Findings on Happiness and CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)
Subject Code: C13

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)0
C13aaParticipation career0
C13aa01Earlier participation0
C13aa02Change in participation1
C13aa03Later participation0
C13abCurrent cultural participation4
C13ab01Passive participation2
C13ab02Active participation11
C13acAttitudes to culture1
C13ac01Own attitudes to culture 0
C13ac02Attitude to own participation19
C13ab03Kind of cultural consumption0
C13ac03Satisfaction with cultural participation3
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C13
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in participation
Subject code: C13aa02

StudyHaisken-DeNew & Sinning (2010): study DE West Germany 2000
TitleSocial Deprivation of Immigrants in Germany.
SourceReview of Income and Wealth, 2010, Vol 56, 715 -733
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2010.00417.x
Public16+ aged, general public, West Germany, Germany, followed 5 years, 2000-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =33186

Correlate
Author's labelAttending cultural events
Page in Source 723, 725
Our classificationChange in participation, code C13aa02
Operationalization
a: attending a cultural events such as concerts, 
theater, and lectures 
    1: at least once a year
    0: otherwise

b: Attending a cinema, dancing, or sporting events
    1:  at least once a month
    0: otherwise
Observed distributiona1) 11%, b1) 20.2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.23 p < .01
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in attendance of 
cultural events
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
CHANGE in happiness by CHANGE in attendance of 
cinema, dancing, or sports events

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- children in household
- employment status
- education
- having a car and telephone
- appreciation of housing surface
- quality of house
- having a PC/stereo/dishwasher
- health
- marital status
- relative income
- religious participation
- active in sports


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current cultural participation
Subject code: C13ab

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelAttends cultural events
Page in Source 39-40
Our classificationCurrent cultural participation, code C13ab
Operationalization
0: Never attends cultural events
1: attends
Observed distribution0: M = 0,314 SD = 0,464
Remarks
In original: Never attends. Reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.08 p < .01
b controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute deprivation: lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables (car, telephone, etc)
  - health (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.053 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.05 p < .01
b additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.031 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current cultural participation
Subject code: C13ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMonthly at cultural events
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent cultural participation, code C13ab
Operationalization
1 attend at least once a month cultural events
0 otherwise
Observed distributionN=215958 M=0.48 sd=0.5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 p < .01
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+.13 p < .01
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending other events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current cultural participation
Subject code: C13ab

StudyAussen et al. (2008): study NL Rotterdam 2007
TitleGeluk in Rotterdam. Het Effect van Vrijetijds Voorzieningen op het Geluk in Wijken. (Happiness in Rotterdam. The Effect of Leisure Time Facilities on the Happiness in Neighbourhoods).
SourceBachelor Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/aussen_s_2008.pdf
Public16-75 aged, general public, City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4420

Correlate
Author's labelparticipation in cultural facilities
Page in Source 36, 86, 97
Our classificationCurrent cultural participation, code C13ab
Operationalization
Frequency of participation in cultural facilities a 
year
0: 0
1: 1-50
2: 51-100
3: 101-150
4: 151-200
5: 201-250
6: 251-300
7: 301-365
Remarks
It concerned cinemas, musea, music and art lending, 
language and culture clubs, theaters and concert halls

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abr=+.02 ns
N=3327
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abrpc=+.03 ns
rpc controlled for income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current cultural participation
Subject code: C13ab

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelCulture participation
Page in Source 45
Our classificationCurrent cultural participation, code C13ab
Operationalization
Measurement not reported
1 Little
2 Average 
3 Much (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=+
      UNHAPPY (vs happy)  VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
      observed controlled observed   controlled
Much    1       1          1          1
Average 1,55*   1,39       0,92       0,91 
Little  2,18*   1,64*      1,18       1,15

Control variables are:
- situation
- family stage
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
- go out
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive participation
Subject code: C13ab01

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1989
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelCulture attendance
Page in Source 11
Our classificationPassive participation, code C13ab01
Operationalization
Passive cultural participation
(f.e. going to music performances)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.08 p < .01
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.09 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 p < .01
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
Betas controled for:
- age
- education
- community size
- active cultural participation

The difference is greater at the lower educational 
levels. Among university educated Ss the 
difference is negigible.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Passive participation
Subject code: C13ab01

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelAttends cinema, concerts
Page in Source 39-40
Our classificationPassive participation, code C13ab01
Operationalization
0: Never attends cinema, concerts
1: attends
Observed distribution0: M = 0,238 SD = 0,426
Remarks
In original: Never attends. Reversed by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.05 p < .01
b controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
  - accomodation
- personality traits
- absolute deprivation: lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables (car, telephone, etc)
  - health (bad health, disabled etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.007 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.07 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative deprivation
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.034 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudySchulz et al. (1997): study AT 1992
TitleThema Kunst: Zur sozialen und ökonomischen Lage der bildenden Künstler und Künstlerinnen in Österreich. (Socio-Economic Situation of Artists in Austria).
SourceFalter Verlag, 1997, Vienna, Austria
PublicArtists, Austria, 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response388
Respondents N =1812

Correlate
Author's labelartists vs. non-artists
Page in Source 198
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
 0 general population
 1 main occupation artist
Remarks
General population sample 1984 (SCHUL 1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aD%=-
Quality of life:   %low    %moderate  %high
- general public:  24,1       48,9     27,0
- artists:         42,3       42,4     15,3
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-agH=-.15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyGehmacher (1992b): study AT 1989
TitleCoping, Happiness and Ideology. Some Suggestions for the Application of Happiness Research in Politicological Research.
SourcePaper Presented at the International Conference "Towards the Good Society: Applying the Social Sciences", 1992, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelAmateur culture
Page in Source 11
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Active involvement in culture
(f.e. making music)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.03 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dBeta=+.01 ns
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.03 ns
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.04 ns
Beta's controled for:
- age
- education
- community size
- passive cultural participation (attendance)

The difference is greater at the lower educational 
levels.
Among university educated Ss the difference is 
negigible.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Singing alone
Page in Source 36, 53
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week singing alone.
Respondents who never sing alone were asked to write 
'0'.
Observed distributionaverage 4.27 hours
Remarks
Only people who sing alone (N=121)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=-.22 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Singing in a group
Page in Source 36, 53
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week singing in a 
group.
Respondents who never sing in a group  were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionaverage 2.27 hours
Remarks
Only people singing in a group (N=30)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=-.40 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Reading to others
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of average hours per week reading to others.
Respondents who never read to others were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 3.26 hours
Remarks
Only people who read to others (N=92)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities:Going to amateur live theatr
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year going to amateur live 
theatre
Respondents who never go to amateur live theatre were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.61 per year
Remarks
Only people who go to amateur live theatre (N=166)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.24 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Going to other museums
Page in Source 36, 55
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year going to other museums 
than art galleries
Respondents who never go to other museums were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.66 per year
Remarks
Only people who go to other museums (N=137)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.21 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.17 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Buying works of art
Page in Source 36, 55
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year buying work of arts
Respondents who never buy works of art were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionAvergae 2.09 times per year
Remarks
Only people who buy works of art (N=116)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.20 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelTime spent on arts-related actvities: Visiting historic sites
Page in Source 36, 56
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport of times per year visiting historic, 
heritage sites
Respondents who never visit historic, heritage sites 
were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionAverage 2.42 times per year
Remarks
Only people who visit historic, heritage sites (N=210)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit älterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelartistic activitiesfr
Page in Source 38
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
frequency of artistic activities:
daily
.
.
Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=
%satisfied with life:
- daily:     66%
- never:     50%
Difference: +16%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Active participation
Subject code: C13ab02

StudyBruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleWatching Alone: Relational Goods, Television and Happiness.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2006, Vol. 30, 1 - 23
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005
PublicAdults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =259947

Correlate
Author's labelVoluntary activities
Page in Source 7-16
Our classificationActive participation, code C13ab02
Operationalization
Kind of voluntary organizations actively involved in:
a: church, religious
b: sports, recreation
c: arts, music, educational
d: labor union
e: political party
f: environmental
g: professional
h: charity

0: no
1: yes
Observed distributionRange 0-1 a: M= 0,13, SD=0,33 b: M= 0.10, SD=0.30 c: M= 0.07, SD=0.25 d: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 e: M= 0.04, SD=0.19 f: M= 0.03, SD=0.17 g: M= 0.04, SD=0.20 h: M= 0.06, SD=0.23

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Church                  B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.95 p < .05
Sports                  B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,4 p < .05
Arts                    B: 1,43, t: 5,69
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.16 ns
Labor union             B: 1,41, t: 6,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.14 ns
Politics                B: 0,95, t: 4,21
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.65 ns
Environment             B: 0,65, t: 1,61
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.35 ns
Professional            B: 0,35, t: 1,13
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+1,8 p < .05
Charity                 B: 1,78, t: 6,13

B's controlled for:
- member of any voluntary organization
- active in any voluntary organization
- income
- self rated health
- perceived freedom
- unemployed
- married
- education
- age
- gender
- religion perceived as important
- trust in people
- honesty (cheating on tax justifiable or not)
- individual country dummies
- time dummies for survey waves

B's estimated individually in separate equations 
(model a)
Not different when estimated jointly (models c and 
d)

B is points greater happiness on range 10-100 of 
people who participate in that kind of 
organization


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to culture
Subject code: C13ac

StudyWebb (1915): study GB 1912
TitleCharacter and Intelligence. An Attempt at an Exact Study of Character.
SourceCambridge University Press, 1915, London, UK
URLhttps://archive.org/details/characterandint00webbgoog
PublicMale college students, England, 1912
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelAesthetic feeling
Page in Source 26
Our classificationAttitudes to culture, code C13ac
Operationalization
Trained-peer rating on love for the beautiful for its 
own sake on a 7-point scale on the basis of observation 
du- ring 6 months.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-ar=-.07


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to amateur live theater
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to amateur live 
theatre. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to amareur live theatre were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.87
Remarks
Only people who go to amateur live theatre (N=169)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.20 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to movies
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to movies. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to movies were asked to write 
'0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.45
Remarks
Only people who go to movies (N=242)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.36 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with embroidery, needelpoint or cross-stitch
Page in Source 34, 56
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with embroidery, needelpoint 
or cross-stitch. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never carried out this activity were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.15
Remarks
Only people who carried out this activity (N=78)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.32 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching movies on video
Page in Source 36,55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching movies on 
video. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch movies on vide were asked 
to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.40
Remarks
Only people who watch movies on video (N=285)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.15 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to art museums/galleries
Page in Source 34, 55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to art 
museum/galleries. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to art museum/ galleries were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.59
Remarks
Only people who go to art museum/ galleries (N=148)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.20 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to other museums than art galleries
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to other museums 
than art galleries. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to other museums than art 
galleries were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.67
Remarks
Only people who go to other museums (N=137)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.25 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.17 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.26 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Gourmet cooking
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with gourmet cooking. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never do gourmet cooking were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.94
Remarks
Only people who do gourmet cooking (N=120)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.38 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.32 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.35 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching live theatre on TV
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching live theaytre 
on TV. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch live theatre on TV were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.89
Remarks
Only people who watch live theatre on TV (N=63)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.26 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with watching concerts on TV
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with watching concerts on 
TV. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never watch concerts on TV were asked 
to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.65
Remarks
Only people who watch concerts on TV (N=168)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.25 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with buying work of arts
Page in Source 37, 55
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with buying work of arts. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never buy work of artts were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.10
Remarks
Only people who buy work of arts (N=120)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.24 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.32 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with visiting historic, heritage sites
Page in Source 37, 56
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with visiting historic, 
heritage sites. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never visit historic, heritage sites 
were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.84
Remarks
Only people who visit historic, heritage sites (N=215)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.18 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with visiting the public library
Page in Source 37, 56
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with visiting the public 
library. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never visit the public library were 
asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.89
Remarks
Only people who visit the public library (N=226)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with reading novels, stories, plays, or poetry
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with reading novels, short 
stories, plays, or poetry. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied

Respondents who never read novels, short stories, 
plays, or poetry were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.19
Remarks
Only people who reported to be engaged in this activity 
(N=272)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.19 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.13 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Reading to others
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with reading to others. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never read to others  were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.02
Remarks
Only people who read to others (N=122)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.28 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with dancing
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with dancing. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never dance were asked to write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.78
Remarks
Only people who dance (N=98)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.25 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.21 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with knitting or crocheting
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with knitting or crocheting. 

Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never knit or crochet were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 6.11
Remarks
Only people who knit or crochet (N=66)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br=+.31 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr= ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyMichalos (2005): study CA Prince George 2003
TitleArts and the Quality of Life: An Exploratory Study.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 11 - 59
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-004-8013-3
PublicAdults, City of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, 2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response87%
Respondents N =315

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with going to concerts
Page in Source 36, 54
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport of satisfaction with going to concerts. 
Rated: 1 very dissatisfied to 7 very satisfied.
Respondents who never go to concerts were asked to 
write '0'.
Observed distributionM = 5.96
Remarks
Only people who go to concerts (N=196)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gr=+.20 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fr=+.18 p < .05
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-br= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyBalatsky & Diener (1993): study RU 1990
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Russian Students.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 28, 225 - 243
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF01079019
PublicStudents, Moscow and Glazov (Ural), Russia, 1990
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =116

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with cultural life
Page in Source 235
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Single question:"How do you feel about your cultural 
life right now?".
Rated on 7-point scale from: 
1.Terrible.......to
.
.
7. Delighted.
Observed distributionM= 4.33; SD 1.42

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.30 p < .01
p two-tailed
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-br=+.32 p < .01
p two tailed


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to own participation
Subject code: C13ac02

StudyLee et al. (2002): study US 1997
TitleDeveloping a Subjective Measure of Consumers Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Macromarketing, 2002, Vol. 22, 158 - 169
DOIDOI:10.1177/0276146702238219
Public18+ aged, students, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =298

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with cultural life
Page in Source 164
Our classificationAttitude to own participation, code C13ac02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How do you feel about your cultural life?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.45 p < .01
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
- job
- family
- finance
- health
- education
- friendships
- leisure
- neighbors
- community
- spiritual
- taxes
- environment
- political situation
- housing
- social life

Unaffected by additional control for satisfaction 
with:
- acquisitions
- possessions
- consumption
- repair services
- do-it-yourself repairs
- disposition
(consumer well-being)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with cultural participation
Subject code: C13ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelConcert, theatre, other cultural performances
Page in Source 331
Our classificationSatisfaction with cultural participation, code C13ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: visit of clasical concert, theater, other 
cultural performances.
Observed distributionN= 0:2%, 1:2%, 2:3%, 3:3%, 4:4%, 5:6%, 6:9%, 7:16%, 8:20%, 9:16%, 10:11%, DKNA:7%
Remarks
N=1392.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 7.5  M = 6.8             +0.7 
top 3:  M = 7.4  M = 6.5             +0.9 
top 5:  M = 7.2  M = 6.1             +1.1
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 363, Others: 8-0 N=1030
Top 3: 10-8 N= 756, Others: 7-0 N= 636
Top 5: 10-6 N=1134, Others: 5-0 N= 258


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with cultural participation
Subject code: C13ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelPop-/rockconcert and disco.
Page in Source 332
Our classificationSatisfaction with cultural participation, code C13ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: visit of pop-/rock concerts and discos.
Observed distributionN= 0:2%, 1:1%, 2:2%, 3:2%, 4:4%, 5:6%, 6:6%, 7:12%, 8:22%, 9:20%, 10:20%, DKNA:7%
Remarks
N=1344

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.1  M = 7.4             +0.7 
top 3:  M = 7.9  M = 7.2             +0.5 
top 5:  M = 7.8  M = 6.9             +0.9
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 352, Others: 8-0 N= 992
Top 3: 10-8 N= 729, Others: 7-0 N= 615
Top 5: 10-6 N=1100, Others: 5-0 N= 244


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with cultural participation
Subject code: C13ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with music listening
Page in Source 334
Our classificationSatisfaction with cultural participation, code C13ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: music listening.
Observed distributionN= 0:-%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:2%, 4:1%, 5:4%, 6:7%, 7:15%, 8:25%, 9:20%, 10:23%, DKNA:1%
Remarks
N=2112

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.8  M = 7.8             +1.0 
top 3:  M = 8.6  M = 7.5             +1.3 
top 5:  M = 8.3  M = 6.9             +1.4
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 491, Others: 8-0 N=1621
Top 3: 10-8 N=1073, Others: 7-0 N=1039
Top 5: 10-6 N=1666, Others: 5-0 N= 446


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-CP-g-rdp-ro-7-aPeer rating on single question (based on contact during 6 months):

Rater instruction: "personal qualities are named and briefly annotated in this schedule. If you have any doubt as to the meaning of any of them, please ask me (investigator)
2. In the columns under each subject's name, place one of the marks for each of the qualities specified (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3) To avoid errors, please put the + sign as well as the -

'General tendency to be 'cheerful' (as opposed to being depressed and low spirited)
+3 very high compared to average
+2 distinctly above average
+1 slightly above average
0 average
-1 slightly below average
-2 distinctly below average
-3 lowest as compared to average
M-FH-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel yourself at the time being? Is your present wellbeing.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 low
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
- neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied)
- I never thought about it
- does not apply to me



Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (modified version by Michalos)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-abSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
1 not happy at all
2 not too happy
3 happy
4 very happy
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
gHHedges's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range (theoretical): unlimited

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)
C13ab02Active participationS06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS
C13ab02Active participationS07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS
C13ab02Active participationS08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)
C13ab03Kind of cultural consumptionC09ab02haArt
C13ab03Kind of cultural consumptionP10ab02Specific possessions
C13ac01Own attitudes to culture N06ahAttitudes to culture in the nation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings