Findings on Happiness and ETHNICITY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and ETHNICITY
Subject Code: E03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
E03ETHNICITY2
E03aaEthnic status in specific nations11
E03aa01Ethnic status in Australia4
E03aa02Ethnic status in Britain4
E03aa03Ethnic status in Canada9
E03aa05Ethnic status in Germany8
E03aa06Ethnic status in Hong Kong0
E03aa08Ethnic status in the Netherlands10
E03aa09Ethnic status in Singapore1
E03aa11Ethnic status in South Africa7
E03aa14Ethnic status in the USA76
E03aa16Ethnic status in (former) Yugoslavia1
E03abEthnic status in regions3
E03acEthnic status in neighborhood1
E03aeAttitudes to one's ethnic status3
E03afEthnic diversity in environment0
E03agEthnic discrimination in environment2
E03ag01Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination5
E03ag02Personal experience of ethnic discrimination4
E03ag03Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self4
E03ahAttitudes to ethnic climate0
E03ah01Ethno-centrism0
E03aa07Ethnic status in Kyrgystan0
E03aa10Ethnic status in Russia1
E03aa04Ethnic status in China6
E03aa13Ethnic status in Sweden1
E03aa12Ethnic status in Spain1
E03aa17Ethnic status in Switzerland1
E03aa15Ethnic status in the UK4
E03adMixed ethnicity0
E03aa18Ethnic status in India1
E03aa19Ethnic status in Ghana1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and ETHNICITY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=E03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and ETHNICITY
Subject code: E03

StudyBiswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001
TitleMost People are Pretty Happy, but There is Cultural Variation:: The Inughuit, The Amish and the Maasai.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 205 - 226
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10902-005-5683-8
PublicAdults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =358

Correlate
Author's labelCulture
Page in Source 215
Our classificationETHNICITY, code E03
Operationalization
Non-modern cultures
A: Maaasai, Kenya: isolated pastoral culture
B: Inughuit, Greenland: hunting culture
C: Amish, USA: anti-modern sub culture
Observed distributionN = A: 127, B: 179, C: 52
Remarks
Mean and SD stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 
(for facilitating comparability with other indicators 
of wellbeing on range 1-7)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-aDM=
           Mean      SD   percent above neutral
Self report
Maasai     4.2       1.0  100
Amish      1.6       0.7  100
Inughuit   1.7       1.9   79
All        2,6       1,4
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-aDM=
Peer report
Maasai     3.8       1.0  100
Amish      1.8       0.7   89
Inughuit   2.1       1.8   85
All        2,7       1,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and ETHNICITY
Subject code: E03

StudyCsepeli et al. (1999): study RO 1997
TitleReport from the Fairy Garden: The National Identity Models of Romanian Hungarians and Romanians.
SourceKolosit, T.; et al; Eds.: "Social Report 1998", TRKI (Social Research Informatics Center), 1999, Budapest, Hungary, 519 - 524
PublicHungarians and Romaneans, living in Transylvania,1977, Romania
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1806

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 519
Our classificationETHNICITY, code E03
Operationalization
a Romanian Hungarians (ref.)
b Romanians
both living in Transylvania
Observed distribution1N= 1: 1090, 2: 716

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cDM=+
Hungarian  M = 3,4
Romanian   M = 3,2
- difference   0,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyLewinter et al. (1996): study DK Hovenstaden (Capital region, Kbenhavn) 1991
TitleThe Social Situation of Elderly Turkish Immigrants in Copenhagen, Denmark.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 1996, Vol. 11, 115 - 129
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00114856
Public55+aged Turkish migrants, Copenhagen, Denmark, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44%
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelMinority vs Majority
Page in Source 124
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
1: Turkish
0: Danish

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-gD%= ns
% Happy (very or somewhat)
               all   males  female
Turkish        72    77     65
Danish         88    89     88
- difference  -16   -12    -23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelGypsy ethnicity
Page in Source 183
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
1: Gypsy ethnicity
0: Otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.42 p < .10
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=-.75 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .10
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .01
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelJews vs. Arabians
Page in Source 1012
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
Ethnicity in Israel:
1: Jews
0: Arabs

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fDM=-
Jews:         M=3.17
Arabians:     M=2.96
- difference:  -0.21
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fMCT=- p < .0001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelplace of birth
Page in Source 518
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
1 Asia-Africa
0 Other
  - Europe
  - South America
  - Israel
  - Other
Observed distributionN = 0: 85,3%, 1: 14,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.77 ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Negative in unequal community due to recent influx 
of African migrants who are not yet integrated in 
the Moshav
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.78 p < .05
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
1: Ethnic Korean
0: Japanese
Observed distributionN = 1:204, 2: 221

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aDM=-
Ethnic Korean    M=48.8  SD=28.6
Japanese         M=68.1  SD=23.0
- difference      -20.1
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.35 p < .001
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.31 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
- public assistance
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.22 p < .001
Beta additionally controlled for
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic minority member
Page in Source 8
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you belong to a minority ethnic group in [country]?
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=-.08 p < .002
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eOPRC=+.03 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- migration generation
- citizen
- perceived discrimination
- ethnic minority *migration generation 
- citizen*ethnic minority member
- ethnic minority*perceived discrimination

Interactions with  1st and 2nd generation migrant, 
as well as ethnic discrimination, is significantly 
negative.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 49, 51
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
Comparison of different samples:
1: Migrants: Indians in UK
0: Non-migrants 
    a) Caucasians in UK
    b) Non-migrants in India
Observed distribution1: N=52, 0a: N=51, 0b:N= 50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=12.2 p < .001
INDIANS RESIDING IN UK (versus Indians in Delhi)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=+
Indians immigrants in UK:     M=4.90
Stayers in India:             M=4.16
- difference:                   +.74

Matched on:
- Occupation
- Marital status
- Education level
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aDM=-
INDIANS IN UK (vs natives)

Indian immigrants in UK:     M=4.90
Caucasians in UK (natives):  M=5.16
- difference:                  -.26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How would you describe your ethnic origin?
a) American Indian or Alaskan native
b) Asian/Oriental
c) Black 
d) Hispanic or Latino
e) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders
f) White
g) North American 
h) Mixed Race
i) Other

Rescaled to:
1: Non-Caucasian when answering b)  
    Asian/Oriental
0: Caucasian (exact definition not reported)
Observed distribution1: N=102, 0: N=52

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=5.91 p < .02
CAUCASIAN (versus non-Caucasian)

Significant positive association between being 
Caucasian and life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyBaltatescu (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleCentral and Eastern Europeans Migrants' Subjective Quality ofLlife. A Comparative Study.
SourceJournal of Identity and Migration Studies, 2007, Vol. 1, 67 - 80
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, Europe, 2002-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =88029

Correlate
Author's labelMigration
Page in Source 75
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
In which country are you born?
1: Not in country of residence
   a) Born in East-Europe
   b) Not born in East-Europe
0: In counrty of residence

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            East-EU    
            migrants   Natives     difference     
Living in:
Denmark     8.1 (1.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -.4  
Finland     7.7 (1.9)  8.0 (1.6)   -.3
Sweden      7.5 (1.9)  7.9 (1.7)   -.4  
Norway      7.3 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.4
Netherlands 7.2 (2.0)  7.7 (1.6)   -.5 
Austria     7.1 (2.4)  7.6 (2.0)   -.5
Ireland     7.3 (1.9)  7.6 (1.9)   -.3  
Belgium     7.1 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   -.4
UK          6.9 (2.1)  7.1 (2.0)   -.2  
Spain       7.0 (2.1)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     7.0 (2.1)  6.9 (2.3)   +.1  
France      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1
Greece      6.3 (2.5)  6.4 (2.5)   -.1 
Portugal    5.7 (2.1)  5.8 (2.1)   -.1
In total    7.0 (2.2)  7.3 (2.1)   -.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdDM=
            Other    
            migrants   Natives     difference
Living in:
Denmark     7.0 (2.7)  8.5 (1.5)   -1.5  
Finland     7.5 (2.4)  8.0 (1.6)   -.5
Sweden      7.2 (2.3)  7.9 (1.7)   -.7
Norway      7.6 (2.0)  7.7 (1.7)   -.1
Netherlands 7.1 (1.8)  7.7 (1.6)   -.6
Austria     7.0 (2.3)  7.6 (2.0)   -.6
Ireland     6.5 (1.1)  7.6 (1.9)   -1.1
Belgium     7.8 (2.1)  7.5 (1.8)   +.3
UK          7.2 (2.0)  7.1 (2.0)   +.1
Spain       7.0 (2.2)  7.1 (1.9)   -.1
Germany     6.4 (2.4)  6.9 (2.3)   -.5
France      6.6 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   +.2
Greece      5.9 (2.2)  6.4 (2.5)   -.5
Portugal    5.4 (2.4)  5.8 (2.1)   -.4
In total    6.6 (2.3)  7.3 (2.1)   -.7

Standard errors in parantheses


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelethnic status
Page in Source 8
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
0 native 
1 migrants or migrants descendants
    a africa
    b asia
    c europe
    d eastern europe
    e western europe
    f south american
    g turkish
    h others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.34 p < .01
African descent (compated to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.27 p < .01
Asian descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.26 p < .01
eastern euro descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.03 ns
western europe descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.07 ns
South American descent (compared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.35 p < .01
Turks descent (copared to natives)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.02
other descent (copmared to natives)

B's controlled for 
- country
- gender
- family situation
- income
- occupation
- unemployment
- subjective health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=
B's are much reduced after control for perceived 
discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in specific nations
Subject code: E03aa

StudyGanglmair Wooliscroft & Lawson (2008): study NZ 2005
TitleApplying the International Wellbeing Index to Investigate Subjective Wellbeing of New Zealanders with European and with Maori Heritage.
SourceNew Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 2008, Vol. 3, 57 - 72
Public18+ aged, general public, New-Zealand, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response63,4%
Respondents N =3556

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic identity
Page in Source 66
Our classificationEthnic status in specific nations, code E03aa
Operationalization
New Zealanders of:
a: European descent
b: Maori descent
Observed distributionEuropean descent: N=2769 (78%) Maori descent: N=289 (8%)
Remarks
Summed items of 'Personal Wellbeing Scale' and 
'National Wellbeing Scale'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbDM=
                    M     SD
European descent   69,8   20,2
Maori descent      66,5   22,1
-difference        -3,3   -1.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Australia
Subject code: E03aa01

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelAboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationEthnic status in Australia, code E03aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
origin?
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distributionMales: 1.5%; Females: 2.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.39 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.23 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Australia
Subject code: E03aa01

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelIndiginous
Page in Source 905
Our classificationEthnic status in Australia, code E03aa01
Operationalization
0) not indigenous
1) indigenous

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.28 p < .10
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Past household income
- Reference group income
- Age
- Education level
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Australia
Subject code: E03aa01

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelAboriginal identity
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationEthnic status in Australia, code E03aa01
Operationalization
0 Respondent is of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait 
Islander origin
1 others
Observed distribution1.5% f Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.44 ns
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Australia
Subject code: E03aa01

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationEthnic status in Australia, code E03aa01
Operationalization
1 migrant 
 a: born in English 
 b: other
0 non-migrant
Observed distributionImmigrant English 13.0%; Immigrant non-English 6.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.01 ns
Immigrant English (vs non-migrant)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.08 ns
Immigrant non-English (vs non-migrant)

OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Britain
Subject code: E03aa02

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 14-
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 127,131
Our classificationEthnic status in Britain, code E03aa02
Operationalization
a Mixed
b India
c Bangladesh or Pakistan
d Black
e Other ethnic groups

1 yes
0 no
Observed distributiona: 5%, b: 2%, c: 2%, d: 5%, e: 4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=+.02 ns
Mixed (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.01 p < .82
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.04 ns
India (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.05 p < .09
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.01 ns
Bangladeshi or Pakistani (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.06 p < .18
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.06 p < .01
Black (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.08 p < .01
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.05 p < .01
Other ethnic groups (vs not)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.02 p < .54
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-a
Beta's controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Britain
Subject code: E03aa02

Study~Office for National Statistics (2012): study GB 2011
TitleFirst ONS Annual Experimental Subjective Well-Being Results.
SourceReport Office National Statistics, 2012, London, UK
URLhttp://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160105160709/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_272294.pdf
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =165000

Correlate
Author's labelethnic group
Our classificationEthnic status in Britain, code E03aa02
Operationalization
a: white
b; mixed ethnic group
c: Indian
d: Pakistani
e:Bangladeshi
f: Chinese
g: Any other Asian background
h: Black/African?caribbean?Black British
i: Arab
j: Other ethnic group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=0
white M=7.4
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=0
a:white M=7.3
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-.03
b:mixed M=7.1
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.2
b:mixed M=7.1
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=+0.1
c: Indian M=7.5
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=+0.1
c: Indian M=7.4
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-0.2
d: Pakistani M=7.2
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.2
d: Pakistani M=7.1
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-0.4
e:Bangladeshi M=7.0
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.2
e:Bangladeshi M=7.1
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=0
f: Chinese M=7.4
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=0
f: Chinese M=7.3
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=0
g: Any other Asian background M=7.4
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=+0.1
g: Any other Asian background M=7.4
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-0.7
h:Black M=6.7
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.4
h:Black M=6.9
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-0.3
i: Arab M=7.1
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.2
i: Arab M=7.1
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-0.2
j: Other ethnic group M=7.2
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dDM=-0.1
j: Other ethnic group M=7.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Britain
Subject code: E03aa02

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 12
Our classificationEthnic status in Britain, code E03aa02
Operationalization
0 White
1 Non-white
Observed distributionWhite: 97%, Non-white: 3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=-
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of ethnicity

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif. 
White           99            93         +6%
Non-white       <1             7         -6%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Britain
Subject code: E03aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity in Britain
Page in Source 261
Our classificationEthnic status in Britain, code E03aa02
Operationalization
1: white      
0: non-white
Observed distribution1: N=32 (46%), 0: N=38 (54%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDM=- p < .488
white:      M= 3.7  SD= 1.46
non-white:  M= 4.0  SD= 1.36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2001): study CA Prince George 1999
TitleEthnicity, Modern Prejudice and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 189 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026596132069
PublicAdults, general public, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 212
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization
a: aboriginal
b: non-aboroginal, visible minority
c: other
Observed distributionN = a: 89, b: 36, c: 598

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=-
aboriginal               M = 5,0
non-aboroginal minority  M = 5,5
other                    M = 5,4
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=-
aboriginal               M = 4,9
non-aboroginal minority  M = 5,2
other                    M = 5,4
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fDM=-
aboriginal               M = 5,1
non-aboroginal minority  M = 5,4
other                    M = 5,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006a): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleQuality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 191 - 213
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-4717-2
Public18+ aged, general public, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997-2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8664

Correlate
Author's labelAboriginals
Page in Source 5
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization
0 all others
1 aboriginals

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fDM=-
Aboriginals M = 5.31
All others  M = 5.67
- difference    - 0.36
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=-
Aboriginals M = 5.13
All others  M = 5.48
- difference    - 0.35
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=-
Aboriginals M = 5.28
All others  M = 5.68
- difference    - 0.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin
Page in Source 520-530
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization
0: Canadian borne
1: Immigrant
Observed distributionb: 18,20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=-
                 % not too happy   % Very happy
Canadian borne        13,2            21,5
Immigrant             17,6            16,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 395
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization
0: non-Native (Whites)
1: Native (Indians)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ttau=-.18 p < .001
% Satisfied:
non-Natives  79
Natives      62
            
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tG=-.38 p < .001
             
                
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=-.35 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Monthly income
6. Perceived health
7. Days in bed
8. Family size
9. Functional ability
10.Satisfaction with family
   relationships
11.Social contacts 
12.Number of children
13.Number of siblings
14.Number of caregivers
15.Other interaction

Interaction of ethnicity with :
Ability        b= -.49 Chi ns
Marital Status b= -.12 Chi ns
Days ill       b= -.40 Chi ns
Health         b= +1.5 Chi ns
Ocupation      b= +.46 Chi ns
Monthly income b= +.24 Chi ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage spoken
Page in Source 233
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.04
All 's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, work status, marital status, 
time in area.

Females: N: 154  : -.07
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=-.04
All 's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services             
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, work status, marital status, 
time in area.

Males  : N: 173  : -.02
Females: N: 154  : -.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=+.08 p < .01
rpc controlled for : Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyBlishen & Atkinson (1980): study CA 1977
TitleAnglophone and Francophone Perceptions of the Quality of Life in Canada.
SourceSzalai, A.; Andrews, F.; Eds.:" The Quality of Life, Comparative Studies.", Sage, 1980, London, 25 - 40
PublicAdults, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3288

Correlate
Author's labelEnglish language
Page in Source 33
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization
0: Francophones
1: Anglophones

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-bDM=-
Francophones    Mt' = 7.89    SD = 1.80     
Anglophones     Mt' = 7.62    SD = 1.78

Unaffected by age.
In lowest income quintile Anglophones happier; in 
the higher ones Francophones.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelEthinicity
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=-.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=-.05 ns
rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Canada
Subject code: E03aa03

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Our classificationEthnic status in Canada, code E03aa03
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=-.08 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=-.06 p < .05
rpc controled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelRural hukou
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
1: rural hukou
0: urban hukou (reference)
Observed distribution1. 29.96%; 0. 70.04%
Remarks
Hukou: household registration

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.02 ns
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -schooling
 -marital status
 -household size
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.02 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.04 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic minority
Page in Source 142, 149
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1: Ethnic minority
0: Han
Observed distribution1: 7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.30 p < .NS
URBAN RESIDENTS         (N=983)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.06 p < .NS
RURAL RESIDENTS         (N=1195)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.47 p < .NS
RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRANTS (N=555)

B's controlled for:
- ethnic discimination
- gender
- marital status
- age
- education 
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelHukou status
Page in Source 1192, 1194, 1195
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
1: Urban hukou status
0: Rural hukou status
Remarks
Hukou is the obligatory registration in the Chinese 
birth administration and identifies a person by, inter 
alia, his place of residence which included the 
difference between rural and urban places.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.14 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  b) Gender
  c) Age
  d) Marital status
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelChange in social status
Page in Source 1196-1197
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
a) Born with rural hukou but acquired urban 
     hokou
b) Born with urban hukou
c) Born and still have rural hokou (reference)
Remarks
Rural-urban migrants only (N=1833)

A hukou is a record in the system of household 
registration required by law in China. A household 
registration record officially identifies a person as a 
resident of an area and includes identifying 
information such as name, parents, spouse, residency 
status, and date of birth.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.01 ns
MIGRANTS WHO ACQUIRED URBAN STATUS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.20 p < .05
BORN WITH URBAN HOKOU

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Education
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Marital status
  l) Housing area
- City characteristics
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
  q) GDP per capita
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  r) Between-group inequality
  s) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyLi et al. (2007): study CN Yunnan 2000
TitleHealth and Life Satisfaction of Ethic Minority Older Adults in Mainland China: Effects of Financial Strain.
SourceInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 2007, Vol. 64, 361 - 379
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response2.2%
Respondents N =995

Correlate
Author's labelMajority (vs minority)
Page in Source 367
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
1 Majority elders
0 Minority elders

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDM=+
Majority elders M= 3.3 SD= 0.9
Minority elders M= 3.0 SD= 1.0
-difference       +0.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in China
Subject code: E03aa04

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelEtnicity (Han = 1)
Page in Source 138-147
Our classificationEthnic status in China, code E03aa04
Operationalization
Han = 1
Other Chinese = 0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=-.08 p < .01
Individual happiness by etnicity in China

OPRC (-0,0775) controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individualcharacteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Education
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyHabich & Noll (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleObjektive Lebensbedingungen und subjektives Wohlbefinden im vereinten Deutschland. (Objective Living Conditions and Subjective Wellbeing in United Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 2004", Bundeszentrale fr politische Bildung, 2004, Bonn, Gemany, 457 - 575
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16698

Correlate
Author's labelpopulation group
Page in Source 561
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
A people from western part of Germany (former BRD)
B people from eastern part of Germany (former GDR)
C people from abroad
Remarks
only adolescents between 17 and 25 years old

"Whole Germany"-values are calculated as means of East 
and West Germany

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1991             %unsatisfied   %satisfied
- Whole Germany    10             78
- Foreigners        5             83
Difference        - 5            + 5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1995             
- Whole Germany    7              82
- Foreigners       8              81
Difference        +1             - 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=-
1999             
- Whole Germany    6              86
- Foreigners       7              84
Difference        +1             - 2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
2002             
- Whole Germany    5              82
- Foreigners       2              84
Difference        -3             + 2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelGerman nationality
Page in Source 20
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
1: German born
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.21
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-Marital Status
-Region in Germany (East/West)
-Univeristy graduate
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyCamp (2016): study DE 2005
TitleFamily and Labor Market Policies in Germany: The Well-Being of Working Women.
SourceConnerley, M.L.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 449 - 472
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6
Public18-62 aged women, Germany, 2005-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant
Page in Source 464
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
1 German citizen
0 Not a German citizen

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
German citizen       M=6.88
Not a German citizen M=6.73
-difference          +0.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelNon-German citizen
Page in Source 16-18,30
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
0 German citizen (reference)
1 Non-german citizen

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.25 ns
b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Income
- Spouse in foreign country
- Marital status
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelMigration background
Page in Source 6,8,21
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
0 Not being an immigrant
1 Being an immigrant
Observed distributionM = 0,20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .10
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyIsengard & Schneider (2002): study DE 1991
TitleDie Lebenssituation von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen in Deutschland. (The Living Conditions of Youngsters and Young Adults in Germany).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Data Report 2002", 2002, Bonn, Germany, 541 - 550
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 1991,1995,1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13000

Correlate
Author's labelOrigin of youngsters
Page in Source 548
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
A: West German youngsters
B: East German youngsters
C: Foreign youngsters (Western Germany)
Remarks
17-25 aged West Germany only

Happiness assessed at:
T1: 1991
T2: 1995
T3: 1999

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%=
                     1991     1995     1999
% happy
A: West German        89       84       89
B: East German        66       81       84
C: Foreign            85       80       84

% unhappy
A: West German         6        6        5
B: East German        15        7        6
C: Foreign             4        9        7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984 /1
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged immigrants, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3741

Correlate
Author's labelIdentity (lagged)
Page in Source 11, 16
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
A) To what extent do you view yourself as a German? 
Scaled:
1 not at all
:
5 completely

B) To what extent do you feel that you belong to the 
culture of the country where you or your family comes 
from? 
1 not at all
:
5 to a very large extent

Combined into: 
1: Strong minority identity
2: Strong majority identity
3: Two strong/weak identities (reference)
Observed distribution1: 58%; 2: 20%
Remarks
Seven year-lagged identity is taken for 
causality-purposes.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
STRONG MAJORITY IDENTITY (vs two strong or weak 
identities)

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in identity in the 
past seven years.
B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
- Years since migration
- German citizenship
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.25 p < .05
CURRENT happiness by identity SEVEN YEARS EARLIER
B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.24 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- Speaks German
- Writes German
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 ns
STRONG MINORITY IDENTITY (vs two strong or weak 
identities)

CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in identity in the 
past seven years.
B controlled for:
- Age
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Immigrant status
- Employed
- Works in occupation trained for
- House ownership
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
CURRENT happiness by identity SEVEN YEARS EARLIER
B additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Years since migration
- German citizenship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Germany
Subject code: E03aa05

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of origin
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEthnic status in Germany, code E03aa05
Operationalization
Country of origin:
a) Turkey (reference category)
b) Yugoslavia (ex)
c) Italy
d) Spain
e) Rest of Europe
f) Rest of World

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.29 p < .01
b) Ex-Yugoslavia (vs Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.29 p < .01
c) Italy (vs. Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.57 p < .01
d) Spain (vs. Turkey
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.30 p < .01
e) Rest of Europe (vs. Turkey)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.69 p < .01
f) Rest of World (vs. Turkey)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelMigration generation
Page in Source 4, 6, 7
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
1 First generation
2 Second generation
3 Third generation

a Turkish
b Moroccan
Remarks
- first generation = born in Morocco/Turkey
- second generation = children born in Morocco/Turkey, 
at least one parent born in Morocco/Turkey
- third generation = born in the Netherlands

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
                first   second   third
Turkish:     M= 6.07    6.14     7.10
Moroccan:    M= 6.50    7.31     7.47
 -difference:  -0.43   -1.17    -0.37
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.19 ns
Turkish immigrants
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.71 p < .10
Moroccan immigrants

B's controlled for:
- Income(Absolute)
- Income(Relative)
- Marital satus
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Religion
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic status
Page in Source 6 + additional info
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
0:autochtone (Dutch)
1:allochtone (Moroccan and Turkish descent).
Observed distribution N= 0: 12.375, 1: 570
Remarks
The selection was made on the basis of the answer on 3 
questions: 
- What is the native country of your father?
- What is the native country of you mother?
- To which community do you count yourself?
One positive answer(Turkish or Moroccan)lead to 
inclusion in the category allochtone.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=-
Autochtone M=7,72
Allochtone M=7,46
difference  -0,26
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Autochtone girls (N= 6621)   M= 7.55
Allochtone girls (N= 300)    M= 7.38
difference                      +.17
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aDM=+
Autochtone boys     M= 7.88 
Allochtone boys     M= 7.55
difference             +.33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

Study~McKinsey & Company (2006): study NL 2006
Title21Minuten.nl. (21Minutes.nl).
SourceMcKinsey & Company, 2006, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.publiekezaak.nl/projecten/21minuten-nl-de-nationale-dialoog/
Public16-69 aged, Netherland, 2006.
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =170000

Correlate
Author's labelCountry of birth
Page in Source 71
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
Self report on single question:

a: Netherland ( autochtone) 
b: Indonesie 
c: Other countries 
d: Marocco 
e: Antillen and Aruba 
f: Suriname 
g: Turkey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aD%=
  % happy,  % unhappy
a: 67       8
b: 65       8
c: 60       11
d: 55       14
e: 54       15
f: 52       17
g: 39       26


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyGijsberts (2007): study NL 2004
TitleLaagopgeleide Allochtonen relatief Tevreden met de Nederlandse Samenleving. (Low Educated Immigrants Relatively Satisfied with Dutch Society.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 89 - 93
PublicCity dwellers, aged 15-64, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response49-62%
Respondents N =4096

Correlate
Author's labeletnic origin
Page in Source 90
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
1. Native Dutch
2. Allochtones
   a.Turkish
   b. Maroccanian
   c. Surinamian
   d. Antillian
Observed distributionN= 1: ? 2a: ? 2b: ? 2c: ? 2d ?.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aD%=-
% (very) happy
1. Native Dutch    91
2. Allochtones
   a.Turkish       73
   b. Maroccanian  78
   c. Surinamian   79
   d. Antillian    79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyMerens (2007): study NL 2004
TitleHet Geluk van de Marokkaanse Vrouw. (The Happiness of Maroccan Wifes.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 34 - 37
URLhttps://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_2007/Veel_geluk_in_2007
Public15-64 aged, living in cities, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response49-62%
Respondents N =4096

Correlate
Author's labelEtnic origin
Page in Source 35
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
1. Native Dutch
2. Migrants from
  a: Turkey
  b: Marocco
  c: Surinam
  d: Dutch Antilles
Observed distributionN. 1: 642; 2a: 1864 2b: 2022 2c: 2009 2d: 1746

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
                     Female      Male       All
1. Native Dutch      M =3,14     3,15        ?
2. Migrants from
   a: Turkey         M =2,70     2,84        ?
   b: Marocco        M =2,90     2,83        ?
   c: Surinam        M =2,88     2,95        ?
   d: Dutch Antilles M =2,87     2,94        ?

Happiness-scale in report reversed!


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyTerBogt et al. (2003): study NL 2001
TitlePsychische Gezondheid, Risicogedrag en Welbevinden van Nederlandse Scholieren. ( Psychlogical Health, Risk Behavior and Well-Being of Dutch Adolescents).
SourceResearch Report Trimbos Institute, University of Utrecht, 2003, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/terbogt_t_2003.pdf
Public11-15 aged schoolchildren, the Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7556

Correlate
Author's labelAllochtone
Page in Source 39
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
1 Allochthone: If the child or one of the parents was 
born in Morocco, Turkey, Netherlands Antilles, or 
another non-industriaized country. If both parents were 
born in another country, the nationality of the father 
was used to detemine the etnicity.
0 Autochtone: other
Observed distribution% Allochtones: in primary schools: 16,4 %, in secondary schools: 18,3 %
Remarks
Secondary school pupils only. N = 5730

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aOR=0,82 ns
Chance of being happy (score 7 or higher) for 
allochthones

OR controlled for :
- age
- gender


OR reversed, paper reported chance of being 
Unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic groups
Page in Source 142 + 147
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
a. Native Dutch
b. Surinamese/Antilleans
c. Moroccans
d. Turks
Observed distributiona: 27,5%; b: 27,5%; c:17,6%; d: 27,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=
Women
Native Dutch:      Mean 7,56
-Surinamese/
 Antilleans:       Mean 7,35 
-Maroccans:        Mean 7,41 
-Turks:            Mean 7,05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .01
a>b,c,d
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=
Men
-Native Dutch:      Mean 7,58
-Surinames/
 Antilleans:        Mean 7,37
-Morroccans:        Mean 7,37
-Turks:             Mean 7,23
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .01
a>b,c,d
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
Surinames/Antilleans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Maroccans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
Turks (vs.native Dutch)

Beta's controlled for
-gender
-education
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyVerkuyten (1989): study NL 1984
TitleHappiness among Adolescents in the Netherlands: Ethnic and Sex Differences.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1989, Vol. 65, 577 - 578
DOIdoi: 10.2466/pr0.1989.65.2.577
Public13-16 aged general public, Netherlands, 198?
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3228

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic minority
Page in Source 578
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
Ethnic status:
1: Ethnic minority
0: Dutch origin
Remarks
Nearly all ethnic minorities in The Netherlands are 
first or second generation immigrants.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
Ethnic minority: M=1.3
Dutch origin:    M=1.6
- difference:     -0.3
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bAoC=3.09 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=-
Ethnic minority: M=6.9
Dutch origin:    M=7.4
- difference:     -0.5
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bAoC=9.11 p < .05
ANCOVA's include controls for:
- gender
- length of residence in Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyVerkuyten (1986a): study NL 1984
TitleThe Impact of Ethnic and Sex Differences on Happiness among Adolescents in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 126, 259 - 260
PublicAdolescents, autochtones and allochtones, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1984
Sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =261

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrant background
Page in Source 260
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
0 Dutch pupils (N=104)
1 Non-Dutch pupils (children of
  immigrants from Turkey, Surinam and
  Morocco, N=157)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=- p < .01
Dutch        Mt = 7.7
Non Dutch 
 -Turkish    Mt = 6.4
 -Surinam    Mt = 7.0
 -Moroccan   Mt = 7.2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=- p < .01
Dutch        Mt = 7.7
Non Dutch 
 -Turkish    Mt = 6.4
 -Surinam    Mt = 7.0
 -Moroccan   Mt = 7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=- p < .01
Dutch        M = 1.6   Mt' = 6.6
Non Dutch  
 -Turkish    M = 0.6   Mt' = 5.6
 -Surinam    M = 1.3   Mt' = 6.3
 -Moroccan   M = 1.4   Mt' = 6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=- p < .01
Dutch        M = 1.6   Mt = 6.6
Non Dutch  
 -Turkish    M = 0.6   Mt = 5.6
 -Surinam    M = 1.3   Mt = 6.3
 -Moroccan   M = 1.4   Mt = 6.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E03aa08

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 134
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E03aa08
Operationalization
a: indigenous
b: non-Western migrants
c: Western migrants

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Employment
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Singapore
Subject code: E03aa09

StudyIbrahim & Chung (2003): study SG 2000
TitleQuality of Life of Residents Living Near Industrial Estates in Singapore.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2003, Vol. 61, 203 - 225
DOIdoi:10.1023/A:1021305620042
Public16+ aged, residents of flats, Jurong quarter, Singapore, 2000
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 220
Our classificationEthnic status in Singapore, code E03aa09
Operationalization
a: Chinese
b: Malay
c: Indian
Observed distributionN= a: 251; b: 37; c: 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aDM=
Chinese   M = 3,68
Malay     M = 3,70
Indian    M = 3,83
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aF=.397 p < .672


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Russia
Subject code: E03aa10

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelMinority
Page in Source 323,327
Our classificationEthnic status in Russia, code E03aa10
Operationalization
0: Russian
1: Non-Russian minority
Observed distribution0: 84%, 1: 16%
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.38
T1:1995 Non-Russian (vs Russian)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.17
T2:2000 Non Russian (vs Russian)

Beta's controlled for: 
- gender
- marital status
- income
- education level
- age
- student
- retirement
- housewife
- employment
- self-employed
- health index

T1-T2 difference in Beta: p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 203,208
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
a. African
b. Indian
c. Coloured
d. White (reference category)
Observed distributiona: 77%, b:3%, c: 9%, d: 11%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.44 p < .01
African (vs white)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.08 ns
Indian (vs white)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.14 p < .05
Coloured (vs white)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-I
OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
  - employment status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
  - quality toilet
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neigbours
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
middle, poorest)
  - percieved to be better/same/worse than at age 
15
  - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelLanguage of interview
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
a.Gave interview in Afrikaans or English
b.Gave interview in isiZULU
Observed distribution% a:6, b:31

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=+
                    %happy  %neutral %unhappy  
Interv. in Afrikaans  71       10       19
or English                   
Interv. in isiZULU    42       13       45
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cgH=0,12 p < .0,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 396
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
a. Black/African
b. Coloured
c. Indian/Asian
d. White
e. All
Observed distributiona. 77%; b. 8%; c. 2%; d.13%; e. 100%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cDM=
a: Black:    M = 5,31   SD =3,12
b: Coloured: M = 7,35   SD =2,42
c: Indian    M = 6,83   SD =2,63
d: White     M = 7,62   SD =2,39
All:         M = 5,80   SD =3,11
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cBMCT= p < .05
a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyRichards (2001): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 2001
TitleHow to Measure Quality of Life in Diverse Population.
SourcePaper 4th Conference International Society for Quality of Life Studies, 2001, Washington DC, USA
Publicadults, general public, Buffalo City, South Africa, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2477

Correlate
Author's labelPopulation Group
Page in Source 18
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
a African
b Asian
c Coloured
d White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gD%=
% satisfied (vs. dissatisfied):
a:     25.8
b:     61.8
c:     55.1
d:     84.1
Total: 35.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyMoller (1989): study ZA 1988
TitleCan't get no Satisfaction. Quality of Life in the 1980's.
SourceIndicator South Africa, 1989, Vol. 7, 43 - 46
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moller_v_1989.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, South Africa, 1988
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3771

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 44
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
1 Whites
2 Indians
3 Coloureds
4 Africans

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dD%=.
% very satisfied or satisfied
1  82
2  77
3  77
4  32
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSNR=.
% very happy or happy
1  92
2  83
3  83
4  38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyMoller (1989): study ZA 1983
TitleCan't get no Satisfaction. Quality of Life in the 1980's.
SourceIndicator South Africa, 1989, Vol. 7, 43 - 46
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moller_v_1989.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, South African, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5587

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
0  All
1  Specific race catagories
Remarks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aDMt=+1.5
   Whites M = 3.26  Mt' = 7.5  SD = 0.77
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+1.5
   Whites M = 3.22  Mt' = 7.4  SD = 0.83
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aDMt=+1.1
  Indians M = 3.14  Mt' = 7.1  SD = 0.83
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+1.3
  Indians M = 3.15  Mt' = 7.2  SD = 0.78
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aDMt=+0.7
Coloureds M = 3.02  Mt' = 6.7  SD = 0.98
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=+0.9
Coloureds M = 3.05  Mt' = 6.8  SD = 0.93
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aDMt=-1.5
   Blacks M = 2.34  Mt' = 4.5  SD = 1.41
      All M = 2.79  Mt' = 6.0  SD = 1.26
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dDMt=-1.5
   Blacks M = 2.32  Mt' = 4.4  SD = 1.36
      All M = 2.78  Mt' = 5.9  SD = 1.25


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in South Africa
Subject code: E03aa11

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study ZA 1958
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicTribal people, South Africa, 1958
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50

Correlate
Author's labelPrimitives
Page in Source 170
Our classificationEthnic status in South Africa, code E03aa11
Operationalization
1 Tribal People South Africa
0 African Americans
Remarks
"Primitive"  Bantu people in Kalaua Rwal Reserve, 
Eastern Cape Province. Living the same remote and 
isolated lives as their tribal ancestors

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-cDM=-
Tribal People South Africa M=1,9
African Americans          M=4,9

Happiness was scored using a 'mountain'like scale, 
since respondents appeared not to be familair with 
the 'ladder' as a rating device


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Spain
Subject code: E03aa12

StudyJavaloy-Mazon (2008): study ES 2008
TitleBienestar y Felicidad de la Juventud Espanola. (Wellbeing and Happiness of Spanish Youth).
SourceInjuve, 2008, Spain
Public15-29 aged, young adults, Spain, 2006
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =1439

Correlate
Author's labelEspanoles y extranjeros
Page in Source 146
Our classificationEthnic status in Spain, code E03aa12
Operationalization
1 Spanish born
0 not born in Spain
Observed distribution0: 10%
Remarks
-  9,3% born outside European Union
-  Reverse code in research report (very satisfied = 
1); reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-abt.=2.66 p < .01
Spanish      M = 2.09
Foreigners   M = 1.94
- difference    +0.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Sweden
Subject code: E03aa13

StudyEden et al. (1998): study SE 1992
TitleIs Disability Pension related to Quality of Life?
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 1998, Vol. 7, 300 - 309
Public25-59 aged disability pensioners, Kristianstad, Sweden, 1992
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response16.4%
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelNative
Page in Source 305
Our classificationEthnic status in Sweden, code E03aa13
Operationalization
0: immigrants 
1: Swedish

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=4.1 p < .05
Early retired due to disability 
-Male CI95[1.3-13.6]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=2.3 p < .05
-Female CI95[1.1-4.8]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=
Control group 
-Male Too few male immigrants to permit meaningful 
calculations.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lOR=0.9 ns
-Female CI95[0.2-4.1]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCantril (1965): study CU 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 1960
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =992

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 366
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Negro / mixed / white

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
Mixed   : Mt = 5.9
Negro   : Mt = 6.0
White   : Mt = 6.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 3,4
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- income
- party identification
- age over 64
- education
- age under 30
- ethnicity
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta= ns
additionally controlled for
- health
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 3,4
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta controlled for:
- income
- party identification
- age over 64
- education
- age under 30
- race
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta= ns
additionally controlled for
- health
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyZullig et al. (2005): study US SouthCarolina 2005
TitleAdolescent Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived Satisfaction with Life.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2005, Vol. 14, 1573 - 1584
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-004-7707-y
Public13-18 aged high school students, public high schools grades 9-12, South Carolina, USA, 200?
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response7.86%
Respondents N =4914

Correlate
Author's labelRace and gender
Page in Source 1578
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a: White female    N= 1317
b: Black females   N= 1270
c: White male      N= 1284
d: Black male      N= 1043

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eD%=
life satisfaction
                 Low      Mid-range   High
White females    27.8     41.5+       30.8 
Black females    29.1     41.1        29.8-
White males      25.8     38.9        35.4
Black males      30.2     32.6-        37.2-

+ = significantly higher, - = significantly lower 
(p<10)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a. Blacks
b. Whites
c. Hispanics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caDM= p < .05
% very happy
-Blacks    28%
-Whites    36%
-Hispanics 34%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyZullig et al. (2009): study US 2003
TitleDemographic Correlates of Domain-Based Life Satisfaction Reports of College Students.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 229 - 238
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-007-9077-y
Public18+ aged, university students, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response47,8%
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Caucasian
1 Minority

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eDM=- ns
- Caucasian M = 5.77 
- Minority  M = 5.33 
difference      -.44
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eDM=- ns
Males 
- Caucasian M = 5.76 SD = 1.06
- Minority  M = 5.50 SD = 1.29
difference      -.26
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eDM=- ns
Females 
- Caucasian M = 5.78 SD = 1.04
- Minority  M = 5.54 SD = 1.07
difference      -.24


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudySaad (2004): study US 2003 /1
TitleA Nation of Happy People. Most Happy and Satisfied with Their Lives.
SourceGallup Poll News Services, 5 January 2004, Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dD%= p < .NS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudySubramanian et al. (2003): study US 2000
TitleHealth and Happiness in US Communities: A Multivariate Multilevel Analysis.
SourceJournal of Epidemiology Community Health, 2005, Vol. 59, 664 - 669
DOIDOI:10.1136/jech.2004.025742
Public18-85 aged, general public, United States, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21572

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 8,15
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
A: 1  White
     0  Black
B: 1 White
     0 Others (nonwhites and nonblacks)
Observed distributionA1: 77,8% A0: 12,5% B0: 9,7%
Error EstimatesWhites vs. Blacks: 0.084

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-e
WHITE (vs. BLACK)
OR= 1.52 (P<.05)
OR of Unhappy (vs. Happy).CI95 [1.42-2.05]. 
So whites a 52% lower chance to be Unhappy 
compared to blacks.
LRCD=  +.42 (p<.05)
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-e
WHITE (vs. OTHERS)
OR= 1.71 (p<.05)
OR of Unhappy (vs. Happy). 
So whites had a 71 % lower chance to be Unhappy 
than nonwhites.
LRCD= +.53 (p<.05)

OR and LRCD controlled for:
- State dummy
- Age 
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 278
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Self-report on single question answered by interviewer:
What is the race of the residents?
a) Black
b) Hispanic
c) White (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.07 ns
BLACK    (vs white)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.16 p < .05
HISPANIC (vs white)

OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- working full-time
- marital status
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyChambers (2000): study US 2000
TitleAmericans are Overwhelmingly Happy and Optimistic about the Future of the United States.
SourceGallup Poll News Service, 13 October 2000, The Gallup Organization, Washington DC, USA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/2434/americans-overwhelmingly-happy-optimistic-about-future.aspx
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1052

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 2
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: nonwhite Americans
1: white Americans

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cD%=+
% very happy
0: nonwhite Americans   46%
1: white Americans      47%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 192
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a: African American
b: Asian American
c: Caucasian
d: Hispanic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aD%=
a, d > b, c (Africans and hispanics feel happier)

Participants were beeped at random moments eight 
times a day from 7:30 am to 10:0 pm for one week. 
At each beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, 
one of which happiness)
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aAoV= ns
ANOVA controlling SES


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyHicks et al. (2004): study US 1997
TitleDifferences in Health-Related Quality of Life and Treatment Preferences among Black and white Patiens with End-Stage Final Disease.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 1129 - 1137
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000031350.56924.cc
Public18-54 aged, dialysed patients, USA,1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response17,1%
Respondents N =1392

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 1133
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a: Black
b: White
Observed distributionblack: N=721; white: N=671

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM= ns
a: black      M=63,0
b: white      M=63,6
difference       0,6
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aDMa= ns
a: black      Ma=64,5
b: white      Ma=63,6
difference        0,9

Ma adjusted for:
- age
- employment
- marital status
- insurance
- education
- baseline albumin level
- baseline hematocrit
- six-month hematocrit
- hypertension
- diabetes
- angina
- cancer
- PVD (Peripheral vascular disease)
- cirrhosis
- smoking
- CHF (Congestive heart failure)
- medical care ratings
- psychological support
- number of people assisting patient

Differences slightly stronger among males


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelBlack
Page in Source 253
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: black
0: other
Observed distribution1: 7%
Error Estimatess.e.=0.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.23 p < .05
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.05
b and Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- parental status
- self rated physical health
- religious participation

Beta unaffected by additionsl control for
- religious social identity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyKamp Dush & Amato (2005): study US 1992
TitleConsequences of Relationship Status and Quality for Subjective Well-Being
SourceJournal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2005, Vol.22, 607 - 627
DOIDOI:10.1177/026540750506438
Public19+ aged, United States, 1992-97
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =691

Correlate
Author's labelNonwhite
Page in Source 616
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-afr=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCalvo et al. (2007): study US 1992
TitleWhat Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
SourceMPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA
URLHTTP://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5607/
PublicEldery, United States, followed though retirement 1992-2004
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Respondents N =2389

Correlate
Author's labelWhite Non-Hispanic
Page in Source 28, 39, 43
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: Non-white and/or hispanic
1: White
Observed distribution1=31,6%; 0=68,4%.
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, 
when retired.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bb=+.01 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness by White Ethnicity (vs 
Non-white or Hispanic).

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted    
-spouse death                
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-male                        
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school       
-blue-collar                 
-unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyMookherjee (1998): study US 1991
TitlePerception of Happiness among Elderly Persons in Metropolitan USA.
SourcePerceptual and Motor Skills, 1998, Vol. 87, 787 - 793
Public60+aged, metropolitian areas, USA, 1982-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 789-790
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: White
0: Non-white

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=+
% Happy (very+pretty):
White:       87%
Non-white:   82%
- difference +5%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aAoV= p < .00001
F= 20.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyPinhey et al. (1997): study US Guam 1991
TitleOverweight and Happiness: The Reflected Self-Appraisal Hypothesis Reconstructed.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1997, Vol. 78, 747 - 755.
DOIDOI:9710113640
Public18+ aged, general public, Guam, USA, 1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response29,6
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 752
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 caucasians
1 non-caucasians
  1a Chamorro
  1b Filipino
  1c Asian
  1d Micronesian

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.38 ns
Chamorro             (vs Caucasian)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.21 ns
Filipino            (vs Caucasian)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=-.36 ns
Asian                (vs Caucasian)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.05 ns
Micronesian          (vs Caucasian)

B controled for
- BMI
- age
- sexe
- education
- income
- employement
- marital status
- parenthood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAbbey et al. (1983): study US Chicago 1990
TitleHandling the Stress of Looking for a Job in Law School: The Relationships between Intrinsic Motivation, Internal Attributions,Relations with Others and Happiness.
SourceBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 4, 263 - 278
PublicLaw school students, Chicago, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 272
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyKalmuss et al. (1992): study US 1989
TitleShort-Term Consequences of Parenting Versus Adoption among Young Unmarried Woman.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 80 - 90
PublicUnmarried teenage mothers, USA, 1989-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response>10%
Respondents N =527

Correlate
Author's labelrace (black/white)
Page in Source 82+88
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: black
1: white
Observed distribution71% white 29 % black
Remarks
Hispanics excluded in this study 
Blacks included, but underrepresented (special efforts 
were made to find black Ss)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-ab=+.15 ns
B controlled for:
- pregnancy resolution (parented/placed)
- age in years
- lived with both parents at age 14
- received public assistance while growing up
- high school graduate
- lived in maternity residence while pregnant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: non-white
1: white
Observed distribution1: 90%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyPeacock & Poloma (1999): study US 1988
TitleReligiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 319 - 345
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006928028270
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 330
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: white
2: black

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-br=-.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAngel & Angel (1992): study US 1988
TitleAge at Migration, Social Connections, and Well-Being among Elderly Hispanics.
SourceJournal of Aging and Health, 1992, Vol. 4, 480-499
DOIDOI: 10.1177/089826439200400402
Public65+aged, Hispanics, United States, 1988
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2019

Correlate
Author's labelHispanic ethnicity
Page in Source 485, 495, 497
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Self report on Hispanic ethnicity. Text is not 
reported.
a: Cuban American
b: Puerto Rican 
c: Mexican American (reference)
Observed distributionCuban American: 35.4% Puerto Rican: 18.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.29 p < .05
CUBAN AMERICAN (vs Mexican American)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- age at migration
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=-.33 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.11 ns
PUERTO RICAN (vs Mexican American)

Beta controlled for 
- age 
- Gender
- age at migration
- income
- education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaBeta=+.05 ns
Beta additionally controlled for
- Church
- Friends
- Group events


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelrace
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Answer to the question: ''Which groups on this card 
best describes you?'':
a) White (reference group)
b) Black
c) Hispanic
d) Asian
e) Other race/ethnicity
Observed distributiona: 73%, b: 18%, c: 7%, d: 0,1%, e: 0,01%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.04 ns
Black (vs white)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.28 p < .05
Hispanic (vs white)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.05 ns
Asian (vs. white)
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.12 ns
Other race/ethnicity (vs. white)

Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Household income
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Years of education
- Household size
- Religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelBlack
Page in Source 443
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 = Other
1 = Black
Observed distributionM = 0,09 SD = 0,28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.05 ns
T1 ethnicity by T2 happiness (3 year lag)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.00 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.00 ns
B (+.0006) controled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 self rated health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - gender
   - education
   - age
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.06 ns
B (+0,056) controlled for:
- T1 activity in volunatry associations
- T1 self rated health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - age 
   - gender
   - education
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.10 ns
B (+0,101) additionally controlled for: 
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyThoits & Hewitt (2001): study US 1986
TitleVolunteer Work and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2001, Vol. 42, 115 - 131
Public25+ aged, general public, USA, 1986-1989
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-ResponseT1: 33% T2: 21%
Respondents N =2867

Correlate
Author's labelWhite
Page in Source 123-126
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: White
0: Other
Observed distribution1: 65%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fr=+.10 p < .001
White by T1 Life satisfaction
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-ab=+.09 ns
White by T2 Life satisfaction
B controlled for:
-T2 voluntary hours 
-sociodemographic variables
 -age
 -gender
 -education
 -income
 -employment
 -marital status
 -children at home
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-ab=+.10 p < .10
White by T2 Life satisfaction
B controlled for:
-sociodemographic variables
 -age
 -gender
 -education
 -income
 -employment
 -marital status
 -children at home
-T2 social intergration
 -church attendance
 -organization attendance
-T1 life satisfaction(indicating CHANGE in Life 
satisfaction)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=+.16 p < .001
White by T2 Happiness
B controlled for:
-sociodemographic variables
 -age
 -gender
 -education
 -income
 -employment
 -marital status
 -children at home
-T2 social intergration
 -church attendance
 -organization attendance
-T1 happiness measured by a different item 
 "My life could be happier than it is now"


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyMookherjee (1997): study US 1986
TitleAssessment of Happiness among the Elderly Population in the United States.
SourceChrakravarty, I.;Ed.: "Life in Twilight Years", Kwality Book, 1997, Calcutta, India, 327 - 343
Public60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =3049

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 335/330
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1. non white
2. white
Observed distribution N: 1= 427 2= 2622

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .00
1. M= 2.11 SD= .66
2. M= 2.25 SD= .66
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.09 p < .00
% happy
1. 84
2. 88
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 ns
Beta controlled for socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controlled for 
- socio-demographic variables:
   - Gender
   - Marital status
   - Education
   - Financial status
   - Place of residence
   - Religious membership
   - Religious attendance
- satisfaction with:
   - Neighbours
   - Non-working activities
   - Family
   - Friends
   - Health
   - Finance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAlvarez-Diaz et al. (2009): study US 1985
TitleThe Politics of Happiness: On the Political Determinants of Quality of Life in the American States.
SourceThe Journal of Politics, 2010, Vol. 72, 894 - 905
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0022381610000241
Public16+ aged, general public, USA, 1985-1998
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 902
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a) African-American
b) Other non white
c) Hispanic white (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=-.19 p < .031
AFRICAN-AMERICAN (vs Hispanic White)
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-ab=+.00 p < .016
OTHER NON WHITE (vs Hispanic White)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  - Income
  - Financial Satisfaction
  - Education
  - Employment status
  - Gender
  - Children
  - Age
  - Age squared
  - Marital status
  - Church attendance
  - Ethnicity
  - Interpersonal Trust
  - Health of respondent
- State characteristics
  - Size
  - Income
  - Racial diversity
  - Social capital
  - Culture

B similar when controlled either for:
- Transfer payments
- Government Ideology
- Democratic Party Control
Instead of:
- economic regulation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelRacial minority
Page in Source 833
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: not member of a minority
1: member of a minority group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyLehman (1988): study US 1981
TitleA Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill.
SourceEvaluation and Program Planning, 1988, Vol. 11, 51 - 62
PublicChronic mental patients, USA,1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 57
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: Caucasian
0: Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-0.6 ns
Los Angeles: mentally ill residents of 30 large 
board-and-care homes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.13 ns
Rochester: chronically mentally ill inpatients at 
the Rochester(N.Y.) Psychiatric Center
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
Rochester:chronically mentaly ill residents of 
various supervised community residences


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAndrews (1991): study US 1980
TitleStability and Change in Levels and Structure of Subjective Well-Being: USA 1972 and 1988.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 25, 1 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00727649
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1972-1988
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2985

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 26
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 black
1 white

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDMt=+,-
race        happiness (Ms')       change (DMt')
             1972     1988        1972-1988
white        7.5      8.0         +0.5
black        7.3      7.7         +0.4
Happiness scores rated on 1-7 point scale. Means 
transformed to 0-10 scale (Ms')


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1 white
0 others
Observed distributionM=.92, SD=.27, Range=0-1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.10 p < .01
T1 Happiness (1980)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=-.14 p < .05
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness)
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAdams (1997): study US 1980
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006806601848
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
Respondents N =623

Correlate
Author's labelChange over time
Page in Source 215
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1980
T2: 1987/1988
T3: 1989
T4: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bDMt=+
T1: M=3.08  SD=0.77
T2: M=3.20  SD=0.73
T3: M=3.24  SD=0.73
T4: M=3.21  SD=0.77
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bF=8.95 p < .00
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=+4.5 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bt.=-1.9 p < .06
quadratic trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aDMt=-
T1: M=2.19  SD=0.62
T2: M=2.07  SD=0.64
T3: M=2.09  SD=0.61
T4: M=2.07  SD=0.65
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aF=7.47 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=-4.1 p < .001
linear trend in means
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-at.=+1.5 p < .12
quadratic trend in means

The divergence in trend of happiness 
general-satisfaction-item cannot be explained by 
response bias or other methodological issues


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCohen et al. (1982): study US 1979
TitleCommunity Stressors, Mediating Conditions and Well-Being in Urban Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1982, Vol. 10, 377 - 391.
DOIdoi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198210)10:4<377::AID-JCOP2290100408>3.0.CO;2-T
Public18-55 aged, general public, New York City, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =602

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 382
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1: white
0: other
   - black
   - hispanic
   - other non-white

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-aDMt=+
white:              Mt' = 6.3
- black:            Mt' = 5.8
- hispanic:         Mt' = 5.9
- other non-white:  Mt' = 6.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 235
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Non white (e.g., Blacks, Hispanics) 1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSNR=+ p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyBeals (1985): study US 1978
TitleGenerational Differences in Well-being for two European Groups.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicImmigrants from Europe, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =844

Correlate
Author's labelRegion of origin of immigrants
Page in Source 82
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Western vs Eastern/Southern Europe.
Asserted by the open question: "Aside from being 
American, what nationality do you think of your family 
being mainly?".
- Western Europeans: British, German, Scandinavian, 
Austrian, Swiss, French,
etc.
- Eastern/Southern Europeans: Polish,  
Czechoslovakian, Russian, Greek, Italian, Spanish, etc.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aDM=
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=2.95        M=2.98        DM=+.03
second     M=3.24        M=3.08        DM=-.16
third      M=3.27        M=3.17        DM=-.10 
          
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Generation Western   Southern/Eastern  Difference
           Europe        Europe     

first      M=6.74        M=6.22        DM=-.52
second     M=6.90        M=6.72        DM=-.18
third      M=6.88        M=6.85        DM=-.03 
          


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 435
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks 
1 Whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.33 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.36 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=+.10 p < .01
               1957              1976

21 - 34 aged   G' = +.52 (01)    G' = +.70 (01)
               _b'= +.13 (01)    _b'= +.21 (01)
35 - 54 aged   G' = +.37 (01)    G' = +.33 (01)
               _b'= +.10 (01)    _b'= +.09 (01)
55+     aged   G' = -.04  ns     G' = +.03  ns
               _b'= -.01  ns     _b'= +.01  ns

Effect persists after control for age, sex and 
education. Interaction effects exist.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyKivett (2000): study US 1976
TitleVery-Old Rural Adults: Functional Status and Social Support.
SourceJournal of Applied Gerontology, 2000, Vol. 19, 58 - 77
PublicVery old, rural area USA, followed 20 years, 1976-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response> 10%
Respondents N =49

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 12 (table 1)
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1 white
2 black
Observed distributionN= 1:26, 2:23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caDM=-
1: white   M = 7,26
2: black   M = 6,33
difference   - 0,93

Remark WDH team:
The above mean values are not consistent with 
means of life-satisfaction mentioned in text on 
page 5 of webversion of this paper.
1: white   M = 5,31
2: black   M = 3,30
difference   - 2,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyNear et al. (1978): study US NewYork 1975
TitleWork and Extra-Work Correlates of Life and Job Satisfaction.
SourceAcademy of Management Journal, 1978, Vol. 21, 248 - 264
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/255758
PublicAdults, general public, Western New York State, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =384

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 253
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0  non-whites
1  whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dR=.04 p < .01
Explained variance in ANOVA.
Nonwhites were less satisfied with their lives. 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyRoberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1975
TitlePrevalence of Psychological Distress among Mexican Americans.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1980, Vol. 21, 134 - 145
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2136732
PublicAdult, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =657

Correlate
Author's labelChicanos vs Anglos
Page in Source 140
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
 
Remarks
After control for the effects of age, sex, education, 
family income, marital status, and physical health 
status Gs'= +.15

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.11 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1 white
0 black

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.09 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04
Beta controlled for:
- recourses only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.01
Beta conbtrolled for:
- resources
- assesment
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- assessments
- comparisons

Resources:
- sex
- age 
- income 
- education 
- home ownership 
- marital status 
- number of children
- number of household mebers
Assessments: satisfaction with: 
- standard of living 
- leisure time 
- housing 
- health
- education
- community 
- government
Comparisons: 
- perception of being happier than others  
- perceived financial improvement in the past few 
years.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyRoberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1974
TitlePrevalence of Psychological Distress among Mexican Americans.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1980, Vol. 21, 134 - 145
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2136732
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3119

Correlate
Author's labelChicanos vs Anglos
Page in Source 140
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
 
Remarks
After control for the effects of age, sex, education, 
family income, marital status, and 
physical health status Gs'= +.10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.14 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyRoberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1974
TitlePrevalence of Psychological Distress among Mexican Americans.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1980, Vol. 21, 134 - 145
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2136732
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3119

Correlate
Author's labelBlacks vs Anglos
Page in Source 140
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
 
Remarks
After control for the effects of age, sex, education, 
family income, marital status, and physical health 
status Gs'= +.30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.43 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyRoberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1974
TitlePrevalence of Psychological Distress among Mexican Americans.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1980, Vol. 21, 134 - 145
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2136732
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3119

Correlate
Author's labelBlacks vs Chicanos
Page in Source 140
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
 
Remarks
After control for the effects of age, sex, education, 
family income, marital status, and physical health 
status Gs'= +.20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.31 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudySigelman (1981): study US 1974
TitleIs Ignorance Bliss? A Reconsideration of the Folk Wisdom.
SourceHuman Relations, 1981, Vol. 34, 965 - 974
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2650

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 971
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Non-white 
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07 p < .01
 controlled for: age, gender, education, family 
income, marital status, church attendance, 
political participation and health condition.
 hardly decreases when intelligence (IQ) is also 
controled.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyWard (1983): study US 1974
TitleThe Stability of Racial Differences Across Age Strata.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 67, 313 - 323
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4085

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 318
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks
1 Whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01
age 18-39
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04
age 40-59
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05
age 60+
 controled for income, education and occupational 
status.
No interaction with age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 710
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1 = white
2 = nonwhite

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.15 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=-.23 ns
B's further controlled for:
- CHANGE in family situation
- education
- sex
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 141,323
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks 
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.13
Black  M=5.0  Mt'=6.7
White  M=5.4  Mt'=7.3
DM - difference: +0.6
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.08
 controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.02
 additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
Blacks:     M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
Whites:     M=6.1   Mt'=6.4
DM - difference:       +0.9
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
Blacks:     M=4.9   Mt'=4.9
Whites:     M=5.6   Mt'=5.8
DM - difference:       +0.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyFernandez & Kulik (1981): study US 1973
TitleA Multilevel Model of Life Satisfaction: Effects of Individual Characteristics and Neighborhood Composition.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1981, Vol. 46, 840 - 850
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973-1974
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =5916

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 845-846
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Non-white (Blacks and Hispanics) 
1 White 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cr=+.05
Disattenuated r = +.08
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cBeta=+.01 ns
 controlled for personal characteristics:
family-size, education, sex, age, health, married, 
divorced/separated, income.
Disattenuated  = +.02
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cBeta=-.02 ns
 controled for personal-characteristics (above) 
and neighbourhood-characteristics (urbanity, costs 
of living, % whites, income-inequality, difference 
own age with average, difference own income with 
average)
Disattenuated  = -.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyZehner (1977): study US 1973
TitleIndicators of the Quality of Life in New Communities.
SourceBallinger, 1977, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
PublicResidents communities,planned and unplanned, USA, 1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3894

Correlate
Author's labelNon-black race
Page in Source 118/119
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0. Black 
1. Non-black

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aD%=
Only those communities with sufficient blacks are 
compared. % happy blacks is similar in planned and 
conventionally developed communities.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelBlack Race
Page in Source 324
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1 black
0 white, other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=-.97 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=-.61 p < .05
% very happy
0      22
1      36
The relationship is substantially reduced after 
control for marital status and recent change 
income (about one third of the difference in 
happiness is explained by these variables). The 
relation also survives a control for marital 
status, race, household size and social 
participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAlston et al. (1974): study US 1972
TitleSocioeconomic Correlates for Four Dimensions of Self-Perceived Satisfaction, 1972.
SourceHuman Organization, 1974, Vol. 33, 99 - 102
PublicAdult, general public, USA 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1602

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 100
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Black vs white.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.36 p < .01
Gammas based on proportions 'very happy'.

age 45+          : G' =+.22 (05)
age 35-44        : G' =+.21 (ns)
age -35          : G' =+.67 (01)

Unaffected by sex.

high education   : G' =+.60 (01)
medium education : G' =+.51 (01)
low education    : G' =-.01 (ns)

high income      : G' =+.48 (01)
medium income    : G' =+.38 (01)
low income       : G' =+.16 (ns)

white collar     : G' =+.65 (01)
blue collar      : G' =+.19 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyThomas & Hughes (1986): study US 1972
TitleThe Continuing Significance of Race: A study of Race, Class, and Quality of Life in America, 1972- 1985.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1986, Vol. 51, 830 - 841
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-85
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =18000

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 837
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
1  Blacks
2  Whites
Observed distributionBlacks 12% Whites 88%
Remarks
Blacks oversampled in 1982, N=354
Means (Ma) adjusted by age, marital status and social 
class (income, education, employment status)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMa=+.20 p < .001
1972 whites: Ma=2.16, blacks: Ma=1.98
1973 whites: Ma=2.25, blacks: Ma=1.95
1974 whites: Ma=2.25, blacks: Ma=2.14
1975 whites: Ma=2.21, blacks: Ma=2.09
1976 whites: Ma=2.25, blacks: Ma=1.96
1977 whites: Ma=2.24, blacks: Ma=2.19
1978 whites: Ma=2.27, blacks: Ma=2.12
1980 whites: Ma=2.23, blacks: Ma=2.00
1982 whites: Ma=2.23, blacks: Ma=2.08
1983 whites: Ma=2.21, blacks: Ma=2.05
1984 whites: Ma=2.25, blacks: Ma=2.11
1985 whites: Ma=2.19, blacks: Ma=2.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.00 p < .05
Whites (b=-.0002)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.00 ns
Blacks (b=+.0044)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.01 ns
Interaction race/year: difference in slope 
whites-blacks (b=+.0046)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab= ns
Interaction with social class
-class of origin (fathers education, mothers
  education, family income at age 16)
-own education
-income
-employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyWard (1983): study US 1972
TitleThe Stability of Racial Differences Across Age Strata.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 67, 313 - 323
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9035

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 318
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks
1 Whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.13
age 18-39
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=.04
age 40-59
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
age 60+
's controled for income, education and 
occupational status.
The happiness advantage of wfhites decreases 
significantly with age. (Interaction p <.005)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 139
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks
1 Whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.03
Blacks:     M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
Whites:     M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
DM - difference        +0.2
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.03
 controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
- sexe
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.03
 additionmally controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- Spare-time activities
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudySpreitzer & Snyder (1974): study US 1972
TitleCorrelates of Life Satisfaction among the Aged.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 454 - 458
Public18+ aged, married or widowed, USA,1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1547

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 457
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0. Black 
1. White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-ar=+.12 p < . 01
Unaffected by age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAldous & Ganey (1999): study US 1972
TitleFamily Life and the Pursuit of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1999, Vol. 20, 155 - 180
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101630

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 6, 11
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: white 
1: black
Observed distributionN: Whites: 6679; Blacks: 3484

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=- p < .001
Whites        M=    2,24
Blacks        M=    1,99
-difference:       -0,25
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=- p < .001
Whites        Ma=   +0,07
Blacks        Ma=   -0,12
-difference:        -0,19
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa= p < .05
Female white   Ma=  +0,09  (N=3638)
Female black   Ma=  -0,13  (N=2088)
Male white     Ma=  +0,04  (N=3041)
Male black     Ma=  -0,12  (N=1396)

DMa controlled for:
-income
-education,
and compared to population mean of zero.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyGraham (2005): study US 1972
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =24128

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 218
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"What race do you consider yourself?"
1 White
2 Black
3 Other:________"

converted to:
a Black
b Other race

1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.40
Black
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.05
Other race

B's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Log income
- Years of education
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 331
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks  
1 Whites

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
Blacks      M=0.3   Mt'=5.3
Whites      M=1.7   Mt'=6.7
- Difference           +1.4
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Blacks:     M=2.6   Mt'=4.0
Whites:     M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
- Difference           +1.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
Blacks:     M=4.9   Mt'=6.5
Whites:     M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
- Difference           +1.2
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=+
Blacks:     M=2.6   Mt'=4.0
Whites:     M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
- Difference           +1.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+
Blacks:     M=4.9   Mt'=6.5
Whites:     M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
- Difference           +1.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1971
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0. Black
1. White
Remarks
DATASETS:
1: 1972,      N=1955, SI study, see ANDRE 1976
2: 1972-1978, N=9151, Pooled General Social Surv. 3: 
1973-1975, N=3222, Pooled Omnibus Surveys
4: 1976,      N= 707, Omnibus Survey
5: 1974-1975, N=1077, S.I. study, Detroit Area
6: 1971,      N=1822, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1975
7: 1978,      N=3141, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1981
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.09 p < .05
DATASET 1:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97),  controlled for gender, family 
income,education, employment status and marital 
status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 p < .05
DATASET 2:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97).  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employment status, marital status and 
health.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
DATASET 5: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences among 45-64/65-97 aged.
 controlled for gender, family income, education, 
marital status and employment status.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
DATASET 1:  identical across age.  controlled 
for gender, family income, education, employment 
status and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.01 ns
DATASET 6: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences among 45-64/65-97 aged. 
 controlled for gender, family income, education, 
employment status, marital status and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
DATASET 5:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97).  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employmeny status and marital status.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
DATASET 3:  identical across age.  controlledfor 
gender, family income, education, employment 
status and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.00 ns
DATASET 6: identical across age. controlled for
gender, family income, education, employment 
status, marital status and health. 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
DATASET 7:  identical across age.   controlled 
for gender, family income, education, employment 
status, marital status and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.01 ns
DATASET 7: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences occured among 45-64/65-97 
aged.  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employment status, marital status and 
health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyMcNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971
TitleBlessed are the Downtrodden? An Empirical Test.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1978, Vol. 39, 303 - 320
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 310
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0. Black race
1. White race

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.27 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCampbell et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleThe Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions.
SourceRussel Sage Foundation, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 449
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aG=+.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyDiener et al. (1993): study US 1971
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Subjective Well-Being: Relative or Absolute?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 195 - 223
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079018
Public25-74 aged general public, United States, 1971-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4942

Correlate
Author's labelIncome
Page in Source 203-211
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Family income reported in categories.

At T1:
- lowest income group: no income to 1000$ annualy
- highest income group: 25000$ or above

At T2:
- lowest income group: no income to 3000$ annually
- highest income group: income above 100000$
Error EstimatesT1-T2 stability: r=+.67 (0.01)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.13 p < .001
T1 income by T1 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE income by T2 happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-ar=+.12 p < .001
T2 income by T2 happiness
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aDM=
Income increases M=36.56
Income unchanged M=37.52
Income decreased M=37.92

Unaffected by:
- ethnicity
- education
- wealth neighboor


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyKivett (1976): study US 1970
TitleThe Aged in North Carolina: Physical, Social and Environmental Characteristics and Sources of Assistance. (The Guilford Study)
SourceTechnical Bullletin No.237, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1976, USA
Public65+ aged, North Carolina, USA, 1970-71
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =469

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 37
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Black
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-baBeta=-12 p < .05
 controlled for:
- urban living
- sexe
- marital status
- social position
- age
- education
- occupation at age 50.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bab= p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyPandey (1971): study US 1969
TitlePopularity, Rebelliousness and Happiness among Institutionalized Retarded Males.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, Vol. 76, 523 - 331
PublicMentally retarded males, hospital, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 329
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-ar=+ ns
Open ward  : r = +.05 (ns)
Closed ward: r = +.20 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyGaitz & Scott (1972): study US Texas 1969
TitleAge and the Measurement of Mental Health.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1972, Vol. 13, 55 -67
PublicAdults, general public, Houston, Texas, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response2%, aged Mexican-Americans of high socio-economic status only
Respondents N =1441

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 63
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Anglo / Black / Mexican-Aamerican

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM= + ns
Mexican-American: males  : M = 6.5  Mt' = 6.1
                  females: M = 5.9  Mt' = 5.4
Black           : males  : M = 6.2  Mt' = 5.8
                  females: M = 6.0  Mt' = 5.6
Anglo           : males  : M = 6.1  Mt' = 5.7
                : females: M = 5.9  Mt' = 5.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Blacks 
1 Whites
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fD%=-.00
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=+.20
Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement
  - health  
  - compulsory plan
  - unemployment
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
- T2 life situation
  - health problems
  - marital status                       
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.00 ns
Beta when income increase/decrease is included in 
stead of absolute income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyFowler & McCalla (1969): study US 1965
TitleCorrelates of Morale among Aged in Greater Boston.
SourceProceedings of the 77th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Vol. 4, 1969, 733 -734
Public65+ aged, Metropolitan Boston, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1335

Correlate
Author's labelForeign born
Page in Source 733
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Native born                   1 Foreign born.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-a
Negative relationship disappears when controlled 
for income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCantril & Roll (1971): study US 1964
TitleHopes and Fears of the American People.
SourceUniverse Books, 1971, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1964-1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1588

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 66
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Non-white 
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+
Non-white       :Ms = 5.8 (1964)  5.8 (1971)
White           :Ms = 7.0 (1964)  6.6 (1971)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response 20%, Attrition 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Negro
1 White
Remarks
Data T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.54 p < .01
Gamma based on proportion 'not too happy'. 
Unaffected by educational level.

Stronger at lower income levels, especially among 
those of high education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyHochstim et al. (1968): study US Oakland County, Michigan 1960
TitlePoverty Area under the Microscope.
SourceAmerican Journal of Public Health, 1968, Vol. 58, 1015 -1027
PublicAdults, general public, Oakland California, USA, 1960-1965
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2580

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 1024
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Black                                1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caG= - p < . 05
Poverty area       G' = +.11 (01)
Non poverty area   G' = -.11 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyHenley & Davis (1967): study US 1959
TitleSatisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Study of the Chronically-Ill Aged Patient.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, Vol. 8, 65 - 75
Public60+ aged chronically-ill, followed three years, USA, 1959-62
Sample
Non-Response24% not available because of death, mental deterioration, unknown address or r
Respondents N =167

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 69
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Negro
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aG=-.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959
TitleA Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response9%
Respondents N =1301

Correlate
Author's label White race
Page in Source 44
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
Black vs white

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.08
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.12
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-ar=+.11


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyCantril (1965): study US 1959
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1549

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 375
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Non-white
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=+1.4
Non-white: Mt = 5.3
White    : Mt = 6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyKilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study US 1955
TitleSelf-Anchoring Scaling: A Measure of Individuals' Unique Reality Worlds.
SourceJournal of Individual Psychology, 1960, Vol. 16, 158 - 173
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 195?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelCategories of adult Americans
Page in Source 164
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
a Negroes
b Immigrants
c Farmers
d Junior executives
e College teachers

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=
Negroes              M=4,9
Immigrants           M=7,0
Farmers              M=7,3 
Junior executives    M=7,6
College teachers     M=7,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyManning-Gibbs (1972): study US 1946
TitleRelative Deprivation and Self-Reported Happiness of Blacks: 1946-1966.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, 1972, Austin, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/manning-gibbs_ba_1972.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1946-1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25617

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 37-59
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0: Black
1: White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cG=+
G' based on proportion very happy.
Response formats of happiness question very 
slightly over the years.

                   1946       1956       1966
                   
total population  :+.04(ns)   +.26(01)   +.37(01)

college graduate  :-.11(ns)   +.50(01)   +.64(01)
college incomplete:+.15(ns)   +.50(01)   +.29(ns)
high school grad. :+.00(ns)   +.38(01)   +.60(01)
high sch. incompl.:+.08(ns)   +.21(05)   +.40(01)
8th grade & less  :-.11(ns)   +.04(ns)   +.09(ns)

professionals     :-.03(ns)   +.38(05)   +.72(01)
business ex.      :+.26(ns)   +.52(01)   +.82(01)
white collar      :+.22(ns)   +.32(05)   +.54(01)
skilled workers   :+.11(ns)   +.34(01)   +.30(05)
semi- & unsk.work.:-.22(01)   +.16(05)   +.19(05)
service workers   :+.03(ns)   +.26(05)   +.36(01)
farmers           :+.14(ns)   -.08(ns)   +.00(ns)

non-manual        :-.17(05)   -.41(01)   -.68(01)
manual            :+.04(ns)   -.22(05)   -.29(01)

high income       :+.04(ns)              +.80(01)
average income    :+.08(ns)              +.43(01)
low income        :-.02(ns)              +.13(05)

city size:
500,000 +         :+.03(ns)    +.35(01)  +.03(ns)
100,000-499,999   :+.08(ns)    +.24(01)  +.08(ns)
10,000-99,999     :+.02(ns)    +.39(01)  +.50(01)
2500-9999         :+.03(ns)    +.84(01)  
rural non-farm    :-.32(ns)    +.10(ns)  +.01(ns)
farm              :+.11(ns)    -.04(ns)  +.34(ns)

non-south         :-.06(ns)    -.29(01)  -.30(01)
south             :-.07(ns)    -.14(05)  -.12(05)

age 70+           :-.11(ns)    +.23(ns)  -.08(ns)
age 60-69         :-.29(05)    -.03(ns)  +.49(05)
age 50-59         :+.03(ns)    +.05(ns)  +.30(ns)
age 40-49         :+.17(ns)    +.08(ns)  +.60(01)
age 30-39         :+.19(05)    +.48(01)  +.44(01)
age 20-29         :+.03(ns)    +.46(01)  +.35(05)






Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E03aa14

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 183
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E03aa14
Operationalization
0 Negro 
1 White

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the UK
Subject code: E03aa15

StudyKnies et al. (2014): study GB 2009
TitleLife Satisfaction, Ethnicity and Neighbourhoods: Is There an Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Composition on Life Satisfaction?
SourceCREAM Working Paper, 2014, No. 7, London. UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/crm/wpaper/1407.html
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2009/2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32025

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 24, 27, 28
Our classificationEthnic status in the UK, code E03aa15
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is your ethnic group?
A) 
1: Non-British ethnicity
  a) Other 'White' background
  b) Mixed background (e.g., White and Asian)
  c) Indian
  d) Pakistani
  e) Bangladeshi
  f) Carribean
  g) African
  h) Other
0: British ethnicity

B) 
1: Non-British ethnicity excluding first-generation 
immigrants    
  a) Other 'White' background
  b) Mixed background (e.g., White and Asian)
  c) Indian
  d) Pakistani
  e) Bangladeshi
  f) Carribean
  g) African
  h) Other
0: British ethnicity
Observed distributionA) 1a) 1.267; 1b) 657; 1c) 1305; 1d) 868; 1e) 501; 1f) 774; 1g) 912; 0) 24.611 B) 1a) 1.267; 1b) 657; 1c) 1305; 1d) 868; 1e) 501; 1f) 774; 1g) 912; 0) 24.611

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
NON-BRITISH ETHNICITY (vs. British)

Other white     B=-.04 (ns)      
Mixed ethnicity B=-.24 (01)
Indian          B=-.18 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.32 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.47 (01)
Carribean       B=-.49 (01)
African         B=-.17 (01)
Other           B=-.30 (01)

No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
Other white     B=-.19 (01)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.20 (01)
Indian          B=-.35 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.38 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.50 (01)
Carribean       B=-.34 (01)
African         B=-.21 (01)
Other           B=-.40 (01)

B controlled for:
- gender
- age and age squared
- education
- marital status
- number of children
- employment status
- household income
- housing
- health
- religion
- length of stay
- urban/rural residence
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
Other white     B=-.18 (01)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.19 (01)
Indian          B=-.31 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.32 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.44 (01)
Carribean       B=-.30 (01)
African         B=-.17 (01)
Other           B=-.38 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Economic status of neighbourhood
- Life-style heterogeneity (MOSAIC)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
Other white     B=-.16 (05)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.15 (01)
Indian          B=-.32 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.30 (05)
Bangladeshi     B=-.47 (05)
Carribean       B=-.31 (01)
African         B=-.32 (01)
Other           B=-.36 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Ethnic diversity in neighbourhood
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
NON-BRITISH ETHNICITY EXCLUDING FIRST-GENERATION 
MIGRANTS (vs. British)

Other white     B=-.33 (01)      
Mixed ethnicity B=-.32 (01)
Indian          B=-.38 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.21 (05)
Bangladeshi     B=-.44 (05)
Carribean       B=-.56 (01)
African         B=-.31 (05)
Other           B=-.32 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
Other white     B=-.21 (10)      
Mixed ethnicity B=-.20 (05)
Indian          B=-.47 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.27 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.52 (01)
Carribean       B=-.32 (01)
African         B=-.23 (ns)
Other           B=-.23 (05)

B controlled for:
- gender
- age and age squared
- education
- marital status
- number of children
- employment status
- household income
- housing
- health
- religion
- length of stay
- urban/rural residence
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=-
Other white     B=-.20 (10)      
Mixed ethnicity B=-.18 (05)
Indian          B=-.43 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.20 (05)
Bangladeshi     B=-.46 (05)
Carribean       B=-.27 (01)
African         B=-.18 (ns)
Other           B=-.22 (10)

B additionally controlled for:
- Economic status of neighbourhood
- Life-style heterogeneity (MOSAIC)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.11 (ns)      
Mixed ethnicity B=-.14 (10)
Indian          B=-.60 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.62 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.45 (ns)
Carribean       B=-.22 (ns)
African         B=-.32 (ns)
Other           B=-.19 (10)

B additionally controlled for:
- Ethnic diversity in neighbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the UK
Subject code: E03aa15

StudyKnies et al. (2014): study GB 2009
TitleLife Satisfaction, Ethnicity and Neighbourhoods: Is There an Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Composition on Life Satisfaction?
SourceCREAM Working Paper, 2014, No. 7, London. UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/crm/wpaper/1407.html
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2009/2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32025

Correlate
Author's labelFirst-Generation migrants
Page in Source 24, 27, 28
Our classificationEthnic status in the UK, code E03aa15
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) What is your country of birth? If non-British: 
b) What is your ethnicity?
1: Non-British ethnicity and first-generation migrant
  a) Other 'White' background
  b) Mixed background (e.g., White and Asian)
  c) Indian
  d) Pakistani
  e) Bangladeshi
  f) Carribean
  g) African
  h) Other
0: British ethnicity and non-migrant
Observed distribution1a) 1.077; 1b) 222; 1c) 867; 1d) 487; 1e) 380; 1f) 360; 1g) 782; 0) 24.611

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=+.01 (ns)   (vs. British)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.09 (ns)
Indian          B=-.08 (ns)
Pakistani       B=-.40 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.48 (01)
Carribean       B=-.42 (01)
African         B=-.15 (05)
Other           B=-.30 (01)

No controls
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.11 (05)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.13 (ns)
Indian          B=-.21 (01)
Pakistani       B=-.41 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.43 (01)
Carribean       B=-.30 (01)
African         B=-.14 (10)
Other           B=-.37 (01)

B controlled for:
- gender
- age and age squared
- education
- marital status
- number of children
- employment status
- household income
- housing
- health
- religion
- length of stay
- urban/rural residence
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.10 (10)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.12 (ns)
Indian          B=-.17 (05)
Pakistani       B=-.34 (01)
Bangladeshi     B=-.36 (01)
Carribean       B=-.26 (01)
African         B=-.10 (ns)
Other           B=-.35 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Neighbourhoud characteristics:
  a) Economic status of neighbourhood 
  b) MOSAIC-typology of the neighbourhood
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hb=
Other white     B=-.11 (ns)
Mixed ethnicity B=-.08 (ns)
Indian          B=-.10 (ns)
Pakistani       B=+.05 (ns)
Bangladeshi     B=-.44 (10)
Carribean       B=-.36 (05)
African         B=-.24 (10)
Other           B=-.32 (01)

B additionally controlled for:
- Ethnic diversity in neighbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the UK
Subject code: E03aa15

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelBritish/Irish White
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationEthnic status in the UK, code E03aa15
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Which of the following groups do you think you belong 
to?
1: British White
0: others
  a Black / African / Caribbean / Black British
  b Mixed
  c Asian or Asian British
  d others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -lives in England
-Family conposition
 -number of biological parents in household
 -number of children in household
 -household income
-Standard of living
 -Household material deprivation index
 -Child material deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the UK
Subject code: E03aa15

StudyBowling & Farquhar (1993a): study GB London 1989
TitleThe Health and Well-being of Jewish People Aged 65 to 85 Years Living at Home in the East End of London.
SourceAgeing and Society, 1993, Vol. 13, 213 - 244
URLhttp://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0144686X00000866
DOIDOI: 10.1017/S0144686X00000866
Public65-85 aged, East End of London, 1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33 %
Respondents N =691

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic group
Page in Source 237
Our classificationEthnic status in the UK, code E03aa15
Operationalization
a: White European
b: Jewish
c: Other
Observed distributionPercentage: a = 77 % b = 16 % c = 7 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aD%=
% very happy (delighted):
 - White European = 82,6 % 
 - Jewish         = 67,2 % 
 - Other          = 80,0 % 

% neither happy nor unhappy (neutral):
 - White European = 10,5 % 
 - Jewish         = 13,4 % 
 - Other          = 16,7 % 

% unhappy (terrible):
 - White European = 6,9 % 
 - Jewish         = 19,4 % 
 - Other          = 3,3 %

No significant difference between males and 
females
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aAoV= p < .05
F-ratio = 6,2

Calculated by the WDH team
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aBMCT= ns
BMCT based on reduction to 3-step happiness
- White European M = 2,76
- Jewish         M = 2,40
- Other          M = 2,77

Calculated by the WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in (former) Yugoslavia
Subject code: E03aa16

StudyCantril (1965): study CS 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Yugoslavia, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1523

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 377
Our classificationEthnic status in (former) Yugoslavia, code E03aa16
Operationalization
Slovenian / Serbian / Croatian / other
(at that time one nation)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Slovenian   : Mt = 5.3
Serbian     : Mt = 5.2
Croatian    : Mt = 4.8
other       : Mt = 4.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Switzerland
Subject code: E03aa17

StudySenik (2011): study CH 2002
TitleThe French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness.
SourceWorking Paper No. 2011 - 34, Paris School of Economics, 2011, Paris, France
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/cpm/docweb/1113.html
Public15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4904

Correlate
Author's labelRegional language
Page in Source 43
Our classificationEthnic status in Switzerland, code E03aa17
Operationalization
Main language spoken in region:
a) French
b) Italian
c) German (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.17 p < .05
FRENCH  (vs German)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 ns
ITALIAN (vs German)

B's controlled for:
- Language spoken at home
- Household income
- Age and age squared
- Marital status
- Being unemployed
- Gender
- Survey year


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in India
Subject code: E03aa18

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelCaste
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationEthnic status in India, code E03aa18
Operationalization
a: Scheduled caste/tribe
b: Backeward caste
c: general caste (reference)

Full question was not reported.
Observed distributiona: 53.08%; b: 33.86%; c: 19.23%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=-.02 ns
Scheduled caste/tribe (vs general caste)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
Backeward caste       (vs general caste)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marital status
 -religion
 -employment status
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in Ghana
Subject code: E03aa19

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic background
Page in Source 181
Our classificationEthnic status in Ghana, code E03aa19
Operationalization
a: Akan (reference group)
b: Ewe
c: Ga-Adangme
d: Gruma
e: Grusi
f:  Guan
g: Mande-Busanga
h: Mole-Dagbon
i : Others
Observed distribution1 = 49%, 2 = 7%, 3 = 10%, 4 = 5%, 5 = 1%, 6 = 2%, 7 = 1%, 8 = 3%, 9 = 22%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eOR=+/-
                    OR    CI95
Ewe                 1.61  [1.05-2.44](vs Akan)
Ga-Adangme          1.35  [0.97-1.87](vs Akan)
Gruma               2.10  [1.31-3.37](vs Akan)
Grusi               2.72  [0.82-8.97](vs Akan)
Guan                2.19  [0.86-5.61](vs Akan)
Mande-Busanga       1.53  [0.66-3.45](vs Akan)
Mole-Dagbon         2.02  [1.03-3.97](vs Akan)
Others              1.39  [1.08-1.78](vs Akan)

OR adjusted for:
- age
- sex
- income
- educational level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in regions
Subject code: E03ab

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelEthnicity
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEthnic status in regions, code E03ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How would you describe your ethnic origin?
a) American Indian or Alaskan native
b) Asian/Oriental
c) Black 
d) Hispanic or Latino
e) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders
f) White
g) North American 
h) Mixed Race
i) Other

Rescaled to:
1: Non-Caucasian when answering b)  
    Asian/Oriental
0: Caucasian (exact definition not reported)
Observed distribution1: N=102, 0: N=52

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=5.91 p < .02
CAUCASIAN (versus non-Caucasian)

Significant positive association between being 
Caucasian and life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in regions
Subject code: E03ab

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source nn
Our classificationEthnic status in regions, code E03ab
Operationalization
a white 
b black
Observed distributionN= a:12, b:878

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
a M =  6,85 [CI95 6,18 - 7,52] SD = 1,06
b M =  4,57 [CI95 4,44 - 4,71] SD = 2,05
-diff  2,27 [CI95 1,66 - 2,89]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
a M =  2,17 [CI95 1,92 - 2,42] SD = 0,39
b M =  1,88 [CI95 1,83 - 1,92] SD = 0,70
-diff  0,29 [CI95 0,06 - 0,52]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
a M =  7,73 [CI95 6,90 - 8,85] SD = 1,29
b M =  4,86 [CI95 4,72 - 5,00] SD = 2,12
-diff  2,87 [CI95 2,12 - 3,61]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in regions
Subject code: E03ab

StudyMitchell (1972): study ZZ 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 4 big cities South East Asia, 1967-1968
Sample
Non-Responseranges from 7.6% to 44%
Respondents N =6827

Correlate
Author's labelRace
Page in Source 24
Our classificationEthnic status in regions, code E03ab
Operationalization
Chinese/Indian/Malay/Thai

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aD%=
Racial group          % 'quite' or 'very'happy

                       total       men    women
Malaysian Indians       84         83      84 
Taipei Chinese          85         85      84
Malaysian Chinese       88         88      89
Singapore Indian        91         91      90
Bangkok Chinese         91         91      91
Singapore Chinese       91         91      92
Malaysian Malay         93         89      97
Bangkok Thai            93         95      92
Singapore Malay         97         96      98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in neighborhood
Subject code: E03ac

StudyRosenberg (1962): study US 1960
TitleThe Dissonant Religious Context and Emotional Disturbance.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1962, Vol. 68, 1 - 10
PublicHigh school pupils, New York, USA,1960
Sample
Non-Response1% because of inadequate answers
Respondents N =1618

Correlate
Author's labelReligious dissonanceof social context
Our classificationEthnic status in neighborhood, code E03ac
Operationalization
0 Mixed/Consonant 
1 Dissonant neighbourhood

The neighbourhood were one lived (longest) when one 
grew up was rated as either "dissonant" or "consonant" 
on the basis of a direct open question on the religious 
affiliation of most of the people in that neighbourhood 
(more than 50% different from ones own religion rated 
"dissonant", less than 50% "mixed" or "consonant").

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.24 p < .01
Stronger among Protestants and Jews than among 
Catholics (G' respectively -.40, -.36, -.07). 

Lower when controlled for recall of prejudice 
experience.

Variable with cultural similarity:
-Catholics who grew up in Protestant area happier
 than those who grew up in Jewish area,
-Protestants who grew up in Catholic area happier
 than those who grew up in Jewish area,
-Jews who grew up in Protestant area happier than
 those who grew up in Catholic area. 
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atb=-.08


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's ethnic status
Subject code: E03ae

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelIdentify oneself as Asian
Page in Source 216,222
Our classificationAttitudes to one's ethnic status, code E03ae
Operationalization
Does the respondent identify as being Asian (1= yes; 0= 
no).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.05 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.14 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.79 p < .05
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's ethnic status
Subject code: E03ae

StudyGraham (2005): study ZZ Latin America 2001
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public16+ aged, general public, 17 countries in Latin America, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18135

Correlate
Author's labelMinority-membership
Page in Source 217
Our classificationAttitudes to one's ethnic status, code E03ae
Operationalization
Self-identification as member of minority group
0 no
1 yes
Observed distributionN=15209

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cb=-.08
B controlled for:
- Country
- Age
- Gender
- Married
- Log wealth index
- Years of education
- Current occupation
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's ethnic status
Subject code: E03ae

StudyGraham (2005): study RU 2000
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public14+ aged, general public, Russia, 2000
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8911

Correlate
Author's labelMembership of minority group
Page in Source 214
Our classificationAttitudes to one's ethnic status, code E03ae
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"What nationality do you consider yourself? I dont 
necessarily have in mind the nationality that is 
indicated on your passport.
1 Russian
2 other, namely:________"

converted to the dichotomy:
1 yes, member of minority group
0 no
Observed distributionN=9058

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebb=+.17
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Log equivalent income
- Years of education
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic discrimination in environment
Subject code: E03ag

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelIndex of discrimination
Page in Source 117
Our classificationEthnic discrimination in environment, code E03ag
Operationalization
Self-report on multiple items:
Do you think rural workers are enjoying the same 
treatment as urban workers?
a) Equal pay for equal work 
b) Type of work 
c) Working hours
d) Promotion
e) Housing provision
f) Social securities
g) Other benefits and income in-kind

1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution1: 5.35 out of 7
Remarks
Employed migrants only (N=1784)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.03 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Household income
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city
- Heating
- Job satisfaction
- Duration of work contract
- Job perspective


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic discrimination in environment
Subject code: E03ag

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged, general public, EU 15 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelClass tension
Page in Source 50
Our classificationEthnic discrimination in environment, code E03ag
Operationalization
Self-report on single question
In all countries there sometimes exists tension between 
social groups. In your opinion, how much tension is 
there between each of the following groups in Turkey?
a. Poor and rich people
b. Management and workers
c. Men and women
d. Old people and young people
e. Different racial and ehtnic groups
Rated on a 3-point scale (1=a lot; 2=some; 3=no 
tension)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=-.03 ns
Turkey
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=-.05 p < .000
EU15: (EU Member States before 2004)

Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - income level (quartile)
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - education
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
  - church attendance
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - trust in people
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag01

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived Discrimination
Page in Source 139, 149
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag01
Operationalization
Self-report, 6 items:
"In your day-to-day life, how often have any of the 
following circumstances happened to you? Would you say 
never, seldom, sometimes, often, or very often?" 
a) You encounter more difficulties in finding jobs than 
others.
b) You or your family members encounter more 
difficulties in receiving medical treatment than others 
when  you are sick.
c) You or your children encounter more difficulties in 
attending local schools than others.
d) People act as if they don't want to get close to 
you.
e) You are treated with less courtesy than other 
people.
f) You are called names or insulted.

Rated:
1: Never
2: Seldom
3: Sometimes
4: Often
5: Very often

First three items measure institutional discrimination 
(A), the latter three measure interpersonal 
discrimination (B).
Observed distributiona: M=1.67 , b: M= 1.38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.29 p < .05
INSTITUTIONAL DISCRIMINATION
Urban residents         (N=983)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.16 p < .10
Rural residents         (N=1195)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.17 ns
Rural-to-urban migrants (N=555)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.05 p < .NS
INTERPERSONAL DISCRIMINATION
Urban residents (N=983)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.21 p < .NS
Rural residents (N=1195)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.40 p < .10
Rural-to-urban migrants (N=555)

B's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- ethnic minority
- education 
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag01

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived discrimination
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:

`Would you describe yourself as being a member of group 
that is discriminated against in the country`

0 no
1 yes
Observed distributionAverage yes in ethnic groups 35 5 % ?????

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.65 p < .01
?????


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag01

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelPerception of Discrimination
Page in Source 4, 7, 8
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Would you describe yourself as being a member of group 
that is discriminated against in this country?"
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
                       TURKISH  MOROCCAN  diff.
No discrimination: M=  6.76     7.47      -0.71
   discrimination: M=  6.19     6.83      -0.64
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.21 ns
Turkish immigrants
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
Moroccan immigrants

B's controlled for:
- Income(Absolute)
- Income(Relative)
- Marital satus
- Gender
- Generation
- Education
- Religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag01

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived racial discrimination (of Blacks in USA)
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag01
Operationalization
Single direct questions:

A. Do you feel a black person who has
   the same education and   
   qualifications can get as good a job
   as a white person?
B. If a black person has the same 
   qualifications as a white person, do
   you feel he/she makes as much money?


C. Do you think opportunities for   
   Blacks have improved in the last
   five years?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=
- almost always or sometimes   20
- never                        20

O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+
- almost always or sometimes   18
- never                        25
(Blacks who percieve income discrimination are
happier!)
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=-
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=-
- better                       22
- same                         32
- worse                        19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag01

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelPercieved racial discrimination
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag01
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking the respondent how many 
blacks he thinks miss out on good jobs, housing, and 
schooling because of racial discrimination. 
Scale: 1.00 = none at all to 4.00 = many. Assessed at 
T3, T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
                Percieved discrimination
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1        tau = +.01      +.03      +.02
T2        tau = -.01      +.03      +.02
T3        tau = -.00      +.01      +.04
T4        tau = -.01      +.01      +.02
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag02

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal Fair Treatment Index
Page in Source 258, 262, 264
Our classificationPersonal experience of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag02
Operationalization
Self report on agreement with 9 statements:
a. Police are usually helpful and treat me fairly
b. Helath care providers are usually helpful and treat 
me fairly
c. Social services workers are usually helpful and 
treat me fairly
d. People who work in banks and financial institutions 
are usually helpful and treat me fairly
e.People where I work are usually helpful and treat me 
fairly
f. People who work in local retail stores are usually 
helful and treat me fairly
g. Judges and lawyers are usually helful and treat me 
fairly
h. I feel I have all the rights I need
i. Local scholl officials are usually helful and treat 
me fairly

Rated: 
1: strongly disagree
.
.
5: strongly agree
Observed distributionMean = 4.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.22
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.16
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.20
Beta's controlled for:
 - Social support
 - Crime-Related worries


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag02

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2001): study CA Prince George 1999
TitleEthnicity, Modern Prejudice and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 189 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026596132069
PublicAdults, general public, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal fair treatment
Page in Source 205, 215, 216, 218
Our classificationPersonal experience of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions
a. Police in your neighbourhood are usually helpful and 
treat you fairly.
b. Health care providers in Prince George are usually 
helpful and treat you fairly
c. Social serveice workers in Prince George are usually 
helpful and treat you fairly
d. People who work in banks and financial institutions 
in Prince George are usually helpful and treat you 
fairly
e. People where you work are usually helpful and treat 
you fairly
f. People who work in local retail stores in Prince 
George are usually helpful and treat you fairly
g. Local school officials in Prince George are usually 
helpful and treat you fairly
h. Judges and lawyers in Prince George are usually 
helpful and treat you fairly

For each item a score of '1' would mean that respondent 
believes that most people are NOT helpful and do NOT 
treat him/her fairly; a score of 5 would mean that 
respondent believes that most people are usually 
helpful and do treat him/her fairly.
Observed distributionM = 3.7 Inter-item correlations range between 46 - 59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.16
Beta controlled for:
 - perceived local discrimination
 - xenophobia
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.22
Beta controllede for:
 - xenophobia
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.28
Beta controllede for:
 - xenophobia


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag02

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic discrimination
Page in Source 8
Our classificationPersonal experience of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
On what grounds is your group discriminated against?
1: When choosing either
    a) color or race
    b) religion, 
    c) nationality
    d) language 
    e) ethnic group  is chosen
0: otherwise

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.24 p < .000
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- education
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- health
- migration generation
- citizen
- non-ethnic discrimination
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=-.19 p < .000
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- ethnic minority *migration generation
- ethnic minority *citizen
- ethnic minority *non-ethnic discrimination
- ethnic minority *ethnic discrimination (-.13, 
p<.07)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal experience of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E03ag02

StudyRosenberg (1962): study US 1960
TitleThe Dissonant Religious Context and Emotional Disturbance.
SourceAmerican Journal of Sociology, 1962, Vol. 68, 1 - 10
PublicHigh school pupils, New York, USA,1960
Sample
Non-Response1% because of inadequate answers
Respondents N =1618

Correlate
Author's labelExperience of prejudice
Our classificationPersonal experience of ethnic discrimination, code E03ag02
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question: "When you were a child, 
were you ever teased or called names by other children 
because of your religion?", to assess the degree of 
experienced discrimination (never, ever).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.23 p < .05
Stronger among Protestants and Catholics than 
among Jews (G' respectively -.37, -.31, -.06).
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atb=-.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Subject code: E03ag03

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2001): study CA Prince George 1999
TitleEthnicity, Modern Prejudice and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 189 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026596132069
PublicAdults, general public, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelXenophopia
Page in Source 203, 215, 216, 218
Our classificationTendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self, code E03ag03
Operationalization
Self report on 5 questions
a. People with different cultural or ethnic background 
from yours often offend or insult you without knowing 
it.
b. People with different cultural or ethnic background 
from yours often offend you intentionally.
c. People with different cultural or ethnic background 
from yours often make you feel physically insecure or 
unsafe.
d. You have actually been physically attacked or abused 
by someone because of your cultural or ethnic 
background,
e. If it were possible, you would avoid any contacts 
with people who have different cultural or ethnic 
background from yours.

For each item a score of '1' would mean that diffent 
background is NOT perceived as threatening and 
potentially hurtful; a score of 5 would mean that 
diffent background IS perceived as threatening and 
potentially hurtful.
Observed distributionM = 1,8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=-.18
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=-.12
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=-.11
Beta's controlled for perceived fair treatment in 
local communirty of one self.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Subject code: E03ag03

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2001): study CA Prince George 1999
TitleEthnicity, Modern Prejudice and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 189 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026596132069
PublicAdults, general public, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelInegalitarism
Page in Source 207, 215
Our classificationTendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self, code E03ag03
Operationalization
Response to 9 statements:
a.Visible minorities in Prince George have all the 
rights they need.
b. Women in Prince George have all the rights they 
need.
c. Gay men and lesbians in Prince George have all the 
rights they need.
d. Aboriginal people in Prince George have all the 
rights they need.
e. Eastern Europeans in Prince George have all the 
rights they need.
f. Seniorn citizens in Prince George h
have all the rights they need.
g. Young people in Prince George have all the rights 
they need.
h. Black people in Prince George have all the rights 
they need.
i. Asian people in Prince George have all the rights 
they need.

For each item a score of '1' would mean that respondent 
is thoroughly egalitarian; a score of 5 would mean that 
repondent is thoroughly inegalitarian
Observed distributionM = 3.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=+.08
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fBeta=ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=ns
Beta's controled for;
- perceived personal fair treatment in local 
community
- Xenophobia


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Subject code: E03ag03

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2001): study CA Prince George 1999
TitleEthnicity, Modern Prejudice and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 189 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1026596132069
PublicAdults, general public, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1998
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response70%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelCultural/Ethnic Homogeneity Prefernce Index
Page in Source 204, 216
Our classificationTendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self, code E03ag03
Operationalization
Response to 9 statements:
a. You would prefer to live in a neighbourhood in which 
most people have the same cultural or ethnic 
background.
b. Its is best if most people's friends have the same 
cultural or erhnic background.
c. A person's social functions should be mainly with 
people with the same cultural or ethnic background.
d. If you had or have a son or daughter, you would 
prefer to have him or her marry someone with the same 
cultural or ethnic background.
e. Marriages between couples with the same cultural or 
ethnic background tend to be happier than others.

For each item a score of '1' would mean that respondent 
does not have a preference for association with people 
with similar cultural or ethnic background; a score of 
5 would mean that repondent prefers to associate with 
people with similar cultural or ethnic background
Observed distributionM = 2.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=ns
Beta controlled for:
 - perceived local discrimination
 - xenophobia
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr=ns
Beta controlled for:
 - perceived local discrimination
 - xenophobia
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=-.07
Beta controlled for satisfaction with
- self esteem
- living partner
- friendship
- job
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Subject code: E03ag03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelSocial distance
Our classificationTendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self, code E03ag03
Operationalization
A mean of three items asking the respondent how much he 
would mind having close contact with people of a 
different race. A high score indicates a large social 
distance. Assessed at T3, T4 and T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=-
                Social distance
Happiness       T3        T4        T5
T1        tau = -.05      -.01      -.02
T2        tau = -.04      -.01      -.03
T3        tau = -.07      -.02      -.04
T4        tau = -.08 (05) -.06      -.06
All tau's not significant, unless indicated 
otherwise
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aSelfreport on 5 questions:

During the past month, how much of the time did you feel:
A very nervous
B so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you up
C calm and peacefull
D downhearted and blue
E happy

Response options:
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Summation: (A+B+D)-(C+E)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-bSelfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A You were happy
B You enjoyed life
C Yoy felt lonely
D You felt depressed
E You felt sad

Rated:
1 yes
0 no

Computation of state: latent variable
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how good would you say your spirits are these days....?"
4 excellent
3 very good
2 fair
1 poor
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-aSelf report on 8 questions

A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month?
B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month?
C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month?
D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month?
E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month?
F How have you been feeling in general during the past month?
G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month?
H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month?

Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options

Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E)

Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
A-BC-cm-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 13 questions:

"During the past month, did you ever feel.....?"

A. Exited or pleased about something you were doing
B. That important things in life are going your way
C. Happy, satisfied, or pleased with your personal life.
D. Exited or pleased with something you did or a problem you
solved
E. That you have a lot of friends you can count on
F. Nervous or tense
G. So restless and irritated you couldn't sit still
H. Down-hearted or depressed
I. Felt concerned or worried about your health
J. Guilty about something you shouldn't have done
K. Unable to get a good night's sleep
L. That your mind was not working the way it should
M. Miserable or discouraged about your future

Answer options:
1 none of the time
2
3
4 most of the time

Summation:
Positive Affect Scale (PAS):A+B+C+D+E
Negative Affect Scale (NAS):F+G+H+I+J+K+L+M
Affect Balance Scale (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -32 to + 20

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variation by Cohen)
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-aPeer rating of affect using 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH has X felt each emotion?
A affectionate
B joyful
C sad
D worried
E irritable
F guilty
G happy
H proud

1 never
2 slight amount (rare)
3 some of the time
4 about half the time
5 much of the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
A-CP-g-rdn-?-7-aRating by two independent staff members who were familiar with the patient.
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 depressed
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"To indicate how you feel about your life at this time, would you use this card? Suppose the top of the mountain represents the best life you can imagine, and the bottom step of the mountain represents the worst possible life you can imagine. On which step of the mountain would you say you personally feel you stand at this time? - assuming that the higher the step the better you feel about your life, and the lower the step the worse you feel about it. Just point to the step that comes closest to how you feel"
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

(Mountain scale not reproduced here)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life overall
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life overall
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person.
C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in
good or in low spirits?
D I get a lot of fun out of life.
E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
F How often do you feel downcast and rejected?

Response options: not reported

The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire.

Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
M-AO-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are.....?"
1 not too happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy

B "How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life.....?"
1 rarely
2 now and than
3 fairly often
4 all the time

Summation: factor score
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-FH-yd-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy did you feel yesterday?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks.. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
O-DT-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on two questions:

A At this present moment, how do you feel about your life as a whole?
1 terrible (very dissatisfied)
2 unhappy (dissatisfied)
3 neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 pleased (satisfied)
5 delighted (very satisfied)

B Taking all the above into consideration, on an ascending scale from 1-5, how satisfied are you with your life at present?

Question A asked at the beginning of the interview and question B at the end.

Summation: (A+B)/2
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7 delightfull
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-eSelfreport on single question:

I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as..
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed ( equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Item in Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not too happy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-HL-c-sq-v-0-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you these days?

Response options not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-afSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are these days?
1 not very happy
2 pretty happy
3 very happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-baSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much UNhappiness would you say that you find in life today.......?
1 a great deal
2 some
3 almost none
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel your life at present is.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 quite unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Generally, how happy are you.....?
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely

(Originally presented on a horizontal line scale)
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question;

In general, are you?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are.....?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5 very happy

Labels of other response options not reported
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you right now?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- don't know
- no answer
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are with your life......?
3 very happy
2 somewhat happy
1 unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How happy or unhappy do you think you are.....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 moderately happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1 very unhappy
2
| unhappy
3
4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
| happy
6
7 very happy
no opinion
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3 mostly
2 unhappy
1 terrible
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

"...... how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole......?"
(Full question not reported)
1 not very satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question

.. life .. (text not reported)
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life so far, the course of your life?
0 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 fully satisfied
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not very satisfying
O-SLL-g-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your way of life.......?
4 quite satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 sometimes dissatisfied
1 usually dissatisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied are you with the life you are leading?
1 not satisfied at all
3 not so satisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLP-c-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

I am very satisfied with the way things are going in my life these days:
1 definitively disagree
2
3
4
5
6 definitively agree
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days? Please tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, where one means very dissatisfied and 10 means very satisfied
10 very satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Overall how satisfied are you with your life nowadays?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-aAre you satisfied with your current life?
1: very unsatisfied
7: very satisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cSelfreport on single question:

Here are some words and phrases. We would like you to use these in describing how you feel about your present life.
1 not very satisfying
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfying

Item in Campbell's semantic differential scale
O-SLu-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?"
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-lSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life just now?
5 very good
4 rather good
3 neither good nor bad
2 rather bad
1 very bad
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-cSelfreport on single question:

"In general, how happy would you say you are....."?

Response options not reported
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Here is a card that I want you to use to tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you with your life in general. If you are completely satisfied with it you would say "eleven' and if you are completely dissatisfied with it you would say "one". If you are neither completely satisfied not completely dissatisfied you would put yourself somewhere from "two' to "ten". The higher the number, the more satisfied you are.

Ingeneral, how satisfied are you with your life? Which number on the card comes closest to how you feel?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6 neutral
7
8
9
10
11 completely satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life?
Would you say that you are
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-fSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
5 completely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
5 very satisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor d1ssatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very disdsatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life in general?"
1 completely unsatisfied
2 very unsatisfied
3 unsatisfied
4 unsatisfied nor satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
7 completely satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?

I want you to pick a number between 0 and 10 that indicates your level of satisfaction. The more satisfied you are, the higher the number you should pick. The less satisfied you are, the lower the number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

This item is at the end of a list of identical questions about satisfaction in specific domains of life: home, employment opportunities, financial situation, safety, neighborhood, health and free time
O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Using any number on this card, from 1 to 7, with 1 being very dissatisfied and 7 being very satisfied, how dissatisfied or satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 very satisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-iSelfreport on single question:

Overall, are you satisfied with your life?
5. very satisfied
4. satisfied
3. Neutral
2. dissatisfied
1. very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aSelfreport on single question:

"Now taking everything about your life into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life today?"
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6

5
4

3
2
1
0 dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ISelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0 extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
- don't know
- no answer
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-abSelfre[port on single question:

In general, are you satisfied with your current life?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 fairly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

Let's think about your life as a whole: would you say that you are with your life right now
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with.your life as a whole these days?
(Full question not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neutral
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking everything into consideration, how satisfied are you with life in general at the present time? Would you say you are.....?
5 extremely satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 slightly satisfied
1 not satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebSelfreport on single question:

To what extent are you satisfied with your life in general at present?
1 not at all satisfied
2 less than satisfied
3 both yes and no
4 rather satisfied
5 fully satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-gSelfreport on single question:

Taken all things together, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? On the whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naSelfreport on single question

Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life these days?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know
- no answers

Numerical scale reversed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tSelfreport on single question:

How would you describe your satisfaction with life in general at present......?
1 bad
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 excellent
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of peoples lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-hSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation.

- Your life as a whole.

1 Completely dissatisfied
2 Mostly dissatisfied
3 Somewhat dissatisfied
4 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
5 Somewhat satisfied
6 Mostly satisfied
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question

Would you say that in general you are .. with your life so far
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 a little dissatisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which of these faces describe bast how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 not at all happy
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-bSelfreport on single question:

Please look at this satisfaction scale and tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your life as a whole
10 satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 Dissatisfied

Numbers were presented in different order (1 satisfied 10 dissatisfied).
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-cbSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 neither unsatisfied nor satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used since 2005)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?'
4 completely satisfied
3 very satisfied
2 moderately satisfied
1 slightly satisfied
0 not satisfied at all
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bSelfreport in 2 questions:

A. "How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 not at all satisfied

B. "Where would you place your life as a whole?"
Rated on a thermometer scale.
100 perfect, as good as you can imagine it being
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 terrible, as bad as you can imagine it being

Summation: factor loading


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoCANALYSIS of COVARIANCE (ANCOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric.

Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate.
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
MCTMultiple Comparison Test, variant not specified
Possible variants: Scheffe, Tukey, Student/Newman/Keuls, Bonferoni (BMCT)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level Correlate nominal, Happiness: metric
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
RCOEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R = 0 no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R = 1 the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 no rank correlation
tb = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
E03ETHNICITYF01af01gMigration of parents
E03ETHNICITYM08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
E03ETHNICITYM10abCurrent involvement in migrant work
E03ETHNICITYN04ag04Cultural pluralism
E03ETHNICITYR01acCurrent religious denomination
E03aaEthnic status in specific nationsL01acRegional language
E03aaEthnic status in specific nationsN04ah04Presence of minority groups
E03acEthnic status in neighborhoodL10af02Local social contacts
E03adMixed ethnicityF01af01gMigration of parents
E03aeAttitudes to one's ethnic statusS02SELF-IMAGE
E03ag01Perceived occurrence of ethnic discriminationN04ah05Perceived discrimination
E03ahAttitudes to ethnic climateN06af01Attitudes to ethnic relations
E03ah01Ethno-centrismA09AUTHORITARIANISM
E03ah01Ethno-centrismL09ab02cInternational life style

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings