Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)
Subject Code: C06

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)0
C06aaParental behavior career0
C06aa01Earlier parental behavior0
C06aa02Change in parental behavior0
C06aa03Later parental behavior0
C06abCurrent parental behavior5
C06ab02Rearing style 0
C06ab03Time spend with children3
C06ab03aInvolvement in child-care2
C06ab03bShared activities with children0
C06acAttitudes to parenting4
C06ac01Concerns about parenthood4
C06ac02Evaluation of oneself as a parent3
C06ac03Satisfaction with parenting9
C06ab04Division of child care4
C06ab01Breastfeeding1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C06
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental behavior
Subject code: C06ab

StudyKlein (1984): study IL Petah Tikva 1980
TitleBehavior of Israeli Mothers toward Infants in Relation to Infants' Perceived Temperament.
SourceChild Development, 1984, Vol. 55, 1212 - 1218
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920
Public6 months aged infants, Israel, followed from 1980-1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelChild's Sensory Stimulation by Mother
Page in Source 1214, 1215
Our classificationCurrent parental behavior, code C06ab
Operationalization
Observer's rating of the mother's sensory stimulation 
of child:
a tactile stimulation
b kinesthetic stimulation
c visual stimulation
d auditory stimulation
Remarks
Infants and their mothers were observed at their homes 
two times within 2 weeks around the infant's 
6-months-birthday and the 12-months-birthday. 
Observations were video-taped and include half-minute 
observations followed by 1-min recording time focusing 
on specific mother-child and child-environment 
interactions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ ns
TACTILE
- 6 months:  mr=+.16 ns (stronger among boys)
- 12 months: mr=+.10 ns
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=± p < .05
KINESTHETIC
- 6 months:  mr=+.32 p<.05 (only among girls)
- 12 months: mr=-.33 p<.05
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ p < .001
VISUAL
- 6 months:  mr=+.51 p<.001 
- 12 months: mr=+.45 p<.001

(only among girls)
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=- ns
AUDITORY
- 6 months:  mr=-.14 ns 
- 12 months: mr=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental behavior
Subject code: C06ab

StudyKlein (1984): study IL Petah Tikva 1980
TitleBehavior of Israeli Mothers toward Infants in Relation to Infants' Perceived Temperament.
SourceChild Development, 1984, Vol. 55, 1212 - 1218
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920
Public6 months aged infants, Israel, followed from 1980-1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelMother's Behavior
Page in Source 1214, 1215
Our classificationCurrent parental behavior, code C06ab
Operationalization
Mother's
a positive affect
b smile
c body play

rated by observers
Remarks
Infants and their mothers were observed at their homes 
two times within 2weeks around the infant's 
6-months-birthday and the 12-months-birthday. 
Observations were video-taped and include half-minute 
observations followed by 1-min recording time focusing 
on specific mother-child and child-environment 
interactions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ ns
POSITIVE AFFECT
- 6 months:  mr=+.01 ns (stronger among girls)
- 12 months: mr=+.09 ns (only among girls)
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ p < .001
SMILE
- 6 months:  mr=+.61 p<.001 
- 12 months: mr=+.60 p<.001

(at both ages: among girls and boys equally)
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=± ns
BODY PLAY
- 6 months:  mr=+.20 ns
- 12 months: mr=+.22 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental behavior
Subject code: C06ab

StudyKlein (1984): study IL Petah Tikva 1980
TitleBehavior of Israeli Mothers toward Infants in Relation to Infants' Perceived Temperament.
SourceChild Development, 1984, Vol. 55, 1212 - 1218
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920
Public6 months aged infants, Israel, followed from 1980-1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelObject Environment
Page in Source 1213, 1214, 1215
Our classificationCurrent parental behavior, code C06ab
Operationalization
Observer's rating of objects around the child.
a Responsivity (degree of possible changes in the 
object as result of infant's actions, e.g. change in 
form or sound)
b Complexity (number of distinct parts, colors or 
textures of each)
c Variety (number of play objects)

Objects have been chosen by mother.
Remarks
Infants and their mothers were observed at their homes 
two times within 2weeks around the infant's 
6-months-birthday and the 12-months-birthday. 
Observations were video-taped and include half-minute 
observations followed by 1-min recording time focusing 
on specific mother-child and child-environment 
interactions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ ns
RESPONSIVITY
- 6 months:  mr=+.22 ns (stronger among boys)
- 12 months: mr=+.17 ns
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+
COMPLEXITY
- 6 months:  mr=+.34 p<.05 (only among boys)
- 12 months: mr=+.05 ns
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+
VARIETY
- 6 months:  mr=+.29 p<.05
- 12 months: mr=+.24 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental behavior
Subject code: C06ab

StudyKlein (1984): study IL Petah Tikva 1980
TitleBehavior of Israeli Mothers toward Infants in Relation to Infants' Perceived Temperament.
SourceChild Development, 1984, Vol. 55, 1212 - 1218
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920
Public6 months aged infants, Israel, followed from 1980-1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelMother's Contingencies
Page in Source 1213, 1214, 1215
Our classificationCurrent parental behavior, code C06ab
Operationalization
Mother's contingent responses to the infant's
a positive vocalization
b signs of distress
Remarks
Infants and their mothers were observed at their homes 
two times within 2weeks around the infant's 
6-months-birthday and the 12-months-birthday. 
Observations were video-taped and include half-minute 
observations followed by 1-min recording time focusing 
on specific mother-child and child-environment 
interactions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ ns
POSITIVE VOCAL
- 6 months:  mr=+.12 ns
- 12 months: mr=+.10 ns
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=- ns
DISTRESS
- 6 months:  mr=+.02 ns
- 12 months: mr=+.08 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental behavior
Subject code: C06ab

StudyKlein (1984): study IL Petah Tikva 1980
TitleBehavior of Israeli Mothers toward Infants in Relation to Infants' Perceived Temperament.
SourceChild Development, 1984, Vol. 55, 1212 - 1218
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0009-3920
Public6 months aged infants, Israel, followed from 1980-1981
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40

Correlate
Author's labelMother's Mediation
Page in Source 1214, 1215
Our classificationCurrent parental behavior, code C06ab
Operationalization
Mother's social mediation
a instrumental (with minimal social reinforcement)
b verbal (with smiles and vocalization)
Remarks
Infants and their mothers were observed at their homes 
two times within 2weeks around the infant's 
6-months-birthday and the 12-months-birthday. 
Observations were video-taped and include half-minute 
observations followed by 1-min recording time focusing 
on specific mother-child and child-environment 
interactions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ p < .05
INSTRUMENTAL
- 6 months:  mr=+.36 p<.05 (only among boys)
- 12 months: mr=+.32 p<.05 (among girls and boys 
equally)
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-amr=+ p < .05
VERBAL
- 6months:   mr=+.36 p<.05
- 12 months: mr=+.32 p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Breastfeeding
Subject code: C06ab01

StudyLauzon-Guillain et al. (2012): study GB East England 2006
TitleBreastfeeding and Infant Temperament at Age Three Months
SourcePloS ONE, www.plosone.org, January 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, e29326
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029326
Public3 months aged infants, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2006-2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelMode of Infant Feeding
Page in Source 2, 3,4
Our classificationBreastfeeding, code C06ab01
Operationalization
Mother's report on single question to a research nurse 
administered questionnaire:
a: Formula-fed
b: Mixed-fed
c: Breastfed
Observed distributiona: N=88, 55% males; b: N=91, 54% males; c: N=137, 54% males
Remarks
Assessed at 3 months of age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 4,8 [CI95 4,6-5,0]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,6] 
c Breastfed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,5]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,4 [CI95 5,2-5,6]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,2] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,3 [CI95 5,1-5,5]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 5,0-5,3] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

c < a
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-a
a Formula-fed: 7.1
b Mixed-fed:   5.7
c Breastfed:   5.4

Affect Balance computed by WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend with children
Subject code: C06ab03

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelChild still in village
Page in Source 116
Our classificationTime spend with children, code C06ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you have any children still living at home village?
1: Yes 
0: No
Observed distribution1: 32%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.14 p < .05
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Household income
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend with children
Subject code: C06ab03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelChildcare
Page in Source 270,274,279,283,288,292
Our classificationTime spend with children, code C06ab03
Operationalization
Selfreport on hours spent on childcare.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 75%, 1: 5%, 2: 5%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 5%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 73%, 1: 4%, 2: 3%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 6%, 11-16: 4%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 73%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 7%, 11-16: 5%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.0  M = 1.1 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.5 hrs         +0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.6  M = 1.4 hrs         +0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Time spend with children
Subject code: C06ab03

StudyBarnett & Baruch (1987): study US 1980
TitleMothers' Participation in Childcare: Patterns and Consequences.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 91 - 108
PublicParents with children 4-10, USA, 1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60 %
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelMothers total interaction time with children
Page in Source 100-106
Our classificationTime spend with children, code C06ab03
Operationalization
Number of hours per week the mother spends in 
intermittent and intensive interaction with child, 
whether or not the father is present:
1= no interaction: parent and child are engaged in 
independent activity
2 = intermittent interaction: Parent and child each are 
doing their own things and interacting periodically
3 = intensive interaction: Parent and child are 
actively involved together.
Level 1 scores were omitted. Level 2 and 3 interaction 
scores were combined into a total interaction time 
score.
Observed distributionTotal interaction time: full-time housewives: M=49,03 SD=11,40 N=80; working mothers: M = 41,87 SD=9,45 N=80; All mothers: M = 44,45 hr per week SD = 11,04 N=160 (data all mothers from BARUC 1986)
Remarks
Parents jointly used a chart to indicate 5 typical week 
days and for 2 typical weekend days the hours during 
which the target child and each parent were home and 
awake; they then indicated the nature of the child- 
parent interaction that typically occured during each 
of those hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.04 ns
Working mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
Full-time housewives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.17 ns
Fathers with working wife
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns
Fathers with full-time housewives


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in child-care
Subject code: C06ab03a

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelChildcare
Page in Source 270,274,279,283,288,292
Our classificationInvolvement in child-care, code C06ab03a
Operationalization
Selfreport on hours spent on childcare.
Observed distributionWorking days: 0: 75%, 1: 5%, 2: 5%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 5%, 11-16: 2%, 17-24: * , no value: 1%. Saturdays: 0: 73%, 1: 4%, 2: 3%, 3: 3%, 4: 2%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 6%, 11-16: 4%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 2%. Sundays: 0: 73%, 1: 3%, 2: 3%, 3: 2%, 4: 1%, 5: 2%, 6-10: 7%, 11-16: 5%, 17-24: 1%, no value: 3%.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+/-
On working days:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.0  M = 1.1 hrs         -0.1 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.1  M = 1.0 hrs         +0.1 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Saturdays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.4  M = 1.6 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.5 hrs         +0.2 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.6  M = 1.4 hrs         +0.2 hrs
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=-/+
On Sundays:
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 1.5  M = 1.7 hrs         -0.2 hrs
top 3:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs
top 5:  M = 1.7  M = 1.6 hrs         +0.1 hrs

Hapiness:
Top 2: 10-9 N= 499, Others: 8-0 N=1645
Top 3: 10-8 N=1087, Others: 7-0 N=1066
Top 5: 10-6 N=1691, Others: 5-0 N= 462


Correlational finding on Happiness and Involvement in child-care
Subject code: C06ab03a

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1975
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public50+ aged, general public, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =410

Correlate
Author's labelChild care activity
Page in Source 84/5
Our classificationInvolvement in child-care, code C06ab03a
Operationalization
During 24-hour period prior to the interview, 
respondents reported each activity they engaged in 
(PARTICIPATION) and the time spend on each activity 
(DURATION) on an activity diary. Activities were coded 
into categories, one of which was "child care".

Work status was measured by self-labeling by 
respondents and a question about engagement in work for 
pay at present. Self-labeled housewives were excluded.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.12 ns
PARTICIPATION:  working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.19 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.12 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.16 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.09 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.12 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.06 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.09 ns
DURATION:       working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.21 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.03 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.12 ns
                retired females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.15 ns
                working males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.21 ns
                retired males
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.04 ns
                working females
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.05 ns
                retired females
ß controlled for self-reported health, income and 
age. Relations with 'participation' also controled 
for 'duration' and relations with 'duration' also 
for participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Division of child care
Subject code: C06ab04

StudyBaruch & Barnett (1986a): study US 1980
TitleConsequences of Fathers' Participation in Family Work: Parents' Role Strain and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 51, 983 - 992
PublicMothers with children age 4-10, USA,1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60%
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelChild-care tasks performed by father
Page in Source 986-989
Our classificationDivision of child care, code C06ab04
Operationalization
The mean proportion of the time the father alone 
performs 11 child-care tasks:taking to birthday party, 
taking to doctor/dentist, going to teacher conference, 
supervising morning routine, cleaning up room, spending 
special time at bedtime, taking to or from lessons, 
buying clothes, taking on outing (museum, park), 
supervising personal hygiene, staying home or making 
arrangements when child is sick.
Score: 1 = 0-20% 5, 2 = 20-40%, 3 = 40-60%, 5 = 80-100%
Observed distributionfathers with nonemployed wives M = 1.46 SD = .35 fathers with employed wives M = 1.65 SD = .41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.11 ns
Beta controlled for mothers' work status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Division of child care
Subject code: C06ab04

StudyBaruch & Barnett (1986a): study US 1980
TitleConsequences of Fathers' Participation in Family Work: Parents' Role Strain and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 51, 983 - 992
PublicMothers with children age 4-10, USA,1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60%
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelFathers' interaction time with children
Page in Source 989
Our classificationDivision of child care, code C06ab04
Operationalization
A Total interaction time: Number of hours per week the 
father spends in intermittent and intensive interaction 
with child, whether or not the mother is present:
1= no interaction: parent and child are engaged in 
independent activity
2 = intermittent interaction: Parent and child each are 
doing their own things and interacting periodically
3 = intensive interaction: Parent and child are 
actively involved together.
Level 1 scores were omitted. Level 2 and 3 interaction 
scores were combined into a total interaction time 
score.

B Solo interaction time: Number of hours per week the 
father spends in intermittent and intensive interaction 
when the mother is out of the house or not available
Observed distributionTotal interaction time: M = 29.48 hr per week SD = 8.07 Solo interaction time: M = 5.48 hr per week SD = 4.84
Remarks
Parents jointly used a chart to indicate 5 typical week 
days and for 2 typical weekend days the hours during 
which the target child and each parent were home and 
awake; they then indicated the nature of the child- 
parent interaction that typically occured during each 
of those hours.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.11 ns
Total interaction time
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.19 p < .05
Solo interaction time

Betas controlled for mothers'work status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Division of child care
Subject code: C06ab04

StudyBarnett & Baruch (1987): study US 1980
TitleMothers' Participation in Childcare: Patterns and Consequences.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 91 - 108
PublicParents with children 4-10, USA, 1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60 %
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelChild-care tasks performed by mother
Page in Source 100-106
Our classificationDivision of child care, code C06ab04
Operationalization
The mean proportion of the time the mother alone 
performs 11 child-care tasks:taking to birthday party, 
taking to doctor/dentist,going to teacher conference, 
supervising morning routine, cleaning up room, spending 
special time at bedtime, taking to or from lessons, 
buying clothes, taking on outing (museum, park), 
supervising personal hygiene, staying home or making 
arrangements when child is sick.
Score: 1 = 0-20% 5, 2 = 20-40%, 3 = 40-60%, 5 = 80-100%
Observed distributionfull-time housewives: M=3,60 SD=,50 N=80; working mothers: M = 3,47 SD=,53 N=80;

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.06 ns
Working mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
Full-time housewives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.01 ns
Fathers with working wives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=.00 ns
Fathers with full-time housewife


Correlational finding on Happiness and Division of child care
Subject code: C06ab04

StudyBarnett & Baruch (1987): study US 1980
TitleMothers' Participation in Childcare: Patterns and Consequences.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 91 - 108
PublicParents with children 4-10, USA, 1980
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response60 %
Respondents N =320

Correlate
Author's labelMothers proportional interaction time with children
Page in Source 100-106
Our classificationDivision of child care, code C06ab04
Operationalization
Proportional interaction time: 
the number of hours the mother spent per week in 
intermittent and intensive interaction divided by the 
total hours both parents spent in such interaction.
Score: 1 = 0-20% 5, 2 = 20-40%, 3 = 40-60%, 5 = 80-100%
Observed distributionProportional interaction time: full-time housewives: M=.63 SD=.63; working mothers: M=.58 SD = .07
Remarks
Parents jointly used a chart to indicate 5 typical week 
days and for 2 typical weekend days the hours during 
which the target child and each parent were home and 
awake; they then indicated the nature of the child- 
parent interaction that typically occured during each 
of those hours

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
Working mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.10 ns
Full-time housewives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.02 ns
Fathers with working wives
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.11 ns
Fathers with full-time housewives


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to parenting
Subject code: C06ac

StudyJackson (1993): study US 1989
TitleBlack, Single, Working Mothers in Poverty: Preferences for Employment, Well-Being, and Perceptions of Preschool-Age Children.
SourceSocial Work, 1993, Vol. 38, 26 - 34
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/23716878?uid=376155681&uid=3738736&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=67&uid=5911848&uid=23828&uid=62&sid=21106787147793
PublicSingle black mothers receiving child care, Ohio, United States, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelPrefer Work
Page in Source 29.30
Our classificationAttitudes to parenting, code C06ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question:"If your had a choice of 
being employed or staying home, which would you 
choose?"
1 prefer work
0 prefer home
Observed distributionPrefer home: n=43 Prefer work: n=68

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Prefer work: M=5.71  SD=1.21
Prefer home: M=5.16  SD=1.25
-difference: M=0.55

t=2.27(p<=.01)
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-ar=+.21 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to parenting
Subject code: C06ac

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelStress of combining job and parenting
Page in Source 32,86,121,137,140143
Our classificationAttitudes to parenting, code C06ac
Operationalization
"Here are some things people may say about combining 
work and family life. To what extent do you agree or 
disagree with the following statements about your life 
as a working parent?"
a. My work schedule fits well with my family needs*.
b. There's no room in my schedule for anything out of 
the ordinary (e.g., a transportation delay.)
c.My child care arrangements are good for my children*.
d. I have enough time to spend with my family*.
e. I have to impose on others to help with child care.
f. I have enough free time for myself*.
g. I have more to do than I can handle comfortably.
h. I have rush to get to work on time.
i. I have time to relax with my family after work*.
j. My child care arrangements create a burden for 
others. 
k. I have to rush home from work in time to meet my 
family responsibilities.
l. I have enough time for household tasks*.
Rated: 1 = Strongly disagree, 2 = disagree,3 = neither 
agree nor disagree, 4 = agree, 5 = Strongly agree.
* Items reverse-coded
Error EstimatesAlpha = .87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.29 p < .001
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.25 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.34 p < .001
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.60 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.40 p < .01
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=-.42 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.08 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBeta=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.06 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBeta=-.08 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.07 p < .01
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBeta=+.12 p < .01
Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- income
- organization (place of employment)
- stress
- support from friends/neighbors/relatives
- support from co-workers
- support from supervisors


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to parenting
Subject code: C06ac

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal inadequacy
Page in Source 568
Our classificationAttitudes to parenting, code C06ac
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions
A I find it difficult to decide what's the right way to 
bring up children.
B I frequently feel that I don't understand my 
child(ren) these days.
C How often do you have doubts about whether you are 
doing the right things in raising your children?

Rating
A, B: 1 = selects 2 = not sure 3 = rejects
C:1= very often 2= often 3= occasionally, 4= never
Observed distributionM=0,00 SD=0,76
Error Estimatesalpha = .63
Remarks
Ratings transformed to z-scores

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.28 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to parenting
Subject code: C06ac

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelmaternal detachment
Page in Source 568
Our classificationAttitudes to parenting, code C06ac
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A I feel I will enjoy life more when the child(ren) are 
older
B I often feel I just have to get away from the 
child(ren)

Rated: 1=selects 2=not sure 3=rejects
Observed distributionM=1,64 SD = 0,71
Error Estimatesalpha = .41

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.14 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concerns about parenthood
Subject code: C06ac01

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelUpbringing problems with own children
Page in Source 261
Our classificationConcerns about parenthood, code C06ac01
Operationalization
Have you experienced upbringing problems with your own 
children
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:  No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N = 2097 Ever in your life: N= 334.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.05
experienced during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
experienced ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.72
95% CI for difference:   [0.06; 0.26]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concerns about parenthood
Subject code: C06ac01

StudyBerkman (1971): study US Alameda County, California 1965
TitleLife Stress and Psychological Well-Being: A Replication of Langner's Analysis in the Midtown Manhatten Study.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1971, Vol. 12, 35 - 45
PublicAdults, general public, Alameda County, USA, 1965
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6928

Correlate
Author's labelParental worries
Page in Source 41
Our classificationConcerns about parenthood, code C06ac01
Operationalization
Index containing:
- closed question: Some people say that
  children give their parents more
  trouble than pleasure (yes/no)
- and a 13-item inventory of parental
  problems (yes/no for each problem).
Remarks
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDMr=-
Married subjects only (N=2534)      
The average ridits (AR) were calculated with 
the distribution of the total sample as reference
(N=6928).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concerns about parenthood
Subject code: C06ac01

StudyBradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2006

Correlate
Author's labelThinking often about bringing up children
Page in Source 54
Our classificationConcerns about parenthood, code C06ac01
Operationalization
Response to single question:
"Last week how often did you think about ...."
Bringing up of children
Rated: not at all / sometimes / often during the week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG= +
High S.E.S. : G' = +.06 (ns)
Low S.E.S.  : G' = +.02 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concerns about parenthood
Subject code: C06ac01

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelHaving problems in raising children
Page in Source 196
Our classificationConcerns about parenthood, code C06ac01
Operationalization
Open-ended question on main problem: never had problems 
vs mentions problems

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.20 (01)
Females : _b = -.05 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Evaluation of oneself as a parent
Subject code: C06ac02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived short- comings in the self
Page in Source 196
Our classificationEvaluation of oneself as a parent, code C06ac02
Operationalization
Question on how one would like his children to be 
different from oneself: does not want children to be 
different vs wants child to be different.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.10 (05)
Females : _b = -.00 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Evaluation of oneself as a parent
Subject code: C06ac02

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelFeeling inadequate as a parent
Page in Source 196
Our classificationEvaluation of oneself as a parent, code C06ac02
Operationalization
Closed question on frequency of these feelings: "Never 
/ once in a while / a lot of times."

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.08 (05)
Females : _b = -.03 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Evaluation of oneself as a parent
Subject code: C06ac02

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelmaternal discontent
Page in Source 568
Our classificationEvaluation of oneself as a parent, code C06ac02
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A: I don't enjoy the child(ren) as much as I would like 
to.
B: I would like to spend more time with my child(ren).

Rated: 3= selects 2=not sure 1=rejects
Observed distributionM= 1,71; SD 0,76
Error Estimatesalpha =.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction regarding children
Page in Source 310
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Single question:
" How satisfied are you with your present situation 
regarding children ?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN: 1:22, 2:38, 3:177, 4:484, 5:704

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.15 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.59
 2: Mt=7.50
 3: Mt=7.46
 4: Mt=7.48
 5: Mt=8.13
All Mt=7.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.20 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.80
 2: Mt=7.04
 3: Mt=6.95
 4: Mt=7.16
 5: Mt=7.88
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.22 p < .00
 1: Mt=6.03
 2: Mt=6.11
 3: Mt=6.29
 4: Mt=6.71
 5: Mt=7.36
All Mt=6.95


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelsatisfaction with one's situation regarding children
Page in Source 328
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Single question:
"How satisfied are you with your present situation 
regarding children?"
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither/nor
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionN All:4556; %:1:4,3; 2:6,3; 3:11,5; 4:24,5; 5:53,4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 p < .00
1: Mt=7.28
2: Mt=6.94
3: Mt=7.28
4: Mt=7.46
5: Mt=8.09
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.21 p < .00
1: Mt=6.71
2: Mt=6.40
3: Mt=6.83
4: Mt=7.06
5: Mt=7.88
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.25 p < .00
1: Mt=6.08
2: Mt=6.18
3: Mt=6.34
4: Mt=6.64
5: Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelrelations with parents
Page in Source 348
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Single quetion:
"How are your current relations with your parents ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4448; %: 1:2,9; 2:8,4; 3:21,2; 4:36,2; 5:31,2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.19 p < .00
1: Mt=7.00
2: Mt=7.04
3: Mt=7.36
4: Mt=7.74
5: Mt=8.28
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.21 p < .00
1: Mt=6.51
2: Mt=6.63
3: Mt=7.01
4: Mt=7.43
5: Mt=8.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.19 p < .00
1: Mt=6.26
2: Mt=6.45
3: Mt=6.66
4: Mt=6.99
5: Mt=7.56


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with childcare
Page in Source 306
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How happy do you usually 
feel on a scale of 0 to 10 doing the following 
activities: childcare.
Error EstimatesN= 0:*%, 1:1%, 2:2%, 3:1%, 4:1%, 5:9%, 6:9%, 7:17%, 8:24%, 9:19%, 10:16%
Remarks
N=599.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.4  M = 7.4             +1.0 
top 3:  M = 8.3  M = 6.9             +1.4 
top 5:  M = 7.9  M = 6.4             +1.5
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N= 139, Others: 8-0 N= 460
Top 3: 10-8 N= 310, Others: 7-0 N= 289
Top 5: 10-6 N= 475, Others: 5-0 N= 124


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with parenting
Page in Source 38
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
A: No parenting experience
B: Experience of parenting
   5: I always enjoy/enjoyed parenting
   4: I rather enjoy/enjoyed parenting
   3: Neither do I enjoy parenting nor find it hard
   2: I rather find/found parenting hard
   1: I always find/found parenting hard

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=
A : M = 5,6
B5: M = 7,4
B4: M = 6,7
B3: M = 5,6
B2: M = 5,4
B1: M = 3,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with childcare arrangements
Page in Source 202-204,305
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Overall, how satisfied are you with your childcare 
arrangements?
1=very dissatisfied 6=very satisfied

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.25 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.20 p < .01
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=+.23 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyFine-Davis et al. (2002): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleFathers and Mothers: Dillemmas of the Work-Life Balance. A Comparitive Study in Four European Countries.
SourceKluwer, 2004, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 21, Dordrecht, Netherlands
PublicDual career parents in four European cities, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =400

Correlate
Author's labelDifficulty combining work and family life
Page in Source 212-214,313
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How easy/difficult is it for you to combine your job 
and family life?
1=very easy  6=very difficult

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.42 p < .001
Females
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.25 p < .001
Males
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-ar=-.33 p < .001
All


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyTiedje et al. (1990): study US 1985
TitleWomen with Multiple Roles: Role-Compatibility Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Mental Health.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1990, Vol. 52, 63 - 72
PublicMarried women with a preschool child, USA, 1985
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response22%
Respondents N =158

Correlate
Author's labelParental satisfaction
Page in Source 66,67
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
How often during the last month have you felt:
a happy
b satisfied
c frustrated or angry
d insecure
e unhappy 
as a parent? 
Rated 1(never or almost never) to 5(always or almost 
always)..
Observed distributionM = 24,78, SD =3,23, range = 17-30
Error Estimatesalpha = .81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.24 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with parenting
Subject code: C06ac03

StudyShichman & Cooper (1984): study US 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Sex-Role Concept.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 227 - 240
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00287516
PublicAdults, students and churchmembers, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response5,9 %
Respondents N =217

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with parenting
Page in Source 234
Our classificationSatisfaction with parenting, code C06ac03
Operationalization
Single direct questions on both satisfaction and 
dissatisfaction with parenting.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.23 p < .01
satisfaction


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by mother of infants affective reactions

During the last week how often did your child show
a: pleasure in high intensity situations such as peek-a boo game
b: pleasure in low intensity situations, such as playing quitly with a favorite toy
c: smile in sitiations such as being undressed
d: distress to limitations
e: fear
f: sadness
Each rated:
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (a+b+c) - (d+e+f)

Items part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
2 often

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -10 to +6 (transformed to ridits (0 - 1))

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (Berkman modified variation)
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-g-rdf-v-3-aMother's rating of general infant's mood.

Content analysis of 3 monthly interviews with mother:
Rating:
0 positive
1variable
2 negative
(code should be reversed)

Item in the Infant Temperament Questionnaire (ITQ) by Carey, 1970
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

… your life in general … (full question not reported)
9 best I could expect to have
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst I could expect to have
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how happy would you say you are currently?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together: how happy would you say you are? Would you say you are?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gSelf report on single question:

How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....?
1 very dissatisfying
2 quite dissatisfying
3 not satisfying not dissatisfying
4 quite satisfying
5 very satisfying
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied.
O-SLW-g-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
4 somewhat satisfied
5 satisfied
6 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not too satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as whole.....?
7 completely satisfied
6 satisfied
5 mostly satisfied
4 satisfied/dissatisfied
3 dissatisfied
2 very dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
mrMean correlation coefficient (r).
For r, see PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C06ab01BreastfeedingN10aaNutrition history
C06ab01BreastfeedingN10abCurrent nutrition
C06ab02Rearing style F01ae02Rearing-style of parents
C06ab03Time spend with childrenT01adCurrent time-usage
C06ab03aInvolvement in child-careG01ab01Gender-role attitudes
C06ab03bShared activities with childrenM03ab05Shared activities
C06ab04Division of child careH14ab02Division of household-work
C06acAttitudes to parentingC03adAttitude to having children
C06acAttitudes to parentingC04acAttitudes to characteristics of one's children
C06ac02Evaluation of oneself as a parentS02SELF-IMAGE

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings