Findings on Happiness and EMPLOYMENT

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and EMPLOYMENT
Subject Code: E02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
E02EMPLOYMENT 2
E02aaEmployment career7
E02aa01Earlier (un)employment15
E02aa02Change in employment25
E02aa03Later (un)employment5
E02abCurrent employment status276
E02ab01Full-time home maker88
E02ab02Unfit for work16
E02ab03Unemployed involuntary111
E02adSize of current job8
E02ad01Full-time vs part-time39
E02ad02Hours work31
E02aeCurrent employment arrangement20
E02afCurrent additional jobs2
E02af02Part-time working of house-wives13
E02af03Working of students3
E02af04Multiple jobs1
E02agAttitudes to own (un)employment7
E02ag01Attitudes to earlier (un)employment0
E02ag02Concern about (un)employment7
E02ag03Perceived chances for employment10
E02ag05Aspirations for employment2
E02ag06Satisfaction with current employment status4
E02ag06aSatisfaction with being a house-wife2
E02acTime trend happiness of (un)employed0
E02ae01Public employment (vs private sector)8
E02ae02Tenure (vs flex contracts)16
E02af01Self employed33
E02aa02abFalling unemployed7
E02aa02acGetting (re)employed1
E02aa02aeOut of workforce10
E02aa02afReasons for change in employment4
E02ab03aDuration of unemployment1
E02ag04Satisfaction with job security0
E02ab03bLooking for work5
E02ab04Not in labour force7
E02ab05On maternity leave2
E02aa02aChange in having work0
E02aa02bChange in contract2
E02aa02adGetting self-employed0
E02aa02aaChange from/to full-time homemaker3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and EMPLOYMENT
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=E02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and EMPLOYMENT
Subject code: E02

StudyMichon (2014a): study AT 2003
TitleMothers and Quality of Life 26 EU Countries.
SourceEckermann, E.; Ed: "Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective", Springer Science+Buisiness Media Dordrecht, 2014, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 98
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7829-6
Public20-50 aged Mothers, Austria , 2003.
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status of mothers
Page in Source 91
Our classificationEMPLOYMENT , code E02
Operationalization
a full-time
b part-time
c housewife
d unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bDM=+/-
Full time  M = 7.86
Part time  M = 7.76
House wife M = 7.88
Unemployed n.a.


Correlational finding on Happiness and EMPLOYMENT
Subject code: E02

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /1
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Bhopalpani, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response108
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelJobs
Page in Source 263
Our classificationEMPLOYMENT , code E02
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 1,85; 1: 3,7; 2: 33,0; 3: 37,6; M: 25,7
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a still employed
b never employed
c retired (former worker)
d retired (former c.servant, employee)
Remarks
61+ aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a still employed                  M=7,8   M= -
b never employed                  M=7,6   M= -
c retired (former worker)         M=7,3   M=7,3
d retired (former c.servant, 
  employee)                       M=7,8   M=7,2

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
Eas t =former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelRetirement career (exit-age)
Page in Source 1496,1510
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
0: Retirement before 50
1: Retirement between 50 and 55
2: Retirement after 55 (reference)
Observed distributionMen: 0: 3; 1: 2; 2: 93 Women: 0: 36; 1: 7; 2: 51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIREMENT BEFORE 50 (vs after age 50)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.34 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-upward mobility
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIREMENT BETWEEN 50 and 55 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.22 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.17 ns
Females

B's controled for
-age
-parental history
-upward mobility

Early retirement has has a negative impact on 
happiness for men, but not for women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyHeukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleDoes Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, 100: 155 - 170
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9610-y
Public18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =114281

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 159
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
Age at which subjects finished their education
1: 16-19
2: 20-22
3: 23-29
Observed distributionRange 0-1 1: M= 0.37, SD= 0.48 2: M= 0.16, SD= 0.37 3: M= 0.12, SD= 0.33

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
16 to 19 years old
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 ns
20 to 22 years old
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.01 ns
23 to 29 years old 

B's controlled for: 
- self assessed health
- employment status
- marital status 
- age
- gender
- church attendance 
- belief in god
- membership of voluntary organizations 
- cheating
- trust in people
- relative income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelphysician
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
a genaral practitioners
b medical specialists
c medical students

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
general practitioners M=7.9
medical specialists   M=7.6
medical students      M=7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelEarly retirement
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
1: Retired before age 55
   a: at age 51-55
   b: at age 50 or earlier
0: Retired after age 55 (reference group)
Observed distribution1a: males 7,6%, females 7,1% 1b: males 8,7%, females 67,5% 0: males 83,7%, females 25,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIRED BEFORE AGE 50 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.15 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.04 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
RETIRED BETWEEN AGE 51-55 (vs after age 55)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.11 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- parental history
- marital history
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since first paid job
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
Years since first paid job after leaving school
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.01 ns
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism

lifecourse transitions (happened or not):
- first paid job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

and years since transition:
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.07 p < .01
B additionally controled for above transition 
variables squared

Unaffected by gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Employment career
Subject code: E02aa

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Page in Source 331
Our classificationEmployment career, code E02aa
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in employment
a: got employed
b: got unemployed
c: remained employed
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.06 ns
got employed (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.21 ns
got unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=+.35 ns
remained employed (vs not)

Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - educational participation
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking)
  - marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment history
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1) More unemployed than employed past 8 years
2) More employed  than unemployed past 8 years
3) Always employed in the past 8 years (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.82 p < .05
MORE EMPLOYED (vs always employed)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=2.03 p < .05
Women
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=5.84 p < .05
MORE UNEMPLOYED (vs always employed)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=3.42 p < .05
Women 

OR's controlled for:
- recent migration
- employment history

Similar findings observed when no covariates are 
included or OR additionally controlled for:
- social support
- active coping strategies
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyLucas (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceEid, M.; Larsen, R.J.; Eds.: The Science of Subjective Well-Being'', The Guilford Press, 2008, New York, USA, 171 -194.
PublicEmployed - unemployed - -re-employed, Germany, followed 15 years 1984-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3733

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Page in Source 10
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
T1: employed
T2: unemployed
T3: re-employed
Remarks
All Ss were employed at baseline and were interviewed 
each year during 15 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Happiness assessed in each of the years
T1: before umemployment (average of all years 2 
years before)
T2: during umemployment (the year before until 
year after)
T3: after re-employment (average of the years one 
year after re-employment)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+.11 p < .01
Relative happiness in the years before 
unemployment (base line)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.53 p < .001
Relative happiness during umemployment (Reaction)
- lower among males
- lower among unemployed longer than one year
- not lower among unemployed before study
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.40 p < .001
Relative happiness after re-employment 
(Adaptation)
- higher for average income
- lower for unemployed multiple times 
- stronger among those who suffered most from 
earlier unemployment
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
DMa is deviation from average and marks CHANGE in 
happiness in points on scale 0-10

DMa controled for:
- income
  - initial income level 
  - change in income
- socio-demographic
  - age
  - gender
- employment history
  - unemployed before the study
  - lenght of unemployment during the study
  - more than once unemployed during the study
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ±1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of employment
Page in Source 99
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
<1  year
1-3 years
3-5 years
 >5 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE²=-.01 ns
<1  year        M=5.06  Mt=6.77
1-3 years       M=5.06  Mt=6.77
3-5 years       M=5.04  Mt=6.73
 >5 years       M=5.03  Mt=6.72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelDuration of last job
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Duration of last job:
a) 0 months
b) until 1 year
c) 1-5 years
d) 5-10 years
e) more than 10 years
Observed distributionM= 52.6 months; SD= 77.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.45 ns
0 MONTHS           (vs until 1 year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 ns
1-5 YEARS          (vs until 1 year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.37 p < .01
5-10 YEARS         (vs until 1 year)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.31 p < .05
MORE THAN 10 YEARS (vs until 1 year)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) gender
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a leading employee/civil servant
b qualified high employee/civil
  servant
c unqualified simple employee/civil 
  servant
d foreman, master
e skilled worker
f unskilled worker
g independent professional,entrepreneur
h unemployed
i disabled
j homemaker
k trainee
l early retired
m never employed
Remarks
18-60 aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a leading employee/civil servant  M=8,2   M= -
b qualified high employee/civil   
  servant                         M=7,9   M=7,4
c unqual.simple employee/civil    
  servant                         M=7,5   M=7,0
d foreman, master                 M=8,2   M= -
e skilled worker                  M=7,4   M=6,9
f unskilled worker                M=7,0   M=6,2
g independent professional,
  entrepreneur                    M=8,1   M=6,9
h unemployed                      M=6,2   M=5,9
i disabled                        M=6,5   M= -
j homemaker                       M=7,7   M= - 
k studying, trainee               M=7,3   M= -
l early retired                   M=7,9   M= -
m never employed                  M=7,5   M= -

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
East = former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (lagged)
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you currently in paid employment?
1: Employed
0: Otherwise
Measure is lagged by 1 year to avoid reversed causality
Observed distribution1: 51%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.18 p < .05
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.09 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in employment status

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
a) unemployed
b) retired
c) student
d) self-employed
f) long term(LT) unemployment (experienced unemployment 
longer than three months in the past 2 years)

Each rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.73 p < .001
1999 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 p < .05
2008 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.54 p < .001
1999 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .001
2008 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.94 p < .001
1999 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.38 p < .001
2008 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
1999 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .01
2008 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
1999 LT unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.29 p < .001
2008 LT unemployment

b’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 376
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week?" (order revered)
1 Fulltime
2 Parttime
3 Independent
4 Unemployed
5 Retired
6 Housewife
7 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13
Great-Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
West-Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.19
Northern Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
EC

ß's controlled for: marital status, income, age, 
type of dwelling, having children, social 
participation, education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 350
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
0 Payed work outside the house 
1 Unemployed/Work disabled
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.36 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 unemployment
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.18 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 unemployment 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyGash et al. (2010): study GB 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, United Kingdom, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22928

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Employed
  a Part-time 
  b Full-time
Observed distributionFull-time 45.08 % = 10336 Part-time 31.89 % = 7312 Inactive 23.02 % = 5278
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Inactive  M = 5,21
Part-time M = 5,36 
Full-time M = 5,38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyWright & Bonett (1997): study US 1996
TitleThe Role of Pleasantness and Activation-Based Well-Being in Performance Prediction.
SourceJournal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1997, Vol. 2, 212 - 219
PublicCriminal justice staff personnel; USA; followed 2 years, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response18
Respondents N =76

Correlate
Author's labelJob tenure
Page in Source 216
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
measured in years
Observed distributionM = 8,2 SD = 5,1 range 1 to 23 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.16 ns
T1 happiness by (earlier) years tenure
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=-.02 ns
T2 happiness by earlier years tenure
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-er=+.15 ns
T1+T2 happiness by earlier years tenure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelWorkstatus
Page in Source 29
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Not employed vs employed
assessed both at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+/-
Association with level of happiness:
- T1 status by T1 happiness: b = -   (ns)
- T2 status by T2 happiness: b = +   (01)     

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= +
Assiociation with change in happiness T1 - T2:
- T1 status by change happiness: b = +   (01)   
- T2 status by change happiness: b = +   (ns)

b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, income, 
occupational status, and family history  


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyPalisi & Ransford (1987): study US 1972
TitleEffects of Urbanism, Race and Class on Happiness and Physical Health.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1987, Vol. 7, 271 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1987.9981822
Public18+ aged, general public, USA 1972-1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15320

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment experience
Page in Source 281 + 282
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Ever unemployed during the past ten years

0 Never unemployed or looking for work
  for at least a month
1 Ever unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 ns
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.21 p < .01
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, Less H.S. 

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 p < .001
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.20
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.33 p < .001
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.12

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 p < .05
Whites, Suburbs, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.11 p < .001
Blacks, Suburbs, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.20

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 ns
Whites, Rural, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.17 ns
Blacks, Rural, Less H.S.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.10

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.11 ns
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .01
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.10 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.15
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.09 ns
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.14 p < .001
Whites, Suburbs, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.12 ns
Blacks, Suburbs, H.S. Grad.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.29

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.15 p < .001
Whites, Rural, H.S. Grad.   
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.08
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.17 p < .05
Blacks, Rural, H.S. Grad.

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.20 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Largest SMSA, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.29 ns
Blacks, Central City, Largest SMSA, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.14 p < .01
Whites, Central City, Next Large SMSA, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.03 ns
Blacks, Central City, Next Large SMSA, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.23 p < .001
Whites, Suburbs, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.11 ns
Blacks, Suburbs, College

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.12 p < .001
Whites, Rural, College
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.19 ns
Blacks, Rural, College

ß controled for size of town, age, gender, race 
and education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyMaxwell (1985): study US 1966
TitleThe Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 66, 22 - 33
Public45+ aged males, USA, followed 12 years 1966-1978
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1173

Correlate
Author's labelReason retirement: unemployment
Page in Source 31
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about reasons for 
retirement:
0 voluntary
1 because of unemployment
Remarks
T1: 1966 when still working; T2: 1978 retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.02 ns
Earlier reason for retirement by T2 happiness

Beta controlled for:
- Reasons for retirement  
  - compulsory plan
  - health
- T1 work situation
  - job satisfaction                       
  - work motivation
  - occupational status (of longest job)
- T2 life situation
  - health problems 
  - marital status                      
  - dependents in household         
  - number of years retired
  - income (logarithm)
- Race (Black vs white)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-fBeta=-.02
Beta when income increase/decrease is included 
instead of absolute income

Same for blacks and whites


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa01

StudyAlexander (1969): study US 1964
TitleSome Sociological Aspects of Psychological Well-Being in a Schizofrenic Population: Social Class, Participation and Work.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1969, USA
PublicSchizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65
Sample
Non-Response28%, most of them patients'or family member refusal
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment history
Page in Source 173-174
Our classificationEarlier (un)employment, code E02aa01
Operationalization
Percentage of time employed during last
five years, corrected for time in hospital 0- 49% / 50 
- 89% / 90 - 100%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.21 p < . 001
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-ftc= +
Index of Positive Affects: _c = +.25 (001)
Index of Negative Affects: _c = -.07 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment: part-time full-time
Page in Source 34
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
a: PT to PT, still working part-time
b.PT to FT, changed from part-time to full-time
c:.FT to PT, changed from full-time to part-time
d:.FT to FT, still working full-time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Year to year CHANGE in Happiness

Women     change  N
PT to PT  -0.08  799
PT to FT  -0.20  173
FT to PT  -0.06  138
FT to FT  -0.06  757
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
Men     change   N
PT to PT  +0.08  111
PT to FT  +0.03  105
FT to PT  -0.25   76
FT to FT  -0.04 2321


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyFeather & O'Brien (1986): study AU 1980
TitleA Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Employment and Unemployment on School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1986, Vol. 59, 121 -144
PublicSchool-leavers, Australia, followed 2 years,1980-1982
Sample
Non-ResponseT2: 25%, T3: 34%
Respondents N =5446

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment.
Page in Source 131-134
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
0  Employed at T2/T3.
1  Unemployed at T2/T3
Remarks
Level of happiness at T1(1980), T2(1981) and T3(1982).
                                          
T1 and T2 happiness by T2 employment(sample A):
                 T2-empl.  T2 unempl. difference 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-mq-n-24-aAoV=+ ns
happiness at T1  Mt'= 6.53 Mt'= 6.46  -.07
happiness at T2  Mt'= 6.61 Mt'= 6.16  -.45
Interaction employment x time (nonsignificant):
happ.  T1 to T2       +.08      -.30  -.38

T1 and T3 happiness by T3 employment(sample A):
                 T3-empl.  T3 unempl. difference
A-CP-g-mq-n-24-aAoV=- p < .01
happiness at T1  Mt'= 6.60 Mt'= 6.36  -.24
happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.50 Mt'= 5.80  -.70
Interaction employment x time ( p<01 ):
happ.  T1 to T3       -.10      -.56  -.46

T2 and T3 happiness by T3 employment(sample A+B):
                 T3-empl.  T3 unempl. difference
A-CP-g-mq-n-24-aAoV=- p < .01
happiness at T2  Mt'= 6.27 Mt'= 5.93  -.34
happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.43 Mt'= 5.60  -.83
Interaction employment x time ( p< 01):
happ.  T2 to T3       +.16      -.33  -.49

Significance assessed by variance-analysis, also 
involving employment.

The original depression score is ranging from 
4 to 28. Mt' is standardized into a happpiness 
score (0-10 and reversed)

Possible testing effects checked by comparing 
three sub-samples:
- sample A: selected at T1, tested at T1, T2, T3
- sample B: selected at T1, tested at T2 and T3
- sample C: selected at T1, tested at T3 only
At T3 happiness appeared lower in sample A than in 
sample B, but there is little evidence for 
systematic testing effects.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyKirchler (1984b): study AT 1983
TitleSechs Monate ohne Arbeit. (Six Months without Work).
SourceWISO (Wirtschafts und Sozialpolitische Zeitschrift des I.S.A.), 1984, Vol. 3, 66 - 81
PublicUnemployed, followed 6 months after job loss, Linz Austria, 1983
Sample
Non-ResponseDropout due to refusal 23%
Respondents N =31

Correlate
Author's labelRe-employed continuation of unemployment
Page in Source 290
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
0 Found a job          (N=17)
1 Remained unemployed  (N=11)

Happiness was assessed at four times
after falling unemployed:
T1  1 month
T2  2 month
T3  3 month 
T4  6 month

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-v-5-aDMt=- p < .01
    unemployed   re-employed
T1  Mt' = 7.99    -- 
T2  Mt' = 8.21   8.67
T3  Mt' = 8.12   8.73
T4  Mt' = 7.70   8.78

The newly employed remain equally happy after
finding a job, while the happiness of Ss who
remain unemployed decreases from T3 to T4.

The effect of unemployment is similar in three
personality types (social sensitive dependents and 
self-assured dominants). Insecure-submissive 
improve most after re-employment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelChange in labour market status
Page in Source 6
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change by labour force status:               
A  Employed            to Employed
B  Employed            to Unemployed
C  Employed            to Out of labour force
D  Unemployed          to Employed
E  Unemployed          to Unemployed
F  Unemployed          to Out of labour force
G  Out of labour force to Employed
H  Out of labour force to Unemployed
I  Out of labour force to Out of labour force
Observed distributionN= A:12544, B:312, C:255, D:274, E:395, F:105, G:129, H:61, I:1205.
Remarks
OLF=Out of labour force.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.10
A Employed-Employed -0.104
CI95[-0,15 -0,06]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-1.2
B Employed-Unemployed -1.192
CI95[-0,15 -0,06]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.40
C Employed-OLF -.403
CI95[-0,79 -0,01]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+1.1
D Unemployed-employed +1.124
CI95[-0,74 -1,51]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.06
E Unemployed-Unemployed -.062
CI95[-0,43 -0,30]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+.34
F Unemployed-OLF +.342
CI95[-0,32 -1,00]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+.62
G OLF-Employed +.620
CI95[0,12 1,12]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.53
H OLF-Unemployed -.525
CI95[-1,47 0,42]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.02
I OLF-OLF -.018
CI95[-0,19 0,15]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyLucas (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceEid, M.; Larsen, R.J.; Eds.: The Science of Subjective Well-Being'', The Guilford Press, 2008, New York, USA, 171 -194.
PublicEmployed - unemployed - -re-employed, Germany, followed 15 years 1984-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3733

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Page in Source 10
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
T1: employed
T2: unemployed
T3: re-employed
Remarks
All Ss were employed at baseline and were interviewed 
each year during 15 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Happiness assessed in each of the years
T1: before umemployment (average of all years 2 
years before)
T2: during umemployment (the year before until 
year after)
T3: after re-employment (average of the years one 
year after re-employment)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+.11 p < .01
Relative happiness in the years before 
unemployment (base line)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.53 p < .001
Relative happiness during umemployment (Reaction)
- lower among males
- lower among unemployed longer than one year
- not lower among unemployed before study
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.40 p < .001
Relative happiness after re-employment 
(Adaptation)
- higher for average income
- lower for unemployed multiple times 
- stronger among those who suffered most from 
earlier unemployment
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
DMa is deviation from average and marks CHANGE in 
happiness in points on scale 0-10

DMa controled for:
- income
  - initial income level 
  - change in income
- socio-demographic
  - age
  - gender
- employment history
  - unemployed before the study
  - lenght of unemployment during the study
  - more than once unemployed during the study
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelChange in labour market position
Page in Source 327
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment status over 10 years:
A full-time to part-time
B full-time to not in labor force
C full-time to unemployed
D part-time to full-time
E part-time to not in labor force
F part-time to unemployed
G not in labor force to full-time
H not in labor force to part-time
I not in labor force to unemployed
J unemployed to to full-time
K unemployed to part-time
L unemployed not in labor force

No change:
W full time employed all years
X part-time employed all years
Y not in labor force all years
Z unemployed all years
Observed distributionN: A = 306; B = 621; C = 512; D = 361; E = 275; F = 105; G = 317; H = 371; I = 290; J = 448; K = 89: L =387; W = 20735; X = 2824; Y = 12043; Z = 829

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                            CHANGE in happiness
                                on scale 0-10
CHANGED in employment in last 10 years
A full-time to part-time              - 0,1
B full-time to out in labor force     - 0,2
C full-time to unemployed             - 0,8
D part-time to full-time              + 0,1
E part-time to not in labor force     - 0,1
F part-time to unemployed             + 0,1
G not in labor force to full-time     + 0,3
H not in labor force to part-time     - 0,2
I not in labor force to unemployed    - 0.3
J unemployed to to full-time          + 1,1
K unemployed to part-time             + 0,6
L unemployed not in labor force       +.0,1
Weigted average A to L                + 0,0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
NO CHANGE in employment:
W full time employed all years        - 0,1
X part-time employed all years        - 0,1
Y not in labor force all years        - 0,1
Z unemployed all years                + 0,0
Weighted average W to Z               - 0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelFalling unemployed
Page in Source 15-21
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
T1 employed
T2 unemployed (about 1 year later)
Remarks
Employed in one year, unepmloyed in the next. 
Paticipant in yearly follow-up study 1984-2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-
                        Men        Women
T1  employed         M = 6,48     M = 6,44
T2  unemployed       M = 5,62     M = 5,89
Change happiness        -0,86        -0,55

Unaffected by social capital as measured by:
-attending cultural events
-attending entertainment
-visiting friends
-sports
-engaging in voluntary work
-cultural attendance

Loss of happiness greater among
-males
-foreign born
-young
-single
-low educated
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Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelChange in labour market position
Page in Source 328
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change from
0 not in the labor force
to:
1 Full time employed
1 Part time employed
1 Unemployed
Observed distributionMean age <30 30-49 >49 M F M F M F full-time .64 .48 .93 .30 .62 .16 part-time .02 .09 .01 .26 .01 .12 not in force .29 .36 .02 .41 .32 .69 (?) unemployed .05 .07 .04 .03 .05 .03
Remarks
Subjects with at least two observations, so not all 
followed 10 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
B with CHANGE in happiness 
Fulltime     age <30     30-49    >49

- women        +.16(05)  +.12(ns) -.07(ns)
- men          +.09(ns)  +.93(01) -.02(ns)

Parttime     age <30     30-49    >49
- women        -.08(ns)  +.04(ns) -.18(ns)
- men          -.43(05)  +.76(01) +.15(ns)

Unemployed   age <30     30-49    >49
- women        -.45(01) -.48(01) +.00(ns)
- men         -1.02(01) -.46(01) -.51(01)

B's controled for CHANGE in:
- marital status
- household income
- self perceived disability
- self perceived health
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyGash et al. (2010): study DE 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, Germany, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21189

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Page in Source 32,35-38
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment status between T1 and T2
a Full-time to part-time (vs continuous full-time)
b part-time to full-time (vs continuous part-time)
c inactive to full-time( vs continuously inactive)
d inactive to part-time (vs continuously inactive)
Observed distributiona: FT-FT 38,40 % = 8137 b FT-PT 2,72 % = 576 c PT-PT 22,89 % = 4850 d PT-FT 2,88 % = 610
Remarks
T1 = 1996, T2 = 2006.Excluded are women that leave the 
labor market.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
T1 Full-time to T2 part-time

Negatively affected by job switch (Beta = -.02, 
ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=0 ns
T1 Part-time to T2 full-time
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .05
T1 Inactive to T2 part-time
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.25 p < .05
T1 Inactive to T2 full-time

CHANGE happiness measured controling correlation 
with T2 happiness for T1 happiness

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- income
- number of children at T1
- change in number of children
- health
- marriage
- change in occupational status
- Change in firm size (FT only)

Happiness 0-10 was recoded to 1-7

All effects smaller, the higher T1 happiness

All effects greater when accompanied by:
- change in household income
- change in health
- additional children

All effects similar across
- age
- education
- being married or not
- number of children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelJob
Page in Source 8+17
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Employment status:
a) Non-working
b) In training
c) Job: low-skilled
d) Job: high-skilled
e) Self-employed
f) Jobless
g) Pensioner
h) Job medium-skilled (reference)
Observed distributionMean (SD) a) 0.096 (0.294) b) 0.047 (0.211) c) 0.147 (0.354) d) 0.101 (0.301) e) 0.055 (0.228) f) 0.061 (0.240) g) 0.216 (0.411) h) 0.0277 (0.448)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.19 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by change 
in employment status 
(a) nonworking  (vs working in medium sklilled 
job)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 ns
(b) in training (vs working in medium sklilled 
job)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.06 p < .01
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by change 
in employment status
(c) job low-skilled
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 ns
(d) job high-skilled (vs working in medium 
sklilled job)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.01 ns
(e) self-employed (vs working in medium sklilled 
job)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.56 p < .01
(f) jobless (vs working in medium sklilled job)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.10 p < .01
(g) pensioner (vs working in medium sklilled job)

b controlled for:
- Household income
- Household size
- Years of education
- Home owner
- Marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (lagged)
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you currently in paid employment?
1: Employed
0: Otherwise
Measure is lagged by 1 year to avoid reversed causality
Observed distribution1: 51%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.18 p < .05
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.09 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in employment status

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyGalatzer-Levy et al. (2010): study DE 1984
TitleFrom Marianthal to Latent Growth Mixture Modeling: A Return to the Exploration of Individual Differences in Response to Unemployment.
SourceJournal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2010, Vol. 3, 116 - 125
DOIDOI: 10.1037/a0020077
Public21-60 aged unemployed, before and after jobloss, Germany, 1984-2003
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response30-40%
Respondents N =774

Correlate
Author's labelJobloss
Page in Source 120,121
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Happiness assessed 3 years before job-loss and 4 years 
after

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+/-
CHANGE inhappiness by CHANGE in employment
Latent Growth Mixture modeling (LGMM) reveals 4 
types
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-/0
Type 1: Higly stable (69%)
- slight decline before jobloss
- stable after after
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+/0
Type 2: Improving (15%)
- slight increase before jobloss
- stable after
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=0/0
Type 3: Low stable (13%)
- equally unhappy before and after jobloss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
Type 4: Distressed (4%)
- steep decline before jobloss
- partial recovery after

b's controlled for:
- age
- education

Pattern unaffected by:
- national and regional unemployment rates
- level of education
- gender.

Pattern affected by age: stronger effect of joblos 
on happiness among younger people


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyShamir (1985): study IL 1983 /1
TitleSex Differences in Psychological Adjustment to Unemployment and Reemployment: A Question of Commitment, Alternatives or Finance?
SourceSocial Problems, 1985, Vol. 33, 67 - 79
Public27-47 aged academics, unemployed and reemployed, Israel, 1983
Sample
Non-Response61,5 %
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 73
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
still unemployed vs. reemployed  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-dAoV=+ p < .001
males: difference s
- reemployed         M = 3.9   Mt' = 7.3
- unemployed         M = 3.2   Mt' = 5.5
females: difference ns
- reemployed         M = 3.6   Mt' = 6.5
- unemployed         M = 3.4   Mt' = 6
Interaction effect sex/employment: s (001)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment mobility
Page in Source 10-11, 15
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
How many times did you change your job which continued 
at least one year? (Full question was not reported, 
assumed)
1: zero
2: once
3: twice
4: three times
5: >= four times
Observed distributionM = 2.5, 1: 15%; 2: 17%; 3: 13%; 4: 14%; 5: 42% Average duration of employment/education: 7.3 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.04 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelRe-employment
Page in Source 88
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of Ss who were employed at T1 (N = 473)
0 Still unemployed at T2
1 Employed at T2 (N=109)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .03
Partial correlations controling educational level, 
health status, life-situation and employment 
situations are all lower. This means that these 
variables do not mask a stronger relationship 
between happiness and employment.

Happiness does not add to re-employment through 
positive effects on health and attitudes.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelJob loss
Page in Source 88
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of Ss employed at T1
(N=623)
0 Still employed at T2
1 Dismissed at T2 (N=50)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .01
Partial correlations controling educational level, 
health status, and employment situation are all 
lower. This means that these variables do not mask 
a stronger correlation between happiness and 
jobloss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyWingen et al. (2012): study NL 1998
TitleDe Invloed van Emotionele Gebeurtenissen op Geluk en Tevredenheid. (The Impact of Emotional Events on Happiness and Satisfaction with Life).
SourceCentral Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Serie Bevolkingstrends, 2012, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/wingen_m_2012.pdf
Public20+ aged, The Netherlands, 1998-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =240000

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment status 1998-2009
as registered in employment registration.
a: going to be/got employed
b: going to be/got unemployed
c: going to be/got retired
d: going to be/got disabled
e: going to be/got social assistance
Observed distributiona: 0,93%; b: 0,14%; c: 0,27%; d: 0,11%; e: 0,05%; No event: 98,50%
Remarks
Data: Social Statistical Database which covers earlier 
and later employment registration data. Survey 
respondents identified using their their (encrypted) 
civil service number.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
AVERAGE happiness in the years before and after 
CHANGE in employment status.
Set Image size:   

O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: Getting employed slightly increases happiness
b: Getting unemployed after employment is 
preceeded by a decline in happiness and slow 
recovery afterwards which comes close to pre-event 
happiness after 8 years.
c: Retirement does not affect happiness much
d: Disabled already less happy before being 
officially registered as disabled
e: Happiness continues to decrease after getting 
social assistance.

Cross sectional survey data on happiness linked to 
registration data on employment history.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot one's first paid job
Page in Source 40,62,67,72,73
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment situation: got one's first paid 
job
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 625, T1-T3=180, T3-T4=45, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=868
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
employment in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.30 p < .05
B controlled for other life course transitions:
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.26 p < .05
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.13 ns
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelFell unemployed
Page in Source 67,68
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment situation: fell unemployed
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 135, T1-T3=128, T3-T4=59, T3-T5 or T4-T5=24, Total=346
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE to 
unemployment within individuals (fixed effect)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.15 p < .10
B controlled for life course transitions:
- first paid job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.10 ns
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.39 p < .05
additional control for years since transition 
(squared):
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyGash et al. (2010): study GB 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, United Kingdom, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22928

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Page in Source 32,35-38
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment status between T1 and T2
a Full-time to part-time (vs continuous full-time)
b part-time to full-time (vs continuous part-time)
c inactive to full-time( vs continuously inactive)
d inactive to part-time (vs continuously inactive)
Observed distributiona: FT-FT 42,04 % = 9639 b FT-PT 3,04 % = 697 c PT-PT 28,51 % = 6537 d PT-FT 3,38 % = 775 e I N-IN 19,2 % = 4402 f IN-FT 0,85 % = 195 g IN-PT 2,97 % = 681
Remarks
T1 = 1996, T2 = 2006.Excluded are women that leave the 
labor market.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.12 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment

T1 Full-time to T2 part-time

Negatively affected by Life satisfaction at T1

Negatively affected by job switch (Beta = +.09, 
ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.0 ns
T1 Part-time to T2 full-time

Positively affected by change in number of 
Children,  got married,
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.05 ns
T1 Inactive to T2 part-time
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+,40 p < .001
T1 Inactive to T2 full-time

CHANGE happiness measured controlling correlation 
with T2 happiness for T1 happiness.

Positively affected by age, change in health 
status and life satisfaction

Negatively affected by education and Life 
satisfaction at t0

Beta's controlled for:
- T1 Life satisfaction (indicating change 
in happiness)
- age
- education
- income
- number of children at T1
- change in number of children
- health
- marriage
- change in occupational status
- Change in firm size (FT only)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age, UK, followed 10 years, 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Page in Source 13, 17, 18, 20
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 CHANGE in employment
1   A:  unemployed --> self employed
     B:  employed       --> self employed
0  Stayed employed;
Remarks
T1-T2: 2-year intervals

Control groups in comparative analysis
- Nearest neighbour similar in T1:
   - happiness
   - income
   - education
   - age
   - gender
   - age
   - education
   - maried (vs not)
   - ethicity
- Additionally (Propensity scoire)
   - year
   - region
-  separated, divorced, widowed
   - age squared
   - disabled

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: Raw differences
- Employed at T1
  - remaimed employed      DM = -.00  N = 23.439
  - became unemployed      DM = -.40  N = 419
  - became self employed   DM = +.08  N = 512 
- Unemployed at T1
  - remaimed unemployed    DM = +.01  N = 458
  - became employed        DM = +.43  N = 490
  - became self employed   DM = +.42  N = 66 
- Selfemployed at T1
  - remained self employed DM = +.08  N = 512 
  - became employed        DM = -.02  N = 415
  - became unemployed      DM = -.36  N = 42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: Compared to matched 
controlgroup (nearest neighbour)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+ p < .01
- T1 Employed --> T2 self empoyed (vs remained 
employed)
  - after 2 years   DM = +.17 (01) N = 15.181
  - after 4 years   DM = +.24 (01) N = 7.896
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=- ns
- T1 Unemployed --> T2 self empoyed (vs unemployed 
to employed)
  - after 2 years   DM = -.13 (ns) N = 326
  - after 4 years   DM = -.03 (ns) N = 147

Comparison using propensity score matching yield 
similar results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment (compared to matched control group)
Page in Source 1018,1019,1025
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
T to T+1 or T+2 CHANGE in employment
1  A: employed     ------> self employed
   B: unemployed   ------> self employed
   C: unemploymed  ------> employed
0  Stayed employed
Remarks
Control group used in comparative analysis is similar 
at T1 in:
-income
-health status
-gender
-age, age squared
-education
-regional
-ethnicities
-years
-marital Status

(Nearest neighbour matching)

B likely to be "necessily self-employed"
A likely to be "opportunity self-employed"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Employed   ---> Self employed (vs Remained)

T to T+1 DM=+.17 
T to T+2 DM=+.23
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=-
T to T+2 Unemployed ---> Self employed (vs 
Unemployed to Employed)

T to T+1  DM=-.27
T to T+2  DM=-.11 

Similar results when propensity score matching was 
used.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in maternity leave
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
1: Changed in or out (not reported whether in or out)
0: No change
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1
Employed women only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.38 p < .001
CURRENT maternity leave by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.27 p < .001
CURRENT maternity leave by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.20 p < .001
CHANGE maternity leave by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment (fixed effected analysis)
Page in Source 1020,1022,1023
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Employment states:
A: employed for salary
B: unemployed
C: self-employed

Changes over time:T to T+1
A --> A   remained employed for salary
A --> B   became unemployed
A --> C   became self-employed
B --> A   got (re)-employed
B --> B   remained unemployed
B --> C   became self-employed
C --> A   became employed for salary
C --> B   became unemployed
C --> C   remained self-employed
Observed distributionA --> A 23591; A --> B 431; A --> C 522; B --> A 507;B --> B 486; B --> C 68; C --> A 421; C --> B 48; C --> C 2872

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+/-
CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in employment
A --> A  remained employed           DM = -0.01
A --> B  became unemployed           DM = -0,34
A --> C  became self-employed        DM = +0,08
B --> A  got (re)-employed           DM = +0,39
B --> B  remained unemployed         DM = +0,01
B --> C  became self-employed        DM = +0,41
C --> A  became employed for salary  DM = +0,02
C --> B  became unemployed           DM = -0,23
C --> C  remained self-employed      DM = -0,01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.31 p < .001
A --> B: BECAME unemployed (vs not) by CURRENT 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.27 p < .001
A --> B: BECAME unemploymed (vs not) by CHANGE in 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.00 ns
A --> C: BECAME self-employed (vs not) by CURRENT 
happiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.00 ns
A --> C: BECAME selfemployed (vs not) by CHANGE in 
happiness

b and b-fix controled for CHANGE in
- income
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Our classificationChange in employment, code E02aa02
Operationalization
Change in employment over 10 months period.
Employment status assessed at:
T1: January 1963
T3: Oktober 1963










- Falling unemployed
  0 stayed employed
  1 fell unemployed

- Getting employed
  0 stayed unemployed
  1 got employed

- Staying unemployed
  0 stayed employed
  1 stayed unemployed
Remarks
Computed for chief wage owners only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=-.13
CHANGE in employment by CHANGE in happiness.
Happiness (Affect Balance) assessed at T1 and T3.

Change in happiness expressed in change in average 
ridits (RT).
- T1 employed, T3 employed       RT=.49
- T1 employed, T3 unemployed     RT=.36
- T1 unemployed, T3 employed     RT=.53
- T1 unemployed, T3 unemployed   RT=.48

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative increase, RT below .50 relative 
decrease.
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+.05
                 
                 
                 
              
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change from/to full-time homemaker
Subject code: E02aa02aa

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelChange to employment
Our classificationChange from/to full-time homemaker, code E02aa02aa
Operationalization
0  not employed: remained home-maker
1  became employed
    a part-time
    b full-time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in employment
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.04 ns
FEMALES
Became part-time employed (vs stayed not employed)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.25 p < .05
Became full-time employed (vs stayed not employed)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.17 ns
MALES
Became part-time employed (vs stayed not employed
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.37 p < .05
Became full-time employed (vs stayed not employed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change from/to full-time homemaker
Subject code: E02aa02aa

StudyGash et al. (2010): study DE 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, Germany, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21189

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Page in Source 32,35-38
Our classificationChange from/to full-time homemaker, code E02aa02aa
Operationalization
Change in employment status between T1 and T2
a Full-time to part-time (vs continuous full-time)
b part-time to full-time (vs continuous part-time)
c inactive to full-time( vs continuously inactive)
d inactive to part-time (vs continuously inactive)
Observed distributiona: FT-FT 38,40 % = 8137 b FT-PT 2,72 % = 576 c PT-PT 22,89 % = 4850 d PT-FT 2,88 % = 610
Remarks
T1 = 1996, T2 = 2006.Excluded are women that leave the 
labor market.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.11 p < .05
T1 Full-time to T2 part-time

Negatively affected by job switch (Beta = -.02, 
ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=0 ns
T1 Part-time to T2 full-time
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.18 p < .05
T1 Inactive to T2 part-time
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.25 p < .05
T1 Inactive to T2 full-time

CHANGE happiness measured controling correlation 
with T2 happiness for T1 happiness

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- income
- number of children at T1
- change in number of children
- health
- marriage
- change in occupational status
- Change in firm size (FT only)

Happiness 0-10 was recoded to 1-7

All effects smaller, the higher T1 happiness

All effects greater when accompanied by:
- change in household income
- change in health
- additional children

All effects similar across
- age
- education
- being married or not
- number of children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change from/to full-time homemaker
Subject code: E02aa02aa

StudyGash et al. (2010): study GB 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, United Kingdom, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22928

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment status
Page in Source 32,35-38
Our classificationChange from/to full-time homemaker, code E02aa02aa
Operationalization
Change in employment status between T1 and T2
a Full-time to part-time (vs continuous full-time)
b part-time to full-time (vs continuous part-time)
c inactive to full-time( vs continuously inactive)
d inactive to part-time (vs continuously inactive)
Observed distributiona: FT-FT 42,04 % = 9639 b FT-PT 3,04 % = 697 c PT-PT 28,51 % = 6537 d PT-FT 3,38 % = 775 e I N-IN 19,2 % = 4402 f IN-FT 0,85 % = 195 g IN-PT 2,97 % = 681
Remarks
T1 = 1996, T2 = 2006.Excluded are women that leave the 
labor market.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.12 p < .05
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment

T1 Full-time to T2 part-time

Negatively affected by Life satisfaction at T1

Negatively affected by job switch (Beta = +.09, 
ns)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=-.0 ns
T1 Part-time to T2 full-time

Positively affected by change in number of 
Children,  got married,
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+.05 ns
T1 Inactive to T2 part-time
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eBeta=+,40 p < .001
T1 Inactive to T2 full-time

CHANGE happiness measured controlling correlation 
with T2 happiness for T1 happiness.

Positively affected by age, change in health 
status and life satisfaction

Negatively affected by education and Life 
satisfaction at t0

Beta's controlled for:
- T1 Life satisfaction (indicating change 
in happiness)
- age
- education
- income
- number of children at T1
- change in number of children
- health
- marriage
- change in occupational status
- Change in firm size (FT only)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelFalling into unemployment
Page in Source 7
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
Change from employment to unemployment:
Observed distributionN= A:312, B:71, C:145, D:96

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-1.2
ALL -1,192. CI95[-1,57 -0,81]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.10
Under 29 -0.104. CI95[-0,91 0,70]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-1.3
30-49 -1.304. CI95[-1,87 -0,73]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.99
50 and over -0,990. CI95[-1,67 -0,31]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary/unvoluntary unemployment
Page in Source 7
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
Change from employment to unemployment by reason for 
termination:
A Voluntary
B Unvoluntary
Observed distributionN= A:113, B:161

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.90
Voluntary -0.890. CI95 [-1,48  -0,30]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-1.4
Involuntary -1.401. CI95 [-1,93  -0,87]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelFalling into unemployment
Page in Source 11
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
Change in happiness following change in labour force 
status:
0 Employed
1 Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.96 p < .00
LRCD -.96 means that unemployment lowers the 
probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 
23,9 %

Probability of being happy is higher for the years 
1984-1986 (-22.5 %) and lower when satisfied is 
defined as happiness<4 (-29,5 %)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-1.1 p < .00
age<29

LRCD -1,12 means that unemployment lowers the 
probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 
28,0 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.92 p < .00
age>29 and age <49

LRCD -.92 means only that unemployment lowers the 
probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 
23,1 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.72 p < .01
age<49

LRCD -.72 means that unemployment lowers the 
probability of being satisfied (>7) with 
approximately 18,0 %

LRCD's controlled for:
- being out of labour force 
- duration of unemployment
- duration squared
- marital status
- good health condition
- age
- age squared
- household income

LRCD's denote that falling into unemployment goes 
with a lower probability of being happy. The 
difference is lower among the young (age<29) than 
the old.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyZijlmans (2009): study DE 1998
TitleWork Involvement in the Valuation of Unemployment.
SourceMasterthesis, Utrecht School of Economics, 2009, The Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/zijlmans_tj_2009.pdf
Public21-64 aged working force, Germany, 1998-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19093

Correlate
Author's labelChange in unemployment status
Page in Source 43, 44, 53
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
0 Employed 
1 Unemployed
Observed distributionBoth periods % of sample= 0:65% 1:9%
Error EstimatesT1-T2 correlation .39 for individuals who became unemployed and .44 for individuals who become reemployed between periods
Remarks
Reference group is working people in T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
T2-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE into out 
of unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.81 p < .01
Work very important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.48 p < .01
Work important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.34 p < .01
Work less/not important

B's are controled for:
- year
- socio-economic variables
- demographic variables

B's reflect the average statistics when importance 
of work is averaged for T1 and T2

B -.34 mean that unemployment lowers happiness by 
0.34 points on scale 0-10 for individuals who 
consider that work is not important for their 
well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyZijlmans (2009): study DE 1998
TitleWork Involvement in the Valuation of Unemployment.
SourceMasterthesis, Utrecht School of Economics, 2009, The Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/zijlmans_tj_2009.pdf
Public21-64 aged working force, Germany, 1998-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =19093

Correlate
Author's labelChange in unemployment status
Page in Source 43-44, 55
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
0 Employed
1 Unemployed
Observed distributionBoth periods: % of sample= 0:65% 1:9%
Error EstimatesT1-T2 correlation .37 for individuals who became unemployed and .29 for individuals who become reemployed between periods
Remarks
Reference group is working people in T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
T2-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE into out 
of unemployment and T1 importance of leisure
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.80 p < .01
Work very important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.48 p < .01
Work important
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.2 p < .01
Work less/not important

B's are controled for:
- year
- socio-economic variables
- demographic variables

Findings are comparable when:
- importance of leisure is measured in T2 
- averaged for T1 and T2

B -1.2 means that unemployment lowers happiness by 
1.2 points on scale 0-10 for individuals who 
consider that leisure is not important for their 
well-being.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyHetschko (2014): study DE 1991
TitleOn the Misery of losing Self-employment.
SourceECONSTOR Working Paper, 2014, No. 2014/26, 1 - 37, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/102732
Public18-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed yearly, 1991-2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19436

Correlate
Author's labelReason for job los
Page in Source 18, 19, 23
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How did that job end?
a: ceased self-employment
b: plant closure (reference)
c: dismissed
d: end of contract
e: self resigned
Observed distributionN = a: 100, b: 657, c: 2125. d: 860, e: 425
Remarks
Only Ss who became unemployed in the preceding 2 years. 
Average time since unemployment 1 year
Changes to 'not working' after job end will be largely 
viluntary, changes to 'unenployment' largely 
involuntary

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/-
                            Happiness (M)
                            at T0   Change
                                    T-2 to T0
a: ceased self-employment   4,7      -1,4
b: plan closure             5.5      -0,9
c: dismissed                5,7      -0,7
d: end of contract          5,7      -0,7
e: self resigned            6,1      -0,4
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
CHANGE in happiness following CEASED 
SELF-EMPLOYMENT (vs job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.06 (ns)
- unemployment  b = -.66 (01)
  - stronger among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work   b = -.71(01) 
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.43 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness following RESIGNATION (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.56 (01)
- unemployment  b = +.54 (01)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work  b = +.35 (01)
    - on welfare                 b = +.40 (01)
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - male or female
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 ns
CHANGE in happiness following DISMISSAL (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.03 (ns)
- unemployment  b = +.17 (10)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work   b = +.06   
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
CHANGE in happiness following END CONTRACT (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.15 (10)
- unemployment  b = +.23 (05)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work b = +.14(ns)   
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female


Correlational finding on Happiness and Falling unemployed
Subject code: E02aa02ab

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationFalling unemployed, code E02aa02ab
Operationalization
a Employed (full-time only for females)
b Employed part-time
c Maternity leave
d Nonparticipant
e Fired in last year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
EMPLOYED
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.64  Beta=+.57
West: Beta=+.68  Beta=+.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
EMPLOYED PART-TIME
East:   -----    Beta=+.49
West:   -----    Beta=+.34
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
MARTERNITY LEAVE
East:   -----    Beta=+.37
West:   -----    Beta=+.47
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
NONPARTICIPANT
East: Beta=+.42  Beta=+.30
West: Beta=+.55  Beta=+.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
FIRED IN LAST YEAR
East: Beta=-.12  Beta=-.10
West: Beta=-.18  Beta=-.08

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Getting (re)employed
Subject code: E02aa02ac

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelChange to employment
Our classificationGetting (re)employed, code E02aa02ac
Operationalization
0  not employed: remained home-maker
1  became employed
    a part-time
    b full-time

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in employment
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.04 ns
FEMALES
Became part-time employed (vs stayed not employed)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=-.25 p < .05
Became full-time employed (vs stayed not employed)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.17 ns
MALES
Became part-time employed (vs stayed not employed
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-ab-fix=+.37 p < .05
Became full-time employed (vs stayed not employed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelBeing out of the labor force
Page in Source 11
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
0 Employed
1 Out of labour force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.40 p < .00
LRCD -.40 means that being out of the labour force 
goes with a lower probability of being happy (>7) 
with approximately 10.0 %

LRCD controlled for:
- unemployment
- duration of unemployment
- duration squared
- marital status
- good health condition
- age
- age squared
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelBecoming/in out of the labour force
Page in Source 11
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
Change in happiness following change in labour force 
status:
0 Employed
1 Out of labour force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.24 p < .05
LRCD -.24 means that being out of the labour force 
lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with 
approximately 6.1 %

Probability of being happy is lower for the years 
1984-1986 (-12.4 %) and lower when satisfied is 
defined as happiness<4 (-13,7 %)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.39 p < .05
age<29

LRCD -.39 means that being out of the labour force 
lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with 
approximately 9,8 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.68 p < .01
age>29 and age <49

LRCD -.68 means that being out of the labour force 
lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with 
approximately 17 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.05 ns
age<49

LRCD's controlled for:
- unemployment
- duration of unemployment
- duration squared
- marital status
- good health condition
- age
- age squared
- household income

LRCD's denote that due to becoming out of the 
labour force goes with a lower probability of 
being happy for age 29-49 compared to younger and 
older ages


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelNon-employed
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Using this card, which of these descriptions applies to 
what you have been doing for the last 7 days?
1: not unemployed or in paid work
0: unemployed or in paid work
Observed distribution1: 19.8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.11 ns
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status with Out of labor force split up.
Page in Source 6,8
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
a) Short part-time employment(1-19 weekly working 
hours)
b) Long part-time employment (20-34 weekly working 
hours)
c) Full-time employment(35 or more weekly working 
hours) (reference category)
d) Unemployment: If (1)reported not to be in gainful 
employment
or self-employment at the time of the interview, (2)had 
actively
sought work during the four weeks prior to the date of 
the
interview, and (3) is available for work within the 
next two
weeks.
e) Out of labor force (neither employed nor 
self-employed and who
do not meet the conditions for being unemployed)
el: Not able to work
e2: Discouraged
e3: No intention to work
Observed distributiona 18 %, b + c 37 %, d 7 %, e 39 % Of e: el= 57,5 %, e2=17%, e3=25,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.27 p < .01
NOT ABLE TO WORK (vs full-time employment)
Fixed effects.
B controlled for:
- Discouraged
- No intention to work
- Short part-time employment
- Long part-time employment
- Unemployment
- Residual HH income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.13 p < .01
B controlled for total HH income instead of
residual household income.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.33 p < .01
DISCOURAGED (vs full-time employment)
Fixed effects.
B controlled for:
- Not able to work
- No intention to work
- Short part-time employment
- Long part-time employment
- Unemployment
- Residual HH income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
B controlled for total HH income instead of
residual household income.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
NO INTENTION TO WORK (vs full-time employment)
Fixed effects.
B controlled for:
- Not able to work
- Discouraged
- Short part-time employment
- Long part-time employment
- Unemployment
- Residual HH income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 ns
B controlled for total HH income instead of
residual household income.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelNon-working
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
1 being non-working
0 in labourforce
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.13 sd=0.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.08 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source 52,55,56
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
a regular workers
b not searching for job
c self-employment
d non-regular worker
e unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+
a M=5.99
b M=5.81
c M=5.50
d M=5.20
e M=4.63
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.02 ns
Having job (vs. no job)

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education level
- marital status
- household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.01 ns
When additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
a) unemployed
b) retired
c) student
d) self-employed
f) long term(LT) unemployment (experienced unemployment 
longer than three months in the past 2 years)

Each rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.73 p < .001
1999 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 p < .05
2008 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.54 p < .001
1999 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .001
2008 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.94 p < .001
1999 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.38 p < .001
2008 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
1999 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .01
2008 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
1999 LT unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.29 p < .001
2008 LT unemployment

b’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment state
Page in Source 29
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
a)employed (reference)
b)unemployed
c)self-employed
d)retired
e)keeping home
f)in school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.49 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by employment state
Unemployed    (vs. employed)
OPRC (-0.491)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.03 p < .05
Self-employed (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.031)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.05 p < .05
Retired       (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.046)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.01 p < .10
Keeping home  (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.014)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.20 p < .05
In school     (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.202)

OPRC's controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyScales & Scase (2001): study GB 2001
TitleFit and Fifty? Britain Towards 2010.
SourceReport, Foresight Programme's Leisure and Earning, 2001, UK
Public50-59 aged, Britain, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5500

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status and income stream
Page in Source 4
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
a: working 
b: inactive 
c: inactive-no occupational pension
d: inactive-receives occupational pension
e: inactive-not receiving disability allowance
f: inactive-receives disability allowance
Remarks
n is not reported, we assumed it as at least 500.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-eDMt=-
a Mt=9.00 SD:0.12
b Mt=8.75 SD:0.13
c Mt=8.25 SD:0.16
d Mt=7.30 SD:0.17
e Mt=5.80 SD:0.20
f Mt=5.75 SD:0.20
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-eBMCT= p < .05
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Out of workforce
Subject code: E02aa02ae

StudyGash et al. (2010): study GB 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, United Kingdom, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22928

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationOut of workforce, code E02aa02ae
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Employed
  a Part-time 
  b Full-time
Observed distributionFull-time 45.08 % = 10336 Part-time 31.89 % = 7312 Inactive 23.02 % = 5278
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Inactive  M = 5,21
Part-time M = 5,36 
Full-time M = 5,38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reasons for change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02af

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary/unvoluntary unemployment
Page in Source 7
Our classificationReasons for change in employment, code E02aa02af
Operationalization
Change from employment to unemployment by reason for 
termination:
A Voluntary
B Unvoluntary
Observed distributionN= A:113, B:161

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-.90
Voluntary -0.890. CI95 [-1,48  -0,30]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-1.4
Involuntary -1.401. CI95 [-1,93  -0,87]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reasons for change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02af

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelTermination of previous job
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationReasons for change in employment, code E02aa02af
Operationalization
Reason for termination of previous job:
a) End of temporary contract (reference)
b) Quit
c) Layoff
d) Employer and employee agreed
e) Firm closure
f) End of self-employment
g) Parental leave
h) Care for person in need
i) Other
Observed distributiona) 22%, b) 11%, c) 44%, d) 8%, e) 7%, f) 1%, g) 2%, h) 0.1%, i) 5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 ns
QUIT             (vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.10 ns
LAYOFF           (vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.20 ns
EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE AGREED 
(vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 ns
FIRM CLOSURE     (vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 ns
END OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT 
(vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.28 ns
PARENTAL LEAVE   (vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-2.6 ns
CARE FOR PERSON IN NEED 
(vs end of temporary contract)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 ns
OTHER            (vs end of temporary contract)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) education
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) gender
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and 
     interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reasons for change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02af

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 295
Our classificationReasons for change in employment, code E02aa02af
Operationalization
a) working
b) not working: education/training
c) not working: maternity leave
d) not working: military/community service
e) not working: unemployed
f) not working: temporary work
Remarks
Reference category not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11 p < .01
a) working
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .01
b) not working: education/training
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 p < .01
c) not working: maternity leave
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.13 p < .01
d) not working: military/community service
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.52 p < .01
e) not working: unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .05
f) not working: temporary work

b's controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Reasons for change in employment
Subject code: E02aa02af

StudyHetschko (2014): study DE 1991
TitleOn the Misery of losing Self-employment.
SourceECONSTOR Working Paper, 2014, No. 2014/26, 1 - 37, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/102732
Public18-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed yearly, 1991-2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =19436

Correlate
Author's labelReason for job los
Page in Source 18, 19, 23
Our classificationReasons for change in employment, code E02aa02af
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How did that job end?
a: ceased self-employment
b: plant closure (reference)
c: dismissed
d: end of contract
e: self resigned
Observed distributionN = a: 100, b: 657, c: 2125. d: 860, e: 425
Remarks
Only Ss who became unemployed in the preceding 2 years. 
Average time since unemployment 1 year
Changes to 'not working' after job end will be largely 
viluntary, changes to 'unenployment' largely 
involuntary

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+/-
                            Happiness (M)
                            at T0   Change
                                    T-2 to T0
a: ceased self-employment   4,7      -1,4
b: plan closure             5.5      -0,9
c: dismissed                5,7      -0,7
d: end of contract          5,7      -0,7
e: self resigned            6,1      -0,4
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 ns
CHANGE in happiness following CEASED 
SELF-EMPLOYMENT (vs job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.06 (ns)
- unemployment  b = -.66 (01)
  - stronger among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work   b = -.71(01) 
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.43 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness following RESIGNATION (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.56 (01)
- unemployment  b = +.54 (01)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work  b = +.35 (01)
    - on welfare                 b = +.40 (01)
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - male or female
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 ns
CHANGE in happiness following DISMISSAL (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.03 (ns)
- unemployment  b = +.17 (10)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work   b = +.06   
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
CHANGE in happiness following END CONTRACT (vs 
job-end due to plant closure)
- not working   b = +.15 (10)
- unemployment  b = +.23 (05)
  - lower among new unemployed
    - willing to return to work b = +.14(ns)   
  - similar among new unemployed
    - in poor health
    - on welfare
    - male or female


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in contract
Subject code: E02aa02b

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-employment
Page in Source 221,227,233
Our classificationChange in contract, code E02aa02b
Operationalization
1:self-employed 
0:wage-earners
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1991) and T2 (2000)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ ns
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENT BY CURRENT 
HAPPINESS
1991 % happy
-Self-employed  64.1%
-Wage-earners   61.4%
difference      +2.7%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ p < .01
2000 % happy
-Self-employed 70.5%
-Wage-earners  59.1%
difference     +11.4%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eLRCD=+.34 p < .01
LRCD not controled.
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eLRCD=+.34 p < .01
LRCD controled for:
-age
-gender
-place of birth
-education
-marital status
-place of residence 
-having children at home
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eb=+.09 p < .01
b controled for:
-age
-gender
-place of birth
-education
-marital status
-children
-place of residence
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ ns
T1-T2 CHANGE EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENT BY T1-T2 
CHANGE HAPPINESS
Self-employed both in T1 and T2
-T1(1991):  63.7%
-T2(2000):  69.0%
difference  +5.3%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ ns
Wage-earner in T1 and self-employed in T2
-T1(1991):  67.0%
-T2(2000):  72.3%
difference  +5.3%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ ns
Wage-earner both in T1 and T2
-T1(1991):  61.1%
-T2(2000):  59.2%
difference  -1.9%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ ns
Self-employed in T1 and wage-earner in T2
-T1(1991):  66.7%
-T2(2000):  55.6%
difference  -11.1%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=+.34 ns
b-fix not contreled.
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eb-fix=+.34 p < .01
b-fix controled for:
-age
-gender
-education
-marital status
-place of residence 
-having children at home
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eb=+.07 ns
b controled for:
-age
-gender
-education
-marital status
-children
-place or residence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in contract
Subject code: E02aa02b

StudyGreen & Heywood (2011): study GB 1999 /1
TitleFlexible Contract and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceEconomic Inquiry, 2011, Vol. 49, 716 - 729
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Heywood/publication/227346218_FLEXIBLE_CONTRACTS_AND_SUBJECTIVE_WELLBEING/links/0046351a5dfc82a60e000000.pdf
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2010.00291.x
Public20-65 aged, UK, followed 5 years 1999-2004
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelChange Employment Contract
Page in Source 725, 726, 727
Our classificationChange in contract, code E02aa02b
Operationalization
a fixed term contract
b agency work
c other flexible contract
d permanent contract

Rated
1 change to this contract
0 no
Remarks
Assessed every year 1994-2000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e
CHANGE in emplyoment by CHANGE in happiness.
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.22 ns
MALES
Employees only
- Got fixed term contract     (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.22 ns
- Got agency work             (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.13 ns
- Got other flexible contract (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.02 ns
All respondents
- Got fixed term contract     (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.13 ns
- Got agency work             (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.23 p < .05
- Got other flexible contract (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.29 p < .10
- Got permanent contract      (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.11 ns
FEMALES
Employees only
- Got fixed term contract     (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.00 ns
- Got agency work             (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.21 ns
- Got other flexible contract (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.09 ns
All respondents
- Got fixed term work         (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.22 p < .05
- Got agency work             (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.17 p < .10
- Got other flexible contract (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.07 p < .05
- Got permanent contract      (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e
b-fix controled for:
- regio
- year
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - marital status
  - presence of a dependent child
  - education level
- job characteristics
  - tenure
  - usual hours
  - usual overtime
  - log wave
  - union membership
  - public sector employement
  - etc.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa03

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1984): study AU 1980
TitleThe Effects of Unemployment on the Mood, Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Depressive Affect of School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1984, Vol. 57, 33 - 42
PublicSchool leavers, Australia, 1980-81, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =761

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (vs unemployed)
Page in Source 37
Our classificationLater (un)employment, code E02aa03
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: males=58, females 86 1: males=310; females=307
Remarks
T1:August 1980, when still at school; T2:August 1981, 
after leaving school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T1 happiness (when still at school) by T2 
employment

MALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,7
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,1
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=0
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      3,2      0,8
1: employed        3,2      0,7
-difference        0,0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T2 happiness by T2 employment (1 year later)

MALES
                    M        SD        
0: unemployed      2,8      0,8       
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,8
1:employed         3,3      0,7
- difference      +0,4
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

MALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     2,9         3,0
T2 happiness:     M=     2,8         3,0
-difference             -0,1         0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
FEMALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     3,2         3,2
T2 happiness:     M=     2,9         3.3
-difference             -0,3        +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa03

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1980): study AU 1978
TitleSome Psychological Effects of Unemployment in School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Social Issues, 1980, Vol. 15, 269 - 276
PublicSchool-leavers, South Australia, followed 1978-1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed vs Unemployed
Page in Source 272, 274
Our classificationLater (un)employment, code E02aa03
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: 25%; 1: 53% ; (22% still in school)
Remarks
T1: november 1978 (when still in school); T2: June 1979

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ ns
T1  happiness (when still in school) by T2 
employment          
                   Me
0: unemployed      3,0  
1: employed        3,2
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 employment (half year after 
leaving school)           
                   Me
0: unemployed      2,7
1: employed        3,3
-difference       +0,6
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

                          Unemployed  Employed
T1 happiness:      Me =    3,0        3,2
T2 happiness:      Me =    2,7        3,3
- difference              -0,3       +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa03

StudyLucas (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitlePersonality and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceEid, M.; Larsen, R.J.; Eds.: The Science of Subjective Well-Being'', The Guilford Press, 2008, New York, USA, 171 -194.
PublicEmployed - unemployed - -re-employed, Germany, followed 15 years 1984-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3733

Correlate
Author's labelChange in employment
Page in Source 10
Our classificationLater (un)employment, code E02aa03
Operationalization
T1: employed
T2: unemployed
T3: re-employed
Remarks
All Ss were employed at baseline and were interviewed 
each year during 15 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Happiness assessed in each of the years
T1: before umemployment (average of all years 2 
years before)
T2: during umemployment (the year before until 
year after)
T3: after re-employment (average of the years one 
year after re-employment)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=+.11 p < .01
Relative happiness in the years before 
unemployment (base line)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.53 p < .001
Relative happiness during umemployment (Reaction)
- lower among males
- lower among unemployed longer than one year
- not lower among unemployed before study
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-.40 p < .001
Relative happiness after re-employment 
(Adaptation)
- higher for average income
- lower for unemployed multiple times 
- stronger among those who suffered most from 
earlier unemployment
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
DMa is deviation from average and marks CHANGE in 
happiness in points on scale 0-10

DMa controled for:
- income
  - initial income level 
  - change in income
- socio-demographic
  - age
  - gender
- employment history
  - unemployed before the study
  - lenght of unemployment during the study
  - more than once unemployed during the study
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Later (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa03

StudyZhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9037-7
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8439

Correlate
Author's labelworking status
Page in Source 348
Our classificationLater (un)employment, code E02aa03
Operationalization
Remarks
Assessed at:
T1:  1994
T2:  1995
T3:  1996
T4:  1997
T5:  1998
T6:  1999
T7:  2000
T8:  2001
T9:  2002
T10: 2003
T11: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.04 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 work
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.09 p < .01
T2 happiness by T3 work
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.24 p < .01
T4 happiness by T5 work
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.15 p < .01
T6 happiness by T7 work

Beta's controled for
-age
-gender
-education

Sign of correlation reversed, correlation in 
report as dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later (un)employment
Subject code: E02aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater employment
Our classificationLater (un)employment, code E02aa03
Operationalization
Employment status at T5; 
1 = employed, 0 = not employed


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+ ns
T1 happiness:        tau = +.05  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau =  .00  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.06  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.01  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.09     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
7       M=3.00     Mt=6.7 
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.13      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=6.88      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
6       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
7       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
4       M= .88      Mt=5.9
5       M= .84      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.45      Mt=6.5
7       M= .67      Mt=5.7
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFull time Work Status
Page in Source 175+
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
g: Full time Student
Observed distributionN = a: 750, b: 517, c: 39, d: 13, e: 208, f: 94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,60
b Mt = 8,14; SD = 1,57
c Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,92
d Mt = 8,62; SD = 0,96
e Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,81
f Mt = 6,55; SD = 2,53
g Mt = 7,16; SD = 1,42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFull time Work Status
Page in Source 177
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full ttime retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
Observed distributionN = a: 1433; b: 1007, c: 86, d: 22, e: 366, f: 233
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 8,08; SD = 1,65
c Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,69
d Mt = 8,32; SD = 1,25
e Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
f Mt = 6,61; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
f<(a,b,c,d,e)
a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004a): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 10, Report 10.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Health and Body Weight.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response89%
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source 178+179
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid work
b: Full time paid work & part time     
   volunteer
c: Full time Retired
d: Full time Retired & part time 
   volunteer
e: Semi retired
f: Full time Home & Family Care
g: Full time Student
h: Unemplyed
Observed distributionN = a: 1276, b: 157, c: 812, d: 195, e: 86; f: 366, h: 233
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-10

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,58
b Mt = 7,90; SD = 1,52
c Mt = 8,07; SD = 1,66
d Mt = 8,12; SD = 1,58
e Mt = 7,80; SD = 1,69
f Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
g Mt = 7,16; SD = 1,42
h Mt = 6,61; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV= p < .042
a>h
a>h
b>h
b>g
c>a
c>h
c>g
d>a
d>h
d>g
e>h
f>h
f>g;
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,37
b Mt = 8,06; SD = 1,32
c Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,37
d Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,30
e Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,16
f Mt = 7,91; SD = 1,35
g Mt = 7,58; SD = 1,38
h Mt = 7,18; SD = 1,96
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .046
a>h
b>h
c>a
c>h
d>a
d>h
e>h
f>h


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelFulltime Work Status
Page in Source B90
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a:705; b:152; c:5; d:75; e:70; f:654; g:50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,47
b Mt = 7,67; SD = 1,72
c Mt = 8,00; SD = 7,10
d Mt = 7,99; SD = 1,24
e Mt = 6,83; SD = 2,47
f Mt = 8,19; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,54; SD = 2,11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
d>e
f>(a,b,e)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's label Work Status
Page in Source B100
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 759, b: 240, c: 4, d: 112, e: 56, f: 501, g: 56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,73
c Mt = 8,26; SD = 2,36
d Mt = 7,51; SD = 1,74
e Mt = 6,54; SD = 2,13
f Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,70
g Mt = 8,15; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a.d,e)
g>e
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,43; SD = 1,72
b Mt = 7,45; SD = 1,93
c Mt = 9,00; SD = 1,16
d Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,71
e Mt = 6,16; SD = 2,16
f Mt = 7,87; SD = 1,77
g Mt = 7,79; SD = 1,97
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT=
a>e
b>e
f>(a,d,e)
g>e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source B101
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full time Volunteer 
d: Full time Student 
e: Unemployed 
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 2192, b: 606, c: 26, d: 186, e: 234, f: 1507, g: 150
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a Mt = 7,72; SD = 1,57
b Mt = 7,81; SD = 1,75
c Mt = 8,31; SD = 1,41
d Mt = 7,37; SD = 1,63
e Mt = 6,76; SD = 2,18
f Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,14; SD = 2,37
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
a>e
b>(d,g,e)
c>(d,g,e)
d>e
f>(b,a,g,e)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=
a Mt = 7,59; SD = 1,56
b Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,70
c Mt = 8,77; SD = 1,03
d Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,56
e Mt = 6,91; SD = 2,02
f Mt = 8,03; SD = 1,58
g Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,98
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bBMCT=
a>e
b>e
c>(f,b,a,d,g,e)
d>e
f>(b,a,d,g,e,)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFulltime Work Status
Page in Source B91
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time Family Duties
c: Full tme Volunteer
d: Full time Student
e: Unemployed
f: Full time Retired
g: Semi Retired
Observed distributionN= a:2897, b:750, c:31, d:261, e:359, f:2161, g:192
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,74; SD = 1,55
b Mt = 7,78; SD = 1,75
c Mt = 8,26; SD = 1,32
d Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,55
e Mt = 6,64; SD = 2,34
f Mt = 8,13; SD = 1,67
g Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,81
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBMCT=
a>(c,d)
b>(c,d)
f>(c,d)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2004c): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Report 9.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. Effects of Household Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1897

Correlate
Author's labelWork Status
Page in Source 144
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single quetion:
I am going to ask about your work status.Please tell me 
which of the following categories best applies to you 
at the present time,Are you in---
a: Full time paid employment
b: Full time retired
c: Semi retired
d: Full time Volunteer
e: Full time home or family care
f: Unemployed
Observed distributionN = a: 683, b: 490, c: 47,d: 9, e: 158, f: 139

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cDMt=
a Mt = 7,82; SD = 1,53
b Mt = 8,01; SD = 1,73
c Mt = 8,21; SD = 1,45
d Mt = 7,89; SD = 1,54
e Mt = 7,97; SD = 1,72
f Mt = 6,42; SD = 2,36
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cBMCT= p < .00
a>f
a>e
a>d
a>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCummins et al. (2002b): study AU 2002
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 4, Report 4.0. The Wellbeing of Australians. 1. Work and Leisure 2. The Impact of 11 September, One Year Later.
SourceAustralian Centre on Quality of Life, 2002, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =2003

Correlate
Author's labelWork Type
Page in Source 81
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: 
Thinking about the work that you do, what do you 
consider to be your main area of work?
1: Paid employment
2: Family & household care
3: Voluntary work 
4: Study
5: No work
Observed distributionN = 1 : 260, 2 : 260, 3 : 129, 4: 129, 5 : 260

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt= p < .100
1: Mt =77.88, SD =14.56
2: Mt =78.92, SD =17.54
3: Mt =80.54, SD =19.13
4: Mt =75.89, SD =14.50
5: Mt =76.12, SD =21.81
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caBMCT=
n.s.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Employed:
0: Not in labour force
1: Employed

Unemployed:
0: Not in labour force
1: Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.39 ns
Employed
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-3.9 p < .01
Unemployed
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d
B's controlled for:
 - equivalised Income
 - net worth
 - sex
 - partnered
 - educational attainment
 - age
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelIn working force
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not in working force
1: in working force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.17 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- networth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- age
- education
- partnered
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelOwner/manager
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question on occupation title:
1: Owner/manager
0: Full-time employee
Observed distribution1: 8%, 0: 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 ns
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.24 p < .05
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Page in Source 183
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: No job
1: Part-time job= < 35 hours a week
2: Full-time job = >= 35 hours a week
Observed distributionFemales: 0: 29% , 1: 37% , 2: 34% . Males: 0: 9% , 1: 7% , 2: 84%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
ALL (correlation with couple's average happiness)
              M     SD    N
0: No job     7,89  0,24  3114
1: Part-time  8,04  0,11  3617
2: Full-time  7,93  0,01  9603
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
1<3<2
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (+.03)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full time (vs no job)    (-.15)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.19)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
Husband works full time (vs no job) (+.30)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
WIVES ONLY
              M     SD   CI95         N
0: No job     8,03  1,62 [7,96;8,09]  2384
1: Part-time  8,10  1,27 [8,05;8,17]  3033
2: Full-time  7,95  1,34 [7,96;8,09]  2751

Calculated from table 1
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
3<1,2
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (-.04)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full-time (vs no job)    (-.26)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.09)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .10
Husband works full-time (vs no job) (+.20)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aDM=
HUSBANDS ONLY 
              M    SD    CI95        N
0: No job     7,43 1,92 [7,29;7,57]  731
1: Part-time  7,81 1,47 [7,69;7,93]  583
2: Full-time  7,92 1,32 [7,89,7,95]  6854

Calculated from table 1
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aBMCT= p < .05
1<2<3
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Wife works part-time (vs no job)    (+.02)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Wife works full-time (vs no job)    (-.07)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ ns
Husband works part-time (vs no job) (+.02)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=- ns
Husband works full-time (vs no job) (-.07)

OLCR's controlled for:
- having children
- family income
- health of spouce
- own health


OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size and denotes only relative differences
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 18.21
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Respondent is employed and works less than 35 hours 
per week
0 other
Observed distribution1: 19.6%; 0: 80.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.18 ns
b controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status

-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (°C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.282

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.11 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelLabour force participation
Page in Source 34,35,55,57
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A:
1	Working
0	All other 
B: 
0	Full time
0,5	Parttime
0	Not in labor force
C:
40	Full-time
20	Part-time
0	None
D:
Very long:		60+	5
Long:			49-59	4
Full time:		35-48	3
Part time:		5-34	2
Not working:		0-4	1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-1.3 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
      - Parent's education
      - Father's status
      - Parents divorced
      - Number of siblings
Current family situation:
      - Marital status:
          - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
          - Widowed
          - Divorced
      - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
      - Church attendance
      - Denomination
      - Charity work
- Work status:
      - Education
      - Family income
      - Spouse in labor force

B and beta ns when additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1984): study AU 1980
TitleThe Effects of Unemployment on the Mood, Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Depressive Affect of School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Occupational Psychology, 1984, Vol. 57, 33 - 42
PublicSchool leavers, Australia, 1980-81, followed 1 year
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =761

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (vs unemployed)
Page in Source 37
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: males=58, females 86 1: males=310; females=307
Remarks
T1:August 1980, when still at school; T2:August 1981, 
after leaving school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T1 happiness (when still at school) by T2 
employment

MALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,7
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,1
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=0
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      3,2      0,8
1: employed        3,2      0,7
-difference        0,0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
T2 happiness by T2 employment (1 year later)

MALES
                    M        SD        
0: unemployed      2,8      0,8       
1: employed        3,0      0,7
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=+
FEMALES
                    M        SD
0: unemployed      2,9      0,8
1:employed         3,3      0,7
- difference      +0,4
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

MALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     2,9         3,0
T2 happiness:     M=     2,8         3,0
-difference             -0,1         0
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDM=
FEMALES
                      Unemployed   Employed
T1 happiness:     M=     3,2         3,2
T2 happiness:     M=     2,9         3.3
-difference             -0,3        +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTiggemann & Winefield (1980): study AU 1978
TitleSome Psychological Effects of Unemployment in School-Leavers.
SourceJournal of Social Issues, 1980, Vol. 15, 269 - 276
PublicSchool-leavers, South Australia, followed 1978-1979
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed vs Unemployed
Page in Source 272, 274
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: unemployed
1: employed

Assessed at T2
Observed distribution0: 25%; 1: 53% ; (22% still in school)
Remarks
T1: november 1978 (when still in school); T2: June 1979

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ ns
T1  happiness (when still in school) by T2 
employment          
                   Me
0: unemployed      3,0  
1: employed        3,2
-difference       +0,2
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=+ p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 employment (half year after 
leaving school)           
                   Me
0: unemployed      2,7
1: employed        3,3
-difference       +0,6
M-FH-g-sq-v-4-bDMe=
T1-T2 CHANGE HAPPINESS by T2 employment

                          Unemployed  Employed
T1 happiness:      Me =    3,0        3,2
T2 happiness:      Me =    2,7        3,3
- difference              -0,3       +0,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 130-131
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other 
   a general public
   b all women
   c working people
   d retired
Observed distributionN=1:313; 0a=945; 0b=386; 0c=386;0d=27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
General public    M=2.02 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.11 p < .49
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
All women         M=1.98 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.05 p < ..89
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Working people    M=2.06 SD=0.65
-difference       -0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=-.17 p < ..27
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+.07
Housewives        M=1.95 SD=0.65
Retired           M=1.88 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aagH=+.10 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.08 p < .01
1                             M'=1.95  Mt'=4.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.14 p < .01
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.19      Mt=7.2
2       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
3       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.75      Mt=6.7
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
7       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
8       M= .63      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.86      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
3       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
4       M=5.83      Mt=5.4
5       M=6.61      Mt=6.2
6       M=7.13      Mt=6.8
7       M=6.83      Mt=6.5
8       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
3       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
7       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
8       M=2.98     Mt=6.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFessel (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phänomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut für Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational activity
Page in Source 111
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1. not working
   a. pensioners
   b. other not working
2. working

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dDMt=-
1a.  Mt' = 7.55
1b.  Mt' = 7.40   males 7.25, females 7.55
2.   Mt' = 7.25   males 7.15, females 7.40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.424

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.85 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.57      Mt=5.1
2       Empty category
3       M=5.79      Mt=5.3
4       M=5.27      Mt=4.7
5       M=5.45      Mt=4.9
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=6.0       Mt=5.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .85      Mt=5.9
2       Empty category
3       M= .63      Mt=5.6
4       M= .51      Mt=5.5
5       M= .18      Mt=5.2
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M= .67      Mt=5.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
2       Empty category
3       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
4       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
5       M=2.45     Mt=4.8
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=2.40     Mt=4.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.71      Mt=6.7
7       M= .76      Mt=5.8
8       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
5       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
7       M=3.09     Mt=6.7
8       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.79      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
6       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
7       M=6.61      Mt=6.2
8       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.71      Mt=6.7
7       M= .76      Mt=5.8
8       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.79      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.24      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
6       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
7       M=6.61      Mt=6.2
8       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
5       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
7       M=3.09     Mt=6.7
8       M=3.26     Mt=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.215

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.80 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study BE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.21      Mt=4.7
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
4       M= .90      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
7       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.79      Mt=7.5
5       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
7       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.25      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
5       M= .87      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
7       M= .76      Mt=5.8
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
6       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
7       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
8       Empty category


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
2       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
3       M=2.27     Mt=4.2
4       M=2.20     Mt=4.0
5       M=2.24     Mt=4.1
6       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
7       M=2.21     Mt=4.0
8       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.04      Mt=4.5
2       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
3       M=5.31      Mt=4.8
4       M=4.87      Mt=4.3
5       M=4.52      Mt=3.9
6       M=6.11      Mt=5.7
7       M=4.18      Mt=3.5
8       M=5.81      Mt=5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyMichalos & Orlando (2006a): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleQuality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 79, 191 - 213
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-4717-2
Public18+ aged, general public, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997-2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8664

Correlate
Author's labelUnempllyed
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 all others
1 unemployd

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fDM=-
Unemployed M = 4.83
All others M = 5.70
- differnece   - 0.87
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bDM=-
Unemployed M = 4.64
All others M = 5.51
- difference   - 0.93
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fDM=-
Unemployed M = 4.81
All others M = 5.68
- difference   - 0.87


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 : Unemployed
0 : Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.116

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.34 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyUppal (2006): study CA 1991
TitleImpact of the Timing, Type and Severity of Disability on the Subjective Well-Being of Individuals with Disabilities.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2006, Vol. 63, 525 - 539
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.016
PublicDisabled, Canada, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response7.1%
Respondents N =24036

Correlate
Author's labelLabour force status
Page in Source 530
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Working
b: Unemployed
c: Not in the labour force
d: Unpaid family worker
Observed distributiona: 34,76%; b: 5,75%; c: 58,97%; d : 0,52%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=
                  % Not too happy  % Very happy

Working                    12.2       20.9
Unemployed                 21.1       16.7
Not in the labour force    14.5       20.8 
Unpaid family worker        6.8        9.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.09      Mt=7.9
5       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
7       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
8       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.46      Mt=7.5
2       M=2.39      Mt=7.4
3       M=2.50      Mt=7.5
4       M=2.40      Mt=7.4
5       M=2.18      Mt=7.2
6       M=1.73      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
8       M= .95      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
3       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
4       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
5       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
6       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
8       M=2.81     Mt=6.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source 233, 234
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 No paid work
1 Paid work

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.01
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, language, marital status, time 
in area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: -.07
Females: N: 154  ß: +.02
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.04
All ß's controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
formal education, language, marital status, time 
in area.

Males  : N: 173  ß: +.07
Females: N: 154  ß: +.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
2       M= .96      Mt=6.0
3       M= .86      Mt=5.9
4       M= .99      Mt=6.0
5       M= .91      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
7       M= .39      Mt=5.4
8       M= .36      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
2       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
5       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
8       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.75      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.48      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
7       M=6.70      Mt=6.3
8       M=7.57      Mt=7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 149
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Occupation:
a) Farmer
b) Non-professional managerial
c) Professional managerial
d) Not working (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.24 p < .NS
BEING A FARMER                 (vs not working)
Urbans (N=983)

Similar findings are observed among rurals (N= 
1195) and rural-to-urban migrants (N=555).
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.20 p < .NS
NON-PROF. MANAGERIAL WORK      (vs not working)
Urbans
Similar findings are observed among rurals.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.34 p < .10
Rural-to-urban migrants
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.10 p < .NS
HAVING PROF. MANAGERIAL WORK 
Urbans

Similar findings are observed among rurals and 
rural-to-urban migrants.

B's controlled for:
- ethnic discimination
- gender
- marital status
- ethnic minority
- education 
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 215,210
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 employed
0 unemployed (reference group)
Remarks
Coded reversely in report. Values changed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.27 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.94 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.64 p < .05
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
OR and B are versus reference group.

OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- urban residency
- domain satisfaction
- value priorities
- lifestyle

For a subgroup of 87% of respondents with at least 
one positive experience of happiness, enjoyment 
and accomplishment, OR and B values are higer.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 unemployed or laid-off
0 other
Observed distribution8.8% of respondents were unemployed or laid-off

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.35 p < .001
b(-.0346) controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - education
  - occupation
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
4       M= .98      Mt=6.0
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M= .86      Mt=5.9
7       M= .67      Mt=5.7
8       M=-.26      Mt=4.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
4       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=2.87     Mt=6.2
7       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.03     Mt=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
3       M=7.10      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.70      Mt=5.2
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
2       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
3       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
4       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
5       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
7       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .76      Mt=5.8
2       M= .57      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M= .70      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       Empty category


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.274

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.87 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelcurrent employment status
Page in Source 150
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: income from labor
 a1: private sector
 a2: public sector
b: benefit
 b1: unemployment benefits
 b2: social security recipient
Observed distributionN: a1:517, a2:379, b1:127, b2:68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
 a1: Mt=7.98
 a2: Mt=7.89
 b1: Mt=7.39
 b2: Mt=7.20
All Mt=7.83
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
 a1: Mt=7.60
 a2: Mt=7.54
 b1: Mt=6.75
 b2: Mt=6.76
All Mt=7.43
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
 a1: Mt=7.10
 a2: Mt=7.04
 b1: Mt=6.61
 b2: Mt=6.36
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment by years of schooling
Page in Source 168
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
years of schooling 
< 13 years: 1
13-14 years:2
15-16 years:3
> 16 years: 4
employment
a: without employment
b: employed
Observed distributionN: All:1009; a1:108; a2:17; a3:9; a4:2; b1:614; b2:83; b3:117; b4:59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.98    Mt=7.93
13-14 years  Mt=7.50    Mt=7.93
15-16 years  Mt=6.90    Mt=7.85
 > 16 years  Mt=7.28    Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.51    Mt=7.60
13-14 years  Mt=6.50    Mt=7.63
15-16 years  Mt=6.70    Mt=7.65
 > 16 years  Mt=6.66    Mt=7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.38    Mt=7.61
13-14 years  Mt=6.34    Mt=7.16
15-16 years  Mt=6.15    Mt=7.11
 > 16 years  Mt=6.51    Mt=7.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment with/without partner/friend
Page in Source 170
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
unemployment with/without partner/friend
Observed distributionN All:3389
Remarks
DMt + for all 3 correlates
unemployed < employed
without friend < having a friend
without partner < having a partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=5.20   6.41      6.63     7.36 
partner   :Mt=6.28   7.59      7.40     8.28
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=4.73   5.75      6.14   6.80     
partner:   Mt=5.56   7.35      6.99     8.03
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
          unemployed          employed  
          without   with      without  with
          friend    friend    friend   friend
no partner:Mt=4.80   5.25      5.45     5.93
partner   :Mt=5.94   7.15      6.69     7.64


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's label(un)employed and satisfaction with sex and daily contacts
Page in Source 172
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
(Un)employment with/without satisfaction with sexlife, 
and daily personal contacts
0: no daily contacts
1: daily contacts

dissatisfaction with sex life: sex-
satisfaction with sex life:    sex+
Observed distributionN All:1893
Remarks
DMt+ for all 3 correlates
unemployed < employed
dissatisfied with sex life < satisfied with sex life
no daily contacts < daily contacts

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.90  7.05      6.05  8.19
daily contacts:  Mt=6.25  8.04      7.00  8.63
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.90  7.05      6.05  8.19
daily contacts:  Mt=6.25  8.04      7.00  8.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
                    unemployed      employed
                    sex-  sex+      sex-  sex+
no daily contact:Mt=4.40  6.64      5.03  7.44  
daily contacts:  Mt=5.48  7.14      5.96  7.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment with/without meaning in life
Page in Source 174
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: unemployed b:employed
with/without meaning in life
1: no meaning
2: uncertain about meaning
3: with meaning in life
Observed distributionN All:4122; %:a1:2,2; a2:3,3; a3:7,5; b1:3,6; b2:14,5; b3:68,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=4.98          b1: Mt=5.90
a2: Mt=6.23          b2: Mt=6.44
a3: Mt=7.94          b3: Mt=8.35
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=4.13          b1: Mt=5.04
a2: Mt=5.65          b2: Mt=5.85
a3: Mt=7.70          b3: Mt=8.11
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
      unemployed     employed
a1: Mt=43.76         b1: Mt=5.19
a2: Mt=5.55          b2: Mt=5.65
a3: Mt=7.21          b3: Mt=7.58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelcurrent employment status
Page in Source 160
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
current employment status
1: unemployed
1.a: unemployment benefits
1 b: social security recipient
2: employed
2 a: private sector
2 b: public sector
Observed distributionN: All:4169; 1: 14%; 1a::9,7%; 1b::4,3%; 2: 86,1%; 2a:47,3%; 2b:38,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.97
1a: Mt=7.25
1b: Mt=6.35
2:  Mt=7.93
2a: Mt=8.04
2b: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.56
1a: Mt=6.81
1b: Mt=5.99
2:  Mt=7.62
2a: Mt=7.68
2b: Mt=7.54
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.41
1a: Mt=6.59
1b: Mt=6.01
2:  Mt=7.16
2a: Mt=7.25
2b: Mt=7.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment
Page in Source 144-172
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: employed
2: unemployed
Remarks
Ss in laborforce only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Women(N=506)aged:18-24      25-44       45-64
          1: Mt=7.81        7.89        7.89 
          2: Mt=7.09        7.61        7.90 
Men(N=504):
          1: Mt=8.34        7.85        7.99
          2: Mt=7.50        7.11        6.61
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Split up by having partner or friend(N=803):
   no partner   no partner  partner     partner
   no friend    friend      no friend   friend
1: Mt=6.80      7.50        7.53        8.29  
2: Mt=5.00      6.88        7.05        8.10
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Split up by satisfaction with sexlife and by 
having daily personal contacts(N=504): 
      sex-       sex-        sex+        sex+ 
      contact-   contact+    contact-    contact+
1: Mt=6.16      7.09        8.35        8.54  
2: Mt=4.59      5.84        7.00        8.40
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
Split up by meaning in life (N=1017):
   no meaning  uncertain   meaning
1: Mt=6.25      6.50        8.34
2: Mt=5.36      6.65        8.08
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Split up by relations with oneself(N=980):
   very good    good        neither    bad 
1: Mt=8.93      7.74        6.38       4.40     
2: Mt=8.73      7.15        5.45       3.75
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=-.35 p < .00
Split up by rating of current financial and 
material circumstances(unemployed only(N=138)):
very good       good     neither   bad    very bad
Ms=   4.38      7.50     6.84      8.19      8.39
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=-
Split up by having children or partner(N 
all=1029):
      children+ children+   children-   children-
      partner+  partner-    partner+    partner-
Women(N=514):
1: Mt=8.05      6.95        7.91        7.43
2: Mt=8.04      6.25        8.00        6.66  
Men(N=515): 
1: Mt=8.15      6.18        8.19        7.43
2: Mt=7.70      5.00        7.11        5.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
Women(N=506)aged:18-24   25-44     45-64
           1:Ms=7.26     7.54      7.71 
           2:Ms=6.53     6.15      6.61
Men (N=504): 
           1:Ms=7.65     7.44      7.74
           2:Ms=6.81     6.15      6.61
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
Split up by having partner or friend(N=803):
   no partner   no partner  partner     partner
   no friend    friend      no friend   friend
1: Mt=5.40      6.15        6.63        7.60 
2: Mt=5.00      5.88        6.25        7.38
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=-
Split up by satisfaction with sexlife and by 
having daily personal contacts (N=504):
      sex-      sex-        sex+        sex+ 
      contact-  contact+    contact-    contact+
1: Mt=5.09      6.59        8.05        8.28 
2: Mt=3.34      5.00        7.25        7.25
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
Split up by meaning in life (N=1017):
   no meaning  uncertain   meaning
1: Mt=5.08      5.79        8.06
2: Mt=5.36      5.40        7.63
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
Split up by relations with oneself(N=980):
     very good  good        neither    bad 
1: Mt=8.61      7.40        5.79       3.69
2: Mt=8.16      6.50        4.78       3.75
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.39 p < .00
Split up by rating of financial and material 
circumstances(N=138):
unemployed only:
 very good   good     neither   bad       very bad
 Mt=3.44     6.71     6.18      7.73      8.04
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
Split up by having children or partner(N 
all=1029):
      children+ children+   children-   children-
      partner+  partner-    partner+    partner-
WOMEN (N=514):
1: Mt=7.76      6.80        7.76        6.21
2: Mt=7.45      5.50        7.34        6.34
MEN (N=515):
1: Mt=7.81      5.44        7.86        6.66
2: Mt=6.80      5.00        6.73        5.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Women (N=506)aged:18-24     25-44       45-64
1:             Mt=7.50      7.19        6.93 
2:             Mt=6.66      6.86        6.50
Men (N=504): 
1:             Mt=7.00      6.85        7.15  
2:             Mt=6.36      6.54        6.18
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Split up by having partner or friend (N=803):
   no partner   no partner  partner     partner
   no friend    friend      no friend   friend
1: Mt=5.40      6.15        6.63        7.60
2: Mt=5.00      5.88        6.25        7.38
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Split up by satisfactionwith sexlife and by having 
daily personal contacts (N=504):
   sex-         sex-        sex+        sex+ 
   contact-     contact+    contact-    contact+
1: Mt=5.09      6.59        8.05        8.28
2: Mt=3.34      5.00        7.25        7.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Split up by meaning in life (N=1017):
   no meaning   uncertain   meaning
1: Mt=5.31      5.80        7.43 
2: Mt=5.18      5.46        7.35
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Split up by relations with oneself(N=980):
   very good    good        neither    bad 
1: Mt=7.95      6.84        5.61       4.64
2: Mt=7.64      6.40        5.23       3.75
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.29 p < .00
Split up by rating current financial and material 
circumstances(N=138):
unemployed only:
very good   good     neither   bad       very bad
Ms=4.06     6.71     6.28      7.16      7.33
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=-
Split up by having chidren or partner (N=1029):
   children+    children+   children-   children-
   partner+     partner-    partner+    partner-
WOMEN (N=514):
1: Mt=7.24      6.10        7.76        6.13
2: Mt=6.94      5.25        7.34        6.00
MEN (N=515):
1: Mt=7.25      5.15        7.48        5.65
2: Mt=7.00      5.00        6.73        5.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.09      Mt=7.1
2       M=2.41      Mt=7.4
3       M=2.51      Mt=7.5
4       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
5       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
6       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
7       M=1.31      Mt=6.3
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.47     Mt=8.2
4       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
5       M=3.50     Mt=8.3
6       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
7       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
8       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.44      Mt=8.3
2       M=8.42      Mt=8.2
3       M=8.45      Mt=8.3
4       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
5       M=8.12      Mt=7.9
6       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
7       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
8       M=7.58      Mt=7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DK 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1182

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Observed distributionvs.e.=.258

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.37 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study EE 2000 /2
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicMarrieds and divorced, Estonia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1556

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status
Page in Source 312-314
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Unemployed
1 Employed
Observed distributionN Men = 507, Women = 657, Men 0 =23%, 1 = 77 % Women 0 = 32, 1 = 68 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Men
Unemployed  M = 4,35   
Employed    M = 6,28   
Difference     +1,93

Women
Unemployed  M = 5,86 
Employed    M = 6,36    
Difference     +0,50
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married
Men
Unemployed   M = 4,64   
Employed     M = 6,25  
Difference      +1,61

Women
Unemployed   M = 6,24 
Employed     M = 6,56    
Difference      +0,32
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced
Men
Unemployed   M = 2,50   
Employed     M = 6,48   
Difference      +3,98

Women
Unemployed   M = 3,04 
Employed     M = 5,54 
Difference      +2,50
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=21,7 p < .001
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=3,51 p < .03
interaction effect gender and employment status
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=6,17 p < .002
Interaction effect gender, marital status and 
employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study EE 2000 /2
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicMarrieds and divorced, Estonia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1556

Correlate
Author's labelPart-time vs full-time work
Page in Source 314
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Part-time work
2 Full-time work
Observed distributionN Men = 507, Women = 657, Men 1 =10%, 2 = 90 % Women 1 = 18%, 2 = 82%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Men
Part-time   M = 6,18    
Full-time   M = 6,27    
Difference     -0,09     

Women
Part-time   M = 6,60     
Full-time   M = 6,38    
Difference     -0,42
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Married
Men
Part-time   M = 6,03    
Full-time   M = 6,27  
Difference     +0,24    

Women
Part-time   M = 6,83    
Full-time   M = 6,55     
Difference     -0,28
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Divorced
Men
Part-time  M = NA      
Full-time  M = 6,25    
Difference     NA   

Women
Part-time  M = 5,27    
Full-time  M = 5,58    
Difference    -0,31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Married (adjusted by age and professional status)
Men
Part-time   M = 6,19  
Full-time   M = 6,26  
Difference     +0,07     

Women
Part-time   M = 6,84   
Full-time   M = 6,56    
Difference     -0,28
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Divorced(adjusted by age and professional status)
Men
Part-time  M = 5,46  
Full-time  M = 5,64 
Difference    +0,18  

Women
Part-time  M = 5,46 
Full-time  M = 5,64 
Difference    -0,18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.99      Mt=5.5
2       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.42      Mt=6.0
4       M=5.15      Mt=4.6
5       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
6       M=6.62      Mt=6.2
7       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
8       M=6.50      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
2       M=2.69     Mt=5.6
3       M=2.30     Mt=4.3
4       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
5       M=2.69     Mt=5.6
6       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
7       M=2.52     Mt=5.1
8       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .81      Mt=5.8
2       M= .85      Mt=5.9
3       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
4       M= .29      Mt=5.3
5       M=-.05      Mt=4.9
6       M= .95      Mt=6.0
7       M= .55      Mt=5.5
8       M=1.22      Mt=6.2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelTo be unemployed
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Unemployed
0: Not unemployed
Error Estimatess.e.=.26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.37 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelSocial group
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Are you
- student
- employed
- unemployed, or
- retired ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=
Employment status       Average SWL
------------------------------------
retired                     4.00
student                     3.75
employed                    3.63
unemployed                  3.45
------------------------------------


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
6       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=8.12      Mt=7.9
5       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
6       M=8.29      Mt=8.1
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.33      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHaavio-Mannila (1971): study FI 1966
TitleSatisfaction with Family, Work, Leisure and Life among Men and Women.
SourceHuman Relations, 1971, Vol. 24, 585 - 601
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1966
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =948

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed status
Page in Source 595
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Non-employed                        1 Employed 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-3-bG=-.02 ns
Computed for females only.
Gamma based on proportion 'very satisfied'.      
Stronger among females with husbands of high 
S.E.S.
Slightly reversed among females with husbands of 
low S.E.S.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelBeing unemployed
Page in Source 11
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Employed
1 Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dLRCD=-.89 p < .00
LRCD controlled for:
- being out of labour force 
- duration of unemployment
- duration squared
- marital status
- good health condition
- age
- age squared
- household income

LRCD -.89 means that unemployment goes with a 
lower probability of being happy (>7) with 
approximately 22,3 %


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGerlach & Stephan (1996): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleA Paper on Unhappiness and Unemployment in Germany.
SourceEconomics Letters, 1996, Vol. 52, 325 - 330
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176596008580
Public16-65 aged, general public, Germany, followed from 1984 to1993
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54066

Correlate
Author's labelLabor market position
Page in Source 326
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A Full-time employed
B Part-time employed
C Not in the labor force
D Unemployed
Observed distribution N = 54066, A: 28683, B: 4871, C: 18096 D: 2362
Remarks
The relatively large numbers of younger and older women 
and men not in the labor force are a result of younger 
persons still attending school and senior people opting 
for retirement. Since interviews are performed 
annually, longer spells of employment and unemployment 
are over-represented in the sample.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Females: age   <30        30-49       >49    
              M    SD    M    SD    M    SD
full-time     7,5  1,7   7,2  1,8   7,3  1,7
part-time     7,2  1,7   7,4  1,7   7,2  1,7
not in force  7,3  1,8   7,3  1,9   7,3  2,1
unemployed    6,4  2,3   6,2  2,4   6,6  2,1
all           7,3  1,8   7,2  1,8   7,3  1,9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Males: age     <30        30-49       >49    
              M    SD    M    SD    M    SD
full-time     7,4  1,7   7,3  1,6   7,4  1,7
part-time     6,8  1,9   7,0  2,0   7,4  1,7
not in force  7,4  1,7   5,7  2,4   7,2  2,1
unemployed    5,7  2,5   5,3  2,5   6,5  2,4
all           7,3  1,8   7,2  1,8   7,3  1,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 25
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 employed(reference group)
1 a self-employed
  b unemployed
  c some work
  d non-working
  e maternity leave
  f military service
  g in education
  h retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.26 p < .01
a: Self-employed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0 p < .01
b: Unemployed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
c: Some work
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
d: Non-working
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
e: Maternity leave 
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
f: Military service
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
g: In education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
h: Retired
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.01

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyWinkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleWhy are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEconomica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15
DOIDOI:10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Public20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4183

Correlate
Author's labelLabour market status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Registration in the official unemployment register:

A Employed (including fulltime & parttime employment 
and excuding self-employment)
B Out of labour force
C Unemployed
D Employed with unemployment experience: unemployed in 
at least one of the other years.
Observed distributionN= 1984 A;3530 B:445 C:208 D:248 1985 A:3043 B:382 C:233 D:206 1986 A:2856 B:385 C:175 D:226 1987 A:2858 B:370 C:182 D:218 1988 A:2661 B:347 C:189 D:200 1989 A:2563 B:392 C:125 D:207

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
All
Year   N      Mean  CI95
1984   4183   7,4   [7,37 7,50]
1985   3658   7,2   [7,17 7,30]
1986   3416   7,3   [7,22 7,35]
1987   3410   7,2   [7,12 7,25]
1988   3197   7,1   [7,02 7,15]
1989   3080   7,1   [7,06 7,19]

Employed
Year   N      Mean  CI95
1984   3530   7,6   [7,58 7,70]
1985   3043   7,4   [7,36 7,48]
1986   2856   7,5   [7,39 7,52]
1987   2858   7,3   [7,25 7,38]
1988   2661   7,2   [7,16 7,29]
1989   2563   7,3   [7,19 7,32]

Out of Labour Force
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   445   6,7   [6,45  6,92]
1985   382   6,9   [6,67  7,11]
1986   385   6,8   [6,62  7,06]
1987   370   6,9   [6,66  7,09]
1988   347   6,7   [6,44  6,89]
1989   392   6,7   [6,50  6,94]

Unemployed
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   208   5,6   [5,20  5,98]
1985   233   5,3   [4,96  5,64]
1986   175   5,4   [5,06  5,75]
1987   182   5,7   [5,36  6,09]
1988   189   5,9   [5,57  5,90]
1989   125   5,8   [5,34  6,25]

Employed with unemployment experience
Year   N     Mean  CI95
1984   248   7,3   [7,00  7,57]
1985   206   7,1   [6,83  7,39]
1986   226   6,9   [6,63  7,17]
1987   218   6,9   [6,66  7,20]
1988   200   7,0   [6,71  7,26]
1989   207   6,9   [6,67  7,19]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 156-157
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:85 0a=3371; 0b=1766; 0c=2976; 0d=305

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.54
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .77
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
All women         M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.11 p < .67
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Working people    M=1.59 SD=0.55
-difference       -0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.12 p < .15
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.53 SD=0.54
Retired           M=1.41 SD=0.51
-difference       +0.11
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.22 p < .26
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.01 ns
1                             M'=1.53  Mt'=2.6
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.96      Mt=7.0
4       M= .97      Mt=6.0
5       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
7       M= .51      Mt=5.5
8       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
7       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
8       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
2       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
3       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.06      Mt=6.7
5       M=6.92      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
7       M=5.42      Mt=4.9
8       M=6.23      Mt=5.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study FR 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you ..." (order reversed)
1 full time
2 part time
3 independent
4 retired
5 housewife
6 student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 147-148
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1000; 0b=476;0c=632; 0d=53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
General public    M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.07 p < .79
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
All women         M=1.36 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.05 p < .92
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Working people    M=1.38 SD=0.53
-difference       -0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.09 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.33 SD=0.50
Retired           M=1.12 SD=0.33
-difference       +0.21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.04 ns
1                             M'=1.33  Mt'=1.7
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.43 p < .07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.08 ns
                             
         e02ab


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: employed
0: not employed
Observed distribution1: 1388, 2: 765

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
employed    : M = 7.3
not employed: M = 6.8
-difference :    +0.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelProfesional status
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: employable
b: school/studying
c: unemployed
d: retired
Observed distribution1: 1478, 2: 226, 3: 103, 4: 322

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
employable:      M = 7.2
school/studying: M = 7.2
unemployed:      M = 6.2
retired:         M = 7.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table4, 5
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on employment status:
a. employed (reference)
b. not employed
c. retired
d. in education
e. unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
NOT EMPLOYED (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 ns
RETIRED    (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.12 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.16 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.20 p < .05
IN EDUCATION (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.15 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.21 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.18 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.10 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.88 p < .001
UNEMPLOYED   (vs employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.80 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.72 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.71 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.65 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKnabe et al. (2009): study DE 2008
TitleDissatisfied with Life, but Having a Good Day: Time-Use and Well-Being of the Unemployed.
SourceCES/IFO Working Paper no. 2604, CES, 2009, Munich, Germany.
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_2604.html
PublicFulltime employed and long-term unemployed, Germany, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 18, 21
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A Employed
B Unemployed
Remarks
Reference group of B's: Employed individuals during 
weekdays

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-aDM=
Unemployed feel happier during weekdays but worse 
in the weekend (compared to employed)
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=-1.2 p < .01
Unemployed during weekdays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=+.18 ns
Employed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=-.31 ns
Unemployed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.66 p < .05
Unemployed during weekdays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)

B -1.2 means that unemployed individuals are 1.2 
points less satisfied with their lives during 
weekdays compared to employed individuals during 
weekdays on the happiness scale 0-10.
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.66 p < .05
Unemployed during weekdays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.75 p < .05
Employed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.49 ns
Unemployed during weekenddays (vs. Employed during 
weekdays)

B's are controlled for:
- income
- cohabiting
- education
- health satisfaction
- children
- age
- general goodness of previous day 
- goodness of health and work on previous day

B +.66 means that unemployed individuals are .66 
points happier during weekdays compared to 
employed individuals during weekdays on the 
happiness scale -10-10.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCamp (2016): study DE 2005
TitleFamily and Labor Market Policies in Germany: The Well-Being of Working Women.
SourceConnerley, M.L.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 449 - 472
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6
Public18-62 aged women, Germany, 2005-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelBeing in labour force
Page in Source 466
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a Full-time
b Part-time
c Marginal/irregular part-time
d Not employed
e Unemployed
Error Estimatesd mostly full-time housewives

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=-/+
                no children       have children
Full-time:          M=7.02            M=6.94
Part-time:          M=6.96            M=7.00
Marginal/
irregular part-time:M=6.68            M=6.94
Not employed:       M=6.66            M=7.23
Unemployed          M=5.63            M=6.14
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Not employed   M=6.92
Unemployed     M=5.86
-difference    +0.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) Unemployed
b) Retired
c) Any other responses to occupation position 
(reference group)
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) Unemployed: 0.06 (0.24) b) Retired: 0.25 (0.43)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.27 p < .01
a) unemployed (vs working)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=-.00 ns
b) retired (vs working)

All betas, based upon fixed effects, controlled 
for:
- Monthly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Disabled
- Child dummy

Slightly larger results for pooled OLS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 16-18,30
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a Employed (reference)
b Unemployed
c Student
d Non-working
e Military, civil services

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.51 p < .01
Unemployed               (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.05 ns
Student                  (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 ns
Non-working              (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 ns
Military, civil services (vs. employed)

b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Income
- Spouse in foreign country
- Marital status
- Education
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Employment status:
a) non-employedt (reference group)
b) unemployed
c) employed
Observed distributionMean (S.D) b) unemployment: 0.0737 (0.1521) c) employment: 0.7078 (0.2216)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.55 p < .01
b) Unemployed (vs non-employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 p < .10
c) Employed (vs non-employed)

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- educational career
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A: Not in Labour Force
B: Retired
C: Unemployed

Rated as:
1: Yes
2: No
Observed distributionA: M = 0,139 SD = 0,346; B: M = 0,203 SD = 0,402; C: M = 0,051 SD = 0,219

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.16 ns
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Not in falour force (vs not)

OPRC controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - education
- health
- age
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.17 ns
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- Net Wealth
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.22 ns
Retired             (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.37 p < .01
Unemployed          (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.06 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Not in labour force (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 ns
Retired    (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
Unemployed (vs not)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - education
- health
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, Nürnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status, social assistance
Page in Source 26, 27
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A Employed full time
  a: low wage workers, no social assistance
  b: receiving social assistance
B Unemployed receiving social assistance
C Out of labor force receiving social assistance
Observed distributionN = Aa: 2288, Ab: 27, B: 153, C: 100
Remarks
Low wage workers receive 2/3 of the median wage

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
Aa: Employed, low wage workers    M=6,67 SD=1,68
Ab: Employed, assistance      M=6,74 SD=1,48
B: Unemployed, assistance    M=5,27 SD=1.81
C: Out of labor,assistance   M=5,61 SD=1,97
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 ns
Ab: Employed and social assistance (vs Aa)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1,3 p < .00
B: Unemployed and social assistance (vs Aa)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-0,8 p < .00
C: out of labor force, social assistance (vs Aa)

B's controlled for: 
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Gender
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelIn working force
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not in working force
1: in working force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- education
- age
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a leading employee/civil servant
b qualified high employee/civil
  servant
c unqualified simple employee/civil 
  servant
d foreman, master
e skilled worker
f unskilled worker
g independent professional,entrepreneur
h unemployed
i disabled
j homemaker
k trainee
l early retired
m never employed
Remarks
18-60 aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a leading employee/civil servant  M=8,2   M= -
b qualified high employee/civil   
  servant                         M=7,9   M=7,4
c unqual.simple employee/civil    
  servant                         M=7,5   M=7,0
d foreman, master                 M=8,2   M= -
e skilled worker                  M=7,4   M=6,9
f unskilled worker                M=7,0   M=6,2
g independent professional,
  entrepreneur                    M=8,1   M=6,9
h unemployed                      M=6,2   M=5,9
i disabled                        M=6,5   M= -
j homemaker                       M=7,7   M= - 
k studying, trainee               M=7,3   M= -
l early retired                   M=7,9   M= -
m never employed                  M=7,5   M= -

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
East = former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHabich & Noll (2002): study DE 2001
TitleSoziale Schichtung und soziale Lagen. (Social Stratification and Social Situation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Daten Report 2002", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 570 - 579
URLhttp://www.destatis.de
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2739

Correlate
Author's labelSocial situation
Page in Source 575
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-reported occupation:
a still employed
b never employed
c retired (former worker)
d retired (former c.servant, employee)
Remarks
61+ aged only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                                  West    East
a still employed                  M=7,8   M= -
b never employed                  M=7,6   M= -
c retired (former worker)         M=7,3   M=7,3
d retired (former c.servant, 
  employee)                       M=7,8   M=7,2

- = N too small
West = Western Germany
Eas t =former communist Eastern Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Employed
0: Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
PROBIT ADAPTED OLS. 

Employed                    (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
Unemployed                  (vs Not)

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01 ns
Employed                    (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 p < .01
Unemployed                  (vs Not)

Bs additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
Employed                   (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.19 p < .01
Unemployed                (vs Not)

Bs controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status
Page in Source 6,8
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) Short part-time employment(1-19 weekly working 
hours)
b) Long part-time employment (20-34 weekly working 
hours)
c) Full-time employment(35 or more weekly working 
hours)(reference category)
d) Unemployment: If (1)reported not to be in gainful 
employment or self-employment at the time of the 
interview, (2)had actively sought work during the four 
weeks prior to the date of the interview, and (3) is 
available for work within the next two weeks.
e) Out of labor force (neither employed nor 
self-employed and who do not meet the conditions for 
being unemployed)
Observed distributiona: 18 %, b: + c: 37 %, d: 7 %, e: 39 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.20 p < .01
OUT OF LABOR FORCE (vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- age
- Aae squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- residual household income
- migration background
- education
- person in need of care in the household
- disabled
- self-rated health
- East Germany
- size of the municipality
- self-employed
- have a child in the coming year
- partner status
- number of children
- age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age 
and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.22 p < .01
SHORT PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT (vs Full time 
employment)

B controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.20 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age 
and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
LONG PARTTIME EMPLOYMENT( vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age 
and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.90 p < .01
UNEMPLOYMENT ( vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.89 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.57 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age 
and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=
Specifications:
- the (negative) effect of not being able to work 
and short part-time work on life satisfaction is 
stronger among mothers with low income 
- the (negative) effect of short parttime work on 
life satisfaction is less among mothers with a 
child younger than 3 years old
- the (negative) effect of long parttime work on 
life satisfaction is less among mothers with low 
income 
- No differce between groups of mothers according 
to partner status, education, East/West Germany 
and age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you currently engaged in paid employment?
a) full-time employed (reference)
b) regular part-time employed
c) vocational training
d) irregular part-time employed
e) not employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
REGULAR PART-TIME EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
VOCATIONAL TRAINING 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
IRREGULAR TEMPORARY EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.34 p < .01
NOT EMPLOYED 
(vs full-time employed)

B's controlled for: 
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Education
- Country of birth
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source 95
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) working
b) retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
          Mean    Unhappy(1-3) Very happy(8-10)
Working   7,4     3,0%         47,8%
Retired   7,3     5,7%         45,7%
Diff      -0,1    -2,7%        -2,1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold unemployment index
Page in Source 295
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Household unemployment index (range 0-100)
Observed distributionM=8.398; SD=22.079

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 p < .01
b (-0.002) controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 295
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) working
b) not working: education/training
c) not working: maternity leave
d) not working: military/community service
e) not working: unemployed
f) not working: temporary work
Remarks
Reference category not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11 p < .01
a) working
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 p < .01
b) not working: education/training
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 p < .01
c) not working: maternity leave
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.13 p < .01
d) not working: military/community service
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.52 p < .01
e) not working: unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .05
f) not working: temporary work

b's controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 735
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Employment status:
a) employed full time
b) employed part time
c) materinty leave (women only)
d) nonparticipant
e) unemployed (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.70
a) employed full time, men (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.75
a) employed full time, women (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.47
b) employed part time, men (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.74
b) employed part time, women (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.86
c) maternity leave, women (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.56
d) nonparticipant, men (vs. unemployed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.64
d) nonparticipant, women (vs. unemployed)

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of children
- disability
- household income
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBernheim et al. (2006): study DE 1990
TitleThe Potential of Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) to Reduce Bias in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 227 - 250
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-4755-0
PublicPatients university hospital, Berlin, Germany 1990-2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2584

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 238
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-ol-11-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
Beta's controled for
-age
-maried stage
-education
-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-qBeta=+.09 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
3       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
5       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
7       M=2.39     Mt=4.7
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
2       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
3       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
5       M=6.91      Mt=6.6
6       M=7.92      Mt=7.0
7       M=4.62      Mt=4.0
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
4       M= .78      Mt=5.8
5       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.71      Mt=6.7
7       M=-.57      Mt=4.4
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.21      Mt=4.7
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.21      Mt=4.7
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
4       M= .90      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
7       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
4       M= .90      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
7       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a Employed (full-time only for females)
b Employed part-time
c Maternity leave
d Nonparticipant
e Fired in last year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
EMPLOYED
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.64  Beta=+.57
West: Beta=+.68  Beta=+.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
EMPLOYED PART-TIME
East:   -----    Beta=+.49
West:   -----    Beta=+.34
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
MARTERNITY LEAVE
East:   -----    Beta=+.37
West:   -----    Beta=+.47
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
NONPARTICIPANT
East: Beta=+.42  Beta=+.30
West: Beta=+.55  Beta=+.38
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
FIRED IN LAST YEAR
East: Beta=-.12  Beta=-.10
West: Beta=-.18  Beta=-.08

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed (lagged)
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are you currently in paid employment?
1: Employed
0: Otherwise
Measure is lagged by 1 year to avoid reversed causality
Observed distribution1: 51%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.18 p < .05
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.09 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in employment status

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Years of education
- Marital status
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelLabor force status
Page in Source 48, 49
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: Non working
   a: age 65 and older
   b: in education-training
   c: maternity leave
   d: military service
   e: unemployed
   f: semotimes secondary job
   g: but work in past 7 days
   h: but regular secondary job
1: Working
   a: but non-working past 7 days
Remarks
The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is recorded 
here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
1  M = 3,81
1a M = 3,79
1b M = 3,93
1c M = 3,92
1d M = 3,69
1e M = 3,21
1f M = 3,89
1g M = 3,73
1h M = 3,82

2  M = 3,91
2a M = 3,85
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08
Part-time working (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03
Not working (vs working)

Bs controlled for:
- Peronal characteristics
  - household size
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - education
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) Unemployed
b) Nonparticipant
c) Working (reference group)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.36 p < .01
a) Unemployed (vs working)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.21 ns
b) Nonparticipant (vs working)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1305

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelIn working force
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not in working force
1: in working force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=-1.0 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- education
- age
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
3       M= .92      Mt=5.9
4       M= .51      Mt=5.5
5       M= .42      Mt=5.4
6       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
7       M=-.03      Mt=5.0
8       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
3       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
4       M=5.79      Mt=5.3
5       M=5.12      Mt=4.6
6       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
7       M=4.67      Mt=4.1
8       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
2       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
5       M=2.36     Mt=4.5
6       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
7       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
8       M=3.11     Mt=7.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
2       M=8.21      Mt=8.0
3       Empty category
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Empty category
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
3       Empty category
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Empty category
8       less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=2.59      Mt=7.6
2       M=2.91      Mt=7.9
3       Empty category
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       Empty category
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: employed (reference)
0: unemployed
Observed distributionEmployed: 72.6%; Unemployed:27.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.17 p < .1
B controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -Caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -education
 -marital status
 -religion
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.47      Mt=7.5
2       M=2.12      Mt=7.1
3       M=2.46      Mt=7.5
4       M=2.10      Mt=7.1
5       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
6       M=2.66      Mt=7.7
7       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
8       M= .22      Mt=5.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
7       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
8       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
4       M=7.86      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.97      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.56      Mt=8.4
7       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
8       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .26      Mt=5.3
2       M= .55      Mt=5.6
3       M= .32      Mt=5.3
4       M= .53      Mt=5.5
5       M= .30      Mt=5.3
6       M= .54      Mt=5.5
7       M= .38      Mt=5.4
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
2       M=5.51      Mt=5.0
3       M=6.18      Mt=5.8
4       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
5       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.71      Mt=6.3
7       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
2       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
3       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
4       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
5       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
6       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
7       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelemployment status
Page in Source 164
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: paid employment
b:  retired
c: unemployed
d: domestic duties
e: full-time student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=
paid employment:     M = 7.68
retired:             M = 7.91
unemployed:          M = 6.43
domestic duties:     M = 8.11
full-time student:   M = 7.81


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=2.50      Mt=7.5
2       M=2.66      Mt=7.7
3       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
6       M=2.61      Mt=7.6
7       M= .43      Mt=5.4
8       M=-.40      Mt=4.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.08      Mt=7.9
2       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
7       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
8       M=5.82      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
4       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
7       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
8       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=2.50      Mt=7.5
2       M=2.66      Mt=7.7
3       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
6       M=2.61      Mt=7.6
7       M= .43      Mt=5.4
8       M=-.40      Mt=4.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.08      Mt=7.9
2       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
7       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
8       M=5.82      Mt=5.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
4       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
7       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
8       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1217

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
During the last 12 months, i.e., from the beginning of 
, 2005 and till the end of last month, 
which of the following possibilities describes your 
main activity?
a) working
b) unemployed, seeking work
c) other (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.10 p < .05
WORKING   (vs other)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.15 p < .05
Arabians
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.31 p < .05
UNEMPLOYED (vs other)
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.06 p < .05
Arabians

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- education
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- Hebrew fluency
- health
- years in Israel
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
7       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
8       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
5       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
7       M=6.08      Mt=5.6
8       M=6.86      Mt=6.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
4       M= .76      Mt=5.8
5       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
7       M= .80      Mt=5.8
8       M= .90      Mt=5.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IT 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1348

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 175-176
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:294; 0a=1078; 0b=520; 0c=499; 0d=156

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
General public    M=1.57 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.03
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.05 p < .73
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
All women         M=1.60 SD=0.59
-difference       0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=0 p < .1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Working people    M=1.53 SD=0.59
-difference       +0.07
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .21
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives        M=1.60 SD=0.59
Retired           M=1.61 SD=0.59
-difference       -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.01 p < .99
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.02 ns
1                             M'=1.60  Mt'=3.0
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.06 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A: Unemployed
    a Housewives/husbands
    b Students
    c Those not in the labor force
B: Employed
    a Agriculture and forestry
    b (Fisheries)
    c (Mining)
    d Construction
    e Manufacturing
    f Electricity, gas, heat supply and water
    g Information and communications
    h Transport
    i Wholesale and retail trade
    j Finance and insurance
    k Real estate
    l Accommodations, eating and drinking services
    m Medical, health care and welfare
    n Education, learning support
    o Compound services
    p Services, not elsewhere classified
    q Government, except elsewhere classified
    r Industries unable to be classified
Remarks
except respondents who were unable to be classified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=+-
A Unemployed                          M = 4,6
  Aa Housewives/husbands              M = 6,8
  Ab Students                         M = 6,0
  Ac Not in the labor force           M = 6,2
 
B Employed                            M = 5,9
  Ba Agriculture/forestry             M = 5,4
  Bb (Fisheries)                      M = 6,6
  Bc (Mining)                         M = 6,8
  Bd Construction                     M = 5,7
  Be Manufacturing                    M = 5,9
  Bf Electric./gas/heat/water supply  M = 5,7
  Bg Information and communications   M = 5,6 
  Bh Transport                        M = 5,7
  Bi Wholesale and retail trade       M = 5,9
  Bj Finance and insurance            M = 6,3
  Bk Real estate                      M = 6,0
  Bl Accommod./eating/drinking serv.  M = 5,7
  Bm Medical/health care/welfare      M = 6,1
  Bn Education/learning support       M = 6,4
  Bo Compound services                M = 6,1
  Bp Other services                   M = 6,0
  Bq Government                       M = 6,2
  Br Other industries                 M = 5,9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTiefenbach & Kohlbacher (2011): study JP 2011
TitleHappiness from the Viewpoint of Economics.
SourceDeutsches Institut für Japanstudien, 2011, Tokyo, Japan
URLhttp:www.dijtokyo.org
Public15 -79 aged, Japan, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response28,4%
Respondents N =3578

Correlate
Author's labelJob
Page in Source 7
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Company Employee
b: Managing Position
c: Civil Servant
d: Directorial Board (company)
e. Directorial Board (organisation)
f.  Entrepreneur
g. Temporary employee
h. Housewife
i. Student
j. Without work
Observed distributionN=3569; etc.
Remarks
N/A = 9.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-fDM=+/-
a: Company Employee   M = 6,37
b: Managing Position  M = 6,89
c: Civil Servant      M = 7,11
d: Directorial Board  M = 6,84
   (company)
e. Directorial Board  M = 6,62
   (organisation)
f. Entrepreneur       M = 6,17
g. Temporary employee M = 6,19
h. Housewife          M = 7,02
i. Student            M = 6,86
j. Without work       M = 6,01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelWorker
Page in Source 17
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Are you a worker? (Full question was not reported, 
assumed)
1: Yes
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.06 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.02 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of children
 -Number of elders


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
4       M= .76      Mt=5.8
5       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
7       M= .80      Mt=5.8
8       M= .90      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
2       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
7       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
8       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .35      Mt=5.3
2       M= .71      Mt=5.7
3       M= .71      Mt=5.7
4       M= .17      Mt=5.2
5       M= .23      Mt=5.2
6       M= .57      Mt=5.6
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M= .28      Mt=5.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
5       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
7       M=6.08      Mt=5.6
8       M=6.86      Mt=6.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.33      Mt=5.9
2       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
5       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=5.74      Mt=5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyAbe & Moritsuka (1986): study JP 1981
TitleA Case-Control Study of Climacteric Symptoms and Complaints of Japanese Women by Symptomatic Type for Psychological Variables.
SourceMaturitas, 1986, Vol. 8, 255 - 265
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3784921&dopt=Abstract
PublicWomen in menopause patient and controls, Miyagi, North-east Japan, 1981-82.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response20 % (cases 21%,controls 19%)
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelJob status
Page in Source 262
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: Check an appropiate job which 
is corresponding to your job in the following list of 
jobs.
(list not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyKusago (2007): study JP 1978
TitleRethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post - WW 2 Japan - A Fresh Approach
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 79 - 102
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-0016-9
PublicGeneral public, Japan, 3 annual 1978-2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =18

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 4
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1. have a job
0. no job

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.05 ns
1978
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=-.04 ns
1990
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-eb=+.02 ns
2002

B's controlled for:
-age
-marital status
-gender
-house ownership
-family income
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 35
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Current employment status:
a) Employed
b) Self-employed
c) Unemployed
d) Non-working (reference)
Error Estimatesa) Mean: 0.27, SD: 0.45 b) Mean: 0.09, SD: 0.29 c) Mean: 0.02, SD: 0.13 d) Mean: 0.42, SD: 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.03 p < .01
a) Employed     (vs non-working)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=+.03 p < .01
b) Self-employed (vs non-working)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb-fix=-.30 p < .01
c) Unemployed    (vs non-working)

b-fix controlled for:
- yearly change of household income
- earlier household income
- reference group income
- age
- health status
- marital status
- education level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyLee et al. (1982): study KR 1980
TitlePerceptions of Quality of Life in an Industrializing Country: The Case of the Republic of Korea.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 10, 297 - 317
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00301097
PublicParents with unmarried children at home, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed status
Page in Source 311
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Not working
1 Working

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=-
Hardly any difference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.64      Mt=5.2
2       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
3       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
4       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
5       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
6       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
7       M=5.88      Mt=5.4
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .90      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
3       M= .73      Mt=5.7
4       M= .70      Mt=5.7
5       M= .83      Mt=5.8
6       M= .84      Mt=5.8
7       M= .64      Mt=5.6
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
2       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
3       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
4       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
5       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
6       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
7       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .73      Mt=5.7
2       M= .57      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
4       M= .57      Mt=5.7
5       M= .00      Mt=5.0
6       M= .43      Mt=5.4
7       M=-.09      Mt=4.9
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=5.91      Mt=5.5
2       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
3       M=6.58      Mt=6.2
4       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.47      Mt=6.1
6       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
7       M=5.96      Mt=5.5
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
2       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
3       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
4       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
5       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
6       M=2.73     Mt=5.8
7       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labelsalaried employment/self employment
Page in Source 903
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: salaried employee (vs not)
b: self employee (vs not)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+,14 p < .01
salaried employee
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+,15 p < .01
self employee

Bs controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area

Bs unaffected by
- additional control for personal assets
- alternative controls for relative wealth


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
5       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
6       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
7       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
4       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
5       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.78      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
4       M= .25      Mt=5.3
5       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
6       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
7       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.60      Mt=6.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 188-189
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN = 1: 457 0a=1752; 0b=1000; 0c=1178; 0d=61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
General public  M = 1.59  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .39
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
All women       M = 1.60  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+05 p < .65
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.82
working people  M = 1.58  SD = 0,80
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+07 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
House wives     M = 1.64  SD = 0.81
Retired people  M = 1.59  SD = 0,74
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .59
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 p < .05
1                             M'=1.64  Mt'=3.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.09 p < .05
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008
TitleHappiness and 'economic migration': a comparison of Eastern European migrants and stayers
SourceMigration Studies, 1(2), 156-175
DOIdoi:10.1093/migration/mnt006
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42380

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 163, 165, 167
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Using this card, which of these descriptions applies to 
what you have been doing for the last 7 days?
1: Unemployed
0: Otherwise
Observed distribution7.4% unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.07 p < .000
Beta controlled for:
- Immigrant status
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Religion
- Gender
- Partner
- Friends
- Health
- Income
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBericat (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006 /1
TitleThe Subjective Well-Being of Working Women in Europe.
SourceConnerly, M.L. and Wu, J.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", International Handbook of Quality-of-Life, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2016, Netherlands, 633 - 650
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6_35
Public15-65 aged general public, 25 European nations, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =43000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployee and employer
Page in Source 646
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) employee
b) self-employed
c) employer

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=+
ALL
-Employee          DMr = + 5,3
-Self-employed     DMr = - 1,4
-Employer          DMr = + 0,8
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=
MALES
-Employee          DMr = + 4,5
-Self-employed     DMr = - 3,9
-Employer          DMr = + 4,9
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=
ALL
Employee          DMr = + 6,2
Self-employed     DMr = + 2,9
Employer          DMr = + 1,9

DMr denotes difference from population mean


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBericat (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006 /1
TitleThe Subjective Well-Being of Working Women in Europe.
SourceConnerly, M.L. and Wu, J.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", International Handbook of Quality-of-Life, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2016, Netherlands, 633 - 650
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6_35
Public15-65 aged general public, 25 European nations, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =43000

Correlate
Author's labelWorking (or not)
Page in Source 638
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 working
0 not working

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=+
ALL
- working      DMr = +5.1
- not working  DMr = -1,5
difference            6,6
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=+
MALES
- working      DMr = +3,8
- not working  DMr = -4,0
difference            7,8
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=+
FEMALES
- working      DMr = +6.6
- not working  DMr =  0,0
difference            6,6

DMr denotes difference from population mean


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBericat (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006 /1
TitleThe Subjective Well-Being of Working Women in Europe.
SourceConnerly, M.L. and Wu, J.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", International Handbook of Quality-of-Life, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2016, Netherlands, 633 - 650
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6_35
Public15-65 aged general public, 25 European nations, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =43000

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source 642
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) Paid work
b) Student
c) Chronically ill/disabled
d) Retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDM=
MALES
- Paid work                DMr = +3.7
- Students                 DMr = +14.9
- Chronically ill/disabled DMr = -37.2
- Retired                  DMr = -4.5
- All males                DMr = +0.3
M-TH-cw-mq-v-4-aDMr=+
FEMALES
- Paid work                DMr = +6.2
- Student                  DMr = +22.0
- Chronically ill/disabled DMr = -35.7
- Retired                  DMr = -12.9
- All females              DMr = -0.3

DMr denotes difference from population mean


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 259
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: employed
0: not employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.43 p < .01
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual unemployment

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Education
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 13
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: yes
2: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.32 p < .01
B controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - education
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelHomemakers
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 = employed (reference)
1 = homemaker

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.19 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.10 ns
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.05 ns
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.02 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.05 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelRetired
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 = employed (reference)
1 = retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.35 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.13 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.10 ns
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.17 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBöhnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelStill in education
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 = employed (reference)
1 = still in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.13 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.18 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-class/occupation
-education
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.20 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb==.17 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.12 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 48, 51
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What term best describes your current work status?
1: a) Working in a paid job as an employee
    b) Self-employed
0: Not in paid work force
Observed distribution1: 55%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=9.13 p < .003
Significant positive association between being 
employed and life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a paid work
b in education
c unemployed and actively looking for job
d unemployed and not actively looking for job
e permanently sick or disabled
f retired
g housework
h other (reference category).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.05 ns
	paid work (vs other)
b(0.0454) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.02 ns
paid work (vs other)
b(-.245) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.27 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.271) controlled for:
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.22 p < .001
in education (vs other)
b(0.216) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.066) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income 
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
unemployed and actively looking for job (vs other)
b(-1.059) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.66 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.664) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.61 p < .001
unemployed and not actively looking for job (vs 
other)
	b(-.613) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-1.1 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
		b(-1.117) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.34 p < .001
disabled (vs other)
b(-.337) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.08 p < .01
retired (vs other)
	b(0.0813) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.19 p < .001
retired (vs other)
	b(0.185) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.04 p < .05
housework (vs other)
b(0.0425) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Education levels
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 ns
housework (vs other)
b(0.0342) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTreas et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleThe Happy Homemaker? Married Women's Well-Being in Cross-National Perpective.
SourceSocial Forces, 2011, Vol. 90, 111 - 132
PublicWomen with partner, aged 18-65, 28 countries, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7014

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source 123
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Which of these descriptions applies to what you were 
doing last week, that is in the seven days ending last 
Sunday?
a) Full-time worker(reference category)
b) Part-time worker
c) Homemaker
d) Others, not in labour force
Observed distributiona: 41 %, b:19 %, c: 30 %, d: 10 %
Remarks
Based on weighted data: N= 6696

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-a
PART-TIME WORKERS (vs full-time workers)
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta (+.024) controled for:
- average happiness in nation
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
Beta (+.041) additionally controled for:
- age
- age squared
- number of children
- education
- liberal gender ideology
- church attendance
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
Beta (+.089) additionally controled for:
- family income
- family income flag
- housework fairness
- task sharing
- family stress
- housework conflict
(possible mediating variables)

Advantage of homemakers slightly smaller in 
nations that provide more 
- GPD per capita
- social spending
- gender ideology

No interaction with the nation's
- female labors force
- affirmative action
- public child care
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-a
HOME MAKERS (vs full-time workers)
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta (=.011) controled for:
- average happiness in nation
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
Beta (+.06) aditionally controled for:
- age
- age squared
- number of children
- education
- liberal gender ideology
- church attendance
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.12 p < .001
Beta (+.119)additionally controled for:
- family income
- family income flag
- housework fairness
- task sharing
- family stress
- housework conflict
(possible mediating variables)

Advantage of homemakers slightly smaller in 
nations that provide more 
- public child care
- social spending

No interaction with the nation's
- GPD per capita
- female labors force
- gender ideology
- affirmative action
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-a
OTHERS NOT IN LABOUR FORCE (vs full-time workers)
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.09 p < .05
Beta (-.085) controled for:
- average happiness in nation
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.90 p < .01
Beta (-.090) additionally controlled for:
- age
- age squared
- number of children
- education
- liberal gender ideology
- church attendance
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta (-.027) additionally controled for:
- family income
- family income flag
- housework fairness
- task sharing
- family stress
- housework conflict
(possible mediating variables)


No interaction with the nation's:
- public child care
- social spending
- GPD per capita
- female labors force
- gender ideology
- affirmative action


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) unemployed
b) retired
c) student
d) self-employed
f) long term(LT) unemployment (experienced unemployment 
longer than three months in the past 2 years)

Each rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.73 p < .001
1999 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 p < .05
2008 Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.54 p < .001
1999 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.45 p < .001
2008 retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.94 p < .001
1999 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.38 p < .001
2008 student
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .01
1999 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.25 p < .01
2008 self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.15 ns
1999 LT unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.29 p < .001
2008 LT unemployment

b’s controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area
No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 298
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: Employed for pay
0: Other
Observed distributionM=0,51 SD=0,50

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.09 p < .01
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .01
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1. Employed
2. Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.89 p < .05
For all nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.67 p < .05
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.78 p < .05
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.2 p < .05
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-1.1 p < .05
In richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.

B's controlled for at individual level:
 -gender
 -marital status
 -age
 -age squared
 -social class
 -individual income.

Unaffected by additional control at country-level 
for:
-GDP per capita
-income inequality
-growth GDP last 10 years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelunemployed
Page in Source 138
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not unemployed
1:     unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.31 p < .01
Individual happiness (not average) by being 
unemployed.

Beta's controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.26 p < .01
Beta additionally controlled for aggregated 
variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 8
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A: Inactive (reference)
B: Unemployed
C: Self-employment (agriculture and informal)
D: Self-employment (professional and owners)
E: Wage earners

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.03 p < .01
WAGE EARNERS                  (vs Inactive)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.03 p < .01
SELF-EMPLOYMENT. AGRICULTURE  (vs Inactive)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=0 ns
SELF-EMPLOYMENT. PROFESSIONAL (vs Inactive)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=-.21 ns
UNEMPLOYED                    (vs Inactive)

OLRCs controlled for:
- GDP per capita
- country 
- year
- size of city
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - gender
  - education
  - age
  - marital status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~Eurobarometer (1997): study ZZ EU 15 1997 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 47.
SourceEuropean Commission,1997, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb47/eb47_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source B3
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a:Self employed
b:Managers
c:Other white collars
d:Manual workers
e:House person
f:Unemployed
Observed distributiona: 10%, b: 9%, c: 10%, d: 23%, e: 11%, f: 7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
a:Self employed        M=2,89  CI95: 2,85-2,93
b:Managers             M=3,09  CI95: 3,06-3,12
c:Other white collars  M=2,98  CI95: 2,95-3,01
d:Manual workers       M=2,90  CI95: 2,88-2,92
e:House person         M=2,93  CI95: 2,89-2,96
f:Unemployed           M=2,46  CI95: 2,41-2,51
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
b>a,c,d,e,f
fa,d,f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1    Paid work, employed people (reference)
0a Paid work, self-employed
0b Unemployed
0c Retired
0d In education
0e Housework, looking after children
0f  Doing other work
0g No formal or not empleted primary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.24 p < .01
Paid work,self-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.70 p < .01
Unemployed
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.04 ns
Retired
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.27 p < .01
In education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.23 p < .01
Housework, looking after children
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.41 p < .01
Doing other work

B's controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - education
  - marital status
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 14,15,36
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A INDIVIDUAL unemployment status:
1 : Unemployed
0 : Not unemployed

B AVERAGE unemployment:
    unemplyment rates in nations

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.32 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL unemployment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.58 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.06 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by NATIONAL unemployment 
RATES
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by NATIONAL unemployment rates

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - education
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - trustwortiness of people
     - unemployment rate
     - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelEnployment status
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Unemployed
b: School
c: Retired
d: Home
e: Self-employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.39 p < .01
Unemployed (vs. employed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,610
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.06 p < .01
At school (vs. employed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= +0,107
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 p < .05
Retired (vs. employed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,028
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 ns
Home (vs. employed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,015
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.01 ns
Self-employed (vs. employed)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC=-0,015

Beta's controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - number of children
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 461, 466, 467
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: unemployed
0: employed
Observed distributionM=0.08, SD=0.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.06 ns
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.24 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile

In regression with only socio-economic variables 
unemployment has a negative effect (-.08) on 
happiness in LICs, but still ns, while in HICs it 
has strong, negative and significant effect (-.44 
, p<.01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment status
Page in Source 94
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: Employed
1: Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.43 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL employment 
status

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-
In 74 nations separately.
Significantly negative in 43 nations.
Significantly positive in 3 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=
EC (stratified sample)
Full time         Mt' =  6.89
Part time         Mt' =  6.89
Independent       Mt' =  6.89
Unemployed        Mt' =  5.56
Retired           Mt' =  6.67
Housewife         Mt' =  6.67
Student           Mt' =  6.78
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=+
Full time         Mt' = 7.11
Part time         Mt' = 7.11
Independent       Mt' = 6.89
Unemployed        Mt' = 6.33
Retired           Mt' = 6.44
Housewife         Mt' = 7.00
Student           Mt' = 7.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=
In none of the european countries, ß weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
life satisfaction (HAPP 2.1), affect (AFF 2.3);
satisfaction with income, health and family life;
age, income, male sex, marital status, having 
children, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, 
own home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future; tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, 
hopeless about life and sense of control.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=
Except for Northern Ireland (ß = -.16) in none of 
the european countries, ß weights of this variable 
reached .10 level in multiple regression analysis, 
when controlling for: life satisfaction (HAPP 
2.1), affect (AFF 2.3); satisfaction with income, 
health and family life; age, income, male sex, 
marital status, having children, work; 
urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, 
religiousness, social participation; uncertainty 
about future, expected negative changes in income; 
satisfaction 5 years in past and future; 
tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, hopeless about 
life and sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a:  self-employed (reference group)
b:  other occupation
c:  housekeeping
d:  retired
e:  unemployed
f:  in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.10 p < .001
Other occupation (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Housekeeping (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.03 p < .001
Retired (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.31 p < .001
Unemployed (vs self employed)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.16 p < .001
In education (vs self employed)

b's controled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Similar results in analysis using:
- Probit Adjusted OLS (POLS)
- Instrumental Variable (VI)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBlanchflower (2004): study ZZ Europe 1975 /1
TitleSelf-Employment: More May not be Better.
SourceNBER Working Paper 10286, 2004, Cambridge, USA
URLhttp://www.nber.org/papers/w10286
Public18+aged, general public, 17 European countries, 1975-1998
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =480000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 45-46
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1:Unemployed
0:Not

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-blgt=-1.0
Lgt controls not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment state
Page in Source 29
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a)employed (reference)
b)unemployed
c)self-employed
d)retired
e)keeping home
f)in school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.49 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by employment state
Unemployed    (vs. employed)
OPRC (-0.491)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.03 p < .05
Self-employed (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.031)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.05 p < .05
Retired       (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.046)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.01 p < .10
Keeping home  (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.014)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.20 p < .05
In school     (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.202)

OPRC's controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ±1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelNon-labor
Page in Source 259
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 All
1 Non-labor (including housewives)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.04 ns
Gamma is based on the difference in happiness 
between the 'non-labor' category and the entire 
population (including 'non-labor'). Housewives 
were not considered as 'non-labor'.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic category
Page in Source 89
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a. employee (reference)
b. self employed
c. otherwise active
d. benefit receiver
e. pension receiver
f. student
g. otherwise not active and people without income.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+/-
a. 92%
b. 92%
c. 95%
d. 67%
e. 85%
f. 92%
g. 92%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+/-
a. 89%
b. 89%
c. 95%
d. 62%
e. 88%
f. 91%
g. 91%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.05
self employed
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.17
otherwise active
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.20
benefit receiver
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.06
pension receiver
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.44
student
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=+.29
otherwise not active and people without income
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.16
self employed
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.44
otherwise active
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.31
benefit receiver
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.21
pension receiver
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.65
student
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=+.35
otherwise not active and people without income
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-d
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- trust in parliament
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment situation
Page in Source 33
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: Study/ school
b: No day job outside the house 
c: Retired
d: Working (reference category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 216 2: 273 3: 329 4: 1125

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            Study  No day job Retired Working 
Very happy   25.5%    29%       24%     24,5%
Happy        69%      65%       65%     67,5%
Not happy    5,5%     15%       11%     8%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled  observed  controlled
Study      0,93  0,71       0,98       0,93
No job     2,67* 2,46*      1,19       1,14
Retired    1,95* 1,89*      1,18       1,12 
Working    1     1          1          1

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- family stage 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = P<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyCloin & Wennekers (2007): study NL 2004
TitleEen Gelukkige Combinatie. (A Happy Combination).
SourceSchnabel, P. ; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 51 - 56
Public20-65-aged; Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1491

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold type
Page in Source 53
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Household-situations for men:
a: couple, no child, man works part time (substantial), 
woman has a job
b: couple, with child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
c: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
d: couple with child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
e: couple, with child, man works part-time 
(substantial), woman has a job
f: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
g: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has no job
h: man lives alone, works full-time
i: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has a job, 
man does housekeeping
j: man lives alone, works part-time (substantial or 
small)
k: man lives alone, has no job

Household-situations for women:
a: couple, with child, woman works full-time, man works
b: couple, with child, woman works part-time 
(substantial), man works 
c: couple, no child, woman works full-time, man works
d: couple, no child, woman works part-time, man works
e: couple, with child,woman has no job, man works
f: woman lives alone,works full-time
g: couple, no child, man has no job and keeps the 
house, woman works
h: couple with child,woman works part-time (small), man 
works 
i: couple, no child, woman has no job, man has no job
j: couple, no child, woman has no job, man works
k: woman lives alone, works part-time (small or 
substantial)
l: mother lives alone, has a job
m: woman lives alone, has no job
n: mother lives alone, has no job
Observed distributionN: Men: 696: a: 25; b: 127; c: 48; d: 74; e: 16; f: 129; g: 49; h: 107; i: 29. N: Women: 795: a: 21; b: 119; c: 54; d: 100; e: 57; f: 60; g: 35; h: 27; i: 63; j: 76; k: 64; l: 26; m : 69; n: 24.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
% (very) happy by their household-situation: MALES
a: 92
b: 91
c: 90
d: 88
e: 88
f: 84
g: 84
h: 76
i: 69
j: 69
k: 45

% (very) happy by their household-situation: 
FEMALES
a: 95
b: 94
c: 93
d: 91
e: 88
f: 87
g: 86
h: 85
i: 83
j: 76
k: 67
l: 62
m: 54
n: 50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVanCampen (2007): study NL 2003
TitleBruto Nationaal Geluk: een Proef op de Som . (Gross National Happiness: a Test.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.; "Veel Geluk in 2007', SCP, 2007, the Hague, Netherlands, 19 - 23
Public18-65 aged, Netherlands, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =5355

Correlate
Author's labelEmployement (paid job > 12 hours weekly)
Page in Source 20
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Do you have a paid job of 12 hours a week or more?
1=no
2=yes
Observed distributionN. 1 = 43% 2 = 57%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=
%happy (score 3,4,5)

            Handicap    No handicap  All  
   
Unemployed      67           84      76     
Employed        81           92      87        
Difference     +14           +8     +11   
All             73           90  (D=17)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 15
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: with paid employment
0: without paid employment
Observed distribution1: 62,5%; 0: 37,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.07 ns
CI95 [-.08- +.22]

B controlled for:
-gender
-age
-education
-living with partner
-urbanicity
-kind of disorder
-number of disorders
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelLabor force status
Page in Source 42,48
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1. Employed:
   a: on contract
   b: own business
   c: free profession, self-employed
   d: volunteer
   e: unpaid work
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job after lost job
   b: looking for a job first time
   c: student
   d: retired
   e: disabled
3. Other (not in labor force)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+-
1. Employed:
   a: on contract           M = 4,18
   b: own business          M = 4,04
   c: free profession       M = 4,09
   d: volunteer             M = 4,01
   e: unpaid work           M = 3,81
2. Unemployed:
   a: looking for a job     M = 4,07
   b: looking for first job M = 3,75
   c: student               M = 3,75
   d: retired               M = 4,04
   e: disabled              M = 4,04

3. Other                    M = 3,99
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.33
Employed on contract              (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.19
Own business                      (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.35
Free profession                   (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.82
Looking for a job: after lost job (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-1.0
Looking for a job: first time     (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.16
Student                           (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.45
keeping the house                 (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.43
Disabled                          (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.91
Unpaid work                       (vs Not)
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.36
Volunteer                         (vs Not)

OLRCs controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
  - household size
  - income
  - health status
  - age
  - number of children
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHenkens (1997): study NL 1992
TitleInactiviteit en Sociaal Isolement, Gezondheid en Welbevinden: Mannelijke Werkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Inactivity and Social Isolation, Health and Well-Being: Employed and Unemployed Compared).
SourceNIDI Working Paper, 1997/2, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/henkens_k_1997.pdf
Public55-64 aged men, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response61,7
Respondents N =575

Correlate
Author's labellabour market position
Page in Source 6
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a unemployed
b unable to work
c employed
d early retired
Observed distributiona 2,2% b:??% c: ?? D: ?? %
Remarks
unemployed: N =13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-dDM=
a: M = 3,9
b: M = 3.8
c: M = 4,2
d: M = 4,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHenkens & Bronsema (2000): study NL 1992
TitleArbeiden Welbevinden. Oudere Werklozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Work and Well-Being. Comparison between Older Unemployed, Disabled Employers, Employers and Early Retired Workers.)
SourceDemos, 2000, May, 37 - 39
Public55-65 years old,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelPosition on labour maket
Page in Source 40
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: still employed 
b: early retired 
c: unemployed 
d: disabled

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-5-cD%=-
% happiness:
               (very) happy    not (so) happy 
still employed    90%             >1,5%
early retired     90%              1,5%
unemployed        88%              2,2%
disabled          80%              6,0%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~CBS (1992): study NL 1991
TitleLeefsituatie van de Nederlands Bevolking 1991. Kerncijfers. (Lifesituation of the Dutch 1991.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1992, The Hague, Netherlands
Public13+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1991
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6061

Correlate
Author's labelemployment
Page in Source 85
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: non-employed
1: employed
Observed distributionN:Males=2000;Females=2542
Remarks
18-64 years aged subjects only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
% very satisfied
                      Males       Females
0: non-employed        43            49
1: employed            56            57
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% very happy
                      Males       Females
0: non-employed        80            85
1: employed            90            79


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
2       M=3.50     Mt=8.3
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
5       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
6       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
7       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
8       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
2       M=2.05      Mt=7.1
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=1.27      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
6       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
7       M= .89      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.92      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.88      Mt=7.6
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=7.91      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
6       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
7       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
8       M=7.79      Mt=7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySoons (2006): study NL 1987
TitleHet Geluk van de Happy Single. (The Happiness of the Happy Single).
SourceDemos, 2006, Vol. 10, 75 - 77
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 26, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1775

Correlate
Author's labelDaily activity
Page in Source 76
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a No daily occupation
b Full-time education
c Having a job
Remarks
Assessed at T1 + T2 (merged file)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-7-aDM=
No daily activity    M = 5,8
Full-time education  M = 6,9
Having a job         M = 6,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelFirst paid job
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Still in education or without job
1 Having a job of at least 20 hours per week for at 
least 6 months after leaving school.
Observed distributionN in this situation at: T1= 625, T1-T3=180, T3-T4=45, T3-T5 or T4-T5=18, Total=868
Remarks
Employment situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss with 
and without a first job over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .10
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age²
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism

and lifecourse transitions (happened or not):
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.11 ns
additional controlled for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyDeGoede & Maassen (1987): study NL 1982
TitleNiet Jong en Niet Oud: Verschillen in Omgaan met Werkeloosheid. (Not Young and Not Old:Differences in Coping with Unemployment.)
SourceSpruit, I.P.;Tazelaar, F.;Eds.: "Leven met Werkeloosheid.", Wolters-Noordhof, 1987, Groningen, Netherlands, Chapters 7 - 8.
Public25-55 aged males, unemployeds and controls, The Netherlands, 1982/2
Sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =383

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 120
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Unemployed
1 Employed.
Observed distributionUnemployed: N= 210, Employed: N = 173
Remarks
Unemployed are either longer than      three months 
registered at the labour   office or declared medically 
unfit     for working.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-5-bG=+.84 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHoff & Jehoel - Gijsbergs (1998): study NL 1982
TitleEen Bestaan zonder Baan. (Live without Work).
SourceSociaal Cultureel Planbureau, 1998, Rijswijk, Netherlands
URLhttps://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_1998/Een_bestaan_zonder_baan
PublicAdults, in labor force, The Netherlands, 1982-1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =500

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 147
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a. unemployed
b. unfit for work
c. employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM= ns
                 1982      1995      Difference
unemployed       M = 3.43  M = 3.46  ns
unfit for work   M = 3.47  M = 3.49  ns
employed         M = 3.94  M = 3.90  ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTammes (2007): study NL 1979
TitleKomt Geluk met de Jaren? ( Does Happiness Rise with Age?)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 81 - 88
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =21929

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a job
Page in Source 84
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0=no job
1=job
Observed distribution59+aged: 8% has a job (men 14%; women 3%) 44-59 aged: 59% has a job (men 87%, women 34%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+06 p < .05
%happy
People with a job are in general happier than 
people without a job; %happy is around 4-6% higher 
at age 16-29 and 4-10% at age 45-74.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: unemployed 
2: employed less than 12 hours
3: employed more than 12 hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.18 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Education
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity
 -Income
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.11 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Age
-Household composition
-Satisfaction with:
 -Health
 -Home
 -Friends and acquaintances
 -Social position
 -Financial resources
 -Dutch society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyJol (1985a): study NL 1974
TitleLiever Samen dan Alleen? Veranderingen in Levensomstandigheden én Welbevinden van Alleenstaanden, 1974-1983. (Better together than Alone? Changes in Life Situations ánd Well-Being of Singles,1974-1983).
SourceC.B.S. Select, Nr. 3, Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985, The Hague, Netherlands, 171 - 184
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1983
Sample
Non-Response1974: 28%, 1983: 43%
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 178
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 = doesn't work
1 = works more than 15 hours a week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.06 p < .05
1983 only
ß controlled for sex and age.
Results 1974 not significantly different.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 63
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Respondent or spouse has ......
1 no paid job
2 paid job

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.05
1974
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08
1977
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.15
1980
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.02
1983
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.07
1986
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.13
1989
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.13
1990
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.10
1991
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.14
1992
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.15
1993
Beta's controlled for
- age
- education
- income (level and source)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source 350
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Payed work outside the house 
1 Unemployed/Work disabled
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.36 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 unemployment
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.18 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 unemployment 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Current employment status:
1: Employed
0: Not employed
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (11 months after migration) and T2 (33 
months after migration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.22 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment status
B controlled for:
- age
- religion
- personal income
- relative income
- years of education
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.03 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT employment status

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
6       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
7       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
2       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
3       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
7       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
2       M=5.91      Mt=5.5
3       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
6       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
7       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NO 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1239

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.54      M=7.5
2       M=2.27      M=7.3
3       Empty category
4       M=1.75      M=6.8
5       M=2.43      M=7.4
6       M=2.03      M=7.0
7       M=1.55      M=6.5
8       M=1.10      M=6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
7       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
5       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
7       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
8       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHofoss (2004): study NO 1984
TitleHealthy Living Does not Reduce Life Satisfaction among Physically Handicapped Persons.
SourcePatient Education and Counseling, 2004, Vol. 52, 17 - 22
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0738-3991(02)00244-6
Public25 -50 aged physically handicapped, Norway, 1984-1986
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response11,9%
Respondents N =5572

Correlate
Author's labelOccupational status
Page in Source 19
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 not occupationally active
1 occupationally active

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cD%=+
SMALL HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
0 not occup. active   52,96      47,04
1 occupation. active  72,00      28,00
  difference         +19,04     -19,04
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=2.28
CI95% [1.89-2.76]
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cDM=+
MEDIUM/LARGE HANDICAPPED
                      %satisfied %not satisfied
0 not occup. active   48,03      51,97
1 occupation. active  64,02      35,98
  difference         +15,99     -15,99
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-cOR=1.93
CI95% [1.59-2.33]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1982
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public18-79 aged, general public, Norway, 1982
Sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelOccupationally active
Page in Source 412
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Active

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=-.13
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.11
O-SL?-?-sq-l-10-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, marital 
status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, marital 
status, degree of urbanization.

Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1981
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
PublicAdults, general public, Norway, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelOccupationally active
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Active

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=
O-SLW-?-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, number of friends, marital status, 
degree of urbanization.             
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyMastekaasa & Moum (1984): study NO 1971
TitleThe Perceived Quality of Life in Norway: Regional Variations and Contextual Effects.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 385 - 419
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300450
Public15-64 aged, general public, Norway, 1971
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =854

Correlate
Author's labelOccupationally active
Page in Source 411
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Active

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-dBeta=+.02 ns
ß controlled for education, income, age, sex, 
household size, occupational prestige, number of 
friends, marital status.                     
Unaffected by both traditionalism and economic 
level of the county.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study NO 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Norway, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelBeing a housewife
Page in Source 205-206
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Housewife
0 Other
   a  general public
   b  all women
   c working people (all occupations)
   d retired people
Observed distributionN=1:264; 0a=1030;0b=533; 0c=673;0d=40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
General public  M = 2.11  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.04
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.06 p < .53
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=-
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
All women       M = 2.16  SD = 0.55
-difference        -0.01
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=-.02 p < .74
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives      M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Working people  M = 2.09  SD = 0.56
-difference        +0.06
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.11 p < .33
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abDM=+
Housewives       M = 2.15  SD = 0.50
Retired          M = 2.10  SD = 0.55
-difference        +0.05
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abgH=+.09 p < .91
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.04 ns
1                             M'=2.15  Mt'=5.8
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.08 ns
                             
                        


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBulatao (1973): study PH Manila 1972
TitleMeasures of Happiness among Manila Residents.
SourcePhilippine Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 21, 229 - 238
Public21+ aged, general public, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1972
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response-
Respondents N =941

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed status
Page in Source 234-235
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Not in labor force / unemployed / employed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bG= +
Index of Positive Affects:
Males   : G = +.03
Females : G = +.03

Index of Negative Affects:
Males   : G = -.06
Females : G = -.13
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG= +
Males   : G = +.10
Females : G = +.22
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-fG= +
Males   : G = +.18
Females : G = +.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PL 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =938

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.27      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
6       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=6.81      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.46      Mt=6.1
3       M=6.17      Mt=5.7
4       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
6       M=6.93      Mt=6.6
7       Less than 10 Ss
8       M=7.13      Mt=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1185

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
4       M= .81      Mt=5.8
5       M= .73      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
7       M= .54      Mt=5.5
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
5       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.70      Mt=6.3
7       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
3       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
5       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
6       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
7       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RO 1993
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1103

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.64     Mt=5.5
2       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
3       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
4       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
5       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
6       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
7       M=2.29     Mt=4.3
8       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.97      Mt=5.5
2       M=5.51      Mt=5.0
3       M=6.04      Mt=5.6
4       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
6       M=5.37      Mt=4.9
7       M=5.06      Mt=4.5
8       M=5.00      Mt=4.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .79      Mt=5.8
2       M= .95      Mt=5.9
3       M= .94      Mt=5.9
4       M= .81      Mt=5.8
5       M= .65      Mt=5.6
6       M= .40      Mt=5.4
7       M=-.36      Mt=4.6
8       M= .26      Mt=5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 450
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Employment status:
a) Self-employed
b) Unemployed
c) Non-participant
d) Employed (reference-category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.07
a) self-employed, men (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.08
a) self-employed, women (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.53
b) unemployed, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.52
b) unemployed, women
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.10
c) non-participant, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.13
c) non-participant, women

All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- children
- health
- age
- household income
- income in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchyns (2000): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Page in Source 95
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a) Working  
b) Reitred    
c) Unemployed 
d) Housewife/student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
           Mean   Unhappy(1-3) Very happy(8-10)
Working    5,2    26,0%        17,9%
Reitred    4,1    45,7%        9,6%
Unemployed 5,0    20,7%        12,1%
Housewife  4,6    29,7%        4,7%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RU 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1961

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.33      Mt=4.8
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=5.36      Mt=4.8
5       M=5.44      Mt=4.9
6       M=5.74      Mt=5.3
7       M=4.91      Mt=4.3
8       M=4.78      Mt=4.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
5       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
6       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
7       M=2.18     Mt=3.9
8       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .42      Mt=5.4
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=-.20      Mt=4.8
5       M= .05      Mt=5.1
6       M= .91      Mt=5.9
7       M=-.11      Mt=4.9
8       M= .60      Mt=5.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyPeil (1984): study SL 1981
TitleAfrican Urban Life: Components of Satisfaction in Sierra Leone.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 14, 363 - 384
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00692990
PublicAdult, general public, urban areas, Sierra Leone, 1981
Sample
Non-Response5% (on some items up to 60%)
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelHaving work
Page in Source Extra info
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-l-7-aDMt=
Happiness level in Mt' (0-10):
none                males: 7.1   females: 8.0

farming                    5.2             -
unskilled                  7.0            6.9
semi-skilled               7.2            8.9
skilled                    7.5            7.2
nonmanual                  7.8            7.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SI 1992
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1035

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
2       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
3       M=2.27     Mt=4.2
4       M=2.20     Mt=4.0
5       M=2.24     Mt=4.1
6       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
7       M=2.21     Mt=4.0
8       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.04      Mt=4.5
2       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
3       M=5.31      Mt=4.8
4       M=4.87      Mt=4.3
5       M=4.52      Mt=3.9
6       M=6.11      Mt=5.7
7       M=4.18      Mt=3.5
8       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
3       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
7       M= .81      Mt=5.8
8       M=1.60      Mt=6.6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed, searching for work
Page in Source 203,208,212
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1: unemployed, searching for work
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 5% 0: 95%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.15 p < .01
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.10 p < .05
Africans only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.21 ns
Whites only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-I
OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of children
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
  - quality toilet
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neigbours
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
middle, poorest)
  - percieved to be better/same/worse than at age 
15
  - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ZA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2736

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.78      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
3       M=2.05      Mt=7.1
4       M= .43      Mt=5.4
5       M=1.09      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
7       M=-.01      Mt=5.0
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
2       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
3       M=6.99      Mt=6.7
4       M=5.98      Mt=5.5
5       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
6       M=6.34      Mt=5.9
7       M=4.66      Mt=4.1
8       M=8.34      Mt=8.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
3       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
4       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
5       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
6       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
7       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
8       M=3.21     Mt=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Tick the option best fitting your condition:
a: Student
b: Employed
c: Unemployed
d: Housework
Observed distributiona: 23,9% b: 51,7% c: 10,7% d: 13,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .01
a: M= 7,45 SD= 1,96
b: M= 7,42 SD= 1,52
c: M: 6,55 SD= 1,85
d: M: 6,14 SD= 2,29
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBMCT= p < .05
1,2 > 4
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
a: M= 7,27 SD= 1,22
b: M= 7,56 SD= 1,32
c: M: 7,41 SD= 1,62
d: M: 7,14 SD= 1,72


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status (females)
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: still working
b: retired
c: still housewife
Observed distributionN = a: 50, b: 50, c: 50
Remarks
Females only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
F (2,149) = 1.51; p = .224


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment (males)
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 still working
1 retired
Observed distributionN = 0: 50, 1: 50
Remarks
Males only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aAoV= ns
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
F (1, 99) = 0.002; p = .96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelWork status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
"Tick the option best fitting your condition:
1: Student
2: Employed
3: Unemployed
4: Housework"
Observed distribution1: 14,8% 2: 43,4% 3: 14,8% 4: 26,5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= p < .NS
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= p < .NS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHernandez Plaza et al. (2004): study ES 2000
TitleApoyo Social y Bienstar Subjetivo en un Collectivo de Immigrantes. Efectos Directos o Amortiguadores. ( Social Support and Social Well-Being in a Group of Immigrants: Direct or Buffer Effects?)
SourceBoletin de Psicologia, 2004, Vol. 80, 79 - 96
PublicMoroccan immigrants, Spain, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelLabour situation
Page in Source 84
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Selgreport on single question with two answer options:
0 Unemployed
1 Employed
Observed distributionEmployed: 48%, Unemployed: 52%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baDM=+
unemployed: M = 1,63; SD = 0,89
employed  : M = 1,80; SD = 0,80
O-Sum-u-mq-v-5-baF=0.14 ns
Univariate analysis of variance, main effect
Controlling for:
- gender
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ES 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
2       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
3       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
4       M=6.81      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
7       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
2       M= .62      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .46      Mt=5.5
6       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
7       M= .41      Mt=5.4
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
2       M=6.68      Mt=6.3
3       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
4       M=6.81      Mt=6.5
5       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
7       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
8       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
8       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
2       M= .62      Mt=5.6
3       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .46      Mt=5.5
6       M=1.02      Mt=6.0
7       M= .41      Mt=5.4
8       M=1.66      Mt=6.7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ES 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2303

Correlate
Author's labelWork
Page in Source 205
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you work? If so, how many hours a 
week? Are you..."
(Order reversed).
1 Full time
2 Part time
3 Independent
4 Retired
5 Housewife
6 Student

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1047

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
4       M= .90      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
7       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
2       Empty category
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       Empty category
5       Empty category
6       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
7       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
8       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.01      Mt=7.8
2       Empty category
3       M=8.25      Mt=8.1
4       Empty category
5       Empty category
6       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
7       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
8       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=3.01      Mt=8.0
2       Empty category
3       M=3.01      Mt=8.0
4       Empty category
5       Empty category
6       M=2.42      Mt=7.4
7       M=2.63      Mt=7.6
8       M=2.39      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.21      Mt=4.7
8       Empty category


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySiösteen et al. (1990): study SE 1985
TitleThe Quality of Life of Three Functional Spinal Cord Injury Subgroups in a Swedish Community.
SourceParaplegia, 1990, Vol. 28, 476 -- 488
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2263404
PublicSpinal Cord Injury, Swedish, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelWork or education
Page in Source Table VI
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Full-time employed or in education after injury
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionN = 1: 22; 2:34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFrey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992
TitleMaximizing Happiness?
SourceGerman Economic Review, 2000, Vol. 1, 145 - 167
URLhttps://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/C_335_2000.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Switzerland, 1992
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 156
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
o Employed (reference)
1 a Unemployed
  b Self-employed
  c At home
  d School
  e Retired
  f Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.83 p < .01
Unemployed              (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
Self employed           (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.17 p < .01
At home                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02
At school               (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.12 p < .01
Retired                 (vs. employed)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
Other                   (vs. employed)

Betas controlled for
- Income
- Education
- Demographic factors (gender, age, marital 
status)
- Institutional factor (direct democratic rights)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CH 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
4       M=7.86      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.97      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.56      Mt=8.4
7       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
8       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
7       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
8       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
3       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
4       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
7       M=3.61     Mt=8.7
8       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
2       M=8.22      Mt=8.0
3       M=8.60      Mt=8.4
4       M=8.54      Mt=8.4
5       M=8.52      Mt=8.4
6       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
7       M=8.61      Mt=8.5
8       Empty category


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study TO 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, aspirant migrants who stayed, Tonga, followed 3 years, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 5, 9
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Current employment status:
1: Employed
0: Not employed
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005) and T2 (2008), both after 
decision to stay in Tonga

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.28 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
employment status
B controlled for:
- years of education
- age
- personal income 
- relative income 
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=-.23 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT employment status

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGokdemir (2015): study TR 2010
TitleConsumption, Savings and Life Satisfaction: the Turkish Case
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 183 - 196
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0227-y
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response4.79%
Respondents N =955

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source Table 3
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0. unemployed
1. employed
Observed distributionUnemployed = 69.3%; Employed = 30.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Employed:    M = 5.79
Unemployed:  M = 5.21
-difference:     +.58
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bbBMCT= p < .05
Employed > Unemployed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008
TitleSocial Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0464-y
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2381

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 = employed
0 = not employed
Observed distribution1 = 25 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
Probability of being more/less happy when 
employed:
- very satisfied           - 2% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied       - 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied         + 1% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied    + 1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied        + 1% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy               - 2% (ns)
- quite happy              + 0% (ns)
- not very happy           + 1% (ns)
- not at all happy         + 1% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 = not employed
1 = employed
Observed distribution1 = 35 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .1
probability of being more/less happy if employed:
- very satisfied          + 3% (.10)
- somewhat satisfied      + 2% (.10)
- medium satisfied        + 1% (.10)
- somewhat dissatisfied   - 2% (.10)
- very dissatisfied       - 4% (.10)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              + 3% (ns)
- quite happy             + 2% (ns)
- not very happy          - 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        - 2% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- marital status
- religiosity
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study TR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .76      Mt=5.8
2       M= .67      Mt=5.7
3       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
4       M= .83      Mt=5.8
5       M= .41      Mt=5.4
6       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
7       M=-.02      Mt=5.0
8       M= .52      Mt=5.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
2       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
3       M=6.63      Mt=6.3
4       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
5       M=6.77      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.61      Mt=6.2
7       M=5.27      Mt=4.7
8       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
4       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
5       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
6       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
8       M=3.03     Mt=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelOccupation
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on question:
which of these descriptions applies to what you were 
doing last week?
a.	 going to school or college full-time (including on 
vacation)
b.	 in paid employment or self-employment (reference)
c.	 on a Government scheme for employment training
d.	 doing unpaid work for a business that you own, or 
that a relative owns
e.	 waiting to take up paid work already obtained
f.	 looking for paid work or a Government training 
scheme
g. 	intending to look for work but prevented by 
temporary sickness or injury (sick or injured for 28 
days or less)
h.	 permanently unable to work because of long-term 
sickness or disability
i.	 retired from paid work
j.	 looking after the home or family
k. 	doing something else
l. labor force no answer
Remarks
1 Yes
0 No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.13 p < .01
Labor force no answer
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.06 p < .01
Involving in school
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.02 ns
Government scheme
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.17 p < .01
Unpaid work
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.12 ns
Waiting take up work
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.19 p < .01
Unemployed
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.55 p < .01
Temporary sick
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.55 p < .01
Long-term sick
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.03 ns
Retired
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.04 p < .01
Home worker
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.07 p < .01
Labor force other

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent work
Page in Source 54
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Now, are you currently working - this can be either 
full or part-time?
0= No
1= Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=+ ns
0: M=3,19  CI95=3,12-3,26
1: M=3,27  CI95=3,21-3,32
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=+ ns
0: M=7,26  CI95=7,08-7,45
1: M=7,33  CI95=7,20-7,46


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

Study~BBC (2006): study GB 2005
TitleThe Happiness Formula: Opinion Poll.
SourceGfK-NOP poll 421059, commisioned by BBC, 2006, London, UK
URLhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4771908.stm
Public15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2005
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelWorking Status
Page in Source 3
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not working
1: part time
2: full time
Observed distribution0: N=424; 1: N=133; 2: N=444

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gDM=
0: M=3,19 CI95=3,12-3,26
1: M=3,29 CI95=3,17-3,41
2: M=3,28 CI95=3,22-3,34
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-gBMCT= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abDM=
0: M=7,31 CI95=7,21-7,49
1: M=7,41 CI95=7,09-7,73
2: M=7,35 CI95=7,13-7,50
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-abBMCT= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelEmployed
Page in Source 14,19,31,48
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Employed:
a: Full-time paid employee (30 or more hours  per week)
b: Part-time paid work
c: Full-time self-employed
d: Part-time self-employed
e: Unemployed
f: Full-time education
g: Temporarily sick/disabled (< 6 months)
h: Long-term sick/disabled (? 6 months)
i: Looking after home/family
j: On a training scheme
k: Something else
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.14
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.08
Beta when additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance (at age 5,10,16)
- Good conduct (at age 5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.09
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Education (at age 34)
- Good conduct(at age 26)
- Has partner
- Good conduct (at age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health (at age 26)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyScales & Scase (2001): study GB 2001
TitleFit and Fifty? Britain Towards 2010.
SourceReport, Foresight Programme's Leisure and Earning, 2001, UK
Public50-59 aged, Britain, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5500

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status and income stream
Page in Source 4
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a: working 
b: inactive 
c: inactive-no occupational pension
d: inactive-receives occupational pension
e: inactive-not receiving disability allowance
f: inactive-receives disability allowance
Remarks
n is not reported, we assumed it as at least 500.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-eDMt=-
a Mt=9.00 SD:0.12
b Mt=8.75 SD:0.13
c Mt=8.25 SD:0.16
d Mt=7.30 SD:0.17
e Mt=5.80 SD:0.20
f Mt=5.75 SD:0.20
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-eBMCT= p < .05
f


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
Public42 aged, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =10280

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment Status
Page in Source 312-314
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Unemployed
1 Employed
Observed distributionN: Unemployed = 1524 , Employed = 8856

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Men
Unemployed  M = 6,00   N =  404
Employed    M = 7,23   N = 4640
Difference     +1,23
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Women
Unemployed  M = 6,95   N = 1121
Employed    M = 7,34   N = 4215
Difference     +0,39
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married Men
Unemployed  M = 6,32   N =  275
Employed    M = 7,47   N = 4307
Difference     +1,15
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married Women
Unemployed  M = 7,24   N =  897
Employed    M = 7,61   N = 3826
Difference     +0,37
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced  Men
Unemployed  M = 5,49 N = 102
Employed    M = 6,51 N = 360
Difference     +1,02
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced Women
Unemployed  M = 5,41 N = 178
Employed    M = 6,52 N = 435  
Difference     +1,11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dF=148 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
Public42 aged, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =10280

Correlate
Author's labelPart-time vs full-time work
Page in Source 314, 315
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
1 Part-time work
2 Full-time work
Observed distributionN: Part-time = 2555, Full-time = 7825
Remarks
Employed only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Men
Part-time  M = 6,76  N = 4943
Full-time  M = 7,37  N = 101
Difference    +0,61
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Women
Part-time   M = 7,50  N = 2455
Full-time   M = 7,40  N = 2881
Difference     -0,10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married Men
Part-time  M = 6,98   N = 4490
Full-time  M = 7,50   N =   92
Difference    +0,52
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Maried Women
Part-time   M = 7,61   N = 2220
Full-time   M = 7,63   N = 2503
Difference     +0,02
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced Men
Part-time  M = 5,69  N =  18
Full-time  M = 6,55  N = 444
Difference    +0,86
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Divorced Women
Part-time   M = 6,21 N = 202
Full-time   M = 6,66 N = 411
Difference     +0,45
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
Married Men(adjusted by professional status)
Part-time  Ma = 7,00   
Full-time  Ma = 7,48  
Difference     +0,48
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Married Women (adjusted by professional status)
Part-time   Ma = 7,60   
Full-time   Ma = 7,68
Difference      +0,08
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=
Divorced Men (adjusted by professional status)
Part-time  Ma = 5,71 
Full-time  Ma = 6,57  
Difference     +0,86
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
Divorced Women (adjusted by professional status)
Part-time   Ma = 6,31  
Full-time   Ma = 6,65
Difference      +0,34


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyDuffy (2004): study GB 2000
TitleLife Satisfaction and Trust in Other People.
SourcePublication MORI, 2004, London, UK
URLhttp://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/1226/Life-satisfaction-and-trust-in-other-people.aspx
Public16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8952

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 12
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a Employed 
b Unemployed     
c Retired         
d Sick/disabled       
e Looking after family
Observed distributiona: 51%, b: 4%, c: 21%, d: 4%, e: 7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
Composition of 2% Most Happy (N=180) and
2% Least Happy (N=180) in terms of employment 
status  

          2% Most happy  2% Least happy  Dif.
Employed         0           20          -20%
Unemployed       0            9           -9%
Retired          100         16          +84%
Sick/disabled    0           38          -38%
Looking 
after family     0           14           -14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelIn working force
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0: not in working force
1: in working force

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.36 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- education
- age
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 10, 11, 15
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a Unemployed
b Long term sick/disabled
c Family care
Observed distribution Males Females a: M=0.02 sd=0.14 M=0.04 sd=0.18 b: M=0.04 sd=0.20 M=0.05 sd=0.22 c: M=0.18 sd=0.38 M=0.01 sd=0.08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-
reference: employed
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=-.36 SE=.07 p<.01   b=-.45 SE=.08 p<.01
b: b=-.47 SE=.09 p<.01   b=-.31 SE=.09 p<.01
c: b=-.33 SE=.14 p<.05   b=-.11 SE=.04 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Number of children of different age groups
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age, UK, followed 10 years, 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 9, 10, 14
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
a  All employed
B  Self employed
     a opportunity entrepreneurs
     b necessity entrepreneurs
C  Unemployed
Observed distributionN =; A: 41085; A: 5547; C: 2386
Remarks
Pooled waves

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
B. All employed    M = 5.24
A. Self employed   M = 5.31
C. Unempoyed       M = 4.65
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.00 ns
A: Employed      (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.02 p < .001
B: self-employed (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=-.09 p < .001
C: Unemployed    (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.32 p < .001
B's (fixed effect) controled for:
- log income
- health
- marital status
- family care
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyGash et al. (2010): study GB 1996
TitleWomen between Part-Time and Full-Time Work: The Influence of Changing Hours of Work on Happiness and Life Satisfaction.
SourceWorking paper SOEP no. 268, DIW, 2010, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.347227.de/diw_sp0268.pdf
PublicMarried women aged 20-59, United Kingdom, followed 10 years, 1996-2006,
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22928

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 31
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Inactive 
1 Employed
  a Part-time 
  b Full-time
Observed distributionFull-time 45.08 % = 10336 Part-time 31.89 % = 7312 Inactive 23.02 % = 5278
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+
Inactive  M = 5,21
Part-time M = 5,36 
Full-time M = 5,38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 1010,1018,1022
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
A. Employed for wage
B. Self employed
C. Unemployed
Observed distributionN=A:41085; B:5547; C:2386

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eDM=+/-
Employed        M=5.24
Self employed   M=5.31
Unemployed      M=4.65
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.00 ns
Employed      (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=+.02 p < .001
Self employed (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=-.08 p < .001
Unemployed    (vs not)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.25 p < .001
OPRCs controled for
- income
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyJoshi (1996): study GB 1991
TitleCombining Employment and Child Rearing: The Story of British Women's Lives.
SourceOffer, A.;Ed.: "In Pursuit of the Quality of Life", Oxford University Press, 1996, UK, 88 - 118
Public33 year aged women and husbands, Great Britain,1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10622

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment vs unemployed
Page in Source 108
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Not employed
1 Employed
Observed distributionWomen N: 0=1716, 1: N = 3745, Men N 0 :461, 1:4695

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=
Women
0 Not Employed M = 7,5 SD = 1,8
1 Employed     M = 7,5 SD = 1,6
  Difference        0
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Men
0 Not Employed M = 6,2 SD = 2,3
1 Employed     M = 7,4 SD = 1,5
  Difference     + 1,2
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
Women, Partner employed
0 Not Employed M = 7,9 SD = 1,6 N = 1254
1 Employed     M = 7,8 SD = 1,5 N = 2852
  Difference     - 0,1
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Women, partner not employed
0 Not Employed M = 6,9 SD = 2,0 N = 203
1 Employed     M = 7,2 SD = 1,5 N = 157
  Difference     + 1,2
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Men, partner employed
0 Not Employed M = 7,1 SD = 1,9 N =   55
1 Employed     M = 7,6 SD = 1,4 N = 2505
  Difference     + 0,5
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Single Women
0 Not Employed M = 5,8 SD = 2,4 N = ?
1 Employed     M = 6,6 SD = 1,9 N = 720
  Difference     + 1,2
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Single Mothers
0 Not Employed M = 5,6 SD = 2,5 N = 202
1 Employed     M = 5,9 SD = 2,3 N = 247
  Difference     + 0,3
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Childless women
0 Not Employed M = 6,3 SD = 2,1 N =  50
1 Employed     M = 6,9 SD = 1,7 N = 473
  Difference     + 0,6


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyJoshi (1996): study GB 1991
TitleCombining Employment and Child Rearing: The Story of British Women's Lives.
SourceOffer, A.;Ed.: "In Pursuit of the Quality of Life", Oxford University Press, 1996, UK, 88 - 118
Public33 year aged women and husbands, Great Britain,1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10622

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status
Page in Source 108
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
0 Not employed
1 Part-time job (under 30 hours a week)
2 Full-time job ( 30 + hours a week)
Observed distributionN 0:1716, 1: 1768, 2:1977
Remarks
Calculated from table 5.2, women only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=
All
0 Not employed  M = 7,5 SD = 0,16
1 Part-time job M = 7,6 SD = 0,02
2 Full-time job M = 7,5 SD = 0,05
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=
Mothers
0 Not employed  M = 7,5 SD = 1,8  N = 1610
1 Part-time job M = 7,6 SD = 1,6  N = 1677
2 Full-time job M = 7,5 SD = 1,8  N =  909
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=
Childless women 
0 Not employed  M = 6,8 SD = 2,0 N =  106
1 Part-time job M = 7,7 SD = 1,3 N =   91
2 Full-time job M = 7,4 SD = 1,5 N = 1068


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self-reported on question on current labor force 
status:
1) Unemployed
0) Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.28 p < .01
Unemployed vs. employed 

b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- health
- number of children
- religious participation
- region

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyScales & Scase (2001): study GB 1991
TitleFit and Fifty? Britain Towards 2010.
SourceReport, Foresight Programme's Leisure and Earning, 2001, UK
Public50-59 aged, general public, UK, 1991-1998
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment status and income stream
Page in Source 48
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Self report on employment status and income stream:
a working
b inactive
c inactive - no occupational pension
d inactive - receives occupational pension
e inactive - not receiving disability allowance
f inactive - receives ddisability allowance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eD%=
% satisfied
a: 86%
b: 61%
c: 48%
d: 80%
e: 82%
f: 50%

percentages estimated from bar chart
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =304

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
8       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
4       M= .90      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=2.01      Mt=7.0
7       M=-.39      Mt=4.6
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
7       M=5.21      Mt=4.7
8       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.92      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
5       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
8       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= 1.97     Mt=7.0 
2       M= 1.74     Mt=6.7
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M= 1.38     Mt=6.4
5       M= 1.21     Mt=6.2
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       M= 1.68     Mt=6.7
8       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       Less than 10 Ss
7       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
8       Less than 10 Ss


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1484

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent employment status
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab
Operationalization
Single question: "Are you yourself employed now or 
not?"
1   >30 hours a week
2   <30 hours a week
3   Self-employed
4   Retired
5   Housewife not otherwise employed
6   Student
7   Unemployed
8   Other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.77      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.37      Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
7       M= .90      Mt=5.9
8       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
6       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.20     Mt=7.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current employment status
Subject code: E02ab

StudyFogarty (1985): study GB 1981
TitleBritish Attitudes to Work.
SourceAbrams, M.;Gerard, D.;Timms, N.;Eds.: " Values and Social Change in Britain", MacMillan, 1985, London, UK, 173 - 206
PublicAdults, general public, Britain, 1981
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1231

Correlate
Author's labelBeing unemployed
Page in Source 187
Our classificationCurrent employment status, code E02ab