Findings on Happiness and CONCERNS

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CONCERNS
Subject Code: C08

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C08CONCERNS0
C08aaConcern career1
C08abCurrent concerns5
C08ab01Pattern of concerns0
C08ab02Specific concerns28
C08ab02aConcern about food1
C08ab02cConcern about spending4
C08ab02bConcern about social relations1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CONCERNS
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C08
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern career
Subject code: C08aa

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =2213

Correlate
Author's labelConcern about overpopulation
Our classificationConcern career, code C08aa
Operationalization
A mean of 6 items measuring respondent 's concern about 
overpopulation and his perception of what an ideal 
population size would be for the U.S. and for the 
world. Scale: 1.00 = low to 5.00 = high concern about 
overpopulation. Assessed at T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
               Concern about overpopulation
Happiness         T4          T5
T1         tau = -.04        -.00
T2         tau = -.01        -.01
T3         tau = -.02        -.02
T4         tau = -.02        -.01
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current concerns
Subject code: C08ab

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelChildrens food
Page in Source 269
Our classificationCurrent concerns, code C08ab
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.11 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.23 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current concerns
Subject code: C08ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelTopics for discussion among firends
Page in Source question 97
Our classificationCurrent concerns, code C08ab
Operationalization
What the most often do your friends discuss when they 
get together? 
a household chores 
b children
c prices, purchases, lines
d work matters
e TV programs, newspaper articles
f politics
g sport
h common friends
i women (men)
j entertainments
k other things
- DK/NA
Observed distributionN = a: 46,8% b: 39,5% c: 58,9% d: 10,6% e: 27,9% f: 26,4% g: 4,5% h: 21,6% i: 11,5% j: 9% k: 2,4% DK/NA: 4,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
   mentioned   not mentioned   differences
a: M = 2,52    M = 2,52          0,00
b: M = 2,54    M = 2,50        + 0,04 
c: M = 2,45    M = 2,63        - 0,18
d: M = 2,55    M = 2,52        + 0,03
e: M = 2,56    M = 2,51        + 0,05 
f: M = 2,58    M = 2,50        + 0,08
g: M = 2,85    M = 2,51        + 0,34
h: M = 2,51    M = 2,52        - 0,01
i: M = 2,62    M = 2,51        - 0,11
j: M = 2,69    M = 2,50        + 0,19
k: M = 2,67    M = 2,52        + 0,15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current concerns
Subject code: C08ab

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelVariety of topics for discussion among friends
Page in Source question 97
Our classificationCurrent concerns, code C08ab
Operationalization
What the most often do your friends discuss when they 
get together? 
a household chores 
b children
c prices, purchases, lines
d work matters
e TV programs, newspaper articles
f politics
g sport
h common friends
i women (men)
j entertainments
k other things
- DK/NA
Observed distributionM = 2,59 SD = 0,9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=+.05 p < .20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current concerns
Subject code: C08ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelConcerns
Page in Source 124/146
Our classificationCurrent concerns, code C08ab
Operationalization
Satisfaction with:
1.  efficacy index (ABCDE)
2.  family index (ABCDE)
3.  money index (ABCDE)
4.  amount of fun (ABCDE)
5.  house/apartment (ABCDE)
6.  things do with family (ABCDE)
7.  time to do things (ABDE)
8.  young people think (AB)
9.  spare-time activities (ABDE)
10. recreation index (AB)
11. national govt. index (ABDE)
12. consumer index (ABDE)
13. local govt. index (AB)
14. housework (AB)
15. media index (AB)
16. your health (ABDE)
17. cost index (A)
18. schools in area (A)
19. services in nghbrhd. (A)
20. close adult relatives (A)
21. natural environment (A)
22. comfortable people (A)
23. neighborhood index (A)
24. people over 40 think (A)
25. organisations belong to (A)
26. weather (A)
27. friends index (A)
28. job index (ADE)
29. religious faith (A)
30. getting on with people (A)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.55
A. /All 30 satisfactions
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.54
B. /16  domain satisfactions with high ß's only
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.49
C. /6   domain satisfactions with high ß's only
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.52
D. /selected 12 domain satisfactions with ß's only
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aR²=.51
E. /selected 12 domain satisfactions


                        Variance explained
                    --------------------------- 
Sub-group           N       Model I    Model II
                            (%)        (%)
All respondents     1297    52         52

Males               547     50         54
Females             750     53         55

16-29 years old     358     52         59
16-29 houshold
      head/spouse   276     -          63
30-44 years         356     60         69
45-59 years         275     50         61
45-64 years         363     49         56
60-97 years         305     45         53

Low SES             337     48         57
Mid SES             268     52         56
High SES            408     53         60

Employed men        413     -          58

Low income          480     52         57
Medium income       346     50         60
High income         403     49         56

Married             890     48         49
Nonmarried          406     56         61

0-11 grades of
    school          423     54         63
High school gra-
    duate           307     54         64
Some college educ.  330     -          58
College degree      223     47         60

Married & employed  512     -          55

Blacks              115     50         -


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current concerns
Subject code: C08ab

StudySudman (1967): study US 1964 /1
TitleReducing the Cost of Surveys.
SourceAldine, 1967, Chicago, USA
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1964
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =2084

Correlate
Author's labelLength of response to question about concerns
Page in Source 174
Our classificationCurrent concerns, code C08ab
Operationalization
Number of words used in response to open question:
What have you been concerned about recently?
Observed distributionM = 61

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cDM=+
low happiness         M= 47,6
medium happiness      M not reported  
high happiness        M= 64,2
- low/high difference   +23,4

Unaffected by
- socioeconomic status
- sexe


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelvalues
Page in Source 394
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
"My life is mainly a question of:
a: surviving
b: making money
c: my job
d: being creative
e: sex
f: feeling good
g: fulfilling my needs
h: relationships
i: my children/having children
j: having good friends
k: living in harmony with myself
l: self-realization
m: making a career
n: making the world a better place
Observed distributionN: a:2745; b:2360; c:2412; d:2682; e:2215; f:4469; g:3590; h:3533; i:3659; j:4070; k:4180; l:2728; m:1175; n:1429; o:271

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.68
b: Mt=7.85
c: Mt=8.01
d: Mt=7.95
e: Mt=8.04
f: Mt=7.80
g: Mt=7.86
h: Mt=7.98
i: Mt=7.84
j: Mt=7.86
k: Mt=7.84
l: Mt=7.86
m: Mt=8.11
n: Mt=7.78
o: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.35
b: Mt=7.53
c: Mt=7.69
d: Mt=7.66
e: Mt=7.71
f: Mt=7.49
g: Mt=7.55
h: Mt=7.71
i: Mt=7.55
j: Mt=7.54
k: Mt=7.53
l: Mt=7.51
m: Mt=7.80
n: Mt=7.49
o: Mt=7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.03
b: Mt=7.10
c: Mt=7.24
d: Mt=7.24
e: Mt=7.31
f: Mt=7.06
g: Mt=7.13
h: Mt=7.36
i: Mt=7.16
j: Mt=7.14
k: Mt=7.11
l: Mt=7.13
m: Mt=7.33
n: Mt=7.10
o: Mt=7.23


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelvalues
Page in Source 372,374
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question:
'My life is mainly a question of:
a: surviving
b: making money
c: my job
d: being creative
e: sex
f: feeling good
g: fulfilling my needs
h: relationships
i: my children/having children
j: having good friends
k: living in harmony with myself
l: self-realization
m: making a career
n: making the world a better place
o: serving God'
Observed distributionN: a:896, b:666, c:738, d:776, e:579, f:1384, g:1092, h:1045, i:1092, j:1284, k:1332, l:895, m:381, n:507, o:228
Remarks
a given respondent may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.75
 b: Mt=7.96
 c: Mt=8.00
 d: Mt=7.96
 e: Mt=7.89
 f: Mt=7.83
 g: Mt=7.91
 h: Mt=8.00
 i: Mt=7.89
 j: Mt=7.86
 k: Mt=7.84
 l: Mt=7.94
 m: Mt=8.06
 n: Mt=7.90
 o: Mt=7.91
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.39
 b: Mt=7.55
 c: Mt=7.70
 d: Mt=7.69
 e: Mt=7.60
 f: Mt=7.50
 g: Mt=7.58
 h: Mt=7.70
 i: Mt=7.63
 j: Mt=7.55
 k: Mt=7.54
 l: Mt=7.64
 m: Mt=7.75
 n: Mt=7.66
 o: Mt=7.80
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=6.96
 b: Mt=7.09
 c: Mt=7.15
 d: Mt=7.13
 e: Mt=7.23
 f: Mt=6.99
 g: Mt=7.08
 h: Mt=7.25
 i: Mt=7.13
 j: Mt=7.04
 k: Mt=7.01
 l: Mt=7.11
 m: Mt=7.25
 n: Mt=7.24
 o: Mt=7.38


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyGlatzer (1984): study XZ Germany West 1978
TitleDeterminanten der Zufriedenheit.(Determinants of Satisfaction.)
SourceGlatzer, W.;Zapf. W.;Eds.:"Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik", Campus verlag, 1984 Frankfurt, Germany, 234 - 245
Public18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1978-1988
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2100

Correlate
Author's labelConcerns
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Questions on perceived importance of:

- job
- family
- income
- love
- political influence
- succes
- leisure time
- religion
- health

Each rated on a 4 point scale ranging from 'not very 
important' to 'very important'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

Importance of job
1978
1980      +.10       +.16       +.10       +.08
1984      +.06       +.09       +.05       +.04
1988      +.12       +.21       +.12       +.11

Importance of family
1978
1980      +.18       +.37       +.18       +.10
1984      +.15       +.34       +.14       +.10
1988      +.18       +.41       +.18       +.11

Importance of income
1978
1980      +.09       +.18       +.09       +.08
1984      +.05       +.01       +.00       +.04
1988      +.08       +.14       +.07       +.09

Importance of love
1978
1980      +.19       +.37       +.19       +.14
1984      +.14       +.31       +.14       +.09
1988      +.20       +.40       +.19       +.13

Importance of political influence
1978
1980      +.05       +.06       +.04       +.05
1984      +.03       +.04       +.02       +.04
1988      +.06       +.05       +.04       +.04

Importance of succes
1978
1980      +.15       +.25       +.14       +.10
1984      +.08       +.12       +.07       +.03
1988      +.13       +.18       +.12       +.07

Importance of leisure time

           eta         G          r          ß
1978
1980      +.17       +.28       +.17       +.14
1984      +.15       +.27       +.15       +.14
1988      +.15       +.17       +.12       +.11

importance of religion

           eta         G          r          ß
1978
1980      +.03       +.02       +.01       +.04
1984      -.02       -.01       -.01       +.02
1988      -.03       +.01       -.00       +.04

importance of health
1978
1980
1984      +.03       +.10       +.03       +.03
1988      +.07       +.19       +.07       +.06

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSNR=
           eta         G          r          ß

Importance of: job
1978                                  
1980      -.10       -.10       -.09       +.11
1984      -.06       -.09       -.06       +.03
1988      -.15       -.17       -.15       +.15

Importance of: family
1978
1980      -.14       -.18       -.14       +.10
1984      -.15       -.23       -.13       +.11
1988      -.20       -.29       -.19       +.15

Importance of: income
1978
1980      -.07       -.09       -.06       +.07
1984      -.04       -.04       -.01       +.04
1988      -.05       -.06       -.03       +.05

Importance of: love
1978
1980      -.09       -.11       -.09       +.07
1984      -.15       -.22       -.24       +.11
1988      -.15       -.19       -.15       +.11

Importance of: political influence
1978
1980      -.04       -.02       -.02       +.06
1984      -.05       -.02       -.02       +.02
1988      -.08       +.00       -.03       +.04

Importance of: succes
1978
1980      -.09       -.10       -.09       +.09
1984      -.06       -.07       -.05       +.02
1988      -.15       -.13       -.13       +.11

Importance of: leisure time
1978
1980      -.14       -.15       -.14       +.15
1984      -.15       -.18       -.15       +.13
1988      -.16       -.12       -.12       +.15

Importance of: religion
1978
1980      -.09       -.09       -.07       +.09
1984      -.04       -.04       -.03       +.05
1988      -.05       -.03       -.04       +.04

Importance of: health
1978
1980
1984      -.06       -.10       -.03       +.07
1988      -.08       -.14       -.08       +.06

ß's controlled for age, gender, perceived class 
and marital status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyNoelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1976 /4
TitlePolitik und Glück. (Politics and Happiness).
SourceBaier, H.;Ed.: "Freiheit und Sachzwang", West Deutscher Verlag, 1977, Opladen, Germany, 208 - 262
Public16-29 aged and pensioners, West-Germany, 1976
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =855

Correlate
Author's labelTouristic interest
Page in Source 233
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Single direct question: no (0) yes (1)
'If I come in an unknown town, I'm very interested in 
the local places of interest'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bD%=+
Young (16 - 29) and pensioners only. In both 
categories the cheerfull claim more touristic 
interest.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyGray (2014): study DE 2002
TitleFinancial Concerns and Overall Life Satisfaction: A Joint Modelling Approach.
SourceSheffield Economic Research Paper Series, 2014, No. 2014008
URLhttps://www.sheffield.ac.uk/economics/research/serps/articles/2014_008
PublicHeads of households, Germany, 2002
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =7712

Correlate
Author's labelFinancial concerns
Page in Source 25,27
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on a single question:
What is your attitude towards the following areas - are 
you concerned about them? Your economic situation.
The verbal answers coded as:
1: not at all concerned (reference)
2: concerned
3: very concerned
Observed distributionM = 0,488 SD = 0,5
Remarks
1 is defined to be the omitted variable. Binary 
variables indicating 2 and 3 are included.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.55 p < .01
FIXED EFFECTS analysis

Concerned      (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-1.4 p < .01
Very concerned (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.93 p < .01
BIVARIATE analysis (Joint modelling of Life 
satisfaction and Financial concerns)

Concerned      (vs Not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-1.9 p < .01
Very concerned (vs Not)

OPRCs controlled for:
- financial situation
  - debt
  - total assets
  - household income
  - net wealth
- social situation
  - marital status
  - household size
  - employment
  - education
- age
- health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBarcena Martin et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe role of Proximity and Social Comparisons on Subjective Well-Being.
SourceThE Papers, 2013, No. 13/10, Granada, Spain
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/gra/wpaper/13-10.html
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1994-2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =162167

Correlate
Author's labelCultural capital
Page in Source 34
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
a) Risk: takes values between 0 (no willingness to take 
risk) and 10 (very willing to take risk)

b) Importance of (rated between 1: very important to 3: 
not important):
1) economic goals (such as job succes, owning a home, 
etc.)
2) family goals (importance of having children of a 
partner)
3) social goals (political activity, travel, good 
relationships with friends, etc.)

c) Worries: the extend to what an individual is 
concerned about economic development, finances and the 
environment (1 not at all concerned - 3 very concerned)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.01 p < .05
a) willingness to take risk
Beta (0.005)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.03 ns
b) importance of economic goals
Beta (0.034)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.21 p < .01
b) importance of family goals
Beta (-0.209)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.31 p < .01
b) importance of social goals
Beta (-0.313)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.93 p < .01
c) Worries

Beta (0.931) controlled for:
- household income
- relative income
- social capital (memberships in associations, 
organisations, groups)
- cultural capital (attitute towards risk and life 
goals)
- interaction effects
- socio-economic characteristics (age, sexe, 
marital status, type of household, years of 
education)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Barasi, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived village needs: Training centre
Page in Source 262
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Village needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 0,90% 1: 38,5%; 2: 38,0%; 3: 18,8% M: 4,7%
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were selected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.05 ns
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.13 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelCurrent concern with childrens food
Page in Source 269
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.08 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelInfertility seen as problem
Page in Source 263
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Infertility named as biggest problem in a series of 
nine questions on the amount of stress and disruption 
that the fertility problem had produced in respondent's 
life.

Rated: not at all (1) to a big deal (5)
Remarks
Assessed at T1(1988) and T3 (1990)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
T3 problem with infertility by T3 happiness
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.45 p < .01
women initally infertile           N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.45 p < .01
men initally infertile             N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.61 p < .01
women presumed fertile controls    N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=-.30 p < .01
men presumed fertile controls      N = 74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic orientation
Page in Source 58,63
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions on responsibilities, concerns and 
resources
a Economic provisions
b Social participation
c Work responibilities

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.00 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelConcern about overpopulation
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
A mean of 6 items measuring respondent 's concern about 
overpopulation and his perception of what an ideal 
population size would be for the U.S. and for the 
world. Scale: 1.00 = low to 5.00 = high concern about 
overpopulation. Assessed at T4 and T5

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=- ns
                Concern about overpopulation
Happiness       T4          T5
T1        tau = -.04        -.00
T2        tau = -.01        -.01
T3        tau = -.02        -.02
T4        tau = -.02        -.01
All tau's not significant
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelUncontrollable worries
Page in Source 54
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Response to single question:
"Last week how often did you think about ...."
A.  Growing old
B.  Death
C.  Health
D.  Atom bomb or fallout
Rated: not at all / sometimes / often

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= -
A.  High S.E.S. : G' = -.55 (01)
    Low  S.E.S. : G' = -.52 (01)

B.  Low S.E.S.-group only : G' = -.34 (01)

C.  High S.E.S. : G' = -.31 (01)
    Low  S.E.S. : G' = -.37 (01)

D.  High S.E.S. : G' = -.04 (ns)
    Low  S.E.S. : G' = -.26 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelControllable concerns
Page in Source 54
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Closed questions: "Last week how often did you think 
about ....."
not at all / sometimes / often
A. Getting ahead
B. Money
C. Personal enemies
D. Work
E. Marriage
F. Bringing up children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=
A.  High S.E.S.-group only: G' = -.06 (ns)

B.  Unaffected by S.E.S.  : G' = -.22 (01)

C.  High S.E.S.           : G' = -.32 (01)
    Low S.E.S.            : G' = -.27 (05)

D.  High S.E.S.           : G' = -.08 (ns)
    Low S.E.S.            : G' = -.11 (05)

E.  High S.E.S.           : G' = -.07 (ns)
    Low S.E.S.            : G' = -.03 (ns)

F.  High S.E.S.           : G' = +.06 (ns)
    Low S.E.S.            : G' = +.02 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended direct question on desired life changses:
1: Mentioned
0: Not mentioned

a: Character changes (worry less)
b: Physical appearance, weight, size, looks
c: Health
d: Age
e: More education
f: Better social relationships
g: Better work and attitudes towards it
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N = 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.12 p < . 05
a: Character
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns
b: Appearance
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.12 p < . 05
c: Health
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.09 ns
d: Age
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.14 ns
e: Education
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.01 ns
f: Relationships
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.39 p < . 01
g: Work


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: education, follow a talent
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: education, follow a talent mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.06 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelMost important worry: health (personal and family
Page in Source 213
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question: "What one thing do you worry about 
most?
1: health of self and family mentioned
0: other worries mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having worries only (N = 2040)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.10 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelMost important worry: financial worries, money
Page in Source 213
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on most important worry: 
1: financial worries mentioned
0: other worries mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having worries only (N= 2040)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.23 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: money
Page in Source 210
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations: 
1: financial aspirations mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelCaring about what other people think of you
Page in Source 203
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on question: "Do you care about what people 
think of you? 
0 No 
1 Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.15 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelDesired personal changes: physical: appearance
Page in Source 211
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on desired personal changes: 
0: not mentioned
1: mentioned (weight, size, looks)
Remarks
Computed for those who desire to change only (N= 1591)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelMost important worry politics, world and national conditions
Page in Source 213
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on most important worry: 
1: world and nation mentioned
0: other worries mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who have worries only (N= 2040)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.31 p < . 01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelMost important worry
Page in Source 213
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question about most important worries: 
1: Worry mentioned
0: other worries mentioned

a: Family and children
b: Health (personal and family)
c: Financial worries, money
d: Security, job, future
e: Politics, world and national conditions
f: Work conditions
g: Personal traits
h: Housing, place to live
i: Vague answers (anything, everything)
Remarks
Computed for those who have worries only 
(N = 2040)


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.10 p < . 05
a: Family
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.15 p < . 01
b: Health
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.23 p < . 01
c: Money
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.09 ns
d: Security
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.31 p < . 01
e: Politics
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.05 ns
f: Work
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.05 ns
g: Character
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.25 ns
h: House
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.03 ns
i: Vague


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelMost important worry: personality
Page in Source 213
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Open-ended question on most important worry: 
1: own character mentioned
0: other worries mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those who have worries only (N = 2040)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelInterests
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
15-item inventory of closed questions on interests in:

 1. Health

 2. Sex

 3. Safety

 4. Money

 5. Mental hygiene

 6. Study habits

 7. Recreation

 8. Personal and moral qualities
 
 9. Family relationships

10. Manners

11. Personal attractiveness


12. Daily schedule

13. Civic interests

14. Getting along with others

15. Philosophy of life
Remarks



Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - ns
College students only: L-shaped curve: significant 
among unhappier students only.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- ns
College students only: L-shaped curve: significant 
among unhappier students only.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
High school students only: U-shaped curve: 
students of 'average' happiness being most inte-
rested in personal attractiveness.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: U-shaped curve: 
students of 'average' happiness being most inte-
rested in personal attractiveness.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= - p < . s
High school students only

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=- s
High school students only

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= + p < . s
College students only: L-shaped curve: stronger 
among unhappier students.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+ s
College students only: L-shaped curve: stronger 
among unhappier students.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns

A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= + p < . s
College students only: L-shaped curve: stronger 
positive among unhappier students.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+ s
College students only: L-shaped curve: stronger 
positive among unhappier students.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in mental hygiene
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withmental hygiene
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR=
High school students: significant positive

College students    : significant negative
                      L-shaped curve: stronger
                      among happier students

Graduate students   : negative L-shaped curve:
                      significant negative among
                      happier students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=
High school students: significant positive

College students    : significant negative
                      L-shaped curve: stronger
                      among happier students

Graduate students   : negative L-shaped curve:
                      significant negative among
                      happier students only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelBeing interested in manners
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= ns
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific concerns
Subject code: C08ab02

StudySymonds (1937): study US 1935
TitleHappiness as related to problems and interest.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1937, Vol. 28, 290 -294.
DOIdoi:10.1037/h0061067
PublicHigh school pupils and college students, USA, 193?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1651

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems withmanners
Page in Source 292
Our classificationSpecific concerns, code C08ab02
Operationalization
Closed question

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSNR= +
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant positive among happier students only
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aDM=+
High school students only: L-shaped curve: 
significant positive among happier students only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about food
Subject code: C08ab02a

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, poor rural village, Barasi, India 1991
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =234

Correlate
Author's labelFood
Page in Source 262
Our classificationConcern about food, code C08ab02a
Operationalization
Family needs prioritized by Paired Comparisons.Out of 
four basic needs
ss were asked to compare two at a time and to select, 
which they sought 'their family needs most'
Items were:
 -food
 -health
 -employment
 -leisure
This leads to six pairs of comparisons.
Score pro need can be:
0. not mentioned
1. once
2. twice
3. three times
Needs index is the mean number of times an item is 
chosen.
Observed distribution0: 1,68%; 1: 7,7%; 2: 36,3%; 3: 36,3%; M: 19,7%
Remarks
Items for pairwise comparison were slected by 
participant observation and open interviews

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=-.15 p < .05
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=-.14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about social relations
Subject code: C08ab02b

StudyLee et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSocial Connectedness, Extraversion, and Subjective Well-Being: Testing a Mediation Model.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2008, Vol. 45, 414 - 419
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886908001955
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.017
PublicCollege students and LGB, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =443

Correlate
Author's labelSocial connect
Page in Source 417-418
Our classificationConcern about social relations, code C08ab02b
Operationalization
Selfreport  on 20 questions about social connectedness:
a Distant from people
b Don't participate with anyone or group
c Don't feel belong
d Don't feel related to people
e Feel like an outsider
f Understood by people I know
g Disconnected from the world
h Losing a sense of connectedness
I See myself as a loner
j Little sense of togetherness
k Friends like a family
l No sense of brother/sisterhood
m Close to people
n Relate to peers
o Connect with other people
p Involved in people's lives
q See people as friendly
r In tune with the world
s Comfortable with strangers
t Fit in well in new situations
Rated: 6-point scale
1 strongly disagree
..
..
6 strongly agree
Observed distributionM=4.34, SD=0.82-0.91

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.59 p < .01
LGB sample

Beta's controled for extraversion
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.52 p < .01
College sample

Beta's controled for extraversion


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about spending
Subject code: C08ab02c

StudyMichalos et al. (2001): study CA British Columbia 1999
TitleHealth and Other Aspects of the Quality of Life of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2001, Vol. 54, 239 - 274
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1011045307643
Public55-95 aged, Northern Interior Health Region, British Columbia, Canada, 1999
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =875

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulties with housing costs
Page in Source 258, 262, 264
Our classificationConcern about spending, code C08ab02c
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.16
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - % of income spent on housing costs
 - Living area
 - Ideal age preference
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fBeta=-.22
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - Living area
 - Retail store access
 - Ideal age preference
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bBeta=-.18
Beta controlled for:
 - Physical age identity
 - Personal worrries
 - Living area
 - Retail store access
 - Social age identity
 - Government planning
 - Worries/getting around


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about spending
Subject code: C08ab02c

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold material deprivation index
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationConcern about spending, code C08ab02c
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions:
Do you (and your family partner) have...
A. A holiday away from home for at leastone week a 
year, whilst not staying with relatives at their home?
B. Friends or family around for a drink or meal at 
least once a month?
C. Two pairs ofall weathershoes for all adult members 
of the family?
D. Enough money to keep your house in a decent state of 
repair?
E. Household contents insurance?
F. Enough money to make regular savings of £10 a month 
or more for rainy days or retirement?
G. Enough money to replace any worn out furniture?
H. Enough money to replace or repair major electrical 
goods such as a refrigerator or a washing machine, when 
broken?

Resonse categories for each question:
1:: we cannot afford this
0: others
    a. we have this
    b.we do not need/want this
    c.not applicable
Observed distributionM = 0.17
Remarks
To generate the HMDI. each household that cannot afford 
the item is assigned a value of 1 (all others: 0). 
Multiplied by the proportion ofthe population that has 
the item, then summed and divided over the total number 
of items. The idea behind weighting the item by the 
proportion of the population that has the item is that 
not having it may have a greater impact the more people 
have it.The index range from 0 to 1. with 1 
representing a household lacking all items that 
everybody else has.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
 -Lives in England
-Family conposition
 -Number of biological parents in household
 -Number of children in household
 -Hosehold income
-Standard of living
 -Child material deprivation index
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about spending
Subject code: C08ab02c

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelChild material deprivation index
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationConcern about spending, code C08ab02c
Operationalization
Questions for adult who is respinsible for children 
aged 0-16 in the household whether (all) child(ren) 
have or do:
A. A family holiday away from home for at least one 
week a year?
B. Enough bedrooms for every child of10 or over of a 
different sex to have their own bedroom?
C. Leisure equipment such as sports equipment or a 
bicycle?
D. Celebrations on special occasionssuch as birthdays, 
Christmas or other religious festivals?
E. Go swimming at least once a month?
F. Ahobby or leisure activity?
G. Have friends around for tea or a snack once a 
fortnight?
H. Go to a toddler group, nursery or playgroup at least 
once a week?
I. Go on school trips?

The response categories are:
1: child(ren) would like this but I/we cannot afford 
this
0: others
    a. child(ren) have this
    b. child(ren) do not need /want this
    c. not applicable.
Observed distributionM = 0.06
Remarks
To generate the CMDI. each household that cannot afford 
the item is assigned a value of 1 (all others: 0). 
Multiplied by the proportion ofthe population that has 
the item, then summed and divided over the total number 
of items. The idea behind weighting the item by the 
proportion of the population that has the item is that 
not having it may have a greater impact the more people 
have it.The index range from 0 to 1. with 1 
representing a child lacking all items that everybody 
else has.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab= ns
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
 -Lives in England
-Family conposition
 -Number of biological parents in household
 -Number of children in household
 -Hosehold income
-Standard of living
 -Household material deprivation index
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about spending
Subject code: C08ab02c

StudyHoopes & Lounsbury (1989): study US 1985
TitleAn Investigation of Life Satisfaction Following a Vacation: A Domain Specific Approach.
SourceJournal of Community Psychology, 1989, Vol. 17, 129 - 140
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6629(198904)17:2%3C129::AID-JCOP2290170205%3E3.0.CO;2-5/pdf
PublicWorking adults, USA, before and after vacation, 198?,
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =129

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with money during vacation
Page in Source 132,133,134
Our classificationConcern about spending, code C08ab02c
Operationalization
Self report of feelings about the amount of money spent 
during vacation

Assessed on a 1-5 scale
Observed distributionN=119 M=1,15 SD=.33
Error Estimatesalpha = .86
Remarks
Assessed at T2 during vacation (retrospectively at T3)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
T1 life satisfaction (before vacation) by T2 
Satisfaction with money (during vacation)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
T2 Satisfaction with money (during vacation) by T3 
life satisfaction (after vacation)


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-cSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): AC+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +4

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adjusted version 'exited/interested' item dropped)
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions:

Lead item not reported.

A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Rated:
1: not at all
.
.
5 a lot

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-bInterviewer-rating of cheerfulness:

Altogether the respondent looks.....
2 quite cheerfull
1 not too cheerful
- difficult to say

Part of the 8 item Allensbacher Ausdrücktest which also involves ratings of cheerful appearance in: look, mouth, posture, movements, eyes, elbows and lips. This general rating is the last item in the test.
A-CP-g-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Check one of the following groups of adjectives which best describes you."
7 full of deep joy, excitedly happy, enthusiastic, thrilled
6 cheerful, successful, optimistic, lighthearted
5 satisfied, comfortable, life goes smoothly, peaceful
4 contented at times and at other times discontented, life has
both favorable and unfavorable features
3 restless, impatient, uncertain, dull, cross, confined
2 anxious, irritated, discouraged, disappointed, discontented
1 gloomy, miserable, a failure, no pleasure in anything
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Is your life at this moment ....?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 fairly unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-fSelfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, how happy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
2 somewhat unhappy
3 a little unhappy
4 evenly balanced
5 a little happy
6 somewhat happy
7 very happy
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-QLS-c-sq-v-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Here are some features of people’s lives affecting them today. Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of them....
How satisfied are you with your overall quality of life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
3 a little dissatisfied
4 about evenly balanced
5 a little satisfied
6 somewhat satisfied
7 very satisfied
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Which of these faces describe bast how you feel about your life as a whole?
7 completely happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 not at all happy
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bSelfreport on 2 questions:

A .. 'satisfaction with life as a whole' (full item not reported)
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 very satisfied

B … happiness… (full item not reported)
1
2
3
Response options not reported

Summation: not reported


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C08CONCERNSI04INTERESTS
C08CONCERNSP12PROBLEMS
C08CONCERNSW07WORRIES
C08ab02Specific concernsP12ab02Kind of problems perceived
C08ab02Specific concernsW07ab02Specific worries
C08ab02aConcern about foodP06af01Concerns about health
C08ab02aConcern about foodI01af01Concerns about income
C08ab02bConcern about social relationsF03ac01Concern about family
C08ab02bConcern about social relationsF06ag01Concern about friends
C08ab02bConcern about social relationsV02ab02Social values
C08ab02cConcern about spendingI01af01Concerns about income
C08ab02cConcern about spendingL09acConsumption

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings