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-bSelfreport on single question:

How happy would you say your life is in general.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4 neither happy
5 nor
6 unhappy
7
8
9 very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-daSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how happy would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question:

Which of the following adjectives do you consider to be descriptive of yourself? Circle the number besides any adjective that you might use in describing yourself to someone else. Your behavior will vary with situation of course, so circle the numbers besides adjectives that apply to you frequently, even though they may not apply all the time. Work rapidly putting down your first thoughts.

Cheerful
1 no (not circled)
2 yes (circled)

Item in longer personality inventory
O-HP-g-sq-v-2-cSelfreport on single question:

Which of the following adjectives do you consider to be descriptive of yourself? Circle the number besides any adjective that you might use in describing yourself to someone else. Your behavior will vary with situation of course, so circle the numbers besides adjectives that apply to you frequently, even though they may not apply all the time. Work rapidly putting down your first thoughts.

Satisfied
1 no (not circled)
2 yes (circled)

Item in longer personality inventory
O-HP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Below are a number of dimensions on which people can vary. Please rate yourself on each dimension as honestly as you can. Many of the traits depend on the situation of course, but try to rate yourself as you usually are.

Happy-unhappy
7 very happy
6 fairly happy
5 slightly happy
4 neither or both
3 slightly unhappy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy

Item in longer personality inventory
Numbers reversed original presentation (happy 1, unhappy 7)
O-HP-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you consider yourself as a happy person......?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 neither happy nor unhappy
1 not too happy
- don't know
O-Mix---sq-*-11-aSelf report on different single questions

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......describe your present life......."
(Full question not reported)
7 rewarding
6
5
4
3
2
1 disappointing
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"...... how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole......?"
(Full question not reported)
1 not very satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

"........satisfaction with life........"
(Full question not reported)

1 very dissatisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
3 neither dissatisfied nor satisfied
4 well satisfied
5 completely satisfied
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-bSelfreport in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1 tremendously satisfied
2
3
4 average
5
6
7 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbSelfreport on single question:

Here is a scale from 0 to 10. om it, "0" means that you are completely dissatisfied and "10 " means that you are completely satisfied. Please ring ONE number to show just how dissatisfied or satisfied you are about the way your life has turned out so far
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how satisfying do you find your life these days? Would you call it....?."
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not satisfying
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-b