Findings on Happiness and COMMUNAL LIVING

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and COMMUNAL LIVING
Subject Code: C07

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C07COMMUNAL LIVING0
C07aaCommunal household6
C07abCommunal settlement1
C07ab01Attitudes to communal living9
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and COMMUNAL LIVING
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C07
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B78
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a:364, b:696, c:97, d:562, e:149, f:53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a  Mt = 7,51; SD = 2,02
b  Mt = 8,22; SD = 1,46
c  Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,67
d  Mt = 8,02; SD = 1,43
e  Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,67
f  Mt = 7,28; SD = 1,55
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a, p<.000
b>c, p<.004
b>e, p<.003
b>f, p<.001
d>a, p<.000
d>f, p<.021


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source A80+87+B85
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a: 363, b: 611, c: 126, d: 597, e: 155, f: 124

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a Mt = 7,54; SD = 2.04
b Mt = 8,20; SD = 1,42
c Mt = 7,26; SD = 2,00
d Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,51
e Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,64
f Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,82
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a  p<.000
b>c  p<.000
b>d  p<.000
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.000
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
a Mt = 7,19; SD = 2,05
b Mt = 7,86; SD = 1,55
c Mt = 7,26; SD = 2,03
d Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,69
e Mt = 7,10; SD = 1,98
f Mt = 7,06; SD = 2,06
Set Image size:   

M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
b>a   p<.000
b>c  p<.031
b>d  p<.016
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B88
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a: 1049, b: 1845, c: 349, d: 1758, e: 457, f:355
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,92
b Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,55
c Mt = 7,03; SD = 2,08
d Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,50
e Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,63
f Mt = 7,34; SD = 1,71
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
1a>1   p<.000
1a>1b  p<.000
1a>2a  p<.000
1a>2b  p<.000
1a>2c  p<.000
.000  2a>1
.000  2a>1b
.001  2a>2b
.000  2a>2c
.009  2b>1
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
1  Mt = 7,45; SD = 1,84
1a Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,50
1b Mt = 7,46; SD = 1,79
2  Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,67
2a Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,51
2b Mt = 7,44; SD = 1,73
2c Mt = 7,33; SD = 1,76
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
b>a  p<.000
b>c  p<.000
b>d  p<.000
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.000
d>a  p<.042


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B81
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
a live alone
b live with partner only
c sole parent
d live with partner & children
e live with parents
f livewith other adults
Observed distributionN= a:1413, b:2541, c:446, d:1907, e:510, f:917
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,65; SD = 1,88
b Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,59
c Mt = 7,24; SD = 2,01
d Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,52
e Mt = 7,53; SD = 1,62
f Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aAoV=
a>c, p<.002
b>a, p<.000
b>c, p<.000
b>d, p<.000
b>e, p<.000
b>f, p<.000
d>a, p<.026
d>c, p<.000
d>e, p<.002
d>f, p<.027
f>c, p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelco-habitants
Page in Source 72
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
Single question:
With whom do you live ?
1: living alone
2: living with:
   2a: spouse/partner
   2b: own children
   2c: partner's children
   2d: adopted children
   2e: friends
   2f: biological parents
   2g: others
Observed distributionN: all: 6974, 1:723, 2: 2a:3419, 2b:2370, 2c:248, 2d:11, 2e:57, 2f:63, 2g:83
Remarks
not all categories are mutually exclusive: therefor 
only absolute frequencies are given
Bonferri test only for subcatagories of 2(living with)
in excel codes are 
different:2a=1;2b=2;2c=3;2d=4;2e=5;2f=6;2g=7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.03 
2:  Mt=7.88
2a: Mt=7.98
2b: Mt=7.79
2c: Mt=7.83
2d: Mt=8.41
2e: Mt=6.89
2f: Mt=7.38
2g: Mt=7.26
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
2e<2a 
2e<2b
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.51
2:  Mt=7.56
2a: Mt=7.71
2b: Mt=7.55
2c: Mt=7.63
2d: Mt=7.73
2e: Mt=6.45
2f: Mt=6.54
2g: Mt=6.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT=
2e<2a   
2e<2c  
2e<2b
2f<2a
2g<2a
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=5.89
2:  Mt=7.21
2a: Mt=7.38
2b: Mt=7.15
2c: Mt=7.36
2d: Mt=7.05
2e: Mt=5.96
2f: Mt=6.45
2g: Mt=6.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT=
2e<2a
2e<2c
2e<2b
2f<2a
2g<2a
2g<2c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal household
Subject code: C07aa

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelFamily and household forms
Page in Source 513
Our classificationCommunal household, code C07aa
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a with partner, no children
   b with partner and children
   c with others (communal)
   d other family household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=
Living alone                    West     East
a single                        7,7       7,1*
b divorced                      7,0       4,6*
c widowed                       7,6       6,6
Living together
a. with partner, no child       8,0       7,0
b. with partner and children    8,0       7,1
c. with others                  8,0       6,9
a with partner, no children     7,9       6,4
b with partner and children     -         6,9
c with others (communal)        8,0        -
d other family houhold          8,0       6,9

* N<20


Correlational finding on Happiness and Communal settlement
Subject code: C07ab

StudyCantril (1965): study IL 1961
TitleThe Pattern of Human Concern.
SourceRutgers University Press, 1965, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Public20+ aged general public, Israel, 1961-62
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =1170

Correlate
Author's labelRegion
Page in Source 369
Our classificationCommunal settlement, code C07ab
Operationalization
Coop. settlement / new urban / long settled urban / Tel 
Aviv, Haifa / Jerusalem

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMt=
Coop. settlement    : Mt = 5.3
New urban           : Mt = 4.5
Long settled urban  : Mt = 5.5
Tel-Aviv, Haifa     : Mt = 5.5
Jerusalem           : Mt = 5.5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelExpression of community value
Page in Source 277, 278, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 5 questions on desired life in a society 
that practices:
- communal ownership of means of prduction
- communal production
- qualitative equality
- no connection between contribution and remuneration
- full mutal solidarity

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.59, SD=1.05
Error Estimates?=.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.20 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=-.07
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz Life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- social, collective values
- individualistic values
- satisfaction with Kibbutz realization of 
social/ideology values
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=-.07 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additonally controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
- gender
- years of formal education
- holding central office during the last five 
years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelExpressions of collectivistic values
Page in Source 277, 278, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions on importance of
- acting for realization of social ideals
- feeling that one contributes to shaping a better 
society
- ideological considerations guide one's life
- be active and have influence

Rated 1 (higest or most positve) to 5 (lowest or least 
postive)
Observed distributionM=3.62, SD=.85
Error Estimates?=.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc= ns
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz Life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- community values
- individualistic values
- satisfaction with Kibbutz realization of 
social/ideology values
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additonally controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
- gender
- years of formal education
- holding central office during the last five 
years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with Value Realization
Page in Source 277, 278, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on the extent of personal values realized in 
kibbutz life on 4 questions:
- contribution to building a more just society in 
Israel
- fit with own values
- expression of equality amon members
- expression of social ideals

Rated on 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=2.27, SD=.74
Error Estimates?=.71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.42 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.13 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz Life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.39 ns
Beta controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.12 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additonally controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
- gender
- years of formal education
- holding central office during the last five 
years


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with ability fit
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Satisfaction with extent of fit between kibbutz life 
ond one's ability and aspirations

Selfreport on single question, question not reported

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positve)
Observed distributionM=3.21, SD=.97

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.13 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction of feeling of belonging to Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with work domain
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 items on satisfaction with
- work
- social relations at work
- opportunity to use one's skills, knowledge and 
experiences
- influence at the work place

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.86, SD=.76
Error Estimates?=.74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.31 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.19 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.15 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.14 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.13 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with social relations
Page in Source 277, 279, 284, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions on satisfaction with
- interpersonal relations in Kibbutz
- intergenerational relations in Kibbutz

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.29, SD=.78
Error Estimates?=.71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.40 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.11 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard
- satisfaction with work domain
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta= ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
Page in Source 276, 278, 285
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question, question not reported

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.47, SD=.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.55 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.45 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.29 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with social relations
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbuz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelpsychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
Page in Source 276, 278, 285
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 4 questions on
- trust in Kibbutz future
- choosing again Kibbutz life if given such a choice
- selecting Kibbutz life (from a list of possible 
different kinds of life) as the most desired
- recommending Kibbutz life to a young, loved, person

Rated 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.28, SD=.99

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.42 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.17 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to own 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with feeling of "belonging" and "at 
home" in Kibbutz
- satisfaction with material standard
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with social relations
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbuz life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to communal living
Subject code: C07ab01

StudyLeviatan (2004): study IL 2004
TitleBelief in Values and Their Perceived Realization as Determinants of Quality of Life. The Case of Kibbutz Members.
SourceGlatzer, W.; Von Below, S.; Stoffregen, M.; Eds.: "Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemplorary World", Kluwer, 2004, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 271 - 294
Public18+ aged, general public, living in Kibbutzim, Israel, 2004
SampleProbability cluster sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =4700

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with feeling of belonging to Kibbutz
Page in Source 277, 279, 248, 290
Our classificationAttitudes to communal living, code C07ab01
Operationalization
Satisfaction with extent of feeling at home and 
belonging in Kibbutz

Selfreport on single question, question not reported

Rate on 1 (highest or most positive) to 5 (lowest or 
least positive)
Observed distributionM=3.64, SD=1.01

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-ar=+.43 p < .001
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-arpc=+.14 p < .05
rpc controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psychological commitment to one's Kibbutz life
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with fit of Kibbutz life to won 
aspirations an abilities
- satisfaction with material standard of living
- satisfaction with work domain
- satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in 
Kibbutz
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.18 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- community values
- collectivistic values
- individualistic values
- gender
- years of formal education
- age
- holding central office during the last five yers
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- satisfaction with one's Kibbutz life
- psycholoical commitment to one's Kibbutz life


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

Now I am going to ask you how you FEEL, not just at the moment, but GENERALLY in your life. How happy do you generally feel? On a scale from o to 10...
0 completely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 completely happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"....... satisfaction with life ....."
(full question not reported)
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 don't know/satisfied
2 don't know/not satisfied
1 disappointed in life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are very unsatisfied, please tick '0'. When you are partly satisfied, tick '5', and when you are very satisfied please tick '10'.
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 partly satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caSelfreport on single question:

Thinking about your own life and personal circumstances, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5 neutral
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied

First item in Cummins' 'Personal Well-being Scale' (labels used until 2005)


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the ½c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C07aaCommunal householdH13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION
C07aaCommunal householdI02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING
C07ab01Attitudes to communal livingV02aa01eIndividualism (vs collectivism)
C07ab01Attitudes to communal livingV02aa01fEgalitarianism

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings