Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN
Subject Code: C05

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN0
C05aaRelational career (development of relation)0
C05aa01Earlier relation with children1
C05aa02Change in relation with one's children0
C05aa03Later relation with one's children0
C05abCurrent relation with one's children9
C05ab01Relation with children still at home0
C05ab02Relation with children living on their own3
C05acAttitude to relation with one's children2
C05ab03Support received from children2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C05
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier relation with children
Subject code: C05aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier satisfaction with children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier relation with children, code C05aa01
Operationalization
Children mentioned on an open question on satisfying 
aspects of life
a. in 1950
b. in 1960
Remarks
Earlier satisfaction with children (1950) by present 
happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV=+ p < .03
1950 mentioned children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1960 mentioned children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelYour children
Page in Source 166
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
1 single question on satisfaction with: your children, 
scored on a 1-9 rating scale.
Observed distributionM = 7.9 SD = 1.2
Remarks
Item scored on the same rating scale as the question on 
happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of seeing non-coresident children
Page in Source 317-323-325
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Self report on question frequency of seeing 
non-coresident children. Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.17 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.03 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=+.04 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-personal income
-country of birth
-years in Canada
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyKnight & Gunatilaka (2010): study CN 2002
TitleGreat Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.
SourceWorld Development, 2010, Vol. 38, 113 - 124
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Public16+ aged rural-urban migrants, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1930

Correlate
Author's labelChild still in village
Page in Source 116
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you have any children still living at home village?
1: Yes 
0: No
Observed distribution1: 32%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-dab=-.14 p < .05
B controlled for:
- Future income expectations
- Gender
- Marital Status
- Interaction gender*marital status
- Education
- Financial assets
- Unemployment
- Working hours
- Health
- Duration of urban residence
- Regional income
- Living with family members
- Household income
- Remittances
- Area of house
- Living in own house
- Heating
- Number of friends/relatives in city


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelrelation's with one's children
Page in Source 308
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"How are your relations with your children ?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: 1:4, 2:4, 3:38, 4:254, 5:635

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.28 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00
 2: Mt=8.75
 3: Mt=7.76
 4: Mt=7.39
 5: Mt=7.99
All Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.19 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.00
 2: Mt=8.13
 3: Mt=6.78
 4: Mt=7.05
 5: Mt=7.80
All Mt=7.54
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.21 p < .00
 1: Mt=5.63
 2: Mt=6.88
 3: Mt=6.25
 4: Mt=6.39
 5: Mt=7.29
All Mt=6.99


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelrelations with one's children
Page in Source 326
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"How are your relations with your children?"
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither/nor
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN All:3082; %:1:0,5; 2:0,5; 3:3,6; 4:23,8; 5:71,7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.17 p < .00
1: Mt=6.66
2: Mt=7.00
3: Mt=6.98
4: Mt=7.26
5: Mt=8.04
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=5.34
2: Mt=6.16
3: Mt=6.64
4: Mt=6.88
5: Mt=7.79
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.20 p < .00
1: Mt=5.50
2: Mt=6.34
3: Mt=6.25
4: Mt=6.53
5: Mt=7.41


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelIntergenerational relations
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Self report on 4 questions:
a: How often do you nurture the younger generation?
b: How often do you educate the younger generation?
c: Are you respected by the younger generation?
d: Do your offspring behave in a filial way toward you?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=3.56 SD=0.66
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.30 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Context
Page in Source 1162, 1164
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
1: Childless
2: Daily contact
3: No daily contact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%=-
MEN                % happy
- childless        27,2
- daily contact    30,2
- no daily contact 33.3
-difference         6.1
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%=+
WOMEN              % happy
- childless        30,1
- daily contact    29,4
- no daily contact 24.4
-difference         5.7
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.29 p < .01
NO DAILY CONTACT (vs childless)


OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.22 ns
OR additionally controlled for country

OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyMoller (1988a): study ZA 1983
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =253

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children supported
Page in Source 630
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Single direct question: 'How many children do you 
support with your pension/grants?'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dr=+.19 p < .01
Direction of correlation unclear in original 
report. Sign in table is negative, but text 
indicates positive relationship. Present version 
approved by author.
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ar=+.10 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ab

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelFondness of child for parents
Page in Source 16
Our classificationCurrent relation with one's children, code C05ab
Operationalization
Rating by child (sociology student) who
participated in the study.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= + p < . 05
Positive among females only

The mother's life-satisfaction was just as closely 
related to her child's fondness for his
father as it was to the child's fondness for her.
The child's fondness for both of his parents was
not related to the Father's life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation with children living on their own
Subject code: C05ab02

StudyGee (2000a): study CA British Columbia 1996
TitleLiving Arrangements and Quality of Life among Chinese Canadian Elders.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2000, Vol. 51, 309 - 329
DOIDoi:10.1023/A:1007036122117
Public65+ aged, Chinese Canadians, Canada, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response28.5%
Respondents N =2158

Correlate
Author's labelSee children as often as want
Page in Source 317, 323-325
Our classificationRelation with children living on their own, code C05ab02
Operationalization
Self report on question whether one sees children often 
enough. Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.02 ns
Married Men
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.05 ns
Married Women
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eBeta=-.08 ns
Widowed Women

Beta's controlled for:
-living arrangement
-age
-health
-personal income
-country of birth
-years in Canada
-English-speaking ability
-have confidante
-number of close friends
-frequency of seeing non-coresident children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation with children living on their own
Subject code: C05ab02

StudyLee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25.1%
Respondents N =403

Correlate
Author's labelInteraction
Page in Source 220,221
Our classificationRelation with children living on their own, code C05ab02
Operationalization
The respondent was asked which of his or her children 
is seen most frequently, the how frequently that child 
is seen on a seven-point scale
Observed distributionMean 4.2 SD 1.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.11
males
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=-.06
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-aid given
-aid received
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.00
females
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=-.02
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-aid given
-aid received


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relation with children living on their own
Subject code: C05ab02

StudyLee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25.1%
Respondents N =403

Correlate
Author's labelAid received
Page in Source 220,221
Our classificationRelation with children living on their own, code C05ab02
Operationalization
Below is a list of types of aid parents sometimes 
receive from their children. Please indicate how many 
times during the past year you received each kind of 
aid from all your children who no longer live with you. 
a)	Advice on a decision you had to make b)	Help during 
an illness c)	Financial assistance (gift or loan) 
d)	Gifts other than moneye)	Help with some household 
task f)	Help with transportation
Observed distributionMean 3.6 SD 3.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.17
males
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=-.07
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-interaction
-aid given
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=+.02
females
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.11
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-number of children
-interaction
-aid given


Correlational finding on Happiness and Support received from children
Subject code: C05ab03

StudyCheng & Chan (2006): study HK 2000
TitleRelationship with Others and Life Satisfaction in Later Life: Do Gender and Widowhood make a Difference?
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 2006, Vol. 61b, 46 - 53
Public60+ aged, Hong Kong, 2000
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1616

Correlate
Author's labelIntergenerational relations
Page in Source 49-50
Our classificationSupport received from children, code C05ab03
Operationalization
Self report on 4 questions:
a: How often do you nurture the younger generation?
b: How often do you educate the younger generation?
c: Are you respected by the younger generation?
d: Do your offspring behave in a filial way toward you?

Response options not reported
Observed distributionM=3.56 SD=0.66
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is .62

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-ar=+.30 p < .001
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Support received from children
Subject code: C05ab03

StudyWalters & McKenry (1985): study US 1983
TitlePredictors of Life Satisfaction Among Rural and Urban Employed Mothers: A Research Note.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 1067 - 1071
URLhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-2445
PublicEmployed mothers, rural and urban areas USA,1983
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response29%
Respondents N =237

Correlate
Author's labelChildren's support
Page in Source 1068
Our classificationSupport received from children, code C05ab03
Operationalization
Childrens' support for Mothers'employment outside the 
home
Remarks
Only rural women (N = 165)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-ar=+.31 p < .05
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.60 p < .05
Controlled for job-family conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ac

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelDemands-Child
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationAttitude to relation with one's children, code C05ac
Operationalization
Self report on question:
Child makes too many demands on me
0 not at all
:
10 absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=-.06 ns
Beta controlled for 
- age 
- gender
- migrant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitude to relation with one's children
Subject code: C05ac

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelNerves-Child
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationAttitude to relation with one's children, code C05ac
Operationalization
Self report on the question: 
Child gets on my nerves
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.30 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.27 p < .05
Beta controlled for 
-age 
-gender


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, life gives me a lot of pleasure
B On the whole, I am very satisfied with my life today
C Things are getting just worse for me as I get older
D All in all, I find a great deal of happiness today
E I have a lot to be sad about
F Nothing ever turn out for me the way I want it

Scoring
4 strongly agree
3
2
1 strongly disagree

Computation: simple addition. Possible range 6-24
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-daSelf-report on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
4 very happy
3 happy
2 so-so
1 not happy
0 not happy at all
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

".......describe your present life......."
(Full question not reported)
7 rewarding
6
5
4
3
2
1 disappointing
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question

.. life .. (text not reported)
5 very satisfied
4
3
2
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life.....?
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 average
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5 very satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 more satisfied than discontented
2 more discontented than satisfied
1 quite dissatisfied
O-Sum-?-mq-?-7-aSelfreport on 2 questions

A Happiness
B Life-satisfaction

Texts not reported

Summation: A+B


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDRENF02acFamily climate
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDRENF03FAMILY OF RELATIVES
C05aa02Change in relation with one's childrenF02ac02Change in family-climate
C05aa02Change in relation with one's childrenF03aa02Change in family-life
C05ab01Relation with children still at homeF02acFamily climate
C05ab02Relation with children living on their ownS11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED
C05ab02Relation with children living on their ownS10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED
C05ab02Relation with children living on their ownI06INTIMACY
C05ab02Relation with children living on their ownF03FAMILY OF RELATIVES
C05ab03Support received from childrenS10ab03Kind of social support received
C05acAttitude to relation with one's childrenC03adAttitude to having children
C05acAttitude to relation with one's childrenC06acAttitudes to parenting
C05acAttitude to relation with one's childrenV02aa01dNurturance (caring)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings