Findings on Happiness and COPING

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and COPING
Subject Code: C10

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C10COPING0
C10aaCoping career0
C10aa01Earlier coping1
C10aa02Change in coping2
C10aa03Later coping2
C10abCurrent coping5
C10ab01Current coping-style31
C10ab02Current coping-capacity1
C10ab03Current coping-success0
C10ab03aSelf-perceived success1
C10ab03bCoping-success rating by others5
C10ab04Coping with specific life-events3
C10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhood3
C10ab04bCoping with illness5
C10ab04cCoping with unemployment0
C10acAttitudes to own coping0
C10ac01Satisfaction with own coping with life-change3
C10ac02Satisfaction with self care1
C10ab04dCoping with conflicts, loneliness1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and COPING
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C10
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier coping
Subject code: C10aa01

StudySpanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977
TitleRemarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 709 -720
PublicSeparated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 %, T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelInitiation of divorce
Page in Source 717
Our classificationEarlier coping, code C10aa01
Operationalization
0 Not-iniatiators 
1 Initiators 
Those who decided on divorce mutually
excluded (13 % of the sample )

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aChi= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aDM= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1
Significant difference of happiness at T2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1
Significant difference of happiness at T2
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1 and T2
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aSNR= ns
No difference in level of happiness at T1
Significant difference of happiness at T2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in coping
Subject code: C10aa02

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelHope and control
Page in Source 292
Our classificationChange in coping, code C10aa02
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a. Since I started coming to meetings, I have begun to 
have more faith in my ability to change myself
b.Since I started coming to meetings, I have begun to 
cope much better with my life 
c. The group helps me to find new coping strategies
d. The group has helped me learn ways of solving my 
problems
e. The group has helped me find ways of controlling my 
self

Rated on a numerical scale:
Items a,b,c,e:after reversing the scale 1=never to 
5=always
Item d:1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributiondifferent dtributions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.87
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.27 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in coping
Subject code: C10aa02

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with group as alternative to loneliness
Page in Source 293
Our classificationChange in coping, code C10aa02
Operationalization
Sefreport on following questions:
a. The group makes me feel I'm not alone with my 
difficulties
b. The group takes me out of my loneliness
c. A professional could never understand me the way 
group members can
d. The group helps me evaluate my coping strategies
e. The group makes me feel I can function as well as 
anyone else
f. Other group members'knowledge and experience helps 
me as much as the help I could get from professionals

Rated on a numerical scale
Items a,b,c,e,f:after reversing the scale 1=never to 
5=always
Item d:1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent distributions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.79
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.18 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later coping
Subject code: C10aa03

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelNegative reaction to kidney donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationLater coping, code C10aa03
Operationalization
Amount of negative feelings towards donation one year 
after.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.35 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.27 p < .005
Happiness as assessed before transplant (T1).
Least happy donors at T1 report most negative 
feelings at T3.
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later coping
Subject code: C10aa03

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelAmbivalence about kidney donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationLater coping, code C10aa03
Operationalization
7-item index of closed questions

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.44 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
Happiness as assessed at T1 (pre-transplant)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.07 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping
Subject code: C10ab

StudySchiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995
TitleHelping Characteristics of Self-Help and Support Groups. Their Contribution to Partipants' Subjective Well-Being.
SourceSmall Group Research, 2000, Vol. 31, 275 - 304
PublicParticipants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =90

Correlate
Author's labelEmotional disclosure
Page in Source 292
Our classificationCurrent coping, code C10ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on following questions:
a: I share my life experiences with other members of 
the group
b: I share my troubles with other memebers of the group
c: Members of the group disclose personal and intimate 
details of their lives
d: The group helps me te release tension

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale:
1=certainly wrong to 6=certainly right
Observed distributionDifferent districutions
Error EstimatesCronbach's Alpha=.80
Remarks
Question concerns helping characteristics of the 
self-help or support group

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-ar=+.14 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping
Subject code: C10ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelPsychotherapy
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping, code C10ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Counseling or psychotherapy
- Walking or driving for the exclusive purpose or 
relaxation and enjoyment
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Counceling 1.40, Walking etc 2.60

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping
Subject code: C10ab

StudyRothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
DOIDOI:009-3920/81/5202-0005$01.001
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41%
Respondents N =215

Correlate
Author's labelSoothability
Page in Source 573, 576
Our classificationCurrent coping, code C10ab
Operationalization
Mother's report on child's fussing, crying, or distress 
when soothing techniques are used by the caretaker or 
child

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.29 p < .05
at 6 months    (N=93)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-ar=+.17 ns
at 12 months   (N=106)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping
Subject code: C10ab

StudyKellerman et al. (1977): study US 1972
TitleDisease-Related Communication and Depression in Pediatric Cancer Patients.
SourceJournal of Pediatric Psychology, 1977, Vol. 2, 52 - 53
URLhttp://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/2/2/52.full.pdf
PublicChildren hospitalized with cancer, US, 197?
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7

Correlate
Author's labelTalking about illness
Our classificationCurrent coping, code C10ab
Operationalization
Taking about illness was rated by nurse during 3 times 
a day during ?days
1= never
2= rarely
3= sometimes
4= often
Observed distributionThe overall rate of communication (the number of disease-related communication devided by the total number of rationg ): M=8.1% , SD= 5.6
Remarks
rating 3 or 4 was operationalized as a disease-related 
communication

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-md-rdn-v-5-ar=-.89 p < .01
Correlation between ratio of depressive mood 
ratings and ratio of desease-related 
communications. The sign of the correlation is 
negative because happiness is measured by 
unhappiness in this case.

Mean mood rating during desease-related 
communication: M=3.7, SD=.58 (Mt=6.75)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping
Subject code: C10ab

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's labelSoothability
Page in Source 1948, 1956
Our classificationCurrent coping, code C10ab
Operationalization
Mother's & father's reports on child's fussing, crying, 
or distress when soothing techniques are used by the 
caretaker or child

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), 
Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure 
of happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-amr=+.27
paternal report: r=+.26
maternal report: r=+.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyUskul & Greenglass (2005): study CA 2005
TitlePsychological Wellbeing in a Turkish-Canadian Sample.
SourceAnxiety, Stress, and Coping, 2005, Vol. 18, 269 - 278
DOIDOI: 10.1080/10615800500205983
PublicTurkish immigrants, Canada, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =181

Correlate
Author's labelProactive coping
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 14 questions
A:I am a take charge person.
B  I try to let things work out on their own. (-)
C:  After attaining a goal, I look for another, more 
challenging one.
D: I like challenges and beating the odds.
E: I visualise my dreams and try to achieve them.
F: Despite numerous setbacks, I usually succeed in 
getting what I want.
G: I try to pinpoint what I need to succeed
H: I always try to find a way to work around obstacles; 
nothing really stops me.
I: I often see myself failing so I dont get my hopes 
up too high. (-)
J: When I apply for a position, I imagine myself 
filling it.
K: I turn obstacles into positive experiences.
L: If someone tells me I cant do something, you can be 
sure I will do it.
M: When I experience a problem, I take the initiative 
in resolving it.
N:  When I have a problem, I usually see myself in a 
no-win situation. (-)

Rated:
1: not at all true
2:  barely true
3: somewhat true
4: completely true
Remarks
Proactive Coping Subscale (greenglass et al. 1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-ar=+.20 p < .05
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aBeta=-.13 p < .07
Beta controled for:
- education
- married
- gender
- years in Canada
- optimism


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelCognitive engagement
Page in Source 215, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about positive thinking 
to manage negative feelings such as e.g. thinking about 
positive things, thinking about things that are going 
well in life and putting things in perspective.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=4,6; SD=1,56; Male: M=4,6; SD=1,5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.26 p < .01
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.16 p < .01
Males


Beta's controlled for:

- Age
- Income
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelBehavioral engagement
Page in Source 215,218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about 
solving the problem which brought on the negative 
feelings as e.g. making plans about the future and 
taking action to solve the problem.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=4,6; SD=1,57; Male: M=4,7; SD=1,48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.02 ns
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.04 ns
Males


Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction (both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelVenting and expressing affect
Page in Source 215, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about behavior in which 
people verbally or physically express their active 
states e.g.letting own feelings out by expressing them, 
and talking to someone about these feelings.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale:M=4,3; SD=1,7; Male: M=3,6; SD=1,57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.05 ns
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.01 ns
Males

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction (both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelPassive distraction and acceptance
Page in Source 216, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about 
passive behaviors to distracted one's attention from 
negative feelings, e.g. praying, trying to accept it as 
my fate, drinking coffe and eating something.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=3,7; SD=1,68; Male: M=3,5; SD=1,61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.03 ns
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.02 ns
Males

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction (both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelRumination and withdraw
Page in Source 216, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about
behaviors intended to analyse one's own affective 
states e.g. trying to understand own feelings, thinking 
about one's feelings and writing about one's feelings.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=3,5; SD=1,83; Male: M=3,1; SD=1,72

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.03 ns
Males

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style:
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Waiting

Note:For time being unhappy: negative correlation 
for females (ns); positive correlation for males 
(ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelWaiting
Page in Source 216, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about not involving in 
any behaviors to manage the negative feelings e.g. 
doing nothing, letting things wait and daydreaming 
about time without the problems.

Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=2,7; SD=1,54; Male: M=2,8; SD=1,59

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.04 ns
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=-.11 p < .05
Males

Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style:
  - Active distraction
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction (both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyPrizmic-Larsen et al. (2009): study HR 2005
TitleWhat to Do and not to Do to be Happy and Satisfied? Affect Regulations Strategies and Well-Being in a Representative Sample of Croatia.
SourceFreire, T.;Ed.. :"Understanding Positive Life Research and Practice on Positive Psychology", Climepsi, 2009, Lisabon, Portugal, 213 - 226
PublicAdults, general public, Croatia, 2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =900

Correlate
Author's labelActive distraction
Page in Source 215, 218, 220
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question about engagement in 
pleasant behaviors to distract attention from negative 
feelings such as e.g.going out with friends,doing 
something fun and laughing.
 
Rated on a 7-point numerical scale: (1='not at all' to 
7='almost always')
Observed distributionFemale: M=4,4; SD=1,67; Male: M=4,6; SD=1,56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.12 p < .05
Females
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaBeta=+.18 p < .01
Males


Beta's controlled for:
- Age
- Income
- Other coping style
  - Cognitive engagement
  - Behavioral engagement
  - Venting and expressing affect
  - Passive distraction and acceptance
  - Rumination and withdraw
  - Waiting

Note:Same tendency for time being unhappy in 
opposite direction (both Beta's ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelActive coping strategies
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Respondents indicated a recent stressful event and then 
rate their frequency of use of 16 different coping 
responses. 
Rated:
1: Used in a few cases
2: Used in some cases
3: Used a lot (reference)

The 16 coping-reponses were classified into two coping 
dimensions:
a) passive coping (i.e., efforts to control the 
stress-related emotions but not the stressful 
situation) 
b) active coping (i.e., taking specific actions to deal 
directly with a situation).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.96 p < .05
USED IN SOME CASES (vs used a lot)
Men: No controls
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.37 ns
Men, OR controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.95 p < .05
Women: No controls

or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=3.66 p < .05
USED IN FEW CASES (vs used a lot)
Men: No controls
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=3.07 p < .05
WOMEN: No controls

or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- passive coping strategies
- attitude towards the future

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness. So 
active coping is associated with less happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyEk et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997
TitlePsychosocial Factors as Mediators between Migration and Subjective Well-Being among Young Finnish Adults.
SourceSocial Science & Medicine, 2008, Vol. 66, 1545 -1556
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.018
Public31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =5696

Correlate
Author's labelPassive coping strategies
Page in Source 1552
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Respondents indicated a recent stressful event and then 
rate their frequency of use of 16 different coping 
responses. 
Rated:
1: Used in a few cases (reference)
2: Used in some cases
3: Used a lot 

The 16 responses were classified into two coping 
dimensions:
a) passive coping (i.e., efforts to control the 
stress-related emotions but not the stressful 
situation) 
b) active coping (i.e., taking specific actions to deal 
directly with a situation).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.16 ns
USED IN SOME CASES (vs used in few cases)
Men: No controls

or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- attitude towards the future
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.40 ns
Women: No controls

Or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- attitude towards the future
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=2.16 p < .05
USED A LOT (vs used in few cases)
Men: No controls
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.25 ns
Men, OR when controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- attitude towards the future
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.89 p < .05
Women: No controls
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dOR=1.27 ns
Women, OR when controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- attitude towards the future

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher 
odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower 
odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness. So 
passive coping is associated with less happiness.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelTolerance degree
Page in Source 350
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
8 item additive index about willingness to discuss 
delicate matters.Each rated on a 5-point scale.
Typical items are:
- It is incomprehensable that people
  reveal their marriage problems.    
- These days people talk easily about
  their problems.
- You have to solve your own problems
  without complaining.
Assessed at T2(1976) 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.03 ns
T2 happiness by T2 tolerance degree
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.12 p < .05
T3 happiness by T2 tolerance degree


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyAbbey et al. (1983): study US Chicago 1990
TitleHandling the Stress of Looking for a Job in Law School: The Relationships between Intrinsic Motivation, Internal Attributions,Relations with Others and Happiness.
SourceBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 1983, Vol. 4, 263 - 278
PublicLaw school students, Chicago, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelRelation with others
Page in Source 273
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Respondents were asked if they talked with their fellow 
students about their job situation, and with family and 
friends. 
Observed distributionDistribution skewed (92% of the students talked about their job situation to fellow students, 88% to family and friends).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aDM=+ ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelEscape coping
Page in Source 263
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions that assessed the extent to 
which one engages in escapist strategies such as 
fantasizing, wishing, or hoping for miracles to deal 
with their fertility or biggest problem.

Rated: not at all (1) to a great deal (4)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3; .72
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 escape coping by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.24 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.07 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.31 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.10 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.40 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.11 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.47 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.31 p < .01
Beta's controled for:
- home stress
- personal control
- network support
- spouse conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelHealth habits
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- eating: eating 3 meals a day
- sleeping: getting an adequate amount of sleep at 
night
- alcohol: use alcohol beverages( beer, wine liquor)
- smoking: cigarettes
- snacking: eating frequent snacks during the day or in 
the evening
Rated 1: never  to 6 daily
Observed distributionM = Eating: 4.85, Sleeping 5.15, Drinking 3.70, Smoking 1.30, Snacking 3.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=.+14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSleeping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behavices in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better: 
- Getting an adequate amount of sleep
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 5.15

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelAlcohol consumption
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviours in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Use of alcoholic beverage (beer, wine or liquor)
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 3.70

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelHealth habits
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Jogging, running, swimming, golfing or other 
strenuous exercise for 15 minutes or more
Rated 1: never to 6 daily
Observed distributionM = 4.21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelUse of tobacco
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Smoking cigarettes
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 1.30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelEating regulary
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Eating 3 meals a day
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 3.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSocializing
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviours in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Attending plays, movies or concert
- Going out for dinner in a restayrant with friends or 
family
- Visiting friends or familr in their homes
- Talking on the telephone with friends about non-work 
related activities
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Attending plays etc 2.98, Going out etc 3.77, Visiting etc 3.03, Talking etc 3.55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSnacking
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better: 
- Eating frequent snacks during the day or in the 
evening
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distribution Mean Snacking 3.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNegative Coping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
-Use of meditation, progressive relaxation, biofeedback 
or beathing exersicise for 15 minutes
-Use of mood-altering drugs, euther pharmaceutical ( 
tranquilizers, sedatives,antideoressant) or organic 
(marijuana, cocoine etc.)
-Attending a health club
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Meditation etc : 1.47, Mood-altering drugs etc 1.34, Heath club 1.79

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-13 p < .06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelActive Coping
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Using special calendars, making lists or using other 
devices to become better organized
- Attending religious services or activities
- Reading non work-related books and magazines other 
than daily newspapers
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Using calendars etc 3.75, Religious services 1.76, Reading etc 4.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelRestructuring practice
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of strategies to organize and rectrutive 
work in order to make life more enjoyed:
- Blocking out time for making or returning phone calls
- Organizing and scheduling work activities so that I 
will not dbe rushed on run late
-Reducing me expertations of what I can accomplish in a 
single day
- Adding to, reporganizing or diversifying my practice 
of medicine
-Delegating more responsibility to others to perform 
work-related tasks
- Cuttung down on the number of patients i see
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = Blocking 3.22, Organizing 4.48, Reducing 3.39, Reorganizing 2.59, Responsibility 3.51, Cutting 1.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelVenting feelings with others
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Self-report of:
- Discussing personal feelings with friends or family
-Discussing the stressful nature of medical work with 
friends or family
Rated 1: never tp 6: daily
Observed distributionM = Discusing personel 3.58, Discussing stress of work 2.93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.03 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSexual relations
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Engaging in pleasurable sexual activity
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 4.27

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.17 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelPositive thinking
Page in Source 223
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the 
recent past and then completed a 46-item event-outcome- 
appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in 
this questionnaire described positive outcomes. 
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I developed greater trust in my
   judgments of situations or people.
2. I modified personal or career goals
   to more closely match my true
   interests, abilities or values.
3. By coping with events, I gained
   confidence in my ability to handle
   other difficulties.
Externally relevant items:
1. I learned to consider others' advice
   when planning career or personal
   development goals.
2. I discovered I could rely on others
   for help in getting through
   difficulties.
3. Others became more sympathetic
   toward my situation or difficulties.
Positive thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.29 p < .001
T1 positive thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         =+.34 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking:   =+.00 (ns)     
's controlled for T1 negative thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
T1 positive thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         =+.00 (ns)   
-Externally relevant thinking:   =+.14 (ns)
's controlled for T1 negative thinking.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyGoodhart (1985): study US 1983
TitleSome Psychological Effects Associated with Positive and Negative Thinking about Stressful Event Outcomes: Was Pollyanna Right?
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 216 - 232
PublicStudents in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample
Non-Response1.7% dropout
Respondents N =173

Correlate
Author's labelNegative thinking
Page in Source 223
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the 
recent past and then complete a 46-item event-outcome- 
appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in 
the questionnaire described negative outcomes. 
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I began to feel that I was doing
   little toward my life enjoyment or
   personal development.
2. I became more uncertain about who I
   am or want to become.
3. I began to doubt whether my present
   career plans are consistent with  
   true interests and skills.
Externally relevant items:
1. The event made it more difficult to
   carry out ordinary daily activities.
2. The event created a financial
   strain.
3. Others were unaware of or 
   insensitive to my difficulties.
Negative thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.44 p < .001
T1 negative thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         =-.37 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   =-.00 (ns)
's controlled for T1 positive thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.33 p < .001
T1 negative thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         =-.36 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   =-.00 (ns)
's controlled for T1 positive thinking.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelPraying when unhappy
Page in Source 524
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Praying when unhappy: 
0 No
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.06 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.03 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.11 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.04 ns
% very happy:         1957        1976

- Yes                  37          35
- No                   32          29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyVeroff et al. (1981): study US 1976
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =2264

Correlate
Author's labelTalking when worried
Page in Source 524
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Affirmative response to open question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.26 p < .01
1957
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.14 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.15 p < .01
1976
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.08 p < .01
1976


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-style
Subject code: C10ab01

StudyZautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975
TitleThe Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00884787
Public18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelRecovery preferences
Page in Source 88-93
Our classificationCurrent coping-style, code C10ab01
Operationalization
Factor loading on:
-Relaxation/escape
-Family resources
Respondent score depended on whether or not he 
mentioned these items as response to the open-ended 
question "What are some of the things that keep you 
going, that get you through the bad days?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current coping-capacity
Subject code: C10ab02

StudyGehmacher (1992d): study AT 1989 /1
TitleSport, Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit.(Sport, Health and Life Satisfaction.)
SourceEhalt, H.C.;Weiss, O.;Eds.: "Sport zwischen Disziplienerung und Neuen Sozialen Bewegungen", Bhlau, 1992, Vienna, Austria, 170 - 184
PublicMilitary male cadres, Austria, 1989
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1350

Correlate
Author's labelCoping capacity
Page in Source 180
Our classificationCurrent coping-capacity, code C10ab02
Operationalization
Factor based on responses to
16 item `sense of coherence' test
Antonovski. Denotes ego-strength in stressfull 
situations.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-arpc=+.35
direct effects of age, sporting and physical 
health partialed out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Self-perceived success
Subject code: C10ab03a

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelSubjective adapta- tion to change
Page in Source 28
Our classificationSelf-perceived success, code C10ab03a
Operationalization
Question on coping with death of one of both parents, 
or separetion of parents during  childhood: very bad / 
rather bad / so-so / rather well / very well.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.36 ns
Computed for those who reported death or 
separation of parents before the age of 20.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping-success rating by others
Subject code: C10ab03b

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelAdequacy of coping
Page in Source 350,258
Our classificationCoping-success rating by others, code C10ab03b
Operationalization
Adequacy of coping with reported life- events. Rated by 
independent judges on a 7-point scale, for each event 
reported, average score. 
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.26 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 adequacy of coping.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=+.30 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 adequacy of coping.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.08
T2 happiness by T2 adequacy of coping.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, self- and 
externally induced burdens.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=+.09
T3 happiness by T3 adequacy of coping.
L path-coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner and quality of 
life.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping-success rating by others
Subject code: C10ab03b

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelSadness
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationCoping-success rating by others, code C10ab03b
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Lowered mood and activity related to personal 
suffering, physical state, object loss, or inability to 
perform a desired action; general low mood. (in total 
14 items like "Did the baby seem sad when the caregiver 
was gone for an unusually long period of time?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=-.09
boys:  r=-.13 ns
girls: r=-.05 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=-.10
boys:  r=-.05 ns
girls: r=-.15 p<.05
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=-.15
boys:  r=-.13 ns
girls: r=-.16 p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping-success rating by others
Subject code: C10ab03b

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelFear
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationCoping-success rating by others, code C10ab03b
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Startle or distress to sudden changes in stimulation, 
novel physical objects or social stimuli; inhibited 
approach to novelty. (in total 16 items like "How often 
during the last week did the baby startle to a sudden 
or loud noise?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.13
boys:  r=+.10 ns
girls: r=+.15 p<.05
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.09
boys:  r=+.08 ns
girls: r=+.10 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=-.06
boys:  r=-.07 ns
girls: r=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping-success rating by others
Subject code: C10ab03b

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelFalling Reactivity
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationCoping-success rating by others, code C10ab03b
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Rate of recovery from peak distress, excitement, or 
general arousal; ease of falling asleep. (in total 13 
items like "When frustrated with something, how often 
did the baby calm down within 5 min?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.17
boys:  r=+.13 ns
girls: r=+.21 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.04
boys:  r=+.04 ns
girls: r=+.06 ns
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.27
boys:  r=+.20 p<.01
girls: r=+.34 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping-success rating by others
Subject code: C10ab03b

StudyGartstein & Rothbart (2002): study US Oregon 1997
TitleStudying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
SourceInfant Behavior & Development 26 (2003) 64-86
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =361

Correlate
Author's labelSoothability
Page in Source 72, 73, 75
Our classificationCoping-success rating by others, code C10ab03b
Operationalization
Parent's report on:
Reduction of fussing, crying, or distress when soothing 
techniques are used by the caregiver. (in total 11 
items like "When patting or gently rubbing some part of 
the babys body, how often did s/he soothe 
immediately?")

Rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always
Remarks
Part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire 
(IBQ-R); Same rating scale as used for rating of 
happiness with cheerful appearance

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bmr=+.36
boys:  r=+.42 p<.01
girls: r=+.29 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abmr=+.21
boys:  r=+.24 p<.01
girls: r=+.17 p<.01
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bamr=+.43
boys:  r=+.42 p<.01
girls: r=+.43 p<.01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with specific life-events
Subject code: C10ab04

StudyOstir et al. (2006): study US 2001
TitleDoes Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2006, Vol. 77, 79 - 93
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-5554-z
Public40+ orthopedic patients, 3 month after discharge, USA, 2002
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response228
Respondents N =3751

Correlate
Author's labelCognition functional status
Page in Source 83-86
Our classificationCoping with specific life-events, code C10ab04
Operationalization
Subscale of Functional Independence Measure (FIM), 18 
item selfreport measure of basic daily living skills

Cognitive subscale cobtains items on:
- communication
- social cognition

Scored 1 (complete dependence) to 7 (complete 
independence
Remarks
Assessed at admission(T1) and after discharge(T2) with 
average 3 month interval

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bOR=1.29
T2 happines by T1-T2 CHANGE in cognitive 
functional independance controled for:
-age(40-102)
-gender
-mental status
-race
-length of stay
CI95: (1.24-1.35


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with specific life-events
Subject code: C10ab04

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelEscape coping
Page in Source 263
Our classificationCoping with specific life-events, code C10ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions that assessed the extent to 
which one engages in escapist strategies such as 
fantasizing, wishing, or hoping for miracles to deal 
with their fertility or biggest problem.

Rated: not at all (1) to a great deal (4)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3; .72
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 escape coping by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.24 p < .01
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.07 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.31 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.10 p < .01
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.40 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.11 ns
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.47 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=-.31 p < .01
Beta's controled for:
- home stress
- personal control
- network support
- spouse conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with specific life-events
Subject code: C10ab04

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelProblem-solving coping
Page in Source 263
Our classificationCoping with specific life-events, code C10ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions about the extend to which one 
engages in active problem solving strategies, such as: 
planning, analyzing and reading to deal with thier 
fertility or biggest problem.

Rated: not at all (1) to agreat deal (4)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha at T3: .72
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 problem solving coping by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+.13 ns
women initially infertile          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.19 p < .01
men initially infertile            N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.12 ns
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.16 ns
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with divorce/widowhood
Subject code: C10ab04a

StudyBankoff (1981): study US 1979
TitleEffects of Friendship Support on the Psychological Well-Being of Widows.
SourceResearch in the Interweave of Social Roles. Friendship, 1981, Vol. 2, 109 - 139
PublicWidowed women in grief, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response50%
Respondents N =447

Correlate
Author's labelStage of mourning process
Page in Source 118
Our classificationCoping with divorce/widowhood, code C10ab04a
Operationalization
Stage of mourning process of widows:
0: Crisis loss phase: Husband died
   less than 18 months ago. Ss reports
   to be still in intense grief.
1: Transition loss phase: Husband died
   2-5 years ago. Ss reports grieving
   to a limited extent.


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eDM=+ p < .05
0: M=.3   Mt'= 5.4
1: M=.9   Mt'= 6.1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with divorce/widowhood
Subject code: C10ab04a

StudyNelson (1981): study US 1978
TitleModerators of Womens and Childrens Adjustment Following Parental Divorce.
SourceJournal of Divorce, 1981, Vol. 4, 71 - 83
DOIDOI: 10.1300/J279v04n03_05
PublicRecently divorced women, Manitoba, USA, 1978
Sample
Non-Response56%
Respondents N =15

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent positive feelings about the ex-husband
Page in Source 77
Our classificationCoping with divorce/widowhood, code C10ab04a
Operationalization
Single direct question  rated on a 5-point scale.
Remarks
      

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.76 p < .01
Women who were somewhat positive about their 
ex-husbands, as compared to those who were either 
very positive or not at all positive, had the best 
emotional adjustment (Very positive : r = +.17, 
Somewhat positive : r = +.67).             


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with divorce/widowhood
Subject code: C10ab04a

StudyChiriboga & Cutler (1977): study US 1977
TitleStress Responses among Divorcing Men and Women.
SourceJournal of Divorce, 1977, Vol. 1, 95 - 106
DOIDOI:10.1300/J279v01n02_01
PublicRecently divorced, California, USA,1977
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =252

Correlate
Author's labelStress response to divorce
Page in Source 102
Our classificationCoping with divorce/widowhood, code C10ab04a
Operationalization
Respondents were interrogated about 23
aspects of adaptation in 6 phases of the divorce 
proces.
Aspects of adaptation were a.o. sleeping, worries, 
weightlose, smoking
and drinking.
Phases were: before decision, during
decision, at final separation, at filing of decree, at 
final decree and the present situation.

By means of cluster analysis 6 types of
response were identified, ranging from least to most 
stressfull.
1: resolving
2: resolved
3: minimal involvement
4: mixed
5: somatizors
6: personal crisis


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dDMt=- p < .01
1: resolving             M = 17.28          
2: resolved              M = 17.22    
3: minimal involvement   M = 15.83          
4: mixed                 M = 16.92    
5: somatizors            M = 14.95          
6: personal crisis       M = 12.67     

No Mt' computed because of unknown range of 
indicator.
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aDMt=- p < .01
1: resolving             M =  1.66     Mt' = 3.3
2: resolved              M =  1.65     Mt' = 3.3
3: maximal involvement   M =  1.91     Mt' = 4.6
4: mixed                 M =  1.92     Mt' = 4.6
5: somatizors            M =  2.20     Mt' = 6.0
6: personal crisis       M =  2.50     Mt' = 7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aDMt=- p < .01
1: resolving             M =  1.66     Mt = 3.3
2: resolved              M =  1.65     Mt = 3.3
3: maximal involvement   M =  1.91     Mt = 4.6
4: mixed                 M =  1.92     Mt = 4.6
5: somatizors            M =  2.20     Mt = 6.0
6: personal crisis       M =  2.50     Mt' = 7.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with illness
Subject code: C10ab04b

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelRumination
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCoping with illness, code C10ab04b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning intrapsychic 
behaviours focusing on the disease and implying social 
withdrawal, e.g. causal reasoning and ruminating upon 
he disease itself
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.32 p < .001
T1 happiness by T1 rumination
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=-.28 p < .001
T2 happiness by T2 rumination
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=-.47 p < .001
T3 happiness by T3 rumination
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.31 p < .01
T3 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in rumination
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.34 p < .01
T3 rumination by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.16 p < .01
T1 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in rumination
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.12 ns
T1 rumination by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness

T1-T3 CHANGE measured by controling correlation at 
T3 for T1 level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with illness
Subject code: C10ab04b

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelSearch of affiliation
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCoping with illness, code C10ab04b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning sociable coping 
behaviours implying diversion and attentional 
distracion from the disease
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.44 p < .001
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+38 p < .001
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.38 p < .001
T3
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .01
T3 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in search for 
affiliation
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .01
T3 search for affiliation by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
T1 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in search for 
affiliation
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.15 p < .05
T1 Search for affiliation by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness

T1-T3 CHANGE measured by controling correlation at 
T3 for T1 level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with illness
Subject code: C10ab04b

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelThreat minimization
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCoping with illness, code C10ab04b
Operationalization
Selfreport on question concerning intrapsychic 
emotion-focused coping reactions like self-instructions 
towards positive thinking, rationaization and 
self-persuading into trust in the medical regimen
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after 
T3: 6 months after 
T4: 1 year after pretest
Remarks
Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.41 p < .001
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.37 p < .001
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.35 p < .001
T3
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.11 ns
T3 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in threat 
minimization
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .01
T3 threat minimization by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=-.01 ns
T1 happiness by T1-T3 CHANGE in threat 
minimization
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aBeta=+.22 p < .01
T1 threat minimization by T1-T3 CHANGE in 
happiness

T1-T3 CHANGE measured by controling correlation at 
T3 for T1 level


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with illness
Subject code: C10ab04b

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelSearch for information
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCoping with illness, code C10ab04b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions concerning overt attempts to 
gain knowledge about the disease and its medical 
treatment, as well as joining the company of other 
cancer patients
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after 
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
T4: Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.03 ns
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=-.03 ns
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with illness
Subject code: C10ab04b

StudyFilipp & Klauer (1991): study XZ Germany West 1988
TitleSubjective Well-Being in the Face of Critical Life Events: The Case of the Successful Copers.
SourceStrack, F,;et al;Eds.: "Subjective Well - Being", Pergamon Press, 1991, Oxford, UK, 213 - 234
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/strack_f_1991.pdf
PublicCancer patients, followed 6 months after onset, Trier, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =332

Correlate
Author's labelSearch for meaning in religion
Page in Source 224-226
Our classificationCoping with illness, code C10ab04b
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions focusing on attempts to find 
meaning in the illness experience, esp. With reference 
to religious issues
Rated on a numerical scale

Measured four times within one year:
T1: onset diagnosis 
T2: 3 months after 
T3: 6 months after
Remarks
T4: Follow-up one year after onset not reported in this 
paper

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.02 ns
T1
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.05 ns
T2
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-ar=+.01 ns
T3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Coping with conflicts, loneliness
Subject code: C10ab04d

StudyKross et al. (2013): study US 2008
TitleFacebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults.
SourceOpen Access, 2013, Plos One, Vol. 8, 1 - 7
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
DOIDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841
PublicFacebook users, Ann Arbor, Michigan, followed 14 days, USA, 2013
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelLoneliness
Page in Source Page 3
Our classificationCoping with conflicts, loneliness, code C10ab04d
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question text-beeped 5 times a 
day:
How lonely do you feel right now?
Rated on a sliderscale ranging from
100  very positive
:
0 very negative
Observed distributionM = 72,39 SD = 26,13
Remarks
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Original rating scale ranged from 0 positive to 100 
negative and was reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-ar=-.68 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own coping with life-change
Subject code: C10ac01

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelHandle problems index
Page in Source 166
Our classificationSatisfaction with own coping with life-change, code C10ac01
Operationalization
Index of two single questions on:
a: The way you handle problems that come up in your 
life
b: Extent to which you can adjust to changes in your 
life
Both items scored on 1-9 D-T rating scale, summation by 
average.
Observed distributionM = 6.5 SD = 1.3
Remarks
Both items scored on the same rating scale as the 
question on happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.55 p < .001
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.11
all cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aBeta=+.06
married cases
Beta's controlled for satisfaction with
- self-fulfillment
- sex life
- family activities
- work around the house
- mother
- health
- house
- standard of living
- assertiveness
- friends
- fun and enjoyment
- marriage


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own coping with life-change
Subject code: C10ac01

StudyForti & Huyg (1983): study US Louisiana 1977
TitleA Documented Evaluation of Primary Prevention through Consultation.
SourceCommunity Mental Health Journal, 1983, Vol. 19, 290 - 304
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00755410
PublicCatholic nuns, re-organized cloister, followed 4 years, Louisiana, USA, 1977-1981
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 18%, T2: 14%, T3: 23%
Respondents N =137

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with adjustment to change
Our classificationSatisfaction with own coping with life-change, code C10ac01
Operationalization
Single closed question: 'How do you feel about extent 
of adjustment to change?', rated on a 7-point 
Delighted-Terrible scale, ranging from (1) Delighted to 
(7) Terrible, (8) neither. (order reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-ar=+
T1: 1977     r= +.31    (01)
T2: 1979     r= +.44    (01)
T3: 1981     r= +.41    (01)
Both variables assessed at T1, T2, and T3. 
Correlation concerns same time measures.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with own coping with life-change
Subject code: C10ac01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with adjustment to changes in life
Page in Source 141
Our classificationSatisfaction with own coping with life-change, code C10ac01
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about the extent to 
which you can adjust to changes in your life?"
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.44
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.10
 controlled for 7 criterion satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- oneself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.10
 additionally controlled for sociodemographic 
variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with self care
Subject code: C10ac02

StudyBrnholm et al. (1991): study SE 1986
TitleOn Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Rehabilitation Science, 1991, Vol. 4, 29 - 34
Public25-55 aged, vocationally actives, Umea, Northern Sweden, 1986/87
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =163

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with self care activities of daily life
Page in Source 103
Our classificationSatisfaction with self care, code C10ac02
Operationalization
How satisfactory is this aspect of your life?....
Ability to manage my self care (dressing hygiene, 
transfers, etc)
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-ars=+.21 p < .01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-md-rdn-v-5-aRating of predominant mood by nurse
1 negative
2
3 neutral
4
5 positive
Scale values reversed in original version
A-AOL-mi-sqr-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question text messaged 5 times a day

How do you feel right now?
0 very positive
:
:
:
:
100 very negative
A-ASA-mi-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 22 questions:

Below is a list of opposed attributes. Please indicate which applies best to your situation at this moment. Don't think too long. Place a cross next to the word this fits best. If you cannot decide, use the neither/nor option. Do not skip any lines.

At the moment I am feeling.....

A refreshed ...............................listless
B indifferent toward ...................interested in others
C pleased ..................................depressed
D successful..............................unsuccessful
E irritable...................................peaceful
F indecisive...............................ready to make decisions
G cheerful..................................Tearful
H in a good mood...................... in a bad mood
I lacking in appetite..................with a good appetite
J sociable..................................withdrawn
K unworthy.................................worthy
L relaxed................................... tense
M happy.....................................unhappy
N shy..........................................communicative
O sinful and wicked....................pure
P secure.....................................threatened
Q abandoned.............................cared for
R even-tempered.......................driven
S confident.................................insecure
T miserable.................................comfortable
U flexible.....................................inflexible
V tired.........................................rested
W hesitating................................firm
X calm........................................restless
Y lacking in energy....................energetic
Z useless...................................indispensable
AA sluggish................................ lively
AB superior.................................inferior

Response options:
3 positive option
2 neither nor
1 negative option


Summation: Mean

Name: Zerssen's 'Befindlichkeits Skala' version 1 (B-S)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eSelfreport on 9 questions:

We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week.

How often last week did you feel .....?
A On the top of the world
B Very lonely or remote from other people
C Particularly excited or interested in something
D Depressed or very unhappy
E Pleased about having accomplished something
F Bored
G Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done
H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -15 tot +12

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-bRating by parents of smiling and laughter in different non-threatening or familiar situations, such as:

How often during the last week did your child smile or laugh when given a toy?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-TH-g-mq-th%-101-aaSelfreport on three questions:

'On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel.' (percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Name: Fordyce % happy scale
Variant: % happy
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-AO-g-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 15 questions:

In your life, what is your regular level of
A overall wellbeing
B happiness
C pleasure
D bliss (seemingly complete happiness)
E peace of mind
G satisfaction
G serenity
H displeasure
J beatitude (perfect happiness)
J inner peace
K fullfilment
L joy
M feeling bad
N tranquility (inner calm)
O plenitude (feeling of complete satisfaction, happiness and fulfillment)
P unhappiness

Rated:
1 strongly disagree
2
3
4
5
6
7 strongly agree

Name: Subjective Authentic-Durable Happiness Scale (SA-DHS)
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person.
C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in
good or in low spirits?
D I get a lot of fun out of life.
E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
F How often do you feel downcast and rejected?

Response options: not reported

The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire.

Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
O-DT-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which face comes closest to expressing feeling about life as a whole?
7 delighted
6 very satisfying
5 satisfying
4 mixed
3 dissatisfying
2 very dissatisfying
1 terrible
- No opinion



Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (modified
version)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-g-sq-n-9-aSelfreport on single question:

Generally, how happy are you.....?
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 completely

(Originally presented on a horizontal line scale)
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together ( the work you do, where you live, your way of life, the things you do for enjoyment, your health ) how would you say things are these days ...?"
1 very good
2 pretty good
3 so-so
4 not too good
5 not good at all
O-SLu-c-sq-n-5-aSelfreport on single question:

All in all, are you currently satisfied with your life.......?
1 not satisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(Originally presented horizontally)
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-dSelf-report on single question

Are you satisfied with life in general?
1: unsatisfied
2: moderate satisfied
3: very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfying are these different aspects of your life? Indicate the number which best suits your situation. Life as a whole is....."
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

This item was followed by eight questions on life domain satisfactions.
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-SQL-u-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please rate your satisfaction with your quality of life
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B happiness (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
ChiCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 no rank correlation
tc = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.
ZZZZZKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 no rank correlation
tc = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C10COPINGR02RESOURCES
C10aa01Earlier copingP01ab25Earlier self-disclosing
C10aa03Later copingP05ab08Later self-disclosure
C10ab01Current coping-styleP04abAmbitious
C10ab01Current coping-styleP04asDefensive
C10ab01Current coping-styleP04ctSelf-disclosing
C10ab01Current coping-styleV06aeDealing with risk of becoming a victem
C10ab02Current coping-capacityR02RESOURCES
C10ab02Current coping-capacityP04djVulnerable
C10ab02Current coping-capacityP04bhHelpless
C10ab02Current coping-capacityP04bcFortuitous
C10ab02Current coping-capacityP04auEfficacious, productive
C10ab03aSelf-perceived successL04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS
C10ab03aSelf-perceived successS02adCurrent self-evaluation
C10ab04Coping with specific life-eventsL06abCurrent life-events (past few years)
C10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhoodM01abRecent change in marital status
C10ab04bCoping with illnessP06af02Denial of illness
C10ab04cCoping with unemploymentE02aa02Change in employment
C10ab04dCoping with conflicts, lonelinessP04cwSociable
C10ac01Satisfaction with own coping with life-changeL05acAttitudes to life-change
C10ac01Satisfaction with own coping with life-changeS02ae01bSatisfaction with own coping
C10ac02Satisfaction with self careS02ae01aSatisfaction with own abilities

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings