Findings on Happiness and EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
Subject Code: E04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR0
E04aaBehavioral career0
E04aa01Earlier expressiveness1
E04aa02Change in expressiveness0
E04aa03Later expressiveness0
E04abCurrent expressiveness0
E04ab01Specific expressive behaviors0
E04ab01aCrying often1
E04ab01bLaughing often5
E04ab01cWriting firmness2
E04acAttitudes to expressiveness3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=E04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier expressiveness
Subject code: E04aa01

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge of first smile
Page in Source 468
Our classificationEarlier expressiveness, code E04aa01
Operationalization
Age of first smile as reported in medical file
1: 1-2 weeks
2: 3-4 weeks
3: 5-6 weeks
4: 7-8 weeks
5: 3-4 months
6: later than 4 months
Observed distributionN all: 3059, 1:2,3%, 2:18,8%, 3:34,5%, 4:31,8%, 5:11,9%, 6:0,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.78
2: Mt=7.61
3: Mt=7.73
4: Mt=7.79
5: Mt=7.91
6: Mt=8.58
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.04 p < .019
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT= ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.46
2: Mt=7.21
3: Mt=7.39
4: Mt=7.49
5: Mt=7.59
6: Mt=7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.05 p < .009
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT= ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=7.25
2: Mt=6.86
3: Mt=7.04
4: Mt=7.00
5: Mt=7.15
6: Mt=7.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.03 p < .128
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Crying often
Subject code: E04ab01a

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelCrying shortly after birth
Page in Source 396,398
Our classificationCrying often, code E04ab01a
Operationalization
Crying shortly after birth as reported in medical file
1: crying normally
2: one of the following:
   2a: no sound
   2b: crying weakly
   2c: strong screaming, sounds physiological
   2d: strong screaming, sounds non-physiological
Assessed at day 1 and day 5
Observed distributionN day 1 all:4062, 1:51,7, 2a:16,8, 2b:18,5, 2c:12,0, 2d:1,0 N day 5 all:3881, 1:40,0, 2a:37,9, 2b:15,2, 2c:6,7, 2d:0,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
day 1             day 5     
1: Mt=7.69        1:7.73
2: Mt=7.77        2:7.73
   2a:Mt=7.73       2a:7.76
   2b:Mt=7.69       2b:7.63
   2c:Mt=7.94       2c:7.75
   2d:Mt=7.83       2d:8.34
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=0
day 5            day 5
1: Mt=7.73       1:7.45
2: Mt=7.73       2:7.41
   2a:Mt=7.76      2a:7.44
   2b:Mt=7.63      2b:7.30
   2c:Mt=7.75      2c:7.53
   2d:Mt=8.34      2d:7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
day1              day 5            
1: Mt=7.38        1:7.03
2: Mt=7.02        2:7.03
   2a:Mt=7.41       2a:7.08
   2b:Mt=7.38       2b:6.88
   2c:Mt=7.56       2c:7.13
   2d:Mt=7.05       2d:7.13
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
day 5
1: Mt=7.45
2: Mt=7.41
2a:Mt=7.44
2b:Mt=7.30
2c:Mt=7.53
2d:Mt=7.78
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
day1           
1: Mt=6.99       
2a:Mt=6.94      
2b:Mt=6.99      
2c:Mt=7.19      
2d:Mt=6.99
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=0
day 5
1: Mt=7.03
2: Mt=7.03
2a:Mt=7.08
2b:Mt=6.88
2c:Mt=7.13
2d:Mt=7.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Laughing often
Subject code: E04ab01b

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 /1
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2035

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of laughing
Page in Source 227
Our classificationLaughing often, code E04ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
How long ago have you really laughed?
3 yesterday;
2 in the past two weeks or
1 longer ago?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aG=+.30 p < .01
Comparison categories of more and less cheerful 
looking subjects stratified by sex, age and 
occupation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Laughing often
Subject code: E04ab01b

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelMood when laughing
Page in Source 449
Our classificationLaughing often, code E04ab01b
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you feel 
when you laugh?
Rated
0
.
10
Observed distributionN= 0:*%, 1:*%, 2:*%, 3:1%, 4:1%, 5:2%, 6:4%, 7:9%, 8:24%, 9:24%, 10:33%,DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2140

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 9.4  M = 8.3             +1.1
top 3:  M = 9.2  M = 7.9             +1.3 
top 5:  M = 8.9  M = 7.4             +1.5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 498, Others: 8-0 N=1641
Top 3: 10-8 N=1083, Others: 7-0 N=1057
Top 5: 10-6 N=1682, Others: 5-0 N= 458


Correlational finding on Happiness and Laughing often
Subject code: E04ab01b

StudySondermeyer (1975): study NL 1970
TitleGezondheid en Geluk. (Health Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Report, 1975, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public40-60 aged male employees, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 197?
Sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelLaughing and singingoften
Our classificationLaughing often, code E04ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question:
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aG=+.52 p < . 000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Laughing often
Subject code: E04ab01b

StudyKammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
TitleSourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand
Public18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample
Non-Response52%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelCheerfull
Page in Source 75
Our classificationLaughing often, code E04ab01b
Operationalization
Single direct question how one felt during the 
instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few 
weeks):
"I smile and laugh a lot"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.62 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-ar=+.46 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Laughing often
Subject code: E04ab01b

StudyYoung (1937a): study US 1934
TitleLaughing and Weeping, Cheerfulness and Depression: A Study of Moods among College Students.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1937, Vol. 8, 311 - 334
PublicCollege students, psychology course, USA, 1934-35
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =180

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of laughing
Page in Source 330
Our classificationLaughing often, code E04ab01b
Operationalization
Repeated open-ended question on number of occasions one 
laughed during the past 24 hours; scored twice with an 
in- terval of 16 days.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-ar=+.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Writing firmness
Subject code: E04ab01c

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1041

Correlate
Author's labelLaughing
Our classificationWriting firmness, code E04ab01c
Operationalization
Single direct question: When did you last really burst 
out laughing heartly?
3. yesterday
2. in the last two weeks
1. or is that sometimes ago
Remarks
reported in NOELL 1978 table 14

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aG=+.30 p < .01
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-atb=+.20 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Writing firmness
Subject code: E04ab01c

StudyLudwig (1971): study US 1966
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00569.x/pdf
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelWriting firmness
Page in Source 64
Our classificationWriting firmness, code E04ab01c
Operationalization
S's signature.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to expressiveness
Subject code: E04ac

StudySuh (1994): study ZZ East-West pairs 1989
TitlePsychocultural Factors of Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association Convention, 1994, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/suh_em_1994.pdf
PublicCollege students, Korea, China, and USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelSocial desirability of positive emotional traits
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAttitudes to expressiveness, code E04ac
Operationalization
Ss were asked to rate how desirable or undesirable it 
is express each personality characteristics in an 
average situation;
a affectionate
b content
c friendly
d loving
e joyful
f pleased

Each trait was rated on a 7 point scale;
1 extremely undesirable ...7 extremely desirable 

The order of the judgements was counterbalanced

The social desirability of positive emotional traits 
was constructed by averaging the ratings of six 
positive emotional traits.
Observed distributionMean = China: 5.70, S-Korea: 5.87, USA: 6.03

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.41 p < .001
China
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.13 ns
S-Korea
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.08 ns
USA


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to expressiveness
Subject code: E04ac

StudySuh (1994): study ZZ East-West pairs 1989
TitlePsychocultural Factors of Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association Convention, 1994, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/suh_em_1994.pdf
PublicCollege students, Korea, China, and USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelPositive emotion desirability
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAttitudes to expressiveness, code E04ac
Operationalization
Participants were asked to rate how desirable or 
undesirable it is to experience or express each 
positive emotions when she/he is with a stranger or a 
friend average situation;
a joy
b happiness
c friendliness
d satisfaction

rated on a 7 point scale
1 extremely undesirable and inappropriate … 7 extremely 
desirable and appropriate

The order of the judgements was counterbalanced

An overall index of positive emotion desirability was 
obtained by averaging the ratings of the four positive 
emotions
Observed distributionMean: China=5.43, S-Korea=5.15, USA=6.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.24 ns
China
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.03 ns
S-Korea
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=+.15 ns
USA


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to expressiveness
Subject code: E04ac

StudySuh (1994): study ZZ East-West pairs 1989
TitlePsychocultural Factors of Subjective Well-Being.
SourcePaper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association Convention, 1994, Chicago, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/suh_em_1994.pdf
PublicCollege students, Korea, China, and USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelAmbivalence over emotional expressiveness
Page in Source 21
Our classificationAttitudes to expressiveness, code E04ac
Operationalization
Ambivalence over Emotional expressiveness 
Questionnaire(AEQ, King& Emmons, 1990): 28 items which 
address ambivalent emotional conditions such as "I want 
to express my emotions honestly but I am afraid that it 
may cause me embarrassment or hurt"

rated on a 7 point scale
1 never feel that way...7 always feel that way
Observed distributionMean: China=3.84, S-Korea=4.13, USA=3.36

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=-.17 ns
China
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=-.34 p < .001
S-Korea
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-ar=-.05 ns
USA


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
and buoyancy.
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
"just awful".
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days.

"Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling".
7 highly elated
6 moderately cheerful
5 mildly cheerful
4 indifferent
3 wildly depressed
2 moderately depressed
1 extremely gloomy


Summation: Average of 32 scores.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"

A So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
B Proud, because someone had complimented you
C Very lonely or remote from people?
D Pleased about having accomplished something
E Bored
F On top of the world?
G Depressed
H That things were going your way?
I Upset because someone criticized you?
J Could not do anything, simply because you could not start?

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on B,D F,H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A,C,E,G,I,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -6 to +4

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)
A-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-aSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions

'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt in the past month'
A LOVE
Aa Affection
Ab love
Ac caring
Ab fondness
B JOY
Ba joy
Bb happiness
Bc contentment
Bd pride
C FEAR
Ca fear
Cb worry
Cc anxiety
Cd nervous
D ANGER
Da anger
Db irritation
Dc disgust
Dd rage
E SHAME
Ea shame
Eb guilt
Ec regret
Ed embarrassment
F SADNES
Fa sadness
Fb loneliness
Fc unhappiness
Fd depression

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 very slight
3 somewhat
4 moderate amount
5 much
6 very much
7 extremely much
Options presented horizontally

Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A My life is on the right track
B I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C I feel I can do whatever I want to
D I think clearly and creatively
E I feel like a failure
F Nothing seems very much fun any more
G I like myself
H I can't be bothered doing anything
I I feel close to people around me
J I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K My future looks good
L I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M I have energy to spare
N I smile and laugh a lot
O I wish I could change some parts of my life
P My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q I can handle any problems that come up
R My life seems stuck in a rut
S I feel loved and trusted
T I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U Satisfied
V Lonely
W Free-and-easy
X Clear-headed
Y Helpless
Z Impatient
AA Useful
AB Depressed
AC Loving
AD Hopeless
AE Optimistic
AF Withdrawn
AG Enthusiastic
AH Good-natured
AI Discontented
AJ Confused
AK Confident
AL Tense
AM Understood
AN Insignificant

Answer options;
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-aInterviewer-rating of cheerful appearance on 8 aspects

A The look is
2) open
1) evasive
- impossible to say
B The corners of the mouth turn
2) up
1) down
- impossible to say
C The posture is
2) relaxed, at ease
1) rather tense
- impossible to say
D The movements are
2) relaxed, at ease
1) limited, withdrawn
- impossible to say
E The eyes are
2) big, open
1) small, screw up
- impossible to say
F The elbows are kept
2) not close to the body
1) close to the body
- impossible to say
G The lips are more
2) broad, full
1) thin, pent up
- impossible to say
H All in all the subject looks
2) quite cheerful
1) not very cheerful
- difficult to say

Scoring: sum of aspect ratings

Name: `Allensbacher Ausdruckstest'
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7 very happy
6 happy
5 somewhat happy
4 mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3 somewhat unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-aSelfreport on single question:

"Are you generally satisfied? "
2 yes
1 no
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
E04aa01Earlier expressivenessP01ab15Earlier inhibition
E04aa01Earlier expressivenessP01ab18Earlier openness
E04aa01Earlier expressivenessP01ab25Earlier self-disclosing
E04aa03Later expressivenessP05ab05Later openness
E04aa03Later expressivenessP05ab08Later self-disclosure
E04ab01aCrying oftenG02GRIEF
E04ab01cWriting firmnessP04bcFortuitous
E04ab01cWriting firmnessP04diVigorous

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings