Findings on Happiness and EDUCATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and EDUCATION
Subject Code: E01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
E01EDUCATION0
E01aaEducational career9
E01aa01Earlier educational level8
E01aa02Change in education 6
E01aa02aRecent completion of study0
E01aa03Later educational level 3
E01abCurrent education23
E01ab02Level of school-education387
E01ab03Educational specialization7
E01adAttitudes to one's education1
E01ad01Educational aspirations5
E01ad02Satisfaction with education27
E01ab04Literacy5
E01acTime trend of happiness in educational cagories0
E01aeMotives for education0
E01ab01Years schooling46
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and EDUCATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=E01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study AU 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Australia 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11755

Correlate
Author's labelEducation(years)
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Number of years in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=-.52 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- networth
- gender
- age
- partnered
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study DE 2002
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9958

Correlate
Author's labelEducation (years)
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Number of years in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.13 ns
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- age
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelEducation (years)
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Number of years in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+1.3 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- age
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment state
Page in Source 29
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
a)employed (reference)
b)unemployed
c)self-employed
d)retired
e)keeping home
f)in school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.49 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by employment state
Unemployed    (vs. employed)
OPRC (-0.491)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.03 p < .05
Self-employed (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.031)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.05 p < .05
Retired       (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.046)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.01 p < .10
Keeping home  (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.014)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.20 p < .05
In school     (vs. employed)
OPRC (+0.202)

OPRC's controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -education
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyMoller (2007a): study ZA 2002
TitleSatisfied and Dissatisfied South Africans: Results From The General Household Survey in the International Comparison.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 81, 389 - 415
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9004-3
PublicAdults, general public, South Africa, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 400-2
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
A: In education
   2:Tertiary education
   1:Primary education or less

B: Reason for not contiuing education:
   a: No money for fees for education
   b: Education useless
   c: Failed examinations
   d: Cites problem with schooling
   e: Lack of books
   f: School fees too high
   g: Poor facilities
Observed distributiona:7%, b:44%, c:19%, d:4%, e:1%, f:3%, g:2%, h:1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-cD%=
                      % happy %neutral %unhappy
Tertiary education         65      12     23
Primary education or less  49      12     39

No money for fees          45      12     43
Education useless          45      12     43
Failed examinations        47      10     43
Lack of books              58      14     38
School fees too high       61      10     29
Poor facilities            62      10     29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelEducation (Years)
Page in Source 16
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Number of years in education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.39 p < .001
B controlled for
- equivalised income
- net worth
- equivalised consumption
- gender
- partnered
- age
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyKahneman & Krueger (2006): study US 2004
TitleDevelopments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, Vol. 20, 3 - 24
DOIDOI:10.1257/089533006776526030
PublicEmployed females, USA , 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =909

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 17
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Years of Education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.20
A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-ar=+.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 305,312
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
Number of years of education
Observed distributionRange 8-12, M= 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.04 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - daily living skills
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Educational career
Subject code: E01aa

StudySmith (1982): study US 1972
TitleCollege Dropouts: An Analysis of the Psychological Well-Being of Various Educational Groups.
SourceSocial Psychology Quarterly, 1982, Vol. 45, 50 - 53
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11997

Correlate
Author's labelSchool drop out
Page in Source 52
Our classificationEducational career, code E01aa
Operationalization
College Dropouts
0 Associate or bachelor's degree
1 Some college but no degree

Graduate School Dropouts
0 Graduate degree
1 Bachelor's with 5 or more years of   
  college but no graduate degree

Remarks
% happy:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=-
Attended college          % happy
- degree                  37,9
- no degree               34,9
difference                -3,0
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.05 p < .01
degree:    37,9
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.03 ns
no degree: 34,9
       
         
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=-
Attended graduate school  % happy
- degree                  40,2
- no degree               35,7
difference                -4,5
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.08 p < .01
degree:    40,2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatb=-.04 ns
no degree: 35,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyXiao & Li (2011): study CN 2005
TitleSustainable Consmuption and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 323 -329
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/226764459_Sustainable_Consumption_and_Life_Satisfaction
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9746-9
PublicGeneral public, 14 cities, China, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response151
Respondents N =3372

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 326-327
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
Selfreport on education:
1: elementary school
2: middle school
3: high school
4: vocational school 
5: college
6: graduate school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-eb=+.03 p < .001
B controlled for:
-Green lifestyle intention
-Green purchase intention
-Green purchase behavior
-Gender
-Age
-Family income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
a) secondary schooling degree:
     1) low (reference group)
     2) middle
     3) high

b) apprenticeship degree:
    1 yes
    0 no

c) university degree:
    1 yes
    0 no
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) 2) middle secondary schooling: 0.3648, (0.0332) )3) high secondary schooling: 0.3070 (0.0328) b) apprenticeship degree: 0.7250 (0.0817) c) university degree: 0.2424 (0.0777)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.1 p < .10
Secondary schooling, middle (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.0 ns
Secondary schooling, high (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.15 ns
Apprenticeship degree (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.11
University degree (vs no degree)

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyHunter et al. (2008): study ZZ 2003
TitleCulture, Country of Residence and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of South Asian Mid-Aged Women Living in the UK, UK Caucasian Women and Women living in Delhi, India.
SourceInternational Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 2008, Vol. 1, 44 - 57
DOIDOI:10.1080/17542860802121000
Public45-55 aged Indian women in menopause, Delhi, India and Birmigham, UK. 200?
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
What is the highest level of education you have 
attained (with certificate)?
1) Primary
2) Lower secondary
3) Upper secondary
4) Post-secondary not university
5) University
6) Postgraduate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aAoV=6.58 p < .002
Significant positive association between level of 
education (6>2) and life satisfaction.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyEasterlin (2001): study US 1994
TitleIncome and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 2001, Vol. 111, 465 - 484
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2667943
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1994
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2627

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of Education
Page in Source 475
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
1  at least highschool education
0  not finished highschool

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Birth cohort 1941-50
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Birth cohort 1931-40
Set Image size:   

O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
Birth cohort 1921-30

Difference smallest around middle age in all 
cohorts
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 443-447
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
Highest year of education
Observed distributionM = 10,9 SD = 3,4
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 ns
T1 highest year by T2 happiness ( 3 year lag)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.01 ns
B (-.008) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.05 p < .05
B (-.050) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- T1 religious participation
- Demographic variables
   - gender
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.04 p < .001
B (-0,041) additionally controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 30
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
Education assessed at T1 and T2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= + p < . 01
T1 education by T1 happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+ p < .01
T2 education by T2 happiness: b = +(01)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=- ns
T1 education by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+ ns
T2 education by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness 

B's controlled for:
- age
- sexe
- workstatus
- income
- occupational status
- family history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier education
Page in Source 414
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
1 elementary education or less
2
3
4
5
6 having done gruaduate work
Assessed at T1. (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=
T1 education by T2 LEVEL of happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 ns
- widowed
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
- divorced/separated
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.18 ns
- never married
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=
T1 education by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.05 ns
- widowed
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02 ns
- divorced/separated
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.10 ns
- never married

Beta's with T2 happiness controled for:
- sexe
- age
- T1 occupation
- T1 happiness: to measure CHANGE in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
1. High school graduate
2. Some college
3. College graduate

Assessed in 1940

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aG=+.00 ns
Earlier education (1940) by present happiness 
(1972). The gifted women were about 62 yrs of age 
at that time.

Specification by education.
- College graduates         52% contented
- Some college              54% contented
- High school graduate      49% contented

Comparison with average 30+ aged women in the USA 
1971 Data CAMPB 197: G=-.01 (ns)
- College graduate          73% satisfied
- Some college              69% satisfied 
- High school graduate      71% satisfied


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyGokdemir (2014): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2011
TitleFactors that Influence the Life Satisfaction of Women Living in the Northern Cyprus.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 115, 1071 - 1085
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-013-0265-3#page-1
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-013-0265-3
Public18+ aged women, Northern Cyprus, 2011
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1082
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
Report to single question on level of schooling:
1: no level
..
7: post graduate study

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-acBeta=+.14 ns
Beta controled for:
- religion
- health
- marital status
- age
- household income
- social reference income
- financial status
- paricipation in household expenditure
- being a victim domestic violence
- witnessing domestic violence
- gender discrimination
- employment
- housewife
- perception of government performance
- political preference


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelEducation over 10 years
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
1: respondentĺs education is higher than 10 years
0: otherwise
Observed distribution1: 80.7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.21 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in education

B controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- relative income
- having a car and telephone
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- cultural participation
- religious participation
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyWunder (2008): study DE 1985
TitleAdaptation to Income over Time: A Weak Point of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSOEP Paper no 130, 2008, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp130.html
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 21 years, 1985-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =23757

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 8+17
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
Years of education
Observed distributionMean:11.76; SD:2.44

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
Last year CHANGE in happiness (T - T-1) by CHANGE 
in years of education

b controlled for:
- Household income
- Household size
- Home owner
- Marital status
- Employment status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
Calculation unknown
Observed distributionM=12.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in schooling

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Marital status
- Employed
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health

Unaffected by additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Immigrant status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyGraham et al. (2004): study RU 1995
TitleDoes Happiness Pay? An Exploration Based on Panel Data from Russia.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2004, Vol. 55, 319 - 342
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2003.09.002
Public10+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995-2000
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =5269

Correlate
Author's labelChange in schooling
Page in Source 331
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
T1-T2 change in schooling
a: started education
b: left school
c: stayed in school
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2 (2000)
Russia went through major changes in this era, among 
which a financial crisis in 1998

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-na
CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in educational 
participation
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-
started school (dropped due to multi colinearity)
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.84 p < .001
left school
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-naBeta=-.71 ns
stayed in school

Beta controlled for change in:
- static variables
  - age
  - male
  - minority
- status variables
  - income
  - education level
  - health (illness, hospital, problems) 
  - health behavior (drinking, smoking)
  - marital status 
  - employment (retirement, unemployment)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in education
Subject code: E01aa02

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1018,1022,1023
Our classificationChange in education , code E01aa02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question, text not reported.
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=-.00 p < .05
CURRENT education by CURRENT hapiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.02 p < .001
OPRC controled for
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.00 ns
CURRENT education by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 ns
CHANGE education by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later educational level
Subject code: E01aa03

StudyZhang & Hwang (2007): study RU 1994
TitleThe Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How did Russians Survive in the 1990s?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2007, Vol. 82, 337 - 360.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-006-9037-7
PublicAdults, general public, Russia, 1994-2004
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8439

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 348
Our classificationLater educational level , code E01aa03
Operationalization
Remarks
Assessed at:
T1:  1994
T2:  1995
T3:  1996
T4:  1997
T5:  1998
T6:  1999
T7:  2000
T8:  2001
T9:  2002
T10: 2003
T11: 2004

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.02 ns
T1 happiness by T2 education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.01 ns
T2 happiness by T3 education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.01 ns
T4 happiness by T5 education
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-ebBeta=+.01 ns
T6 happiness by T7 education

Beta's controled for
-age
-gender
-education

Sign of correlation reversed, correlation in 
report as dissatisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later educational level
Subject code: E01aa03

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater educational level , code E01aa03
Operationalization
Years of schooling
Observed distributionM=14.48, SD=2.71, Range 0-28
Remarks
Assessed at T4 (1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.00 ns
T1 Happiness (1980) by T4 Schooling
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.04 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)by T4 schooling
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.01 ns
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness
(T4 happiness controlling T1 happiness)
Beta additionally controlled for: 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later educational level
Subject code: E01aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater education attained
Our classificationLater educational level , code E01aa03
Operationalization
Educational level at T5
1: HS dropout
2: HS grad with no further education
3: HS grad with some vocational or     technical 
training
4: HS grad with some two-year college
5: HS grad with some four-year     college
6: HS grad with an associate degree
7: HS grad with a bachelor  degree
8: HS grad with some graduate school
Remarks
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
T1 happiness:        tau = +.13  (001)
T2 happiness:        tau = +.10  (01)
T3 happiness:        tau = +.08  (05)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.04  (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyMichalos & Zumbo (2000): study CA Prince George 1997
TitleCriminal Victimization and the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 50, 245 - 295
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006930019814
PublicAdult general population, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response63%
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 249, 273
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
not reported
Observed distribution23% university education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-er=+.12 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyPacker et al. (1997): study CA 1992
TitlePsychopathology and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.
SourceJournal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 1997, Vol. 22, 231 - 234
Public18-40 aged, schizophrenics, Canada,199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 232
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
measurement not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelunemployment by years of schooling
Page in Source 168
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
years of schooling 
< 13 years: 1
13-14 years:2
15-16 years:3
> 16 years: 4
employment
a: without employment
b: employed
Observed distributionN: All:1009; a1:108; a2:17; a3:9; a4:2; b1:614; b2:83; b3:117; b4:59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.98    Mt=7.93
13-14 years  Mt=7.50    Mt=7.93
15-16 years  Mt=6.90    Mt=7.85
 > 16 years  Mt=7.28    Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.51    Mt=7.60
13-14 years  Mt=6.50    Mt=7.63
15-16 years  Mt=6.70    Mt=7.65
 > 16 years  Mt=6.66    Mt=7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
schooling   unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.38    Mt=7.61
13-14 years  Mt=6.34    Mt=7.16
15-16 years  Mt=6.15    Mt=7.11
 > 16 years  Mt=6.51    Mt=7.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyFalco et al. (2012): study GH 2004
TitleHeterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing. An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa.
SourcePolicy Research Working Paper 6244, Worldbank, 2012, USA
Public15-60 aged, urban population, Ghana, followed 7 years, 2004-2010
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3216

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 43
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported on single question, text not reported.
Remarks
Pooled data T1 to T+4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=-.02 ns
Education
O-SLS-c-sq-v-6-aOPRC=+.30 p < .1
Education-squared

OPRCs controled for:
- self-employed, with employee
- earnings (log)
- work conditions
  - hours-squared (log)
  - tenure (log)
  - apprentice
- personal characteristics
  - household assets
  - household head
  - married
  - sexe
  - age
  - age-squared
- situation
  - ethnicity (dummy)
  - city (dummy)
  - year (dummy)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyMutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006
TitleChristmas and Subjective Well-Being: a Research Note.
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2015, Published Online, 1 - 26
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8
Public15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2057

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 24,25
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Highest level of education completed, according to 
ISCED levels:
1 = less than lower secondary
2 = lower secondary
3 = lower tier upper secondary
4 = upper tier upper secondary
5 = advanced vocational
6 = lower tertiary (B.A.)
7 = higher tertiary (M.A)
Observed distributionM = 2,98 SD = 2,18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.05 p < .01
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=+.03 p < .01
b's controled for
- age
- sexe
- children at home
- employment
- subjective health
- time of interview

Unaffected by  additional control for
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.06
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.08
OPRC's controled for
- Income
- log workhours
- log income
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- 20 job characterisitcs
- Personal characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyWelzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995
TitleAgency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model
SourceJournal of happiness Studies, 2010, Vol. 97, 43 - 63
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9557-z
Public18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 59
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Self-reported level of education. Normalized scale with 
0 for the lowest level of education and 1 for the 
highest level of education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab= ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL education level 
in 76 nations

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
 -Western tradition
 -agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
 -biological age
 -female sex
 -income level
 -education level
-interaction between societal characteristics 
(agentic strategy and Western tradition) with 
individual characteristics:
 -communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family 
and friends as important life domains)
 -monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial 
situation of household)
 -agency feeling
 -agency feeling*monetary saturation
 -agency feeling*communion
 -communion*monetary saturation


Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 519-521+526
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Education in seven ascending categories.
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v356

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .05
Individual happiness by individual education
b (0,01356)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-marital status
-gender
-age
-age squared
-number of children
-home life quality
-income
-unemployed
-church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 134
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
1: No or only primary education
2: Lower vocational education
3: Lower general secondary education
4: Middle vocational, school of higher  general 
secondary education and pre-university education
5: University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Employment
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity
 -Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudySaris (2001b): study RU 1993
TitleThe Relationship between Income and Satisfaction: The Effect of Measurement Error and Suppressor Variables.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 53, 117 - 136
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1026785328244
Public18+ aged general public, Russia, followed 3 years 1993-1995
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.10
Raw: not corrected for measurement error
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dr=+.17
Disattenuated: corrected for measurement error

As assessed at T1. Similar correlations at T2 and 
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Vństra G÷talands lńn 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 79
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Not reported.
Remarks
N=887

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controled for:
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudySi÷steen et al. (1990): study SE 1985
TitleThe Quality of Life of Three Functional Spinal Cord Injury Subgroups in a Swedish Community.
SourceParaplegia, 1990, Vol. 28, 476 -- 488
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2263404
PublicSpinal Cord Injury, Swedish, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelWork or education
Page in Source Table VI
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Full-time employed or in education after injury
1: yes
0: no
Observed distributionN = 1: 22; 2:34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.31 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on educational qualifications

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.04 p < .05
No reported          (vs no qualification)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.01 ns
Other qualification (vs no qualification)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=-.01 ns
Degree              (vs no qualification)

B's controlled for:
-Consumption of fruit and vegetables
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyLayard et al. (2013): study GB 2004
TitleWhat Predicts a Successful Life? A Life-Course Model of Well-Being.
SourceCEP Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 1245, London, UK
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2345599
Public34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8868

Correlate
Author's labelEducational achievement
Page in Source 14,19,31,33,45,47
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
0.750  Phd or masters 
0.486  Degree:                
0.237  A level:                  
0.188  GCSE:                  
0.043  CSE                    
0.000  No qual              
Values taken from a regression of male log full-time 
earnings on "having a family", childhood emotion and 
conduct and 5 education dummies.
Error Estimatess.e.=.01
Remarks
Data set using imputation for missing variables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbr=+.09
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=.03
Beta controlled for:
- Income
- Employed
- Good conduct
- Has partner
- Self-perceived health(at age 26)
- Emotional health(at age 26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbBeta=+.02
Beta additionally controlled for:
- Intellectual performance (5,10,16)
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Family economic
- Family psychosocial
- Gender (female)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelD_study school / change education
Page in Source 1022,1023
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
1: Change      (not reported what change)
0: No change
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=+.09 p < .01
CURRENT study school by CURRENT happiness
OPRC controled for
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=+.04 ns
CURRENT study school by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
- education
- income
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 p < .001
CHANGE study school by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelHighest qualification
Page in Source 2
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
a: College or university (reference)
b: A-level
c: O-level
d: None of the above

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
A-level (vs College):            OR= 1.1 
CI99[1.021-1.093] 
O-level (vs. College):           OR= 1.3 
CI99[1.237-1.280] 
None of the above (vs. College): OR= 1.2 
CI99[1.370-1.403] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBinder & Coad (2013): study GB 1996 /1
TitleLife Satisfaction and Self-employment: A Matching Approach.
SourceSmall Business Economist, 2013, Vol. 40, 1009 - 1033
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11187-011-9413-9#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9413-9
PublicWorking age people, UK, followed 10 years 1996-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49018

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1018,1022,1023
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question, text not reported.
Remarks
Lag of change not reported, probably T to T+1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-er=-.00 p < .05
CURRENT education by CURRENT hapiness
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eOPRC=-.02 p < .001
OPRC controled for
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age,age-squared
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-fix=-.00 ns
CURRENT education by CHANGE in happiness
b-fix controled for CURRENT 
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- health status
- sexe
- age, age-squared
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.00 ns
CHANGE education by CHANGE in happiness
b controled for CHANGE in
- employment
- health
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyTaylor (2008): study US 2005
TitleRepublicans: Still Happy Campers.
SourcePEW Research Center, 2008, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/taylor_p_2008.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5264

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 3,4
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- income
- party idenitfication
- married
- age over 64
- age under 30
- race
- ethnicity
- gender
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Additionally controlled for
- health 
- church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyNapier & Jost (2008): study US 2000
TitleWhy are Conservatives Happier than Liberals?
SourcePsychological Science, 2008, Vol. 19, 565 - 572
PublicVoters, before and after presidential election, USA, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1142

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 567
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Rated on 7 intervals
Remarks
Scores adjusted for non response, within-household 
selection, poststratification of age and education, and 
attrition from T1 to T2.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-a
T1 education by T2 happiness
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.15 p < .10
B controlled for:
- Political conservatism
- Income
- Sex
- Age
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Church attendance
- Need for cognition
O-SL?-?-sq-v-3-ab=+.18 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- Rationalization of inequality

B mean point happiness (1-10) more or less per 
interval (1-7) Education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBenyamini et al. (2004): study US 1998
TitleSelf-Rated Oral Health as an Independent Predictor of Self-Rated General Health, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 2004, Vol. 59, 1109 - 1116
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.12.021
PublicResidents retirement community, USA, 1998
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =850

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1111-3
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Measurement not reported
Remarks
Most Ss well educated; 81% more than full high school 
education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-v-5-bBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controled for:
- self rated general health
- self rated oral health
- functional disability
- age
- sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyAntonucci et al. (1998): study US 1980
TitleNegative Effects of Close Social Relations.
SourceFamily Relations, 1998, Vol. 47, 379 - 384
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/585268
Public50-95 aged, married, with children, USA,1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =366

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 381
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.13 p < .10
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 ns
women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.08 ns
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.06 ns
women

Beta's controled for 
personal characteristics:
- age
- health compared to others.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.06 ns
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.00 ns
women

Beta's additionally controled for network 
structure:
- size of inner circle
- size of middle circle
- size of outer circle
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.07 ns
men
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.01 ns
women

Beta's additionally controled for negative social 
support:
- network doesn't understand
- network gets on nerve
- want more dependable network
- network too demanding.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyBlood (1969): study US 1967
TitleWork Values and Job Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Applied Psychology, 1969, Vol. 53, 456 - 459
DOIDOI: 10.1037/h0028653
PublicMilitary, airforce, low rank maintenance jobs, USA, 196?
Sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =420

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 458
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.15 ns
students
M-AO-?-sq-f-7-aBeta=-.01 ns
workers

Beta's controlled for: 
- age
- tenure
- fathers occupation
- work ethic


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current education
Subject code: E01ab

StudyGlancy et al. (1986): study US 1947
TitleAdolescent Activities and Adult Success and Happiness: Twenty Four Years Later.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1986, Vol. 70, 242 - 250
PublicHigh school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1521

Correlate
Author's labelEducational attainment
Page in Source 250
Our classificationCurrent education, code E01ab
Operationalization
Not reported
Remarks
Background characteristic

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
T1 (1947) Educational attainment by T2 (1971) 
happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=.07 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.10 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 p < .05
Females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
Control variables not reported


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyRohe & Stegman (1994): study 1992
TitleThe Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People.
SourceJournal of the American Planning Association,1994, Vol. 60, 173 - 184
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369408975571#.U-ipnIccTDA
DOIDOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
PublicHome buyers and controls, Baltimore, USA, followed 18 months 1992-93
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =283

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 178,181
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of school completed
Remarks
T1-T2 interval= 18 months

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-faBeta=-.02 ns
T2 happiness by T2 education
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (to capture change in happiness 
after purchase of house)
- Personal characteristics:
  - Age
  - Sex 
  - Marital status 
  - Income
  - Occupational status
 Housing situation:
  - Owner of the house 
  - Housing type 
  - Satisfaction with neighborhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyBecchetti & Conzo (2010): study AR Buenos Aires 2009
TitleMicrofinance and Happiness.
SourceUniverstiy of Rome ''tor Vergata'', Working Paper, 2010, No. 69
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ris/aiccon/2010_069.html
Public18+ aged, low income households, Buenos Aires (Argentina), 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =360

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 23,24
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
total number of years of schooling
Observed distributionM = 8,4 SD = 3,05
Remarks
The sample was composed of:
150 clients of a microfinance organization
150 eligible, but non clients
60 dropouts (past clients of microfinance organization)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.02 ns
B and OPRC controlled for:
- socio-economic characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - cohabitation
  - wealth proxies
  - village
  - savings
  - job experience
  - household income
  - household size

No significant change when B and OPRC additionally 
controlled for:
- microfinance loan (present)
- microfinance loan (present or past)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle (instead of microfinance loan)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-db=-.07 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle, included dropouts
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.10 p < .01
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle (instead of microfinance loan)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.08 p < .01
OPRC additionally controlled for:
- credit cycle, included dropouts


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 28,55,57
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of schooling

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=-.06 ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
B and beta controlled for:
- Gender
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status:
  - Married (1st,2nd and de facto)
  - Widowed
  - Divorced
  - Family size
- Age
- Religious involvement:
  - Church attendance
  - Denomination
  - Charity work
- Work status:
  - Family income (ln)
  - Labor force participation
  - Spouse in labor force

B and beta ns when additionally controlled for:
- hours worked
- occupational status
- job security
- unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyCheng et al. (2013): study CN 2011
TitleHousing and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China.
SourceMonash University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper, 2013, No. 39, Melbourne, Australia.
PublicAdult, general public, China, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5229

Correlate
Author's labelSchooling
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on years of schooling
Observed distributionM = 10.34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -gender
 -age
 -marital status
 -household size
 -rural hukou
 -Party member
 -social insurance
 -income
-Homeownership
 -homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
 -homeownership property status
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
 -property tenure
 -property size
 -number of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
 -source of homeownership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
-Loan
 -home loan
 -type of home loan
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-ib=+.01 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
-Perceive better local public safety
-Express lower risk aversion
-Expect
 -better economy
 -higher house price
 -higher commodity price
 -higher interest rate


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 7
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Now we would like to ask about your education 
experience since middle school. Please tell us your 
situation associated with each level of education in 
detail.
a) Year started
b) Year ended

Years of education is calculated.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 p < .01
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 p < .01
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.02 p < .01
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.01 p < .01
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- marital status
- health status
- having children
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudySmyth et al. (2008): study CN 2003
TitleThe Environment and Well-being in Urban China.
SourceEcological Economics, 2008, Vol.68, 547 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.eclecon.2008.05.017
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, China, 2003
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =8890

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 550.552
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
A vector of dummy variables representing the highest 
education of respondent
1. junior secondary secondary school and below 
(reference)
2. senior secondary school
3. polytechnic school
4. three year higher degree
5. four year undergraduate
6. postgraduate degree.
Observed distribution1: 20.9%; 2: 28.5%; 3: 11.4%; 4: 22.9%; 5: 14.8%; 6: 1.5%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.03 ns
Senior secondary school (VS junior secondary 
school and below)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.01 ns
Polytechnic school (VS junior secondary school and 
below)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.06 ns
Three year higher education (VS junior secondary 
school and below)
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eb=-.01 ns
Four year undergraduate and above(VS junior 
secondary school and below)

b's controled for:
- Environmental surroundings
  - pollution
  - disaster
  - congestion
  - parks
- Personal characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - occupation
  - unemployed
  - income
- Environment attitudes
  - environment awareness
- Attitudes on other socio-economic and political 
issues
  - pro-market
  - income inequality
  - social protection
  - national reunification
  - SARS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 116
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many years of education have you received by the 
end of 2002?
.. Years
Observed distributionM=8.0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.01 ns
B controlled for:
- Household income
- Income expectations
- Marital Status
- Gender
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Child left behind
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyJiang et al. (2012): study CN 2002
TitleIdentity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China.
SourceWorld Development, 2012, Vol. 40, 1190 - 1200
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.002
Public16+ aged general public, 26 cities, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =5630

Correlate
Author's labelYears of schooling completed
Page in Source 1194, 1195
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many years of education have you received by the 
end of 2002?
.. (Years)
Observed distributionM=10.05 SD=3.31

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=+.00 ns
B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) Rural/urban (Hukou) status
  b) Interaction Rural/urban (Hukou) status* 
  c) Age
  d) Gender
  e) Marital status
  f) Health
  g) Communist Party Member
  h) Unemployed
  i) Household income
  j) Future income expectations
  k) Surface of house
- City characteristics
  l) GDP per capita  
  m) Population growth
  n) City size
  o) Region in country
  p) Gini-coefficient
- Rural migrants vs urbans differences
  q) Education difference between urbans and 
     migrants
  r) Between-group inequality


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyLi et al. (2008): study CN 2002
TitleAn Exploration of the Subjective Well-Being of the Chinese Oldest-Old.
SourceHealthy Longevity in China, Demographic Methods and Population Analysis, 2008, Vol. 20, 347 - 356
URLhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6752-5_21
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6752-5_21
Public80+ aged, China, 2002
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response1285
Respondents N =11175

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 352
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self reported years of education
1: 0 years
2: 1-6 years
3: 6+ years
Observed distributionN: 1 = 7509, 2 = 2729, 3 = 836

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
1: M = 3,64
2: M = 3,67
3: M = 3,90
O-QOL-u-sq-v-5-aAoV= p < .001
F-ratio 34,19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelyears of schooling
Page in Source 162
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Year of schooling
1: < 13            
2: 13-14     
3: 15-16      
4: > 16
Observed distributionN: 1:722, 2:100, 3:126, 4:61
Remarks
Ss in laborforce only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
            unemployed employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=7.41    Mt=7.98
13-14 years  Mt=7.65    Mt=7.84
15-16 years  Mt=7.23    Mt=7.86
 > 16 years  Mt=5.00    Mt=7.93
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
            unemployed  employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.85    Mt=7.59 
13-14 years  Mt=6.76    Mt=7.44
15-16 years  Mt=6.39    Mt=7.65 
 > 16 years  Mt=5.00    Mt=7.63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
            unemployed  employed             
 < 13 years  Mt=6.63    Mt=7.13   
13-14 years  Mt=6.48    Mt=6.81
15-16 years  Mt=6.66    Mt=6.96
 > 16 years  Mt=5.00    Mt=6.91


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1991
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =9114

Correlate
Author's labelOwn education
Page in Source 22
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of school education plus years of jobtraining

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.06
1984 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.08
1984 disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.05
1991 raw correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dr=+.07
1991 disattenuated correlation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Disattenuated correlations are obtained by 
assuming validity coefficients of 0.9 for years of 
education and 0.8 for happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelEducational degree
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
A) a) No degree (reference)
   b) Secondary school (9 years)
   c) Secondary school (10 years)
   d) Technical college entrance qualification (11-12 
years)
   e) General qualification for university  entrance 
(12-13 years)
B) a) No vocational degree (reference)
   b) Apprenticeship
   c) Specialized vocational school
   d) University, technical college
Observed distributionA) a: 1%, b: 28%, c: 42%, d: 6%, e: 24% B) a: 9%, b: 59%, c: 14%, d: 18%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.60 ns
SECONDARY SCHOOL 9 YEARS   (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.71 ns
SECONDARY SCHOOL 10 YEARS  (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53 ns
TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE ENTRANCE QUALIFICATION 11-12 
YEARS                (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.79 ns
GENERAL QUALIFICATION FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE 
12-13 YEARS (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 ns
APPRENTICESHIP                (vs no vocational 
degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL SCHOOL (vs no vocational 
degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.14 ns
UNIVERSITY/TECHNICAL COLLEGE (vs no vocational 
degree)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) gender
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 16-18,30
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Number of children
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Income
- Spouse in foreign country
- Marital status
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelEducation (years of education)
Page in Source 508
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: 
How many years have you been in education?
..

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .05
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) gender
  m) marital status
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) having children
East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKoch et al. (2005): study DE 2002
TitleWorkfare: M÷glichkeiten und Grenzen. (Workfare: Possibilities and Limitations).
SourceIAB Discusdsion Paper no. 17/2005, NŘrnberg, Germany
URLhttps://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/31924/1/498010902.PDF
Public18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2568

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education in school and occupation
Page in Source 29
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01 ns
B controlled for: 
- Employment status, social assistence
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar 
result


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift fŘr Bev÷lkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on open question:
About how many years of education have you completed, 
whether full-time or part-time?
Observed distributionM= 13.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.01 ns
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- gender
- employment
- friends
- partner
- children
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Question not reported
Observed distributionM = 12,355 SD = 2,773

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.13 ns
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - financial situation
  - gender
  - household size
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.15 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings 
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.12 ns
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack 
- relative lack 

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What kind of degree do you have?

Recalculated to years of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .01
B controlled for: 
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Household composition
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Foreign-born
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 295
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=11.63; SD=2.564

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
b (+0.003) controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- number of children in household
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 35
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report of number of years the respondent attended 
school
Observed distributionN=327098 M=11.49 sd=2.58; Range=11 Min=7 Max=18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.00 ns
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.01 ns
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Betaĺs controlled for:

- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelYears of schooling
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Number of years of schooling

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=▒
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.02  Beta=-.01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
West: Beta=+.02  Beta=+.03

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyVendrik & Woltjer (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness and Loss Aversion: Is utility concave or convex in relative income?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007, Vol. 91, 1423 - 1448
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 17 years, 1984-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102068

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 1436
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of education (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.02
b's controlled for:
- Household income
- Reference household income
- Unemployment status
- Family composition
- Age
- Weekly hours worked


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKozcan (2013): study DE 1984
TitleDoes integration increase life satisfaction?
SourceUnpublished Manuscript (No. 1314). Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
URLhttp://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1314.pdf
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 1-26 years, 1984-2010
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =71779

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 11-12
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Calculation unknown
Observed distributionM=12.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 p < .01
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.01 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in schooling

b's controlled for:
- Age
- Marital status
- Employed
- Works in occupation of training
- Home ownership
- Household size
- Job insecurity
- Parental education 
- Urban/rural childhood
- Health

Unaffected by additionally controlled for:
- Gender
- Immigrant status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyLinssen et al. (2011): study IN Orrisa 2008
TitleSubjective Well Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 101, 57-72
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9635-2
PublicPoor household, rural areas, India, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =697

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Measured in full-time years of education
Observed distributionM = 3.51; SD = 3.6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
B controlled for:
-Consumption
 -absolute consumption
 -conspicuous consumption
 -relative consumption
-Village level characteristics
 -average village level consumption
-Individual level characteristic
 -Caste
 -missed days due to health
 -age
 -marital status
 -religion
 -employment status
 -gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

Study~BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005
TitleThe Information Dividend: Can IT Make you ''Happier''.
SourceResearch Report by Trajectory Partnership i.o.o. BCS the Chartered Institute for IT, 2010, London, UK
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~BCS_2010.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, World, 2005
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =35000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
B (+.001) controlled for:
- sense of freedom and control
- media use:
  - accessed internet
  - watched TV
- demographics:
  - gender
  - age, age squared
  - income
  - size of town
-employment:
  - work part time
  - self-employed 
  - retired
  - housewife
  - student
  - unemloyed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelEducation in years
Page in Source 44
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years schooling
Observed distributionGermany: M=11,3 SD=2,3 (N=1518) Italy: M=6,8 SD=4,4 (N=600)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.13 p < .001
Germany: CI95 [1.1-1.2]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=0.97 p < .322
Italy: CI95 [0.9-1.0]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelEducation years
Page in Source 5
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
1: Education less than 15 years
2: Education 16-19 years 
3: Education more than 20 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.04 p < .001
Education 16-19 years (vs Education less than 15 
years)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.08 p < .001
Education more than 20 years (vs Education less 
than 15 years)

b's controlled for:
- household income
- household size
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - children
  - employment status
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Stronger among:
- green voters
- elderly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study NZ 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged immigrants from Tonga, followed 3 years after migrattion, New-Zealand, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 5, 10
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Exact question not reported.
Observed distributionM= 12.1
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (11 months after migration) and T2 (33 
months after migration)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
education

B controlled for:
- age
- employment status
- personal income
- relative income
- religion
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT education

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyGuillen-Royo & Velazco (2012): study PE 2005
TitleHappy Villages and Unhappy Slums? Understanding Happiness Determinants in Peru.
SourceSelin, H.; Davey, G; Eds.: "Happiness Across Cultures. Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures Across Cultures. The History of Non-Westeren Science 6.", Springer, 2012, New York, USA, 253 - 270
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2700-7_18
PublicGeneral public, Peruvian corridor region, Peru, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =251

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source Table 5
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Full question was not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.05 p < .1
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.11 p < .01
Non-urban
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abb=+.01 ns
Urban

B's controlled for: 
 -age
 -marital status
 -gender
 -migrant
 -household expenditure
 -average expenditure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKoralewicz & Zagorski (2009): study PL 2007
TitleLiving Conditions and Optimistic Orientation of Poles.
SourceInternational Journal of Sociology, 2009, Vol. 39, 10 - 44
DOIDOI:10.2753/IJS0020-7659390401
PublicAdults, general public, Poland, 2007
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 29,30,31
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Education (years of schooling typical for a given 
level) from 5 to 19 years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bDM=+
ALL
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.29
Education in years
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bb=+.06
Education in years

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1.000
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.00
Education in years squared

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1.000
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bb=+.00
Education in years squared
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-aBeta=+.22
Education in years

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1.000
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-ab=+.04
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-aBeta=-.03
Education in years squared

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1.000
A-AB-?-mq-v-4-ab=-.00
O-SLW-g-sq-v-5-bDM=+
AGED 44
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyKeng & Wu (2014): study TW 1989
TitleLiving Happily Ever After? The Effect of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on the Happiness of the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 583 - 808
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9449-4
PublicElderly, Taiwan, folowed 14 years 1989-2003, before and after change health insurance law in 1995
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response<10%
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 788, 793-798
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
education level percentiles

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-aOPRC=+.02 p < .05
M-TH-cw-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.03 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- health insurance history
- Social background
  - age
  - sexe
  - income
  - marital status
  - Origin
    - native
    - mainland
- possessions
  - house
  - Stock
- health history, ever had..
  - asthma
  - stroke
  - heart
  - disbetes
- life style
  - drinks
  - smokes


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyStillman et al. (2014): study TO 2005
TitleMiserable migrants? Natural experiment evidence on international migration and objective and subjective well-being
SourceForthcoming in World Development
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.003
Public18-45 aged, aspirant migrants who stayed, Tonga, followed 3 years, 2005-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response66%
Respondents N =406

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 5, 9
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Exact question not reported.
Observed distributionM=11.9
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (2005) and T2 (2008), both after 
decision to stay in Tonga

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in 
education

B controlled for:
- age
- employment status 
- personal income 
- relative income 
- survey wave
- time period of the year
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 ns
CURRENT happiness by CURRENT education

B additionally controlled for:
- gender
- marital status
- region of birth
- religion
- visited New Zealand before 2000

CURRENT is pooled results of T1 and T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003 /1
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public15-75 aged, Ukraine, followed 4 years, 2003-2007,
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =7985

Correlate
Author's labelYears of schooling
Page in Source 16
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Observed distributionRange: 4 - 18.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-rbBeta=+.04 p < .01
Beta controled for 
- personal characteristics
  - gender
  - marital status
- socio-economic status
  - income
  - employement
- physical condition
  - chronic illness
  - height
  - drinking
  - smoking
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyDanzer & Danzer (2014): study UA 2003
TitleThe Long-Run Consequences of Chernobyl: Evidence on Subjective Well-Being, Mental Health and Welfare.
SourceMunich Discussion Paper, 2014, No. 2014-25, Munich, Germany
URLhttp://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20969/
Public6000+ adults, aged 15 to 75, Ukraine
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =11922

Correlate
Author's labelYears of schooling
Page in Source 16,36
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of schooling.
Observed distributionM = 11,9. Range 4-18.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.04 p < .01
Beta controled for:
- gender
- married state
- widowed state
- separated state
- chronic disease
- drinker
- smoker
- height
- unemployed
- inactive
- household size
- log income
- years of schooling
- pensioner


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyAbrams (1973): study GB 1971
TitleSubjective Social Indicators.
SourceSocial Trends, 1973, Vol. 4, 35 - 50
Public16+ aged, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal Education Age
Page in Source 38
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Terminal Education Age = age when full-time schooling 
finished.
3 19 and over
2 16 - 18
1 15 or less

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bDM=+
19 and over M = 6.4
16 - 18     M = 5.8
15 or less  M = 5.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of schooling ranged from 0 up to 17+.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.28 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.24 p < .10
Beta controlled for :
- age 
- gender
- migrant
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 278
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
Did you ever get a high school diploma or a GED 
certificate?
1: Yes
0: No
Did you ever complete one or more years of college for 
credit-not including schooling such as business 
college, technical
or vocational school?
1: Yes
0: No
Do you have any college degrees?
1: Yes
0: No
Classified into:
a) Less than high school (reference)
b) High school
c) Some college
d) College grad

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.05 ns
HIGH SCHOOL  (vs less than high school)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.13 p < .01
SOME COLLEGE (vs less than high school)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.11 p < .05
COLLEGE GRAD (vs less than high school)

OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- race
- working full-time
- marital status
- region in US


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 253
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
1: 12 years or less (reference)
2: < 12 years
3: 13-15 years
4: 16 years of more
Observed distribution1: 10%, 2: 29%, 3: 31%, 4: 30%
Error Estimates<12 years: s.e.=0.08 13-15 years:s.e.=0.06 >16 years: s.e.=0.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.02 ns
< 12 years        (vs 12 years or less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=-.18 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.07
13-15 years       (vs 12 years of less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=-.18
16 years of more  (vs 12 years of less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.07
> 16 years        (vs 12 years or less)

All b's and beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- race
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- parental status
- self rated physical health
- religious participation

Beta unaffected by additionsl control for
- religious social identity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyHagerty (2000): study US 1989
TitleSocial Comparison of Incomes in One's Community: Evidence from National Surveys of Income and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol. 78, 764 - 771
Public18+ aged general public, USA, 1989-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8362

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 767
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abBeta=+.04 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Household income
- Community mean income
- Sexe
- Marital status

Constant across different specifications


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyLuttmer (2005): study US 1987
TitleNeighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.
SourceQuarterly Journal of Economics, 2005, 963-1002
URLhttp://www.nber.org/~luttmer/relative.pdf
Public19+ aged couples, United States, followed 6 years, 1987-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8944

Correlate
Author's labelyears of education
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of education
Observed distributionM: 12,5; SD: 3.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Income relative to neighborhood
- Household income
- Value of home
- Renter
- Usual working hours
- Employment status
- Gender
- Age
- Race
- Years of education
- Religion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyAntonucci et al. (1998): study US 1980 /1
TitleNegative Effects of Close Social Relations.
SourceFamily Relations, 1998, Vol. 47, 379 - 384
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/585268
PublicMarrieds with children, Michigan, USA, 1980
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =366

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 381, table 2
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of education
Observed distributionMales: M=10.70, s.d = 3.82; females: M=10.93, s.d.=3.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.11 ns
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.13 ns
Males
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.08 ns
Females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 458
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of schooling
Observed distributionM=14.48, SD=2.71, Range 0-28
Remarks
Assessed at T4 (1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.00 ns
T1 Happiness (1980) by T4 Schooling
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.04 ns
T4 Happiness (1992)by T4 schooling
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.01 ns
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness
(T4 happiness controlling T1 happiness)
Beta additionally controlled for: 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Family income
- Number of children
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyGraham (2005): study US 1972
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =24128

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 218
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
a) "What is the highest grade in elementary school or 
highschool that (you/your fa~er/your mother/your 
[husband/wife] )finished and got credit
for?
 0  no formal schooling
 1  1st grade
 2  2nd grade
 3  3rd grade
 4  4rd grade
 5  5rd grade
 6  6rd grade
 7  7rd grade
 8  8rd grade
 9  9rd grade
10 10rd grade
11 11rd grade
12 12rd grade"
b) "Did (you/he/she) complete one or more years of 
college for credit? If yes: How many years did 
[you/he/she] complete? __________"

Taken into account the total amount of years of 
education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.01
B controlled for:
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Log income
- Race
- Current occupation
- Health index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1070
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
education in years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.05 ns
Employed women
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.01 ns
Housewives
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.12 p < .05
Employed women
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+04 p < .05
Housewives

B's controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Family income
Husband's job status
- respondents present or last job status
- social desirability
- time pressure

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyBotwinick & Storandt (1974): study US St. Louis County, Missouri 1969
TitleMemory, Related Functions and Age.
SourceThomas C. Publisher, 1974, Springfield, Illinois, USA
Public20-80 aged, general public, metropolitan St. Louis area, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120

Correlate
Author's labeleducation
Page in Source 52,69
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Years of education for 6 age groups:
1 20-29
2 30-39
3 40-49
4 50-59
5 60-69
6 70-80
Observed distribution1: M=14,10, 2: M=15,20, 3: M=14,00, 4: M=13,30, 5: M=11,10, 6: M=11,26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-aF=0.01 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-l-11-ar=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyFerre (2008): study UY 2007
TitleQuality of Life in Montevideo.
SourceWorking Paper: #R-561, i.o.o. Inter American Development Bank, 2008, Washington D.C., USA
URLhttp://www.iadb.org/research/pub_desc.cfm?language=English&PUB_ID=R-561
Public18+ aged, general public, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response35.1 %
Respondents N =801

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 47
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported years of education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-fb=+.22 p < .05
B controlled for:
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- age
- gender
- partner
- family size
- body mass index
- access to private health care
- sociable
- workaholic
- practice sports
- hours of leisure
- work hours (workers only)
- work hours quadratic (workers only)
- monthly home income
NEIGHBORHOOD
- distance to Promenade
- rooms
- bathrooms
- walls not in good condition
- roof not in good condition
- floor not in good condition
- kitchen exclusive for household
- access to running water system
- access to sewerage
- access to draining pipe
- sidewalks in OK concdition
- public street lighting
- many trees in block
- vandalism in neighborhood
- gangs in  neighborhood
- garbage problems in neighborhood
- pollution in neighborhood
SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL FACILITIES
- satisfaction with public parks and green areas
- satisfaction with public transportation
- satisfaction with public sports infrastructure
- high medium and high stratum area
- other areas

Not affected by work status: 
Workers: B=+.23
Nonworkers: B=+.21


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyOishi et al. (2007a): study 1981
TitleThe Optimum Level of Well-Being. Can People Be Too Happy?
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2007, Vol. 2, 346 - 360
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x
Public18+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 1981-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =118519

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 350-351
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-reported, respondents indicated (in deciles)their 
highest education completed.
Observed distributionRange 3.68-4.82, similar for men and women. M: Males: 4,49. Females: 4,25.
Remarks
Data: Pooled World Values Surveys 1981, 1990,1995 and 
2000.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=- p < .001
The most happy (10) completed less education than 
moderately happy (9 or 8)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.12 p < .001
The most happy (10) completed a significantly 
lower education than expected based on this linear 
model.


Control variables not reported.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
2       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
6       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
8       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
9       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
10      M=3.20     Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .90      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
4       M= .51      Mt=5.5
5       M= .98      Mt=6.0
6       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
7       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
8       M=1.28      Mt=6.3         
9       M= .71      Mt=5.7 
10      M=1.65      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.01      Mt=6.7
2       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.46      Mt=7.2
7       M=6.98      Mt=6.6
8       M=7.34      Mt=7.0         
9       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
10      M=7.44      Mt=7.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2003a): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 5, Report 5.0. The Wellbeing of Autralians: 1. Personal Finances 2. The Impact of the Bali Bombing.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2003, Melbourne, Australia.
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2003
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1979

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 90
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: Primery
2: Secondary
3: Post Secondary-Non University
4: Post Secondary-University
Observed distributionN = 1: 93; 2: 892; 3: 318; 4: 670

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=▒ p < .035
1 Mt=8,01; SD=1,81
2 Mt=7,90; SD=1,73
3 Mt=7,62; SD=1,74
4 Mt=7,77; SD=1,50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHeadey & Wooden (2004): study AU 2002
TitleThe Effects of Wealth and Income on Subjective Well-Being and Ill-Being.
SourceEconomic Record, 2004, Vol. 80, 24 - 33
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2004.00181.x/abstract
Public20-59 aged, general public, Australia, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7934

Correlate
Author's labelEducational Attainment
Page in Source 22
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Tertiary degree
0: Completed year 12
1: Tertiary degree

Trade qualification
0: Completed year 12
1: Trade qualification

Less than 12 years schooling
0: Completed year 12
1: Less than 12 years schooling

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=-.10 ns
Tertiary degree
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+1,2 p < .05
Trade qualification
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db=+2.8 p < .001
Less than 12 years schooling
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d
B's controlled for:
 - equivalised Income
 - net worth
 - gender
 - partnered
 - age
 - employment status
 - disability status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What qualifications have you completed?
1) no qualifications (reference)
2) year 12 only
3) certificate level 1 or 2
4) certificate level 3 or 4
5) a diploma
6) a degree
Observed distributiona) 34%, b) 11%, c) 9%, d) 18%, e) 8%, f) 18%, g) 2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.22 p < .01
DEGREE OR HIGHER         (vs no qualifications)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.19 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.12 p < .05
YEAR 12 ONLY             (vs no qualifications)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.10 p < .05
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.18 p < .01
DIPLOMA                  (vs no qualifications)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.13 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
CERTIFICATE LEVEL 3 OR 4 (vs no qualifications)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.14 p < .01
Females
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.12 p < .1
CERTIFICATE LEVEL 1 OR 2 (vs no qualifications)
Males
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
Females

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPaul & Guilbert (2013): study AU 2001
TitleIncome-Happiness Paradox in Australia: Testing the Theories of Adaptation and Social Comparison.
SourceEconomic Modeling, 2013, Vol. 30, 900 - 910
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.08.034
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8530

Correlate
Author's labelEducational degree
Page in Source 905
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Degree
1) yes
0) no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.32 p < .05
OPRC controlled for:
- Household income
- Past household income
- Reference group income
- Age
- Gender
- Employment status
- Health
- Living in/outside city
- Indiginous
- Marital status
- Parents together
- Volunteering
- Care performed
- Working hours
- Commuting


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelEducation levels
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Higest education
1  less than 12 years (reference)
2  year 12
3  certificate or diploma
4  bachelors degree or higher
Observed distributionYear 12 2.0% Certificate or diploma 28.8% Bachelors degree or higher 19.4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.42 ns
Year 12 (vs less than 12 years)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.10 ns
Certificate or diploma (vs less than 12 years)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.04 ns
Bachelors degree or higher (vs less than 12 years)

OPRC's controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Number of children
 - Health condition
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - SEIFA index
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVuletic (2003): study AU 1998
TitleSubjective Quality of Life and Self Assessed Social Support among Croation Immigrants in Australia: A Comparison with Non-Immigrant Croations and Australians.
SourcePaper presented at ISQOLS Conference Frankfurt, 2003, Germany
PublicCroatian immigrants, Urban areas of Australia, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 primary school 
2 secondary school
3 technical/University
4 other
Observed distribution% N: 1=35.1, 2=37.9, 3=23.6, 4=3.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDMt=+
   M     Mt     CI95
1 3.69  5.38  [3.32;4.06]
2 3.79  5.58  [3.46;4.11]
3 4.22  6.44  [3.81;4.63]
4 2.67  3.33  [1.09;4.25]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aBMCT= ns
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aE▓=.046
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=2.77 p < .043


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVuletic (2003): study AU 1998
TitleSubjective Quality of Life and Self Assessed Social Support among Croation Immigrants in Australia: A Comparison with Non-Immigrant Croations and Australians.
SourcePaper presented at ISQOLS Conference Frankfurt, 2003, Germany
PublicCroatian immigrants, Urban areas of Australia, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =179

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of Education
1 <= 8 years
2 10-12 years
3 >= 14 years
Observed distribution% N: 1=34.1%, 2=43%, 3=22.9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=+
    M        Mt     CI95
1 3.69     5.38   [3.32;4.06]  
2 3.71     5.43   [3.41;4.02] 
3 4.22     6.44   [3.81;4.63]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aBMCT= ns
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aE▓=.03
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=2.26 p < .107


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest educational level that you have 
attained? 
1: No formal education
.
.
.
8: Postgraduate degree
Error Estimatess.e.=.018

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - employment status
    - health
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study AU 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1104

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 41/5
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.01 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBell (1975): study AU 1973
TitleSignificant Roles among a Sample of Australian Women.
SourceThe Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 1975, Vol. 11, 2 - 11
URLhttp://jos.sagepub.com/content/11/1/2.full.pdf+html
DOIDOI: 10.1177/144078337501100101
PublicWomen, ever married, Melbourne, Australia, 1975
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =439

Correlate
Author's labellow versus high education
Page in Source 8
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 low education (form 5)
Observed distribution1: 57 % 2: 51 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-cG=-.35
% happy most of the time:
all:
low:  57
high: 75
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-cG=+.30 p < .01
young (<40)
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-cG=+.40 p < .01
old (>40)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study AU 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Australia, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =945

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 130
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Stage of education reached:
1 Primary
2 Secondary
3 University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.03 ns
1                             M'=1.99  Mt'=5.0
2                                2.03      5.2
3                                2.02      5.1
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.05 ns
                  
                       


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1992
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1992
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1553

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 13
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=-.07
▀ controled for sex, age, work status and home 
ownership.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.32      Mt=7.3
2       M=1.87      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
7       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
8       M=1.92      Mt=6.9         
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=1.98      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
3       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
5       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
7       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
8       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
9       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
10      M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
2       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
3       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
4       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
5       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
6       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
7       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
8       M=6.19      Mt=5.8         
9       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
10      M=7.43      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1989): study AT 1989
TitleUngleichheit in Wien. (Inequality in Vienna).
SourceBauforum, Fachzeitschrift fŘr Architektur, 1989, Vol. 22, 88 - 94
PublicAdults, varying age ranges, general public, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 91
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. Basic school only
2. Vocational education
3. Higher education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aDMs=+
Difference from nation-average (100 = 1SD) by age  
  <30   30-60   60>   all
1  +46    -26    -56   -26
2. +46    -09    -38   +11
3. +46    +35    +18   +36


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1989
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational status
Page in Source 8, 11
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. basic education
2. apprenticeship
3. professional school
4. secundary school (Matura)
5. university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=▒
% happy (very or quite)
1.   56
2.   63
3.   68
4.   74
5.   67
all  63
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1.   62
2.   75
3.   66
4.   81
5.   82
all  68
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=.09 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aD%=+
1.   44
2.   61
3.   64
4.   70
5.   75
all  58
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
Beta's controled for:
- age
- community size
- cultural participation (attendance and amateur 
activity)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1990): study AT 1988
TitleStressbewńltigung und Selbstbestimtheit. (Coping with Stress and Locus of Control).
SourceStart und Aufstieg, 1990, Vol. 3, 13 - 14
PublicRailway employees, Austria, 1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source (16)
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Remarks
Highest schhoeducation completed
1. basic school      (Plichtschule)
2.                   (Lehre)
3.                   (MeisterprŘfung)
4. vocational school (Fachschule)
5.                   (Matura)
6.                   (Studium)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=+.07
1. M'=2.25
2. M'=2.50
3. M'=2.50
4. M'=2.38
5. M'=2.45
6. M'=2.67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1987a): study AT 1987
TitleGebaude Gemeinschaft. (Builded Community).
SourceSWS Rundschau, 1987, Vol. 27, 147 - 156
URLhttp://www.sws-rundschau.at/
PublicResidents housing estates, Vienna, Austria, 1987
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =218

Correlate
Author's labelSchooleducation
Page in Source 151
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. Matura level
0. lower level 
Remarks
▀ controled for age, sex, postmaterialism, physical 
health, mental health, occupational status and 
satisfactions (with housing, leisure, social contacts 
and actitities).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-br=+.12
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-ar=+.19
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.05 ns
M-FH-cm-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.16 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGehmacher (1986): study AT 1986
TitleGlŘck als Mathematische Gleichung. (Happiness as a Mathematical Equation).
SourceStart und Aufstieg: die Zeitschrift des Berufsf÷rderungsinstituts, Austria, 1986, 8 - 9
PublicAdults, age range not reported, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1814

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 9
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. Matura level
0. lower level

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-6-ar=+.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFessel (1985): study AT 1985
TitleSoziologische und Psychologische Ursachen des Wertwandel Phńnomens. (Sociological and Psychological Determinants of Value Change).
SourceResearch Report, Institut fŘr Empirische Sozialforschung, IFES, 1985, Vienna, Austria
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/fessel_wd_1985.pdf
Public14+ aged, general public, Austria, 1985
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1027

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 111
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. O ABG
2. M AGB
3. Matura
4. Academics

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.12 p < .01
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.06 p < .01
% often happy
1. 42
2. 52
3. 44
4. 58


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitńt in Ísterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fŘr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultńt der Universitńt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 18,30,T21
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 Primary only
2 Lower professional
3 Mediumprofessional
4 University or college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.16 p < .01
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aG=+.24 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-atc=+.18 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-atc=+.17 p < .01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.16
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
▀ controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
professional status, income, and community size
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta= ns
▀ controlled for: gender, age, marital status, 
education, professional status, income, and 
community size


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.44      Mt=4.9
2       M=4.90      Mt=4.3
3       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
4       M=5.84      Mt=5.4
5       M=6.58      Mt=6.2
6       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
7       M=5.26      Mt=4.7
8       M=5.40      Mt=4.9         
9       M=5.40      Mt=4.9
10      M=5.56      Mt=5.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .50      Mt=5.5
2       M=-.40      Mt=4.6
3       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
5       M= .90      Mt=5.9
6       M= .76      Mt=5.8
7       M= .68      Mt=5.7
8       M= .49      Mt=5.5         
9       M= .58      Mt=5.6 
10      M= .82      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.44     Mt=4.8
2       M=1.90     Mt=3.0
3       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
4       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
5       M=2.29     Mt=4.3
6       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
7       M=2.43     Mt=4.8
8       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
9       M=2.45     Mt=4.8
10      M=2.48     Mt=4.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
2       M= .81      Mt=5.8
3       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.55      Mt=6.5 
10      M=1.74      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
7       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
8       Empty category
9       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
10      M=3.34     Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
7       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
10      M=7.66      Mt=7.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
2       M= .81      Mt=5.8
3       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.55      Mt=6.5 
10      M=1.74      Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.07      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
7       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
10      M=7.66      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
7       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
8       Empty category
9       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
10      M=3.34     Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study BE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=1.05      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.65      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.86      Mt=6.9 
10      M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.20     Mt=6.9
7       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
10      M=7.42      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
8       Empty category
9       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
10      M=3.02     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.01      Mt=6.7
4       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
6       M=6.84      Mt=6.5
7       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
8       Less than 10 Ss                   
9       M=6.28      Mt=5.9
10      Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
3       M= .61      Mt=5.6
4       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
6       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
7       M=1.88      Mt=6.9
8       Less than 10 Ss                          
9       M=1.06      Mt=6.1 
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
2       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
3       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
4       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
6       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
7       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
8       Less than 10 Ss
9       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
10      Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study BR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
PublicAdult, general public, metropolitan areas Brazil, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 99/103
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.08 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.08 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.06 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.05 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study BR 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1960-1961
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2168

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Illiterate / low / middle / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.50 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.24     Mt=4.1
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
4       M=2.16     Mt=3.9
5       M=2.10     Mt=3.7
6       M=2.18     Mt=3.9
7       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
8       M=2.36     Mt=4.5
9       M=2.28     Mt=4.3
10      M=2.36     Mt=4.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       M=4.83      Mt=4.3
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=5.32      Mt=4.8
4       M=4.64      Mt=4.0
5       M=4.80      Mt=4.2
6       M=4.60      Mt=4.0
7       M=5.28      Mt=4.8
8       M=5.20      Mt=4.7         
9       M=4.98      Mt=4.4
10      M=5.05      Mt=4.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGwanfogbe et al. (1970): study CM 1965
TitlePolygyny and Marital Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study from Rural Cameroon.
SourceJournal of Comparative Family Studies, 1970, Vol. 28, 55 - 71
PublicMothers of young child, rural areas, Cameroon, 196?
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 62,64
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of schooling
Observed distribution18,3% no formal education; 8,3 % eight or more years of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-ar=.00
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta= ns
Beta controled for:
- wife order
- marital satisfaction
- husband's supportiveness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyUskul & Greenglass (2005): study CA 2005
TitlePsychological Wellbeing in a Turkish-Canadian Sample.
SourceAnxiety, Stress, and Coping, 2005, Vol. 18, 269 - 278
DOIDOI: 10.1080/10615800500205983
PublicTurkish immigrants, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =181

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 274.275
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education was treated as a continuous variable, with 7 
levels, with greater numbers representing higher levels 
of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-ar=+.05 ns
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controled for:
- married status
- gender
- years in Canada
- optimism
- proactive coping


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHelliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1
TitleHow's the Job? Well-Being and Social Capital in the Workplace.
SourceILR Review, 2010, Vol 63. Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/helliwell_jf_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1862

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 212-213
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 Less than high school (ref.)
2 High school
3 Some college (no university degree)
4 University Degree
Error Estimatess.e.=0.11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=-.06 ns
No difference in education levels when split up in 
separate correlates.

OPRC controlled for:
- Job satisfaction
- Log of personal income
- Log other family members' income
- Log of avg. household income in census tract
- Self-perceived health
- Age
- Gender
- Marital status
- Contact w. family members
- Contact w. friends
- Contact w. neighbors
- Number of memberships or extent of activity
- Trust in general
- Trust in neighbors
- Trust in police
- Importance of religion
- Frequency attending religious services

Additional control for job characteristics, but 
not controlling for job satisfaction did not 
effect OPRC.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest educational level that you have 
attained? 
1: No formal education
.
.
.
8: Postgraduate degrees.e.=.016
Error Estimatess.e.=.016

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - employment status
    - health
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=2.16      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.11      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.71      Mt=6.7
4       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
5       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
6       M=2.36      Mt=7.4
7       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
8       M=2.25      Mt=7.3         
9       M=2.31      Mt=7.3 
10      M=2.53      Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
2       M=8.06      Mt=7.8
3       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
5       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
7       M=7.95      Mt=7.7
8       M=8.01      Mt=7.8         
9       M=7.86      Mt=7.6
10      M=7.92      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
3       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
4       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
8       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
9       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
10      M=3.03     Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMichalos (1986): study CA 1984
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00300488
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =457

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 363
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Formal education:
1: last grade 6
2; last grade 7-8
3: last grade 11-13
4: some post secondary
5: post secondary
6: bachelors
7: post graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
▀ path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, income 
and the perceived discrepancies: own life with 
that of others, life with that deserved, life with 
needs, life with progress in life, life now with 
best previous experience, life with wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
▀ path-coefficient controlled for sex, age, income 
and the perceived discrepancies: own life with 
that of others, life with that deserved, life with 
needs, life with progress in life, life now with 
best previous experience, life with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.07
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06
Total of direct path and indirect paths via life 
compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
Males: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06
Males: total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.10
Males: total of direct path and indirect paths via 
life compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.0 ns
Females: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.0 ns
Females: direct path
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02
Females: total of direct path and indirect paths 
via life compared with wants.
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aaBeta=+.06
Females: total of direct path and indirect paths 
via life compared with wants.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMichalos (1983): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleSatisfaction and Happiness in a Rural Northern Resource Community.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1983, Vol. 13, 225 - 252
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00318099
Public18+ aged, general public, rural community, North Ontario, Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response8%
Respondents N =598

Correlate
Author's labelFormal education
Page in Source 233
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: grade 8 or less
2: grade 10 or less
3: grade 13 or less
4: some trade school
5: trade licence
6: some college, university
7: recieved degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-RG-u-sq-v-7-bBeta= ns
All ▀'s controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
language, work status, marital status, time in 
area.

Males  : N: 173  ▀: +.03
Females: N: 154  ▀: -.03
C-RG-u-sq-v-7-bBeta=+.03
All ▀'s controlled for satisfaction with health, 
financial security, family relations, paid 
employment, friendships, housing, area you live 
in, recreation activity, religion, self esteem, 
transportation, government services,   
and for the other demographic factors: sex, age, 
language, work status, marital status, time in 
area.

Males  : N: 173  ▀: +.05
Females: N: 154  ▀: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study CA 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1012

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 157/161
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=-.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.01 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1977
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1977
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =3289

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-br=- .0 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-10-brpc=-.05 ns
rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKennedy & Mehra (1985): study CA Edmonton CMA 1977
TitleEffects of Social Change on Well-Being: Boom and Bust in a Western Canadian City.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1985, Vol. 17, 101 - 113
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00302416
Public18+ aged, general public, City of Edmonton, Canada, 1977-1984
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3440

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 108
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education in years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=+.07
Stepwise regression by age-group.
age-group 17-25
 
 
Beta controlled for:
- standard of living satisfaction
- friendship satisfaction
- family satisfaction
- job satisfaction
- neighbourhood satisfaction
- financial better/worsen than year ago
- health satisfaction
- year of significant social change
- things wanted to do satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySnider (1980): study CA 1976
TitleExplaining Life Satisfaction: It's the Elderly's Attitudes that Count.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1980, Vol. 61, 253 - 263
Public65+ aged, retired whites, Edmonton, Canada, 1976
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =428

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 257-258
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question rated on a 4-point scale with 
the choice statements: 'none', 'elementary', 
'secondary' and 'univ.-tech'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-ar=+.14 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-atc=+.12 p < .01
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-aDyx=+.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1974
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1974
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1234

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-dr=+.12 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-drpc=+.08 p < .01
 rpc controlled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAtkinson (1979): study CA 1968
TitleTrends in Life Satisfaction among Canadians, 1968-1977.
SourceInstitute for Research on Public Policy, 1979, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/atkinson_th_1979.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1968
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2734

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .01
O-SLW-h-sq-v-4-arpc=+.06 p < .05
rpc controled for: Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBeiser (1974): study CA 1963
TitleComponents and Correlates of Mental Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1974, Vol. 15, 320 - 327
Public18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968
Sample
Non-Response10%
Respondents N =112

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 325
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cq-mq-v-3-ar= ns
Index of Negative Affects: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
2       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
3       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
4       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
7       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
8       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
9       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
10      M=3.05     Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .64      Mt=5.6
2       M= .37      Mt=5.4
3       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
4       M= .72      Mt=5.7
5       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
6       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
8       M=1.25      Mt=6.3         
9       M= .98      Mt=6.0 
10      M=1.13      Mt=6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
2       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
5       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
7       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
8       M=7.50      Mt=7.2         
9       M=7.48      Mt=7.2
10      M=7.43      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 just finished primary school or below
1 bachelor's degree but below postgraduate
2 master's degree or above

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
0: M=7.06
1: M=6.91
2: M=7.31


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyChen (2013): study CN 2009
TitlePerceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceJournal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 2013, Vol. 40, 131- 156
Public18+ aged general public, China, 2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response1413
Respondents N =2733

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 149
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Highest  education completed:
1) Less than middle school (reference)
2) Middle school
3) High school or vocational school
4) College or above

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.10 p < .NS
MIDDLE SCHOOL (vs less than middle school)
Urbans (N=983)

Similar findings are observed among rural 
residents (N=1195)and rural-to-urban migrants 
(N=555).
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.12 p < .NS
HIGH SCHOOL/VOCATIONAL SCHOOL (vs less than middle 
school)
Urbans

Similar findings are observed among rural 
residents and rural-to-urban migrants.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.46 p < .05
COLLEGE OR ABOVE (vs less than middle school)
Urbans
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.01 p < .NS
COLLEGE OR ABOVE (vs less than middle school)
Rurals

Similar findings are observed for rural-to-urban 
migrants.

B's controlled for:
- ethnic discimination
- gender
- marital status
- ethnic minority
- age
- employment


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational attainment
Page in Source 215,210
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Educational attainment:
- primary school or below (reference group)
- junior high
- senior high/vocational school
- associate's degree
- bachelor's and graduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.14 ns
- junior high
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.11 ns
- senior high/vocational school
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.16 ns
- associate's degree
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.1 ns
- bachelor's and graduate degree
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.92 ns
- junior high
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.96 ns
- senior high/vocational school
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.8 ns
- associate's degree
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=0.75 ns
- bachelor's and graduate degree
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.96 ns
- junior high
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.98 ns
- senior high/vocational school
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=1.02 ns
- associate's degree
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=2.13 p < .01
- bachelor's and graduate degree
Subgroup value is lower.
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
- junior high
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
- senior high/vocational school
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
- associate's degree
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.18 ns
- bachelor's and graduate degree
M-ACO---mq-v-7-a
OR and B values are versus reference group.

OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- marital status
- household income
- unemployement
- urban residency
- domain satisfaction
- value priorities
- lifestyle

For a subgroup of 87% of respondents with at least 
one positive experience of happiness, enjoyment 
and accomplishment, OR and B values are higher 
unless stated otherwise.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study CN Yunnan 2003
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
Public18+ aged, Yunnan region, China, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3%
Respondents N =3641

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 18
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on how much education the respondents 
completed
Observed distributionM = 8.61, SD = 0.08

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.04 p < .05
OLRC controlled for:
- income rank
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- married
- age
- sex
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyZhang & Liu (2007): study CN 2002
TitleChildlessness, Psychlogical Well-being and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly in China
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 2007, 22:185-203
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10823-007-9037-3
Public65+ aged, China, 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13447

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 193
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: Never went to school
2: 1-6 years
3: 7 years or more (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.48 p < .01
Never went to school (vs 7 years or more)
B controlled for 
- age 
- gender
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.32 p < .01
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.38 p < .01
1-6 years of education (vs 7 years or more)
B controlled for 
- age 
- gender
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 p < .01
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyChan & Lee (2006): study CN 2000
TitleNetwork Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 87 - 112
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Public60+aged, China, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2125

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 98, 100
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education level:
0: no schooling or kindergarten
1: lower secondary
2: upper secondary or vocational
3: teriary without degrees
4: tertiary with degrees
5: postgraduate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.13 ns
Hong Kong
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- income

Beta unaffected (+.02) by additional control for
- network size
- social support
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbr=+.02 ns
Beijing
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hbBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender 
- income

Beta unaffected (-.03) by additional control for
- network size
- social support


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGao & Meng (2015): study CN 1998
TitleThe Impact of Government Size on Chinese Elders' Life Satisfaction: 1998-2008
SourceFilomena Maggino, Ed.: "Social Indicators Research Series 57, A New Research Agenda for Impovements in Quality of Life", Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, Swiss, 2015, 135 - 161
DOIDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15904-1_7
Public65+ aged, China, followed 10 years, 1998-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =50674

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 138, 147
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a; illiterate, (Reference group)
b: primary school, 
c: middle school.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=
Individual happiness by education

OPRC controlled for:

-provincial characteristics:
 -Real GDP per capita
 -Government medical expenses
 -Government Size
 -Capital Formation Rate

-individual characteristics:
 -Gender
 -Living arrangement
 -Age (groups)
 -Urban (residence)
 -Etnicity (Han = 1)
 -White Collar (= 1)
 -Frequency visits by child or sibling
 -Chronic conditions score
 -ADL-score (Physical limitations)

Similar results if addionally controlled for:
-Household income (quartiles)
-Feeling rich or fair
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.09 p < .01
b: Primary education (OPRC = +0,0853)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bOPRC=+.18 p < .01
c: Secundary education (OPRC = +0,180)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
3       M= .41      Mt=5.4
4       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
6       M=1.17      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.24      Mt=6.2         
9       M=1.25      Mt=6.3 
10      M=1.42      Mt=6.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
2       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
6       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
7       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
8       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
9       M=2.87     Mt=6.2
10      M=2.98     Mt=6.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVuletic (2004): study HR 2001
TitleGenerational and Transgenerational Factors of Health Related Quality of Life in Croatia.
SourcePhD Thesis, Faculty of Medicine, University of Logves, 2004, Croatia
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =182

Correlate
Author's labelYears of Education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of Education
1 <= 8 years
2 10-12 years
3 >= 14 years
Observed distribution%N: 1=9.3, 2=53.8, 3=36.8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDM=
    M (SD)      Mt      CI95
1 3.18(1.13)   5.52   [2.59;3.76]
2 3.81(1.03)   5.61   [3.60;4.01]
3 3.76(1.05)   5.52   [3.51;4.02]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aBMCT= ns
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aE▓=.029
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=2.67 p < .07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVuletic et al. (2002): study HR 1997
TitleHealth Related Quality of Life (HRQL) Assessment in Croatian Population Using the SF-36.
SourceQuality of Life Newsletter, 2002, Vol. 29, 7
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vuletic_g_2002.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1997-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5048

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 without or incomplete primary school
2 Primary school 
3 Two years secondary school
4 Secondary school
5 Higher school
6 University + postgraduate
Observed distribution%N: 1=12.5, 2=20, 3=12.2, 4=38.3, 5=6.6, 6=10.4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aDMt=
   M     Mt     CI95
1  3.07  4.15  [3.95;4.35]
2  3.39  4.77  [4.61;4.93]
3  3.62  5.23  [5.02;5.44] 
4  3.82  5.65  [5.54;5.76]
5  3.65  5.31  [5.04;5.57] 
6  3.84  5.67  [5.47;5.88]
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aBMCT= p < .01
1<2,3,4,5,6
2<3,4,5,6
3<4,6
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aE▓=0.04
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aF=43.6 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study CU 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 1960
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =992

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Elementary: none / secondary / higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
4       M=6.33      Mt=5.9
5       M=5.46      Mt=5.0
6       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
7       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
8       M=6.30      Mt=5.9         
9       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
10      M=6.58      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M= .64      Mt=5.6
4       M= .63      Mt=5.6
5       M= .30      Mt=5.3
6       M= .86      Mt=5.9
7       M= .86      Mt=5.9
8       M= .61      Mt=5.6         
9       M= .57      Mt=5.6 
10      M= .93      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       Less than 10 Ss
3       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
4       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
5       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
6       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
7       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
8       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
9       M=2.59     Mt=5.3
10      M=2.79     Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest educational level that you have 
attained? 
1: No formal education
.
.
.
8: Postgraduate degree
Error Estimatess.e.=.024

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - employment status
    - health
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelcompleted secondary education
Page in Source 94
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: no post-secondary education
   (less than 13 years of schooling)
2: short post-secondary education
   (13-14 years)
3: intermediate post-secondary education
   (15-16 years) 
4: long post-secondary education
   (more than 16 years)
Observed distributionN: 1:553, 2:112, 3:137, 4:75
Remarks
Ss all had completed secondary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 ns
 1: Mt=7.83   
 2: Mt=7.59   
 3: Mt=7.78   
 4: Mt=7.96   
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 ns
 1: Mt=7.48 
 2: Mt=7.24 
 3: Mt=7.50 
 4: Mt=7.56
All Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 ns
 1: Mt=6.98
 2: Mt=6.61  
 3: Mt=6.91  
 4: Mt=6.94  
All Mt=6.93


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.43      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.73      Mt=6.7
6       M=2.18      Mt=7.2
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       M=2.18      Mt=7.2         
9       M=2.17      Mt=7.2
10      M=2.01      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.50     Mt=8.3
2       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
3       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
5       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
6       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
7       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
8       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
9       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
10      M=3.35     Mt=7.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=8.50      Mt=8.3
2       M=8.40      Mt=8.2
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=8.34      Mt=8.2
5       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.51      Mt=8.3
7       M=8.58      Mt=8.4
8       M=8.21      Mt=8.0         
9       M=8.56      Mt=8.4
10      M=8.17      Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DK 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1182

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAllardt (1973): study DK 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Denmark, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
8-point scale ranging from "less than elementary 
school" to "university degree".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.08
Controlled for:Income, housing density, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feeling of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed,gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
number of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study DO 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =814

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
No schooling / some primary / some secondary.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.69 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       M=6.08      Mt=5.6
3       M=5.36      Mt=4.8
4       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
5       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
6       M=5.75      Mt=5.3
7       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
8       M=6.19      Mt=5.8         
9       M=5.68      Mt=5.2
10      M=5.92      Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       M= .92      Mt=5.9
3       M= .58      Mt=5.6
4       M= .38      Mt=5.4
5       M= .32      Mt=5.3
6       M= .86      Mt=5.9
7       M= .99      Mt=6.0
8       M= .86      Mt=5.9         
9       M= .31      Mt=5.3 
10      M= .80      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       M=2.27     Mt=4.2
3       M=2.29     Mt=4.3
4       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
5       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
6       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
7       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
8       M=2.59     Mt=5.3
9       M=2.51     Mt=5.0
10      M=2.60     Mt=5.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest educational level that you have 
attained? 
1: No formal education
.
.
.
8: Postgraduate degree
Error Estimatess.e.=.037

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.05 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation    
    - income
    - employment status
    - health
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced
    - number of children
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is the highest education level you finished?
1) basic
2) secondary
3) tertiary (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.57 ns
SECONDARY   (vs tertiary)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.53 ns
BASIC       (vs tertiary) 
Men:
OR when controlled for:
- recent migration
- employment history

Similar findings observed when no covariates are 
included or OR additionally controlled for:
- social support
- active coping strategies
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future

Similar findings are found for women.

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at en institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
7       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
8       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
9       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
10      M=3.10     Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
8       Empty category
9       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
10      M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
5       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
6       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
7       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
8       M=7.69      Mt=7.4         
9       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
10      M=7.73      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       Empty category
4       M=1.17      Mt=6.2
5       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.60      Mt=6.6         
9       M= .39      Mt=5.4 
10      M=1.21      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=2.33      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
10      M=7.55      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAllardt (1973): study FI 1972
TitleAbout Dimensions of Welfare: An Explanatory Analysis of a Comperative Scandinavian Survey.
SourceResearch Reports, Nr.1, Research Group for Comparative Sociology, University of Helsinki, 1973, Finland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/allardt_e_1973.pdf
Public15-64 aged, general public, Finland, 1972
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
8-point scale ranging from "less than elementary 
school" to "university degree".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-arpc=+.18
Controlled for:Income, housing density, social 
status, chronic illness, anxiety, frequency of 
meetings with relatives, number of friends, 
opportunities to make personal contacts, 
possibilities to decide on matters concerning 
one's own personal life, number of memberships in 
clubs and associations, interesting life, easyness 
of life, loneliness, feeling of being liked, 
feeling of being able to use knowledge and skills, 
feeling of chance to succeed,gets sufficient 
attention, satisfaction with income, age, gender, 
number of communities in which lived.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 25
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.28 p < .01
Years of education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.02

B's controled for:
- age
- household income
- position in the household
- employment
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2009): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleUnemployment, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 421 - 430
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-008-9097-2#page-1
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-008-9097-2
PublicEmployed, who fell unemployed, West-Germany 1984-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5536

Correlate
Author's labelUniversity graduate
Page in Source 20
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 university
0 other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.18
males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09
females

B's conrolled for
-Umenployment
-Age (three dummies)
-German nationality
-Marital Status
-Region in Germany (East/West)
-Reported activities (Attending culural event, 
entertainment, sport, voluntary work, church 
service, visiting friends and family)

B denotes points difference in happiness on scale 
0-10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study XZ Germany West 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1020

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 737/41
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.11 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.11 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.04 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /2
TitlePolitik und GlŘck. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public14+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7965

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 220
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 elementary school 
1 secondary school completed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bG=+.31 p < .01
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-btb=+.15 p < .01
% happy face:
- Primary school              70%
- Secondary school completed  82%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ▒1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 99
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Primary Education
Primary Ed. + Vocational School
Advanced Elementary Education
Secondary Education
University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE▓=+.13 p < .01
Primary Education       M=4.65  Mt=6.08
P.E. + Vocat. School    M=4.92  Mt=6.53
Advanc. Elem. Educ.     M=5.17  Mt=6.95
Secondary Education     M=5.13  Mt=6.88
Study                   M=5.23  Mt=7.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyNeuberger & Allerbeck (1978): study XZ Germany West 1970
TitleMessung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenkeit. (Measurement and Analysis of Satisfaction with Work).
SourceHans Huber Verlag, 1978, Bern, Switzerland
PublicEmployees, industry or service sector, Austria and West germany, ▒1970
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelFinished vocational training
Page in Source 99
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 No 
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-sq-f-7-aE▓=+.05 p < .01
Yes     M=5.02  Mt=6.70
No      M=4.81  Mt=6.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study XZ Germany West 1957
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1957
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =480

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Low / middle / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study XZ Germany West 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =3341

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 157
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Stage of education reached:
1 Primary
2 Secondary
3 University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.02 ns
1                             M'=1.57  Mt'=2.9
2                                1.58      2.9
3                                1.48      2.4
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=-.02 ns
                  
                       


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .89      Mt=5.9
2       M= .82      Mt=5.8
3       M= .99      Mt=6.0
4       M= .63      Mt=5.6
5       M= .86      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.51      Mt=6.5
7       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.59      Mt=6.6 
10      M=1.89      Mt=6.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.22     Mt=7.3
7       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
8       Empty category
9       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
10      M=3.27     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
2       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
3       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
4       M=5.84      Mt=5.4
5       M=6.53      Mt=6.1
6       M=6.99      Mt=6.7
7       M=6.99      Mt=6.7
8       Empty category                           
9       M=6.91      Mt=6.6
10      M=6.99      Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.05 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.15 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study FR 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1200

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study FR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 215/9
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.21 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.04 p < .05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.14 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyClement (1980): study FR 1975
TitleDe la Variation de Quelques Traits de PersonalitÚ en Fonction, notamment, de l'Age, du Sexe et du Niveau Intellectuel. (The Variation of Certain Personality Traits in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligent Level).
SourcePsychologie Francaise, 1980, Vol. 25, 95 - 113
Public29-88 aged women, upper middle class, France, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1145

Correlate
Author's labelCultural level
Page in Source 101
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: no or a little bit education
1: education nearly normal, no 
   certificate        
2: certificate primary education
3: secondary education
4: final examination grammar-school or
   secondary school
5: littlego (comparable to    baccalaureat) and more
   

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SP-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.08 ns
M-FH-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.10 ns
O-HL-u-sq-ol-9-ar=+.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study FR 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, France, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 148
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Stage of education reached:
1 Primary
2 Secondary
3 University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.10 p < .01
1                             M'=1.30  Mt'=1.5
2                                1.42      2.1
3                                1.44      2.2
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.22 p < .01
                  
                       


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on education level:
1. primary/lower secondary (reference)
2. upper secondary education
3. post-secondary education
4. tertiary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.05 ns
UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION (vs primary/lower 
secondary)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.02 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.01 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.00 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.01 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 ns
POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION  (vs primary/lower 
secondary)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.04 ns
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.01 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.00 ns
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.04 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.26 p < .001
TERTIARY EDUCATION        (vs primary/lower 
secondary)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.15 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.11 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.09 p < .05
B specially controlled for
-Household net income (ln)
-Total household consumption expenditures (ln)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.03 ns
B specially controlled for
-Expenditures in 11 categories

All the above B's controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKnabe et al. (2009): study DE 2008
TitleDissatisfied with Life, but Having a Good Day: Time-Use and Well-Being of the Unemployed.
SourceCES/IFO Working Paper no. 2604, CES, 2009, Munich, Germany.
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_2604.html
PublicFulltime employed and long-term unemployed, Germany, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 21
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 None (reference group)
1 Vocational education
2 University education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=+.54 p < .05
Vocational education (vs. None)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=+.67 p < .05
University education (vs. None)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.63 p < .05
Vocational education (vs. None)
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.01 ns
University education (vs. None)

B's are controlled for: 
- employment status in week and weekend
- income
- cohabiting
- health satisfaction
- children
- age
- general goodness of previous day 
- goodness of health and work on previous day

B +.54 means that having vocational educational 
corresponds to +.54 points more happiness compared 
to having no vocational eduction on the happiness 
scale 0-10.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKrause (2013): study DE 2007
TitleDon't Worry, be Happy? Happiness and Reemployment.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2013, Vol. 96, 1 - 20
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2013.09.002
Public16+ aged, recently fallen unemployed, Germany, 2007-2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2542

Correlate
Author's labelEducational degree
Page in Source 5, 7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
A) a) No degree (reference)
   b) Secondary school (9 years)
   c) Secondary school (10 years)
   d) Technical college entrance qualification (11-12 
years)
   e) General qualification for university  entrance 
(12-13 years)
B) a) No vocational degree (reference)
   b) Apprenticeship
   c) Specialized vocational school
   d) University, technical college
Observed distributionA) a: 1%, b: 28%, c: 42%, d: 6%, e: 24% B) a: 9%, b: 59%, c: 14%, d: 18%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.60 ns
SECONDARY SCHOOL 9 YEARS   (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.71 ns
SECONDARY SCHOOL 10 YEARS  (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.53 ns
TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE ENTRANCE QUALIFICATION 11-12 
YEARS                (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.79 ns
GENERAL QUALIFICATION FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE 
12-13 YEARS (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 ns
APPRENTICESHIP                (vs no vocational 
degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL SCHOOL (vs no vocational 
degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.14 ns
UNIVERSITY/TECHNICAL COLLEGE (vs no vocational 
degree)

B controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  a) age and age squared
  b) disabled
  c) marital status
  d) having a partner
  e) employment status spouse
  f) employment status partner
  g) (number of) children in household
  h) gender
  i) migrant status
  j) wage in last job
  k) duration of last job
  l) unemployment benefits
  m) reason of termination of last job
- Environmental characteristics:
  n) national unemployment rate
  o) region/state in Germany
- Interview-specific characteristics:
  p) interview cohort
  q) time between unemployment entry and


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCamp (2016): study DE 2005
TitleFamily and Labor Market Policies in Germany: The Well-Being of Working Women.
SourceConnerley, M.L.;Ed.:"Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women", Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 449 - 472
DOIdoi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6
Public18-62 aged women, Germany, 2005-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =10000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 464
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 no degree/dropout
2 secondary
3 intermediate
4 technical
5 upper secondary

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+
no degree/dropout M=6.12
secondary         M=6.69
intermediate      M=6.71
technical         M=6.77
upper secondary   M=7.22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPfeifer (2013): study DE 2003
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Consumption Values of Partners and Friends: Empirical Evidence from German Panel Survey Data.
SourceEconomics Bulletin, 2013, Vol. 33, 3131 - 3142
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/eblecbull/eb-13-00787.htm
Public16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 5 years, 2003-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9972

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a) secondary schooling degree:
     1) low (reference group)
     2) middle
     3) high

b) apprenticeship degree:
    1 yes
    0 no

c) university degree:
    1 yes
    0 no
Observed distributionMean (S.D.) a) 2) middle secondary schooling: 0.3648, (0.0332) )3) high secondary schooling: 0.3070 (0.0328) b) apprenticeship degree: 0.7250 (0.0817) c) university degree: 0.2424 (0.0777)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.1 p < .10
Secondary schooling, middle (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+1.0 ns
Secondary schooling, high (vs low)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.15 ns
Apprenticeship degree (vs no degree)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.11
University degree (vs no degree)

b's controlled for:
- marital status
- number of close friends
- number of persons in household
- german citizenship
- age
- subjective health-status
- employment status
- year dummy 2008
- regions


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLau & Kramer (2005): study DE 2002
TitleDie Relativitńtstheorie des GlŘcks. ▄ber das Leben von Lottomillionńren. The Realtivity Theorie of Hapiness; On the Life of Lotto Millionaires.
SourceBook, 2005, 1 - 155
URLhttp://www.springer.com/de/book/9783862260072
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response2 %
Respondents N =1715

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 115
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: lower
1: higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-5-cD%=+
% happy
lower        24%
higher       40%
-difference +16%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: Compulsory Education only
2: Intermediate Education
3: Vocational Education
4: Tertiary Education

Rated as:
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distributionA: M = 0,021 SD = 0,142; B: M = 0,018 SD = 0,131; C: M = 0,152 SD = 0,359; D: M = 0,169 SD = 0,375

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.36 ns
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Compulsory Education   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.19 ns
Intermediate education (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.35 ns
Vocational education   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 ns
Tertiary education     (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.16 ns
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Compulsory education   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 ns
Intermediate education (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.09 ns
Vocational education   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.03 ns
Tertiary education    (vs not)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - financial concerns
  - total assets
  - household income
  - debt
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - employment
- health
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyWinkelmann (2006): study DE 2000
TitleParental Separation and Well-Being of Youths. Evidence from Germany.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 197 - 208
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.008
Public16-18 aged, Germany, 2000-2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =640

Correlate
Author's labelBeing engaged in vocational training
Page in Source 5,17,18
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
vocational training=typically apprenticeship programs
Observed distributionM =0,226 (23%), SD = 0,418

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
also controlled for:
- non-intact family
- household income 
- having an own room
- being a single child
- gender
- German nationality
- Territory of West Germany
- Being in school
- work
- lives at home
- region of childhood (mid-sized city,small-city, 
rural area)
probit result= 0,286
CI95=[ -0.10  0,67]
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-a
additionally controlled for
- type of school(hauptschule, realschule, 
gymnasium)
- good student
- repeat a grade
- education of parents(father gymnasium, mother 
gymnasium)
- log number of books in the household
probit result= 0,217
CI95=[ -0,17  0,61]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelHighest educational degree degree
Page in Source 6,8,21
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 No professional degree
2 Vocational degree (reference category)
3 University degree
Observed distribution1: M = 0,21, 2: M = 0,63, 3: M = 0,16

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.21 p < .01
NO PROFESSIONAL DEGREE (vs vocational degree)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- University degree
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except
for age and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.11 p < .01
UNIVERSITY DEGREE (vs vocational degree)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- No professional degree
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
Fixed effects.
B same  controls as OLS except
for age and migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySchyns (2000): study DE 1992
TitleThe Relationship between Income, Changes in Income and Life-Satisfaction in West Germany and the Russian Federation. Relative, Absolute or a Combination of Both?
SourceDiener, E.;Rathz, D.R.;Eds.: "Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research", Kluwer, 2000, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 83 - 110
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 4 years, 1992-1996
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4398

Correlate
Author's labelEduation
Page in Source 95
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a) high school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
              Mean    Unhappy   Very happy
High school  7,6     2,1%      57,1%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBernheim et al. (2006): study DE 1990
TitleThe Potential of Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) to Reduce Bias in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol. 7, 227 - 250
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-4755-0
PublicPatients university hospital, Berlin, Germany 1990-2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2584

Correlate
Author's labelGraduation
Page in Source 238
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: grammer school or higher 
0: others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-ol-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
Beta's controled for
-age
-maried stage
-education
-employed
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-qBeta=+.0 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHeadey (2008): study DE 1990
TitleLife Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 86, 213 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9138-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3553

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 222, 225
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of education
Remarks
T1: 1990, T2: 1995, T3: 2004
Education as assessed at T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.00 ns
T3 LEVEL of happiness 

Beta controlled for
-current priorities at T3 for life goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-having a partner
-disposable household income
-health disability

Beta very similar for men, women and respondents 
in prime age (25-59).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 ns
T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness (14 year lag)

Beta controlled for
-average priority at T 1,2,3 for life-goals
-gender
-age
-extraversion
-neuroticism
-internal locus of control
-life satisfaction at T1 (1990)
-partner in 2004
-disposable income
-health disability


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
6       M=2.81     Mt=6.0
7       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
8       Empty category
9       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
10      M=2.98     Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=6.75      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.69      Mt=6.3
5       M=6.71      Mt=6.3
6       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
7       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
8       Empty category                           
9       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
10      M=6.61      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=1.05      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
6       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
7       M=1.77      Mt=6.7
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.21      Mt=6.2 
10      M=1.49      Mt=6.5
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.20     Mt=6.9
7       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
10      M=7.42      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.08      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
6       M=7.20     Mt=6.9
7       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.45      Mt=7.2
10      M=7.42      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=1.05      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.65      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.86      Mt=6.9 
10      M=1.82      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=1.05      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.65      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.86      Mt=6.9 
10      M=1.82      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
8       Empty category
9       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
10      M=3.02     Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       Empty category
3       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
4       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
5       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
7       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
8       Empty category
9       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
10      M=3.02     Mt=6.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 44, 49
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
A: Completed education
   1: Secondary
   2: Intermediate
   3: Technical school
   4: Upper secondary
B: Dropout
   1: No degree yet
C: In education
   1: No degree yet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=+-
A1: Secondary              M = 3,79
A2: Intermediate           M = 3,94
A3: Technical school       M = 3,87
A4: Upper secondary        M = 3,91
B1: Dropout, no degree yet M = 3,82
C1: No degree yet          M = 4,03

The original happiness scale from 0 to 10 is 
recorded here as follow:
(0,1,2): 1
(3,4):   2
(5,6):   3
(7,8):   4
(9,10):  5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04
B controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status
  - health status
  - number of children
  - household size
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 16
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1) low (no/only first school degree)
2) medium (completed apprenticeship/vocaional training)
3) high (full university degree; reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.00 ns
1) low (vs high)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=+.12 ns
2) medium (vs high)

OPRC's controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Number of children
- Marital status
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1305

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCalys-Tagoe et al. (2014): study GH 2007
TitlePredictors of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Ghanaians.
SourceGhana Medical Journal, 2014, Vol. 48, 178 - 184
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335429/
Public50+ aged, Ghana, 2007-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4724

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 181
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: low (up to secondary level)
1: high (above secondary level)
Observed distribution0 = 75%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eOR=+
OR low vs high 0.47 CI95 [0.37-0.60]

OR adjusted for:
- age
- sex
- income
- ehtnic background


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySing (2009a): study HK 2006
TitleThe Quallity of Life in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 295 - 335
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9349-x
Public20-69 aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2006
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational attainment
Page in Source 318
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Educational attainment:
- low
- middle
- high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mD%=+
% happy (very and quite)
low    39%
middle 55%
high   70%
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mtc=+.27
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bD%=+
% feels happy (often and sometimes)
low    56%
middle 67%
high   69%
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-btc=+.12
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cD%=+
% accomplished wants (a great deal and some)
low    49%
middle 58%
high   68%
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ctc=+.16
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aDM=+
low    M = 1,7
middle M = 2,1
high   M = 2,5
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aBMCT=
low,middle


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 313
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self report of highest level of education
Dichotomized as
1: high
0: low

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+5.1 ns
B is controlled for: 
-residence
-living arrangement
-marital status
-income
-age
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHo et al. (1995): study HK 1992
TitleLife Satisfaction and Associated Factors in Older Hong Kong Chinese.
SourceThe American Geriatrics Society, 1995, Vol. 43, 252 - 255
Public70+aged, Hong Kong, 1991-1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1557

Correlate
Author's labelHigher educational attainment
Page in Source 253
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self report on educational attainment. Text is not 
reported.
1: Higher 
0: Lower

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bOR=3.0 p < .05
CI95 [1.7-5.2]

OR controlled for:
-place of residence
-marital status
-presence of joint pain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMitchell (1972): study HK 1967
TitleLevels of Emotional Strain in East Asian Cities.
SourceAsian Folklore & Social Life Monographs, The Orient Cultural Service, 1972, Taipei, Formosa
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/mitchell_re_1972.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 1967
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =3966

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 116
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
- no formal education
- primary education
- secondary education
- post-secondary and higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.17 p < .01
% happy:
- no education  62
- primary only  67
- secondairy    74
- post secundairy and higher 75


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 183
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: Elementary education
1: Other
    a: Vocational training
    b: Secondary education
    c: Higher education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.37 p < .01
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION (vs elementary education)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.42 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.06 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.37 p < .01
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.05 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.11 ns
Religious only
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.40 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.25 ns
Religious, excluding new believers
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.16 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.39 p < .01
Non-religious only
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.03 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.62 p < .01
SECONDARY EDUCATION (vs elementary education)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.93 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.15 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.62 p < .01
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.30 p<.05)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.85 p < .01
Religious only
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.14 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.80 p < .01
Religious, excluding new believers
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.12 ns)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.56 p < .01
Non-religious only
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.35 p<.05)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+1.0 p < .01
HIGHER EDUCATION (vs elementary education)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+1.4 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.16 p < .01
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+1.0 p < .01
Full sample
Full pooled sample
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-a
Interaction with 1998 dummy (b=+.32 ns)

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Similar results are obtained when personal income 
is used instead of household income adjusted for 
household size.

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .15      Mt=5.1
2       M= .26      Mt=5.3
3       M= .62      Mt=5.6
4       M= .78      Mt=5.8
5       M= .58      Mt=5.6
6       M= .93      Mt=5.9
7       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
8       M=1.60      Mt=6.6         
9       M=1.31      Mt=6.3 
10      M=1.41      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.36      Mt=4.8
2       M=5.86      Mt=5.4
3       M=5.83      Mt=5.4
4       M=6.17      Mt=5.7
5       M=5.27      Mt=4.7
6       M=6.32      Mt=5.9
7       M=6.34      Mt=5.9
8       M=6.12      Mt=5.7         
9       M=5.79      Mt=5.3
10      M=6.45      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
2       M=2.58     Mt=5.3
3       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
4       M=2.74     Mt=5.8
5       M=2.41     Mt=4.7
6       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
7       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
8       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
9       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
10      M=2.87     Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.22 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.16 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       M=8.57      Mt=8.4
3       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
4       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
5       M=8.16      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
7       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
8       M=8.27      Mt=8.1         
9       M=7.86      Mt=7.6
10      M=8.00      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
6       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
7       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
8       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
9       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
10      M=3.37     Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Less than 10 Ss
2       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
3       M=2.16      Mt=7.2
4       M=1.90      Mt=6.9
5       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
6       M=2.86      Mt=7.9
7       M=2.97      Mt=8.0
8       M=2.26      Mt=7.3         
9       M=2.43      Mt=7.4 
10      M=2.67      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 269
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Level of education
1. no formal education
2. 1st-8th
3. 9th-12th
4. University
Observed distribution1: 39% 2: 32% 3: 30% 4: 2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.13 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at en institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.35      Mt=6.4
3       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
4       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
5       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
6       M=2.24      Mt=7.2
7       M=2.17      Mt=7.2
8       M=2.20      Mt=7.2         
9       M=2.72      Mt=7.7 
10      M=2.43      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
2       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
5       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
6       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
7       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
8       M=7.64      Mt=7.4         
9       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
10      M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
8       Empty category
9       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
10      M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
10      M=7.55      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
8       Empty category
9       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
10      M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
7       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
8       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
9       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
10      M=3.28     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M=0         Mt=5.0
2       M= .04      Mt=5.0
3       M= .32      Mt=5.3
4       M= .16      Mt=5.2
5       M= .20      Mt=5.2
6       M= .58      Mt=5.6
7       M= .53      Mt=5.5
8       M= .05      Mt=5.0         
9       M= .69      Mt=5.7 
10      M= .77      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
2       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
3       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
4       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
5       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
6       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
7       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
8       M=7.22      Mt=6.9         
9       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
10      M=6.63      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
10      M=7.55      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
2       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
3       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
4       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
5       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
6       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
7       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
8       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
9       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
10      M=2.90     Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=2.33      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=2.33      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.15 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.10 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.15 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IN 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 273/7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.19 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.18 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.13 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study IN 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, India, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Illiterate /  under matriculate / matriculate / higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.31 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLandiyanto et al. (2010): study ID 2007
TitleWealth and Happiness: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia.
SourceWorking Paper, 2010, 1 - 19, Mahidol University, Thailand
URLhttp://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/www/external/labor/FLS/IFLS/papers/2010_landiyanto2.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =29013

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 10-17
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question refers highest formal 
school attended by respondents:
1 have minumum basic education
0 not achieve basic education
Observed distributionM=0.39; SD=0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-car=+.04
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-caOR=1.6 p < .05
OR controlled for:
- health
- assets
- marital status
- expenditures
- age
- sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKousha & Mohseni (2000): study IR 1995
TitleAre Iranians Happy? A Comparative Study between Iran and the United States.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 52, 259 - 289
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1007061431186
PublicResidents big city (Tehran), Iran, 1995-97
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response4,8%
Respondents N =1561

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 273
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1= less than high school
2= high school grad.
3= two years college
4= college grad. and up
Observed distribution 1995: 1=119, 2=125, 3=60, 4=166 1997: 1=204, 2=431, 3=72, 4=327
Remarks
actual numbers, revised by author

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= ns
            1995    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,84    0,48 
             2=    1,77    0,31 
             3=    1,81    0,36
             4=    1,75    0,31
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abDM= ns
            1997    M      S.D.          
             1=    1,73    0,38 
             2=    1,83    0,40 
             3=    1,84    0,45
             4=    1,86    0,34
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= ns
             1995
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=    13,7    39,8     26,5 
             2=     6,6    63,9     29,5 
             3=    10,2    61,0     28,8
             4=     6,2    62,7     31,1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abD%= ns
             1997
                   very    fairly  not at all
                   happy   happy   happy
                     %       %        %   
             1=     9,0    55,2     35,8 
             2=    12,8    57,4     29,8 
             3=    15,7    52,9     31,4
             4=    11,2    63,6     25,2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=-.06 ns
             1995
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.06 p < .05
             1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHealy (2005): study IE 2002
TitleIn Each Other's Shadow. What Has Been the Impact of Human and Social Capital on Life Satisfaction in Ireland?
SourceThesis, National University of Ireland, 2005, Dublin, Ireland
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/healy_t_2005.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labeleducational completion
Page in Source 164
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: below leaving certificate
2: leaving certificate or higher
Observed distributionM = below leaving certificate: 7.75, leaving certificate or higher: 7.72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ebDM=-
below leaving certificate     M = 7,75
leaving certificate or higher M = 7,72
- difference                     -0,03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at en institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.52     Mt=8.4
2       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
3       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
8       Empty category
9       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
10      M=3.44     Mt=8.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
5       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
6       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
7       M=2.55      Mt=7.5
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.51      Mt=7.5 
10      M=2.63      Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
10      M=7.55      Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.05      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
7       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
10      M=8.09      Mt=7.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.52     Mt=8.4
2       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
3       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
8       Empty category
9       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
10      M=3.44     Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.56      Mt=7.3
4       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
5       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
7       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
10      M=7.55      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=2.33      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
8       Empty category
9       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
10      M=3.31     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
3       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
5       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
6       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
7       M=2.55      Mt=7.5
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.51      Mt=7.5 
10      M=2.63      Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.05      Mt=7.8
6       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
7       M=8.19      Mt=8.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
10      M=8.09      Mt=7.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
7       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
8       Empty category                           
9       M=2.02      Mt=7.0 
10      M=2.33      Mt=7.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
5       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
7       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
8       Empty category
9       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
10      M=3.31     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.23 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.19 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.14 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.18 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IE 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1217

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVanPraag et al. (2010): study IL 2006
TitleHappiness and Financial Satisfaction in Israel: Effects of Religiosity, Ethnicity, and War.
SourceDiscussion Paper No 5184, IZA, 2010, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1675695
Public20+ aged general population, Israel, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6218

Correlate
Author's labelSchooling
Page in Source 1015-1016
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is the highest educational certificate or degree 
that you have received?
A) Maximum baccalaureate
   a) Elementary or middle school completion
   b) Secondary school completion, but not a 
baccalaureate
   c) Baccalaureate certificate
B) Post-secondary/bachelor certificate (reference)
   d) Post-secondary, non-academic certificate
   e) BA, academic certificate, or similar certificate
C) Minimally a master degree
   f) MA, MD, or similar certificate
   g) PhD, or similar certificate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=-.01 ns
MAXIMUM BACCALAUREATE      (vs post-secondary) 
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.04 ns
Arabs
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.06 p < .05
MINIMALLY A MASTER DEGREE  (vs post-secondary) 
Jews
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-fb=+.02 ns
Arabs

B's controlled for:
- log age and log age squared
- log family size
- degree of religiosity
- log family size*degree of religiosity
- log income
- health
- marital status
- (parents') country of origin
- years residing in Israel
- Hebrew fluency
- employment status
- place of interview
- time of interview


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAmit & Litwin (2010): study IL 2006
TitleThe Subjective Well-being of Immigrants Aged 50 and Older in Israel.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 98, 89 - 104
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9519-5
Public50+aged immigrants, Israel, 2005-2006
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =930

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 95, 98-99
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Level rated on scale 1-6
Observed distribution3,0
Remarks
Education was recorded on a scale of 1to 6, the higher 
the score, the greater the education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gr=+.19 p < .01
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-gBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controled for:
- immigration history
  - continent or origin
  - language proficiency in Hebrew
- background
  - gender
  - marital status
  - income
  - participation in social activities
  - selfrated health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelYears of study
Page in Source 277, 279, 285
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
years of formal education
1 up to 12
2 13
3 15, 16
4 17 and more
Observed distributionM=2.06, SD=1.00

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.07 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- age
- holding central office during the last five 
years
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.05 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community value
- collectivistic value
- individualistic value
- satisfaction with realization of values
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations and abilities
- satisfactionwith feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- Satisfaction with material standard of living
- Satisfaction with work domain
- Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labeleducation
Page in Source 518
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 less than 9 years school
2 9-12 years
3 13+ years
Observed distributionN = 1: 15,9%, 2: 57,4%, 3: 26,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab= ns
B controlled for:
- years live in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- education
- not married
- children at home
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Unaffected by kind of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab= ns
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLevy & Guttman (1975a): study IL 1968
TitleStructure and Dynamics of Worries.
SourceSociometry, 1975, Vol. 38, 445 - 473
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2786361
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, Israel, 1968-1970
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =3600

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 453-457
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Closed question, ranging from low to high education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-4-bmc=+
    1968/2  1968/11  1969/2  1969/6  1970/2

mc= +.27    +.33     +.31    +.31    +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 378
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Elementary incomplete / secondary or elementary 
complete / university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.49 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySabatini (2011): study IT 2008
TitleCan a Click buy a Little Happiness? The Impact of Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceMPRA Paper no. 32393, 2011, MŘnchen, Germany
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/eei/rpaper/eeri_rp_2011_12.html
PublicGeneral public, Italy, 2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4130

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source Table 1 & Table 2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a. No education (reference)
b: Elementary school only
c: Junior high school
d: Professional diploma (tecnico)
e: High school diploma (liceo)
f: Undergraduate degree
g: PhD
Observed distributiona: M = .20; SD = .40; b: M = .28; SD = .45; c: M = .06; SD = .24; d: M = .24; SD = .42 e: M = .09; SD = .28; f: M = .005; SD = .07

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.03 ns
Elementary school    (vs no education)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.07 p < .1
Junior high school   (vs no education)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.10 p < .1
Professional diploma (vs no education)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.14 p < .01
High school diploma  (vs no education)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.22 p < .01
Undergraduate degree (vs no education)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-bb=+.28 p < .01
PhD                  (vs no education)

B's controlled for:
-E-shopping
-Social background
 -Gender
 -Marital status
 -Age
 -Health condition
-Income position
 -Ownership of the house of residence
 -Household income
 -Mortgage loan 
 -Work status
-Neighbourhood 
 -CO2 emissions
 -Public parks and gardens
 -Environmental crimes
 -Social assistance
 -Cultural supply
 -Micro-criminality
 -Dirtiness of the local area
 -Regional poverty
 -Noise in the local area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyDiGiacinto et al. (2007): study IT 2004
TitleCreativity and Happiness.
SourcePaper presented at teh International Conference ''Policy for Happiness'', June 2007, Siena, Italy
URLhttp://www.unisi.it/eventi/happiness/curriculum/ferrante.pdf
PublicEmployees, Italy, 2004
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1240

Correlate
Author's labelCognitive and non-cognitive abilities
Page in Source 22
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: Elementary
2: Primary
3: Secondary
4: Tertiary
Observed distribution1: M=0,879 SD=0,2833 2: M=0,3290 SD=0,4701 3: M=0,4403 SD=4966 4: M=0,1387 SD=0,3458
Remarks
Cognitive and non-cognitive abilites are proxied by 
level of educational attainment.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+1.3 p < .071
Elementary education
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+1.8 p < .012
Primary education
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+2.6 p < .001
Secondary education
O-QOL-?-sq-n-10-ab=+2.7 p < .001
Tertiary education

OLS regression controls for:
-age
-income
-creativity index
-schooling*creativity index
-marital status
-gender
-other educational levels
-province level unemployment rate
-province level per capita disposable income
-area

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyNuvolati (2004): study IT 1996
TitleCommuting and Quality of Life. The Italian Case.
SourcePaper 6the Congress ISQOLS, 2004, Philadelphia, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/nuvolati_g_2004.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response1,7%
Respondents N =3561

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: no school
2: elemetary school
3: secondary school 1
4: secondary school 2
5: university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=+
% Satisfied
1: 78,5 
2: 81,3 
3: 83,0 
4: 83,9 
5: 84,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
3       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
4       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
6       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
7       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
8       Empty category
9       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
10      M=2.85     Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
4       M= .86      Mt=5.9
5       M= .90      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.11      Mt=6.1 
10      M=1.04      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
7       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
10      M=6.58      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.12 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study IT 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1348

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study IT 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1042

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 331/5
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=-.01 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.09 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study IT 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Italy, 1948
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1078

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 176
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Stage of education reached:
1 Primary
2 Secondary
3 University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.09 p < .01
1                             M'=1.52  Mt'=2.6
2                                1.60      3.0
3                                1.65      3.3
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.14 p < .01
                  
                       


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyInoguchi & Fujii (2009): study JP 2009
TitleCountry Profile of Japan: Citizens' Perception of Quality of Life, Social Capital, and Governance
SourceInoguchi, T.; Ed.: "Human Beliefs and Values in East and Southeast Asia in Transition", Akashi Shoten, 2009, Japan, 129 - 151
Public20-69 aged, general public, Japan, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1003

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 134
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: low, primary or junior high school education
2: mid, high school diploma
3: high, higher education
Observed distribution% 1: 8, 2: 44, 3: 47

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mDM=+
1: M = 2,38 [CI95 1,61 3,14]
2: M = 2,58 [CI95 2,31 2,85]
3: M = 2,81 [CI95 2,59 3,03]
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mtc=+.13 p < .11
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: M = 1,88 [CI95 1,18 2,57]
2: M = 1,98 [CI95 1,78 2,17]
3: M = 2,02 [CI95 1,82 2,22]
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-btc=+.05 p < .53
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cDM=+
1: M = 1,57 [CI95 1,08 2,07]
2: M = 1,68 [CI95 1,48 1,89]
3: M = 1,74 [CI95 1,56 1,92]
C-W-u-sq-v-4-ctc=+.05 p < .50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
2       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
3       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
7       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
8       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
9       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
10      M=3.00     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.00      Mt=6.7
2       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
3       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
4       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
7       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
8       M=7.07      Mt=6.7         
9       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
10      M=6.57      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
3       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
4       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
6       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
7       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
8       Empty category
9       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
10      M=2.85     Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       M= .00      Mt=5.0
2       M= .07      Mt=5.1
3       M=-.32      Mt=4.7
4       M= .19      Mt=5.2
5       M= .38      Mt=5.4
6       M= .28      Mt=5.3
7       M= .38      Mt=5.4
8       M= .71      Mt=5.7         
9       M= .73      Mt=5.7 
10      M= .50      Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.08      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
4       M= .86      Mt=5.9
5       M= .90      Mt=5.9
6       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.11      Mt=6.1 
10      M=1.04      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
7       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
10      M=6.58      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.05 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.12 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAbe & Moritsuka (1986): study JP 1981
TitleA Case-Control Study of Climacteric Symptoms and Complaints of Japanese Women by Symptomatic Type for Psychological Variables.
SourceMaturitas, 1986, Vol. 8, 255 - 265
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3784921&dopt=Abstract
PublicWomen in menopause patient and controls, Miyagi, North-east Japan, 1981-82.
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response20 % (cases 21%,controls 19%)
Respondents N =432

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 262
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: Check an appropiate one which 
is corresponding to yours in the following list of 
school careers.
(list not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-c-sq-v-3-ar= p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study JP 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1979
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1574

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 389/93
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abG=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-abtc=+.04 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study JP 1962
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Japan, 1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response-
Respondents N =972

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 370
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 - 9 years schooling / high school in- complete / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt= +
High education         : Mt = 5.7
High school incomplete : Mt = 5.4
< 9 years school       : Mt = 5.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 46,52,55,56
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 High school
2 College
3 University or more (reference)
Observed distributionHigh school and below 17.2 %; Over high school (college, university) 82.8 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+
Education level           
1 M=5.27
2 M=5.38
3 M=5.52
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.02 ns
University (vs. high school).

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- work status
- household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=-.01 ns
University (vs. high school).

Beta additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.07 p < .01
Graduate school (vs. high school and lower). 

Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- marital status
- work status
- household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceBeta=+.04 p < .05
Graduate school (vs. high school and lower).

Beta additionally controlled for:
- ingroup trust
- trust gap
- risk experience
- discrimination experience
- community participation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySlag (2017): study KR 2009
TitleThe Easterlin Paradox or Easterlin Illusion: some empirical tests
SourceMaster thesis Erasmus University, School of Economics
Public18+ aged general public, South Korea, followed 5 years 2009-2014
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =79474

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 35
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a) Elementary school (reference group)
b) Secondary school
c) College
d) University
e) Graduate
Observed distributiona) Mean: 0.18; SD: 0.39 b) Mean: 0.46; SD: 0.49 c) Mean: 0.12; SD: 0.33 d) Mean: 0.20; SD: 0.40 e) Mean: 0.03; SD: 0.17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.05 p < .01
b) Secondary school (vs elementary)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.15 p < .01
c) College          (vs elementary)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.20 p < .01
d) University      (vs elementary)
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-bb=+.31 p < .01
e) Graduate        (vs elementary)

b-fix controlled for:
- yearly change of household income
- earlier household income
- reference group income
- age
- employment status
- health status
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLee (1998): study KR 1996
TitleMarital Status, Gender, and Subjective Quality of Life in Korea.
SourceDevelopment and Society, 1998, Vol. 27, 35 - 49
Public20-60 aged, general public, South Korea, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4,5%
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 45
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

1. elementary
2. middle
3. high school
4. college
Observed distribution1: 9,7%; 2: 12,0%; 3: 49,1%: 4: 29,1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-fb=+.03 ns
B controlled for
- age
- marital status
- gender
- subjective class
- household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyShin (1986): study KR 1980
TitleEducation and the quality of life in Korea and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective.
SourcePublic Opinion Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 50, 360 - 370
URLhttp://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/3/360.full.pdf+html
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1215

Correlate
Author's labelEducational attainment
Page in Source 364
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
no school 
elementary school 
middle school 
high school 
some college 
college graduated

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-PL-c-sq-v-4-aG=-.12 p < .05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-aG=+.35 p < .05
M-TH-ly-sq-v-4-aG=-.17 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.22 p < .05
C-RG-ly-sq-v-4-aG=+.16 p < .05
M-TH-ly-sq-v-4-aG=+.17 p < .05
O-SLu-c-sq-v-7-aG=+.35 p < .05
M-PL-c-sq-v-4-aG=+.12 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.22 p < .05
C-RG-ly-sq-v-4-aG=-.16 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
▀ controled for income, age, gender, married 
status, own house and community size.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyLee et al. (1982): study KR 1980
TitlePerceptions of Quality of Life in an Industrializing Country: The Case of the Republic of Korea.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1982, Vol. 10, 297 - 317
DOIdoi:10.1007/BF00301097
PublicParents with unmarried children at home, South Korea, 1980
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 311
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
No school / Elementary / Middle school /High school / 
College

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-*-11-bDM=+
Sizable linear relationship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Leisure Development Cen (1980): study KR 1979
TitleSurvey of Values in 13 Countries.
SourceWorking Paper for 1980 Conference on Human Values, Tokyo, Japan.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~LeisureDevelopmentCentre_1980.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, urban areas, South Korea, 1972
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =997

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 563/7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
"What school did you go to last?"
-did not recieve compulsory education
-did not finish compulsory education
-graduated junior high school
-graduated senior high school
-graduated junior college, college or    graduate 
school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-eG=+.14 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-aG=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-etc=+.09 p < .01
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-atc=+.04 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMeleis (1982): study KW 1982
TitleEffect of Modernization on Kuwaiti Women.
SourceSocial Science and Medicine, 1982, Vol. 16, 965 - 970
DOIdoi:10.1016/0277-9536(82)90364-1
Public17-40 aged females, Kuwait, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =248

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Elementary school, high school, college, university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
H07aa01gr=+.13 p < .05
H07aa01gr=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
1       Empty category
2       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
3       M=5.90      Mt=5.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
6       M=5.49      Mt=5.0
7       M=5.76      Mt=5.3
8       M=5.28      Mt=4.8         
9       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
10      M=5.72      Mt=5.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Empty category
2       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M= .39      Mt=5.4
6       M= .49      Mt=5.5
7       M= .97      Mt=6.0
8       M= .84      Mt=5.8         
9       M= .87      Mt=5.9 
10      M=1.00      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
1       Empty category
2       M=2.443.   Mt=4.8
3       Less than 10 Ss
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
6       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
7       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
8       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
9       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
10      M=2.54     Mt=5.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study LT 2001
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed womenĺs subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Lithuanian women, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response10.5 %
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source S25
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1:  only compulsory school competence.
2: secondary school competence or two-year vocational 
upper secondary school competence.
3: 3-4 year upper secondary school competence  or 
studied but not graduated from university/college.
4: graduated from university/college
Observed distribution1 = 5.8 %, 2 = 4.9 %, 3 = 19.2 %, 4 = 70.1 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=+ p < .001
Only compulsory school             M = 0.59
2-year high school                 M = 0.82
3-4 year high school               M = 1.06
Graduated from university/college: M = 1.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
1       Empty category
2       M= .65      Mt=5.6
3       M= .44      Mt=5.4
4       M=-.20      Mt=4.8
5       M= .52      Mt=5.5
6       M= .31      Mt=5.3
7       M= .91      Mt=5.9
8       M= .56      Mt=5.6         
9       M= .42      Mt=5.4 
10      M= .63      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       Empty category
2       M=5.97      Mt=5.5
3       M=6.25      Mt=5.8
4       M=5.30      Mt=4.8
5       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
6       M=5.86      Mt=5.4
7       M=6.27      Mt=5.9
8       M=6.18      Mt=5.8         
9       M=5.47      Mt=5.0
10      M=5.98      Mt=5.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       Empty category
2       M=2.25     Mt=4.9
3       M=2.42     Mt=4.7
4       M=2.37     Mt=4.6
5       M=2.33     Mt=4.4
6       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
7       M=2.67     Mt=5.6
8       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
9       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
10      M=2.54     Mt=5.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.10 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHinks & Davies (2008): study MW 2004
TitleLife Satisfaction in Malawi and the Importance of Relative Consumption, Polygamy and Religion.
SourceJournal of International Development, 2008, Vol. 20, 888 - 904
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jid.1470/abstract
DOIDOI:10.1002/jid.1470
PublicHousehold heads, Malawai 2004-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =11272

Correlate
Author's labeleducation level
Page in Source 902
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Primary education (vs no education)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-eb=+,05 p < .05
B controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - education
  - employment
  - marriage
    - status (married,divorced, wiwow)
    - polygamous (vs not)
  - religion
  - interaction religion-polygamous marriage
- household situation
  - size
  - consumption per capita
  - sick member
- local environmnent
  - consumption level
  - safety
    - atacked in the last year
    - feeling unsafe
  - rural (vs not)
  - hunger season
  - member of parliament lives in area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHowell et al. (2006): study MY 2003
TitleDoes Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who Are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the 'Orang Asli' of Peninsular Malaysia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 76, 499 - 524
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-3107-0
PublicHeads of households, Malaysia, 2003
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response4,6%
Respondents N =307

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level respondent
Page in Source 503, 511
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self reports
Observed distributionM=1,85 SD=0,94

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-u-mq-n-7-br=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.11      Mt=6.8
2       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
3       M=6.41      Mt=6.0
4       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
5       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.33      Mt=7.0
7       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
8       M=7.91      Mt=7.7         
9       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
10      M=7.77      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
2       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
3       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
4       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
5       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
6       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
7       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
8       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
9       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
10      M=3.05     Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
3       M= .97      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
5       M= .83      Mt=5.8
6       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
7       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
8       M=1.56      Mt=6.6         
9       M=1.85      Mt=6.8 
10      M=1.77      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.14 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.13 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=+.09 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBuchanan & Cantril (1953): study MX 1948
TitleHow Nations see Each Other. A Study in Public Opinion.
SourceUniversity of Illinois Press, 1953, Urbana, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, urban areas, Mexico, 1948-1949
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1752

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 189
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Stage of education reached:
1 Primary
2 Secondary
3 University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abr=+.10 p < .01
1                             M'=1.53  Mt'=2.6
2                                1.65      3.3
3                                1.77      3.9
O-SLC-c-sq-v-3-abG=+.20 p < .01
                  
                       


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVerkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983
TitleDoes Happiness Lead into Idleness?
SourceVeenhoven, R.;Ed.: "How Harmful is Happiness", University Press Rotterdam, 1989, Netherlands, 79 - 93
Public30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84
Sample
Non-ResponseT1-T2 attrition: 27%
Respondents N =1100

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 86
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11
Data T1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyKirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 116, 173 - 184
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0276-0
Public15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =32275

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 8
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is the highest level of education you have 
successfully completed?
(1) Primary education
(2) Secondary school lower level or short duration 
(3) Secondary school medium level
(4)Secondary school higher level
(5) Intermediate certificate below the bachelorĺs level
(6) Bachelor at tertiary education
(7) Master at tertiary education
Remarks
EISCED-scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.01 p < .005
OPRC controlled for:
- age
- age^2/100
- gender
- household income
- unemployed
- political vote
- religiosity
- health
- living alone
- ethnic minority member
- migration generation
- ethnic minority *migration generation
- citizen
- ethnic minority member*citizen
- perceived discrimination
- ethnic minority*perceived discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008
TitleHappiness and 'economic migration': a comparison of Eastern European migrants and stayers
SourceMigration Studies, 1(2), 156-175
DOIdoi:10.1093/migration/mnt006
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =42380

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 163, 165, 167
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
What is the highest level of education you
have achieved?
1) Primary
2) Lower secondary
3) Upper secondary
4) Vocational
5) Tertiary

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.08 p < .000
TERTIARY         (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
LOWER SECONDARY  (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.06 p < .002
UPPER SECONDARY  (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 p < .007
VOCATIONAL       (vs primary)

Beta's controlled for:
- Immigrant status
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Religion
- Gender
- Partner
- Employment
- Friends
- Health
- Education
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySulemana (2014): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2008
TitleThe Effect of Fear of Crime and Crime Victimization on Subjective Well- Being in Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Volume 121, 849 - 872
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0660-4#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0660-4
PublicAdult general public, 20 sub-saharan African countries, 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =27713

Correlate
Author's labelSecondary/Post-secondary education
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: respondent atttained secondary/post-secondary 
education;
0: otherwise.
Observed distributionM = 0.453, SD = 0.498.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-db=+.25 p < .00
b (+0.247) controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - social capital
  - religion 
- environmental characteristics
  - size of town
  - country (dummy)

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySulemana (2014): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2008
TitleThe Effect of Fear of Crime and Crime Victimization on Subjective Well- Being in Africa.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2015, Volume 121, 849 - 872
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-014-0660-4#page-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0660-4
PublicAdult general public, 20 sub-saharan African countries, 2008
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =27713

Correlate
Author's labelUniversity
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: respondent attained university education
0: otherwise.
Observed distributionM = 0.05, SD = 0.218.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-db=+.47 p < .00
b (-0,467) controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - employment
  - social capital
  - religion 
- environmental characteristics
  - size of town
  - country (dummy)

Ordered probit analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation years
Page in Source 18,14,9
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years the respondent has been in full time education.
Observed distributionM = 10,50, SD = 4,28; N = 32752.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.02 p < .01
b controlled for:
- gender
- household size
- number of children
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFlavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005
TitleState Intervention and Subjective Well-Being in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
SourcePolitics and Policy, 2011, Vol. 39, 251 - 269
Public15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10405

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 259
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
self-report on single question:
1 (no formal education)
:
9 (earning a university degree)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 p < .10
INDIVIDUAL happiness by individual level of 
education

B controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Size of the state
  -GDP
  -Unemployment rate
  -Individualism
-Individual characteristics  
  -Income
  -Health
  -Female
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others
  -Religion

Controlled for tax revenue as a measure of the 
size of the state, same results if controlled for 
government share of GDP, social wage, or social 
welfare expenditures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVanSantvoort (2009): study ZZ Europe 2005
TitleDisability in Europe: Policy, Social Participation and Subjective Well-being.
SourceIpskamp, 2009, Enschede, Netherlands
Public15+ aged, general public, 9 European countries, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response30 %
Respondents N =14889

Correlate
Author's labelHighest level of education
Page in Source 36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Selfreported hihgest level of education classified as
1: basic education
2: secundary education
3: tertiary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bBeta=-.05 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- hampered in daily activities by disability
- socio-demographic variables
- socio-economic variables
- self assessed health
- feeling optimistic and energetic
- feeling about household income
- social participation

Beta's not significant in:
- Germany
- Slovenia
- Slovakia 
- United Kingdom 

Beta's similar in:
- Belgium
- Denmark 
- Finland 
- Netherlands


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMonk-Turner & Turner (2010): study ZZ East Asia 2005
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Those who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 99, 13 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9568-9
PublicProstitutes and prostitute's clients, Yunnan, China, 2003, Thailand, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =754

Correlate
Author's labelYears of Education
Page in Source 18
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on how much education the respondents 
completed.
Observed distribution1) Yunnan female sex workers. M = 7.93, SD = 1.91 2) Yunnan male sex clients. M = 8.17, SD = 0.29 3) Thai female sex workers. M = 7.75, SD = 2.42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.97 ns
Yunnan female sex workers (N = 188)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=0.91 ns
Yunnan male sex clients (N = 283)
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-bOLRC=1.20 p < .05
Thai female sex workers (N = 283)

OLRC's controlled for:
- income rank
- current drug use
- HIV positive
- marital status
- age
- feeling part of the community
- job condition


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1164
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1:  Low (reference)
2:  Medium 
3:  High

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.25 p < .05
MEDIUM (vs low)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-gender
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.07 ns
OR additionally controlled for country
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.61 p < .01
HIGH (vs low)

OR controlled for: 
-age
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-gender
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-children
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.35 p < .05
OR additionally controlled for country 
 
OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyB÷hnke & Kohler (2008): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleWell-Being and Inequality.
SourceWZB Discussion Paper no. SP I 2008-201, 2008, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://bibliothek.wzb.eu/pdf/2008/i08-201.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 27 and Turkey, 2003
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =18600

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 24
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 = Low level (reference)
2 = Intermediate
3 = High

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=
INTERMEDIATE (vs Low)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.33 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.10 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-class/occupation
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.09 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.09 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.02 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-b
HIGH (vs Low)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.65 p < .05
No controls
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.16 p < .05
B controlled for
-gender
-age
-type of community
-income
-employment
-class/occupation
-housing
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.15 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-marital status
-contacts with friends/neighbours
-voluntary work
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.12 p < .05
B additionally controlled for
-church attendance
-internet use
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=+.03 ns
B additionally controlled for
-long term illness and health satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyB÷hnke & Kohler (2007): study ZZ EU 27 2003
TitleDeterminanten des GlŘcks: Lebenszufriedenheit in Europa. (Determinants of Happiness: Life Satisfaction in Europe).
SourceWSI Mitteillungen, 2007, Vol. 7, 373 - 379
Public18+ aged, general public, 27 EU member states, 2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 376
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. low
2. medium
3. high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.02 ns
MEDIUM (VERSUS HIGH) 

Social-democratic nations.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.24 p < .05
Continental nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.38 ns
Liberal nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.12 ns
Mediterranean nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.27 p < .05
Post-communist nations



LOW (VERSUS HIGH)
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.17 p < .05
Social-democratic nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.35 ns
Continental nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.18 ns
Liberal nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.38 p < .05
Mediterranean nations
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bb=-.30 p < .05
Post-communist nations.

B's controlled for employement status, living 
situation and health situation.

Social-democratic nations: Danmark, Finland, 
Netherlands, Sweden.
Continental nations: Austria, Belgium, France, 
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg.
Liberal nations: UK and Ireland.
Mediterranean nations: Cyprus, Greece, Malta, 
Spain, Portugal.
Post-communist nations: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, 
Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, 
Romania, Slowak Republic, Slovenia.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyRose & Ozcan (2007): study ZZ EU 15 2003
TitleFirst European Quality of Life Survey: Quality of Life in Turkey.
SourceEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, Dublin, Ireland
URLhttp://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0719.htm
Public18+aged, general public, EU 15 member states and Turkey, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =26000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 50,24
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question
What is the highest level of education you completed? 
Is this
1: none
2: primary education
3: secundary education
4: university
Observed distributionTurkey: 1: 52%; 2: 28%; 3: 12%; 4: 8% EU15: 1: 21%; 2: 57%; 3: 19%; 4: 3%:
Remarks
Renumbered by us

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.01 ns
Turkey
O-SLu-c-sq-n-10-bBeta=+.04 p < .000
EU15 (EU Member States before 2004)

Beta's controlled for:
- Socio-economic position
  - age
  - gender
  - income level (quartile)
  - sufficiency of income (out of money, debts)
  - health
  - occupational level (manual worker or not)
  - living environment (urban or not)
- Social participation
  - employed
  - church attendance
- Attitudes
  - satisfaction with public services
  - trust in people
  - perceived tensions in society
  - perceived safety in neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labeleducation
Page in Source 5
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.04 p < .01
B controlled for 
- Gender
- Age
- family situation

B hardly effected by additional control for 
- income
- occupation
- employment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBartram (2013b): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleHappiness among North-to-South Migrants in Europe.
SourceWorking Paper, 16-12-2013, University of Leicester, Department of Sociology, UK
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2290154
DOIDOI:10.2139/ssrn.2290154
Public15+ aged general public, Europe, 2002-2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56395

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 23-24
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
What is the highest level of education you have 
achieved?
1) Primary only
2) Lower Secondary
3) Upper Secondary
4) Vocational
5) Tertiary
Observed distribution1: 12%, 2: 19%, 3: 37%, 4: 3%, 5: 28%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.12 p < .000
LOWER SECONDARY     (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.17 p < .000
UPPER SECONDARY     (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.06 ns
VOCATIONAL          (vs primary)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.13 p < .000
TERTIARY            (vs primary)

B controlled for:
- Income
- Age
- Age^2/100
- Gender
- Religiosity
- Partner
- Unemployed
- Retired
- Friends
- Health
- Immigrant status
- Survey round


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFerreira et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction and Air Quality in Europe.
SourceIZA DP No. 6732, 2012, Georgia, USA
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.12.027
Public14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =81326

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 22.23.25
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years of full-time education completed
Observed distributionMin=0; Max=56 Mean=12.03; SD=4.09

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.03 p < .001
	b(0.0308) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Employment status  
  - Marital status
  - Sex (gender)
  - Age
  - Household size
  - Children
  - Religiosity
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.02 p < .001
	b(0.0159) additionally for 
  - self reported health

unaffected by further controlled
  - Size of settlement
  - Climate
  - Nation characteristics
  - Pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGraham (2005): study ZZ Latin America 2001
TitleInsights on Development from the Economics of Happiness.
SourceThe World Bank Research Observer, 2005, Vol. 20, 201 - 231
DOIDOI:10.1093/wbro/lki010
Public16+ aged, general public, 17 countries in Latin America, 2001
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18135

Correlate
Author's labelYears of education
Page in Source 217
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question on own years in 
education:
1 Without education
2 1 year
3 2 years
4 3
5 4
6 5
7 6
8 7
9 8
10 9
11 10
12 11
13 12 years
14 more than 12years
Observed distributionN=15209

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cb=-.00
B controlled for:
- Country
- Age
- Gender
- Married
- Log wealth index
- Membership of minority group
- Current occupation
- Health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTreas et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleThe Happy Homemaker? Married Women's Well-Being in Cross-National Perpective.
SourceSocial Forces, 2011, Vol. 90, 111 - 132
PublicWomen with partner, aged 18-65, 28 countries, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7014

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 115-123
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Highest level of education:
0 No formal qualification
1 Lowest formal qualification
2 Above lowest qualification
3 Higher secondary completed
4 Above higher secondary level, other education
5 University degree completed
Observed distributionM = 2,73, SD = 1,37

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.42 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared
- Number of children
- Liberal gender ideology
- religious services attendance

Negatively affected by mediating variables:
- Family Income
- Family income flag
- Housework fairness
- Task sharing
- Family stress
- Housework conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (2000b): study ZZ EU 15 2000 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 54.
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb54/eb54_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 29%, 2: 40%, 3: 21%, 4: 10%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M=2,92 CI95:2,90-2,94
2: 16-19           M=3,01 CI95:2,99-3,03
3: 20+             M=3,09 CI95:3,07-3,11
4: still studying  M=3,14 CI95:3,11-3,17
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3<4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (2000a): study ZZ EU 15 2000
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 53,
SourceEuropean Commission, 2000, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb53/eb53_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16078

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: 15<             
2: 16-19           
3: 20+            
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 30%, 2: 41%, 3: 21%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M= 2,81  CI95: 2.79-2,83
2: 16-19           M= 2,88  CI95: 2,86-2,90
3: 20+             M= 3,00  CI95: 2,98-3,02
4: still studying  M= 3,08  CI95: 3,05-3,12
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3<4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education type:
a)secondary education
b)tertiary education (university)

Rated:
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.04 ns
1999, secondary education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.18 p < .01
B additionally controlled for country 
characteristics
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.34 p < .001
1999, tertiary education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.63 p < .001
B additionally controlled for country 
characteristics.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 p < .01
2008, secondary education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.24 p < .001
2008,tertiary education

All Bĺs controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -No. Of children
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Big city
  -Remote area


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyElliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999
TitleReligion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: the Role of Government Regulation.
SourceSociology and Religion, 2009, Vol. 70, 285 - 310
DOIDOI:10.1093/socrel/srp028
Public18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =93142

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 298
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Scale from 1 (inadequately completed elementary school) 
to 8 (university degree or more).
Observed distributionM=4,41 SD=2,26

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .001
b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
 -religious attendance
 -personal religious identity
 -belong to the largest religious group dummy
 -religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .001
b additionally controls for national 
characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of 
civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.10 p < .001
b additionally controls for cross-level 
interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999
TitleThe Link between Subjective Well-Being and Objective Conditions in European Societies.
SourceArts, W.;Halman, L.;Eds.: ''European Values at the Turn of the Millennium'', Brill, 2004, Boston, USA, 57 - 80
Public18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =39799

Correlate
Author's labelAge at leaving education
Page in Source 72/76
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 p < .05
In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.03 p < .05
In medium poor nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.01 p < .05
In medium rich nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=0 p < .05
In the richest nations in the highest 
GDP-quartile.

B controlled for at individual level:
 -gender
 -marital status
 -age & age squared
 -social class
 -employment status

Unaffected by additional control at country-level 
for:
-GDP per capita
-income inequality
-growth GDP last 10 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=
Education has more impact on life-satisfaction in 
poor nations, like Ukraine and Hungary, than in 
rich nations, like Iceland and Belgium.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (1999): study ZZ EU 15 1999 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 52.
SourceEuropean Commission,1999, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb52/eb52_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1999
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15010

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal Education Age
Page in Source B.2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 30%, 2: 41%, 3: 20%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<             M= 2,92  CI95: 2.90-2,94
2: 16-19           M= 2,98  CI95: 2,96-3,00
3: 20+             M= 3,08  CI95: 3,06-3,10
4: still studying  M= 3,13  CI95: 3,10-3,16
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (1998): study ZZ EU 15 1998
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 49.
SourceEuropean Commssion, 1998, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://europa.eu/comm/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb49/eb49_en.htm
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1998
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =16165

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal Education Age
Page in Source B.59
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Terminal education age
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying
Observed distribution1: 31%, 2: 39%, 3: 21%, 4: 9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<:           M=2,81  CI95 = 2,79-2,83
2: 16-19:         M=2,92  CI95 = 2,90-2,94
3: 20+:           M=3,02  CI95 = 3,00-3,04
4: still studying M=3,07  CI95 = 3,04-3,11
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
1<2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (1997): study ZZ EU 15 1997 /1
TitleEurobarometer Report. Nr. 47.
SourceEuropean Commission,1997, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb47/eb47_en.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 15 member states, 1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15900

Correlate
Author's labelTerminal education age
Page in Source B2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: 15<
2: 16-19
3: 20+
4: still studying

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bDM=+
1: 15<            M=2,86   CI95: 2,84-2,88
2: 16-19          M=2,90   CI95: 2,88-2,92
3: 20+            M=3,01   CI95: 2,99-3,04
4: still studying M=3,05   CI95: 3,01-3,09
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBMCT=+ p < .05
  1< 2<3,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyRuprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleDoes Owning Your Home Make You Happier? Impact Evidence from Latin America.
SourceWorking Paper OVE/WP-02-10, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://ideas.repec.org/p/idb/ovewps/0210.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =147446

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 8
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
A: No education (reference)
B: Primary
C: Secondary
D: Tertiary

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.01 ns
PRIMARY   (vs No education)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.03 p < .05
SECONDARY (vs No education)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cOLRC=+.08 p < .01
TERTIARY  (vs No education)

OLRCs controlled for:
- GDP per capita
- country 
- year
- size of city
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - gender
  - age
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - economic situation
- homeownership


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyRuprah & Luengas (2011): study ZZ Latin America 1997
TitleMonetary Policy and Happiness: Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment in Latin America.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2011, Vol. 40 , 59 - 66
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2010.08.001
Public15+ aged, general public in 17 Latin American nations, 1997-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =120000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 60
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education Level:
1)Primary level
2)Secondrry lecel
3)Tertiary level
4)No education (reference)
Remarks
Latin-Barometer

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.02 ns
Primary Level OPRC (-0.0194)    (vs no education)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.06 p < .01
Secondary Level OPRC (-0.0566)  (vs no education)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=-.09 p < .01
Tertiary Level OPRC (-0.0923)   (vs no education)

OPRC's controlled for:
-Country level:
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
-Individual level:
  - size of the city
  - wealth
  - demographic
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - maximum inflation rate experienced(age 18+)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBenesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1
TitleTV Channels, Self Control and Happiness.
SourcePaper International Conference "Policies for Happiness", 2007, Siena, Italy
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/benesch_c_2007.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response3.3%
Respondents N =72012

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1   People who completed basic or primary 
education(reference)
0a No formal or not completed primary education
0b Upper or post secondary, non tertiary education
0c Tertiary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.19 ns
No formal or not completed primary education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 ns
Upper or post secondary, non tertiary education
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.26 p < .01
Tertiary education

B's controlled for:
- TV viewing
  - residual TV viewing time
  - interaction with number of TV channels in the 
country
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employmnet
  - marital status
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in 
minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 18
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: primary (reference)
2: secondary
3: university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.37 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.00 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.50 (05)
University: OLRC= +.13 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.42 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.55 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.18 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.01 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.26 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.07 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.23 (ns)
University: OLRC= not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
Secondary:  OLRC= not reported
University: OLRC= not reported
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.11 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.14 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.05 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.13 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
Secondary:  OLRC= + .90 (ns)
University: OLRC= +1.05 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.62 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.66 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.08 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.43 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
Secondary:  OLRC= + .98 (01)
University: OLRC= +1.29 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.32 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.34 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.07 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.04 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.46 (01)
University: OLRC= -.23 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.27 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.40 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.42 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.31 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.31 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.43 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
Secondary:  OLRC= -1.5 (05)
University: OLRC= -.86 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.21 (ns)
University: OLRC= not reported
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
Secondary:  OLRC= not reported
University: OLRC= not reported
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.32 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.65 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.18 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.27 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
Secondary:  OLRC=  +.99  (ns)
University: OLRC= +1.13  (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.08 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.12 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.08 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.37 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan 
Secondary:  OLRC= +.49 (ns)
University: OLRC= +.39 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.16 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.05 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
Secondary:  OLRC= -.54 (ns)
University: OLRC= -.56 (ns)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-number of children
-marital status
-size of town
-labour market status
-income.

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive. E.g.  in most nations there 
are positive or negative correlations between 
eductation and happiness but in some nations the 
correlations are positive and negative 
simultaneously, dependent on the actual level of 
education.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 14,15,36
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest educational level that you have 
attained? 
8-point scale:
1: No formal education
8: Postgraduate degree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.00 ns
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL education level
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.01 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.24 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE education in nation

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - household income
     - subjective poverty
     - self rated health
     - unemployment
     - national unemployment rate
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorced
     - number of children
  - national charactereristics
     - average perception of
     - income inequality in country
     - trustwortiness of people
     - air pollution


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHayo (2007): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1991
TitleHappiness in Transition: An Emprical Study on Eastern Europe.
SourceEconomic Sytsems, 2007, Vol. 31, 204 - 222
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecosys.2006.08.003
Public18+ aged, general public, Eastern European Countries, 1991
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5592

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 207,210
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 primary school only
2 vocational training
3 secondary school
4 university
Observed distribution1: M=0.39, SD=0,49; 2 M=0,24, SD=0,43; 3: M=0,28, SD=0,45; 4: M=0.09, SD=0.28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-br=
1 primary school only   r=-0,09
2 vocational training   r=+0,04
3 secondary school      r=+0,02
4 university            r=+0.06
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.13 p < .05
Vocational training (vs primary school)  SE =.07
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.21 p < .01
Secondary school (vs primary school)     SE =.08
O-SLL-u-sq-v-3-bOLRC=+.50 p < .01
University (vs primary school)     SE =.11

lgt's controlled for:
- country
- age
- gender
- marital status
- type of employment
- income
- community size
- church attendance
- religion

No substantial changes in reduced logit model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education till age
1: 16 to 19 years
2: =>19 years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.05 p < .01
16 to 19 years (vs. less years)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= +0,082
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=+.08 p < .01
=> 19 years (vs. less years)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= +0,137

Beta's controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - employment status
  - number of children
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 8
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Years
Observed distributionRange 1-16, M= 4.65 SD= 2.35

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.08 ns
B controlled for:
- member of voluntary organization
- active in voluntary organization 
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B means 1 point extra education year goes with 
0.008 point greater happiness on scale 1-10 of 
education years (0.08 on scale 10-100)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being in Low Income Countries: Positional, Relational and Social Capital Compnents.
SourceStudi e Note di Economica, vol. 5, nr 3, pp 449-477
URLhttp://www.mps.it/nr/rdonlyres/4407ffbe-7442-490c-ad49-c03f0cbbb027/34058/sarracino.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 461,466, 467
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: illiteracy
2: low school education
3: high school education

rated: 1: yes, 0: no (dummy)
Observed distribution1: M=0.20, SD=0.32, 2: M=0.24, SD=0.43, 3: M=0.21, SD=0.41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.04 ns
ILLITERATE
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.13 ns
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.06 ns
LOW EDUCATED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=+.11 ns
High income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.27 p < .01
HIGH EDUCATED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.06 ns
High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - employment 
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile

In regression with only socio-economic variables 
illiteracy still has a negative effect, but it 
affects happiness the more in LICs (-.39), and 
coefficient in this model is significant for both 
groups of countries. Low school education has 
negative effect and more significant (p<.05) in 
LICs.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 158
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Educational attainment
1.some high school
2.high school
3.technical school
4.some university
5.university 
6.post university
Observed distributionabout 60% university trained about 25% post university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVerme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981
TitleThe Role of Freedom and Control in Explaining Happiness.
SourceLegatum Institute, " The 2008 Legatum Prosperity Index report. Methodology, Data and Findings" , 2008, Dubai, United Arabic Emirats, 78 - 98
Public18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =267870

Correlate
Author's labelEducation level
Page in Source 94
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: No tertiary education
1: With tertiary education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+.11 p < .001
INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL education level

In pooled data set:
OLRC controls for:
- individual characteristics
   -income (rank and squared rank)
   -employment
   -gender
   -age (and age squared)
   -tertiary education
   -maried
   -attitudes
    -about cheating on taxes
    -trust in people
    -trust in institutions
    -importance of family
    -importance of work
    -importance of religion
    -importance of politics
-national characteristics
 -GDP (and GDP squared)
 -employment rate (and squared)
-year fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+
Separately in 74 nations.
Significantly positive in 18 nations.
Significantly negative in 11 nations.
Not significant in other nations.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06
EC

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08
EC
                        
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDMt=▒
EC (stratified sample)
<13              Mt'=   6.11
13-15            Mt'=   7.11
16-18            Mt'=   7.00
19-20            Mt'=   6.89
>20              Mt'=   7.11
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=▒
EC (stratified sample)
<13               Mt' = 6.11
13-15             Mt' = 6.89
16-18             Mt' = 6.89
19-20             Mt' = 6.78
>20               Mt' = 6.89
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=
In none of the european countries, ▀ weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
life satisfaction (HAPP 2.1), affect (AFF 2.3);
satisfaction with income, health and family life;
age, income, male sex, marital status, having 
children, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, 
own home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future; tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, 
hopeless about life and sense of control.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=
In none of the european countries, ▀ weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
life satisfaction (HAPP 2.1), affect (AFF 2.3);
satisfaction with income, health and family life;
age, income, male sex, marital status, having 
children, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, 
own home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future; tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, 
hopeless about life and sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 376
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished/finish school?" 
1 <13
2 13-15
3 16-18
4 19-20
5 >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Great-Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.13
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.14
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16
Northern Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11
EC

▀'s controlled for: mariatl status, work, income, 
age, type of dwelling, having children and social 
participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPalisi (1985b): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleVoluntary Associations and Well-Being in Three Metropolitan Areas: Cross Cultural Evidence.
SourceInternational Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1985, Vol. 22, 265 - 288
PublicMales, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67%
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 276
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
-less than high school 
-high school 
-college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.00
London
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.05
Los Angeles
M-FH-cm-sq-v-4-ar=+.02
Sydney


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPalisi & Canning (1983): study ZZ Western nations 1977
TitleUrbanism and Social Psychological Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Test of Three Theories.
SourceThe Sociological Quarterly, 1983, Vol. 24, 527 - 543
PublicMales, metropolitan areas, England, USA, Australia, 1977-1980
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response67 %
Respondents N =752

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 537
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question on level of education: less than 
highschool, highschool or college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.05 ns
London 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.07 ns
Los Angeles 
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-arpc=+.03 ns
Sydney 
rpc controled for: Frequency of visits to friends 
and kin, neighborhood (centre or suburb) and type 
of house (single family home or not).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976e): study ZZ Latin America 1976 /1
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Latin America: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976c.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =2059

Correlate
Author's labelAge at end of formal education
Page in Source nn
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Age at end of formal education
1: 14 or less
2: 15-18
3: 19 or older
Observed distributionN= 1:705, 2:550, 3:748

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
1: M = 5,84 [CI95 5,66-6,01]
2: M = 6,86 [CI95 6,72-6,99]
3: M = 6,84 [CI95 6,71-6,97]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.18 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
1: M = 2,00 [CI95 1,94-2,06]
2: M = 2,34 [CI95 2,18-2,30]
3: M = 3,32 [CI95 2,27-2,37]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.16 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
1: M = 6,65 [CI95 6,48-6,83]
2: M = 7,53 [CI95 7,38-7,68]
3: M = 7,52 [CI95 7,40-7,64]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.14 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976c): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 1976
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Africa: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976i.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, sub Sahara African countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =914

Correlate
Author's labelAge at end of formal education
Page in Source nn
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Age at end of formal education
1: 14 or less
2: 15-18
3: 19 or older
Observed distributionN= 1:365, 2:189, 3:297

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+ p < .05
1: M = 4,64 [CI95 4,43-4,85]
2: M = 4,61 [CI95 4,25-4,96]
3: M = 5,24 [CI95 4,96-5,49]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.12 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=
1: M = 1,87 [CI95 1,80-1,94]
2: M = 1,82 [CI95 1,72-1,91]
3: M = 1,90 [CI95 1,83-1,98]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.02 p < .51
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=
1: M = 4,91 [CI95 4,69-5,13]
2: M = 4,58 [CI95 4,23-4,93]
3: M = 5,54 [CI95 5,28-5,80]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.13 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Gallup & Kettering (1976d): study ZZ East Asia 1976 /2
TitleHuman Needs and Satisfactions: A Global Survey. Table Books: Far East: Vol.1 & Vol. 2.
SourceCharles F. Kettering Foundation and Gallup International Research Institutes, 1976, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~Gallup_Kettering_1976e.pdf
Public15+ aged, general public, Far East countries, 1976
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =872

Correlate
Author's labelAge at end of formal education
Page in Source nn
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Age at end of formal education
1: 14 or less
2: 15-18
3: 19 or older
Observed distributionN= 1:294, 2:301, 3:273

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,57 [CI95 3,32-3,83]
2: M = 5,17 [CI95 4,96-5,37]
3: M = 5,59 [CI95 5,38-5,80]
C-BW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.40 p < .00
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=+
1: M = 1,45 [CI95 1,38-1,52]
2: M = 1,87 [CI95 1,81-1,94]
3: M = 2,02 [CI95 1,95-2,10]
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtc=+.32 p < .00
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-aDM=+
1: M = 3,84 [CI95 3,58-4,11]
2: M = 5,47 [CI95 5,27-5,67]
3: M = 5,85 [CI95 5,65-6,05]
O-SLW-c-sq-m-11-atc=+.38 p < .00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyDiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =371149

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 29
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
a) Lower education 
     1: yes
     0: no
b) Higher education
     1: yes
     0:no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.06 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by education of individual
Lower level education: OPRC (+0.062)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-cOPRC=+.17 p < .05
Higher level education: OPRC (+0.167)

OPRC's controlled for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -GDP growth
  -life expectancy
  -Sox emissions
  -hours worked
  -crime rate
  -divorce rate
  -inflation rate
  -unemployment rate
  -openness
  -unemployment benefits
-Personal characteristics:
  -personal income position
  -employment state
  -male
  -age
  -age squared
  -marital status
  -size of community


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Eurobarometer (1975a): study ZZ EU 9 1975
TitleEurobarometer, European Men and Women. A Comparison of their Attitudes to Some of the Problems Facing Society.
SourceEuropean Commission,1975, Brussels, Belgium
URLhttp://aei.pitt.edu/10640/
Public15+ aged, general public, EU 9 nations, 1975
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =9605

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 139
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: low 
2: average 
3: high
Observed distribution1: N= 3907; 2: N= 3868; 3: N= 1202

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.20 p < . 01
U-shaped curve: Ss of average education being most 
happy.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bG=+.14 p < . 01
U-shaped curve: Ss of average education being most 
happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCantril (1965): study ZZ 1960
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, 14 countries, ▒1960
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response-
Respondents N =18653

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 259
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Level of school education: low / middle / high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aG=+.35 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyAhmadyar (2016): study NL 2016
TitleDo the determinants of happiness differ between immigrants and home-stayers? A comparison between Afghansin the Netherlands and Afghanistan
SourceMaster thesis Msc Program in Urban Management and Development, Erasmus university Rotterdam
Public+18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =141

Correlate
Author's labelImmigrants Level of Education
Page in Source 36-37
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
What is the highest level of education you have?
1-No studies
2-Primary School
3-High School
4-Vocational Training
5-University
6- Masters or Higher

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aR▓=.40 p < .05
The higher educated, the happier.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdR▓=.44 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGokdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010
TitleLife Satisfaction Among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2012, Vol. 06, 407 - 417
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9815-8
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s1120501198158
PublicAdults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =207

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 4, 7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
1 Elementary
2 Secondary
3 High School
4 University
5 Post-graduate

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aDM=+
                   TURKISH  MOROCCAN  diff.
Elementary:    M=  5.79     6.83      -1.04
Secondary:     M=  6.15     7.50      -1.35
High School:   M=  6.62     7.26      -0.64
University:    M=  6.92     7.19      -0.27
Post-graduate: M=  ----     6.00      -6.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.68 p < .01
Turkish immigrants
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.51 p < .05
Moroccan immigrants

B's controlled for:
- Income(Absolute)
- Income(Relative)
- Marital satus
- Gender
- Generation
- Religion
- Perceived Discrimination


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelScholing
Page in Source 89
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self reported highest level of schooling:
1: basic education (basisonderwijs)
2: prevocational  (vmbo)
3: secondary education (havo, vwo, mbo)
4: college education (hbo)
5: university
Remarks
The number of happy and satisfied people increases 
slightly with educational level.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1: 80%
2: 86%
3: 86%
4: 90%
5: 93%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
1: 81%
2: 85%
3: 87%
4: 88%
5: 91%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.01
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.07
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- socio-economic category
- trust in parliament
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- children in household
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyPrins (2008): study NL 2007
TitleDe Deugd van Tegenwoordig. Onderzoek naar Jongeren en hun Grenzen. ( Virtue today; a study on risk behavior among younsters).
SourceResearch Report 2008, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/prins_m_2008.pdf
Public12-18 aged, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15116

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 12
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 VMBO (Lower and Middle Secundary Education)
2 HAVO (Higher Secundary Education, aimed at 
professional education)
3 VWO (Higher Secondary Education, aimed at 
universitary study)
4 MBO (Middle Tertiary Education) 
5 HBO  (Higher Tertiary Education)
6 University
Observed distributionN=1:6412; 2:1907; 3: 2156; 4: 1658; 5: 291; 6: 219

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-m-sq-n-10-aD%=+
% unhappy (score 1-5, on 1-10 scale)
VMBO       8,3%
HAVO       7,4%
VWO        4,4%

No difference in average happiness, but some 
difference in % unhappy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyDekker & DeHart (2007): study NL 2006
TitleNiet zo Gelukkig in de Dapperstraat. (Not so Happy in the Dapperstraat).
SourceSchnabel,P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 106 - 113
Public16+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =159439

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 110
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Individual level of education.
(question/scale?)
Observed distribution?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.13 ns
Individual happiness by individual level of 
education.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 ns
Average happiness in zipcode area by average level 
of education in zipcode area.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
Average happiness in community by average level of 
education in community.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.23 p < .05
Average happiness in provinces by average level of 
education in provinces.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~McKinsey & Company (2006): study NL 2006
Title21Minuten.nl. (21Minutes.nl).
SourceMcKinsey & Company, 2006, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.publiekezaak.nl/projecten/21minuten-nl-de-nationale-dialoog/
Public16-69 aged, Netherland, 2006.
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =170000

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 26
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
6: WO: University
5: HBO: Higher professional education- Hoger 
beroepsonderwjs 
4: HAW: Higher general and preparing science 
education-Hoger algemeen en voorbereidend 
wetenschappelijk onderwijs
3: MBO: Middle professional education Middelbaar 
beroepsonderwijs 
2: MAO: Middle general skilled education-Middelbaar 
algemeen onderwijs
1: LBO: Lower professional education- Lager 
beroepsonderwijs

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% Happy:
6: 76%
5: 73%
4: 70% 
3: 66% 
2: 60%
1: 54%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 33
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1 Low
2 Middle (reference category)
3 High
Observed distributionN1: 395 2: 870 3: 595

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            High   Middle   Low 
Very happy   24%     25%    24,5%
Happy        64,5%   67%    67% 
Unhappy      11,5%   8%     8,5%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=+ ns
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed  controlled
High    0,85     1,19      1.11        1,06
Middle  1        1         1           1       
Low     1,46     1,00      0,94        0,96   

Control variables are:
- gender
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyGijsberts (2007): study NL 2004
TitleLaagopgeleide Allochtonen relatief Tevreden met de Nederlandse Samenleving. (Low Educated Immigrants Relatively Satisfied with Dutch Society.)
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in 2007", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 89 - 93
PublicCity dwellers, aged 15-64, Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response49-62%
Respondents N =4096

Correlate
Author's labellevel of school education
Page in Source 90
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. Primary education(max.basisonderwijs)
2. High School (vbo/mavo)
3. College (mbo/havo/vwo)
4. University (Hbo/Wo)
Observed distributionN= 1: ? 2: ? 3: ? 4: ?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-aD%=+
% (very) happy native Dutch
1: 81
2: 90
3: 91
4: 93


% (very) happy allochtones
1: ? (circa 68)
2: ? (circa 77)
3: ? (circa 82)
4: ? (circa 84)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~CBS (2004): study NL 2002
TitleWaardering Leefsituatie, 2002 . (Appreciation Living Condition 2002.)
SourceCentral Bureau for Statistics, 2004, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://statline.cbs.nl
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =37482

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 2
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: primary education only (lo)
2: lower secundary school (vbo)
3: middle secundary education (mavo)
4: higher secundary education (havo, mbo, vwo)
5: tertiary education (hbo, university)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
primary            M = 3,89 CI95 [3,87-3,91]
lower secundary    M = 4,00 CI95 [3,98-4,02]
middle secundary   M = 4,08 CI95 [4,05-4,11]
higher secundary   M = 4,13 CI95 [4,12-4,15]
tertiary           M = 4,17 CI95 [4,15-4,19]
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBMCT= p < .05
1<2<3<4<5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bDM=+
primary            M = 3,17 CI95 [3,14-3,20]
lower secundary    M = 3,26 CI95 [3,23-3,29]
middle secundary   M = 3,38 CI95 [3,34-3,42]
higher secundary   M = 3,41 CI95 [3,39-3,43]
tertiary           M = 3,48 CI95 [3,45-3,51]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bBMCT=
1<2<3,4<5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 147
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Low
Medium
High
Observed distributionLow: 29,8%; Medium: 42,9%; High: 21,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Medium level of education (vs.low level)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
High level of education (vs.low level)
Beta's controlled for
-gender
-ethnic groups
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 204,207
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: low level  (age 12-16)
2: high level (age 12-15)
3: high level (age 17-21)
Observed distribution1: M=13,8, SD=0,90, N=86; 2: M=13,4, SD=0,7, N=97; 3: M=17,9, SD-0,79, N=99

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+
                             M    
1:low level  (age 12-16)     7,24
2:high level (age 12-15)     7,78  
3:high level (age 17-21)     7,86


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBergsma et al. (2011a): study NL 1996 /1
TitleMost People with Mental Disorders are Happy: A 3-year Follow-Up in the Dutch General Population.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2011, Vol. 6, 253 - 259
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760.2011.577086
Public18-65 aged, diagnosed as having mental disorder, Netherlands, 1996
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =1138

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 15
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1:  Low (reference category)
2:  Low-Middle
3:  High-Middle
4:  High
Observed distribution1 : 8,7%; 2: 42,4%; 3: 27,2%; 4: 21,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=▒ ns
Low               (reference category)
Low-Middle        B = +.02; CI95 [-.25- +.29]
High-Middle       B = -.08; CI95 [-.22- +.37]
High              B = -.12; CI95 [-.41- +.17]

B controlled for:
-gender
-age
-living with partner
-employment
-urbanicity
-kind of disorder
-number of disorders
-role functioning


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudySpruijt (1997): study NL 1992
TitleStepfamily Lifestyles and Adolecent Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceJournal of Divorce and Remarriage, 1997, Vol. 26, 137 -153
Public12 - 24 aged children of divorce, 1992, The Netherlands
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response26,1 %
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labeleducational level of youngster
Page in Source 149
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-u-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.06 ns
Beta controlled for: 
- stepfamily lifestyle (traditionalism)
- time since (step)family formation
- stepmother/stepfather family
- frequency of contact with nonresident parent
- social class stepfamily
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHenkens (1997): study NL 1992
TitleInactiviteit en Sociaal Isolement, Gezondheid en Welbevinden: Mannelijke Werkelozen, Arbeidsongeschikten, Werkenden en Vutters Vergeleken. (Inactivity and Social Isolation, Health and Well-Being: Employed and Unemployed Compared).
SourceNIDI Working Paper, 1997/2, The Hague, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/henkens_k_1997.pdf
Public55-64 aged men, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response61,7
Respondents N =575

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 6
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-dDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of school- education
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "At what age did you or will you 
complete your full time education, either at school or 
at an institution of higher education?"
1   <12  years
2   13  years
3   14  years
4   15  years
5   16  years
6   17  years
7   18  years
8   19  years
9   20  years
10  21+ years

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
2       M= .38      Mt=5.4
3       M=1.31      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.73      Mt=6.7
5       M=1.87      Mt=6.9
6       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
7       M=1.96      Mt=7.0
8       Empty category                           
9       M=1.81      Mt=6.8 
10      M=2.11      Mt=7.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
1       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
2       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
4       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
5       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
6       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
7       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
8       Empty category                           
9       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
10      M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
3       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
4       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
5       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
6       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
7       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
8       Empty category
9       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
10      M=3.36     Mt=7.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.14 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatb=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.09 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 45,62,63
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Self reported level of last education:

1 Lower educated =  LBO, MAVO, HAVO, VWO, MBO(secondary 
education)
2 Higher educated = HBO, WO (tertiary education)
Remarks
Education assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between 
educational categories over this 12 year period
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.10 ns
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age▓
- gender 
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
- extraversion
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.06 ns
additional control for life course transitions 
(happened or not):
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.06 ns
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child

Unaffected by squaring of the above variables

No effect among men. Stronger among women when 
controlled for lifecourse transtitions.
Period


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyStapel (1987): study NL 1987
TitleKundigheid en Geluk. (Abilities end Happiness)
SourceUnpublished Paper, N.I.P.O.(Gallup Affiliate), 1987, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1987
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =825

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 7
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
School or study finished at age
1 14 or younger 
2 15 
3 16 
4 17 
5 18-21 
6 22+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.18 p < .01
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-aG=+.18 p < .01
Almost linear: those who left school at age 14 are 
least happy and those at age 18-21 happiest. Ss 
who finished education after age 22 are slightly 
less happy than those finished at age 18-21.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~Algemeen Dagblad (1982): study NL 1982
TitleGeluk in Nederland. (Happiness in the Netherlands).
SourceUnpublished report nr 3810 i.o.o. Algemeen Dagblad, 1982, Centrum BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/~AlgemeenDagblad_1982.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1982
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response5%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of schooling
Page in Source t62
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-bD%=
% happy
1.       80.0
2.       85.0
3.       82.0
4.       87.2
5.       84.0
6.       93.8
7.      100.0
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-btc=+.06 ns
M-FH-u-sq-v-3-bG=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study NL 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1221

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 369
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question: "What was/is/will be your age when you 
finished school?"
1  <13
2  13-15
3  16-18
4  19-20
5  >20

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

Study~CBS (1984b): study NL 1979
TitleDe Leefsituatie van de Nederlandse Jeugd van 13-24 jaar in 1979. Deel 4.(Life Situation of the Dutch Youth of 13-24 in 1979, Vol. 4: An Analysis of Youth in One-Parent Families.)
SourceS.D.U./C.B.S. Publications, 1984, The Hague, Netherlands
PublicAdolescents, The Netherlands, 1979
Sample
Non-Response35%, of which: refusals 62%, no contact 27%, unable 8%
Respondents N =3113

Correlate
Author's labelEducation of head ofhousehold
Page in Source 49
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Low (1), middle (2), high (3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- broken home
- age
- day time school
- head of household employed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 134
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1: No or only primary education
2: Lower vocational education
3: Lower general secondary education
4: Middle vocational, school of higher  general 
secondary education and pre-university education
5: University

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Life situation:
 -Housing
 -Health
 -Purchasing power/ consumer durables
 -Leisure activities
 -Mobility
 -Social participation
 -Sport activity
 -Vacation
-Background features:
 -Gender
 -Employment
 -Age
 -City
 -Household composition
 -Ethnicity
 -Income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyJol (1985a): study NL 1974
TitleLiever Samen dan Alleen? Veranderingen in Levensomstandigheden Ún Welbevinden van Alleenstaanden, 1974-1983. (Better together than Alone? Changes in Life Situations ßnd Well-Being of Singles,1974-1983).
SourceC.B.S. Select, Nr. 3, Central Bureau of Statistics, 1985, The Hague, Netherlands, 171 - 184
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1983
Sample
Non-Response1974: 28%, 1983: 43%
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 178
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0 = Just primary school
1 = More than just primary school

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.06 p < .05
1983 only 
▀ controlled for sex and age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 63
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Finished school:
1 primary education
2 lower education
3 higher secondary education
4 high education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.24
1974
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.21
1977
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.23
1980
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.25
1983
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.23
1986
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.21
1989
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.21
1990
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.20
1991
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
1992
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
1993
Beta's controlled for 
- age
- employment
- income (level and source)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 350
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Education rated on a 5 point scale. 
primary school (1), college (5).
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.13 p < .05
T2 happiness by T2 education
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.20 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVeenhoven & Bakker (1977): study NL 1968
TitleLevel of Education and Psychological Well-Being
SourceUnpublished Paper, Erasmus University, 1977, Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/veenhoven_r_1977.pdf
Public25-65 aged, The Netherlands,1968
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =2367

Correlate
Author's labelLevel of education
Page in Source 12
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
The level of school education was classified according 
to the school types known in the Netherlands at that 
time:
1 primary school unfinished
2 primary school
3 low level secondary school
4 high level secondary school
5 university, college

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.12 p < .01
All
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.13 p < .01
Males

- Age
  - < 35      G = -.24 (01)
  - 35-44     G = -.13 (ns)
  - 45-65     G = -.12 (ns)

- social economic status
  - high      G = -.15 (ns)
  - middle    G = +.11 (ns)
  - low       G = +.05 (ns)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.18 (ns)
  - no change G = -.10 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.18 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.10 ns
Females

- Age
  - < 35      G = -.03 (ns)
  - 35-44     G = -.24 (01)
  - 45-65     G = -.10 (ns)

- social economic status
  - high      G = -.20 (ns)
  - middle    G = -.00 (ns)
  - low       G = -.03 (ns)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.35 (01)
  - no change G = -.08 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.35 (01)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.16 p < .01
Age <35

- social economic status
  - high       x
  - middle    G = -.06 (ns)
  - low       G = -.02 (ns)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.40 (01)
  - no change G = -.07 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.12 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.16 p < .01
Age 35-44

- social economic status
  - high      na
  - middle    G = -.10 (ns)
  - low       G = -.21 (ns)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.28 (01)
  - no change G = -.14 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.11 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.11 ns
Age 45-65

- social economic status
  - high      G = -.03 (ns)
  - middle    G = -.06 (ns)
  - low       G = -.18 (ns)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.22 (ns)
  - no change G = -.09 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.14 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.17 p < .01
High social economic status (SES)

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  na
  - no change G = -.24 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.15 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.06 ns
Middele SES

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.36 (01)
  - no change G = -.04 (ns)
  - upward    G = -.03 (ns)
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=+.01 ns
Low SES

- Social mobility (difference with fathers SES
  - downward  G = -.01 (ns)
  - no change G = -.10 (ns)
  - upward     x
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.24 p < .01
Downward social mobility
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.09 ns
No social mobility
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-aG=-.11 ns
Upward social mobilty


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyVeenhoven & Bakker (1975): study NL 1968
TitleSchooleducation and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished Paper, 1975, Department of Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/veenhoven_r_1975.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =1534

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 11
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Number of years of schooling and level of school 
education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.12 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level
Page in Source 27
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Number of years of schooling and level of school 
education.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.12 p < .05
Unaffected by sex. Significant among young persons 
(G = -.16), among high S.E.S. (G = -.17) and among 
those who experienced a downward inter- 
generational mobility (G = -.24) only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelEducational level.
Page in Source 20
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
3-point scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=-.05 ns
Unaffected by sex and age.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyDeJong-Gierveld (1969): study NL 1965
TitleDe Ongehuwden. (The Unmarried).
SourceSamson, 1969, Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands
Public30-55 aged, general public, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1965
Sample
Non-Response31%;
Respondents N =600

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 203
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
Direct question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=-.12
Significant among married females only.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelSchooling variables
Page in Source 252,253
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
0: Lower vocational, no degree   (reference)
1: Lower vocational
2: Lower general
3: Intermediate general
4: Intermediate vocational
5: Higher general
6: Higher vocational
7: University
8: Graduate
Observed distribution1=29%, 2=7.6%. 3=16.1%, 4=29%, 5=3.6%, 6=17.2%, 7=3.6%, 8=80,1%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.10 ns
Lower general
C