Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN
Subject Code: C04

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN0
C04aaDevelopmental career of children0
C04aa01Earlier characteristics of one's children1
C04aa02Change in characteristics of one's children0
C04aa03Later characteristics of one's children0
C04abCurrent characteristics of one's children4
C04ab01Age of children18
C04ab03Behavior of one's children1
C04ab04Handicap/health of one's children3
C04ab05Happiness of one's children1
C04ab06Personality of one's children0
C04ab07Success of one's children1
C04acAttitudes to characteristics of one's children3
C04ab02Gender of children2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C04
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04aa01

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelPremature birth
Page in Source 105
Our classificationEarlier characteristics of one's children, code C04aa01
Operationalization
0 fullterm birth
1 premature

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=-05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelchildren living at home
Page in Source 320
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of one's children, code C04ab
Operationalization
children living at home
 1: No children in the home
  1aa:no children(voluntarily childless)
  1ab:no children in the 
       home(involuntarily childless)
  1b: no children in the home but children 
       elsewhere
  1ba: children under 16 living elsewhere
 2: Children in the home
  2a: only biological children
  2b: partner's and biological children
  2c: only partner's children
Observed distributionN: 1:1049, 1aa:24, 1ab:35, 1b:540, 1ba:44 2:434, 2a:379, 2b:8, 2c:8,
Remarks
a given respondent may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=7.68               2:   Mt=7.96
 1aa: Mt=7.91                2a: Mt=7.99
 1ab: Mt=6.79                2b: Mt=8.13 
 1b:  Mt=7.63                2c: Mt=8.13
 1ba: Mt=7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=7.38               2:   Mt=7.58
 1aa: Mt=7.40                2a: Mt=7.61
 1ab: Mt=6.93                2b: Mt=8.13 
 1b:  Mt=7.49                2c: Mt=7.19
 1ba: Mt=6.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=6.90               2:   Mt=6.89
 1aa: Mt=6.46                2a: Mt=7.00
 1ab: Mt=6.93                2b: Mt=8.44 
 1b:  Mt=6.93                2c: Mt=6.88
 1ba: Mt=6.66


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelcharacteristics of one's children
Page in Source 316,318
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of one's children, code C04ab
Operationalization
characteristics of one's children:
0: only girls
1: only boys
Observed distributionN: 0:133, 1:118

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women:      men:
0: Mt=7.76  0:8.00
1: Mt=7.69  1:7.74
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women:      men:
0: Mt=7.48  0:7.63
1: Mt=7.25  1:7.58
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women:      men:
0: Mt=6.91  0:7.25
1: Mt=7.05  1:6.96


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelchildren living at home
Page in Source 338
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of one's children, code C04ab
Operationalization
children living at home
 1: No children in the home
  1aa:no children(voluntarily childless)
  1ab:no children in the 
       home(involuntarily childless)
  1b: no children in the home but children 
       elsewhere
  1ba: children under 16 living elsewhere
 2: Children in the home
  2a: only biological children
  2b: partner's and biological children
  2c: only partner's children
Observed distributionN: All:8402; 1:2122; 1aa:120; 1ab:251; 1b:693; 1ba:388; 2:2491; 2a:2146; 2b:120; 2c:71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1:   Mt=7.65
1aa: Mt=7.66
1ab: Mt=7.86
1b:  Mt=7.75
1ba: Mt=7.38
2:   Mt=7.81
2a:  Mt=7.81
2b:  Mt=7.69
2c:  Mt=8.10
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1:   Mt=7.25
1aa: Mt=7.21
1ab: Mt=7.59
1b:  Mt=7.38
1ba: Mt=6.89
2:   Mt=7.55
2a:  Mt=7.55
2b:  Mt=7.73
2c:  Mt=7.75
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1:   Mt=6.84
1aa: Mt=6.80
1ab: Mt=7.05
1b:  Mt=7.09
1ba: Mt=6.65
2:   Mt=7.18
2a:  Mt=7.15
2b:  Mt=7.23
2c:  Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ab

StudyRees et al. (2012): study GB 2008
TitleThe Good Childhood Report 2012. A Review of Our Children's Well-Being.
SourceResearch Paper, The Children's Society, 2012, Leeds, UK
URLhttp://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/good_childhood_report_2012_final_0.pdf
PublicChildren 8-15, United Kingdom, 2010
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9485

Correlate
Author's labelChoice
Page in Source 13,15
Our classificationCurrent characteristics of one's children, code C04ab
Operationalization
Happiness with amount in choice in life rated on a 11 
point scale 0 very unhappy to 11 very happy.
Observed distributionM = 7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-ar=+.61 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelAge of the youngest child
Page in Source 7,9,21
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1: < 1 year
2: 1-2 year2
3: 3-6 years
4: 7-13 years (reference category)
Observed distribution1: M = 0.10 2: M = 0.19 3: M=0.28 4: M=.43

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.35 p < .01
< 1 YEAR ( vs 7-13 years)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.28 p < .01
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.13 p < .01
1-2 YEAR ( vs 7-13 years)
B controlled for:
- Short part-time employment
- Long part-time employment
- Unemployment
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .05
3-6 YEARS ( vs 7-13 years)
B controlled for:
- Short part-time employment
- Long part-time employment
- Unemployment
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.03 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyWeick (1994a): study DE 1993
TitleFamilie. (Family).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Eds.: "Datenreport 1994", Bundeszentrale für politische Bilding, 1994, Germany, 508 - 520
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1994A.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1993
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in household
Page in Source 513
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1 No children in household
2 One or more children in household
  a under age 6
  b under age 12
  c under age 17
  e over age  18
Remarks
Couples only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fDM=
                                West   East
1 No children               M =  8,0   7,0
2 One or more  
  a under age 6             M =  8,1   7,1
  b under age 12            M =  8,1   7,4
  c under age 17            M =  8,7   7,1
  e over age  18            M =  7,9   6,8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 17
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Number of children with different age group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33 p < .01
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 0-6
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.23 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 7-12
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.05 ns
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 13-18
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.09 ns
OPRC’s controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study LT 2001
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Lithuanian women, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response10.5 %
Respondents N =308

Correlate
Author's labelChild status
Page in Source S25
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
0: no children
1: has children
      a: at least one child 0-7 years old living with 
them.
      b: at least one child older than 7 years living 
with them.
     c: at least one child but not living with them.
Observed distribution0 = 10,1 %, 1a = 11.7 %, 1b = 54.2 %, 1c = 24 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=+/- ns
No children:                        M = 1.39
At least one child 0-7y :           M = 1.45
At least one child older 7y:        M = 1.21
At least one child but not at home: M = 1.51


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyJol (1996): study NL 1997
TitleHet Onbehagen bij de Vrouw. (Woman's Discontent).
SourceIndex nr. 2, March 1996, published by CBS, Voorburg, Netherlands, 22 - 23
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/jol_c_1996.pdf
PublicMothers, The Netherlands 1997
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =40000

Correlate
Author's labelAge of eldest or only child
Page in Source 1
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1: 0-4
2: 5-12
3: 13-18
4: >=19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=-
Mothers with partner
        working    non working 
0-4      M=3,6          M=3,4
5-12     M=3,5          M=3,4
13-18    M=3,4          M=3,2
>=19     M=3,4          M=3,3
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dDM=
Single mothers
        working    non working 
0-4      M=2,9          M=2,5
5-12     M=2,9          M=2,5
13-18    M=2,9          M=2,5
>=19     M=3,0          M=2,9
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=-
Mothers with partner
        working    non working
0-4      M=4,4          M=4,3
5-12     M=4,3          M=4,2
13-18    M=4,2          M=4,0
>=19     M=4,1          M=4,0
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=
Single mothers
        working    non working 
0-4      M=3,9          M=3,6
5-12     M=3,8          M=3,5
13-18    M=3,7          M=3,4
>=19     M=3,8          M=3,5


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyDaukantaite & Zukauskiene (2006): study SE 1998
TitleSwedish and Lithuanian employed women’s subjective well-being.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Welfare, 2006, Vol 15, 23 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00441.x
PublicMiddle-aged employed Swedish women 1998
SampleNo sample: full population
Non-Response23 %
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelChild status
Page in Source S25
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
0:  no children
1:  has children
     a: at least one child 0-7 years old living with 
them.
     b: at least one child older than 7 years living 
with them.
     c: at least one child but not living with them.
Observed distribution0 = 11.1 %, 1a = 19.4 %, 1b = 65 %, 1c =4.5 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dDM=+/-
No children:                      M = 1.52
At least one child 0-7            M = 2.02
At least one child older than 7   M = 1.97
At least one chld but not at home M = 2.18


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyBränholm & Degerman (1992): study SE 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Activity Preferences in Parents of Down's Syndrome Children.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 1992, Vol. 20, 37 - 44
PublicBiological parents of children with Down's syndrome, Norbotton County, Sweden, 1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =74

Correlate
Author's labelAge of children dichotomized younger vs older 9 years
Page in Source 121
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1.younger than 9 years;
2.older than 9 years.
Remarks
Parents of child with Down syndrome only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aSNR= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 27, 35
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
Number of children:
a age 0-2
b age 3-4
c age 5-11
d age 12-15
e age 16-18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 ns
a: number in age 0-2
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.31
b: number in age 3-4
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 p < .05
c: number in age 5-11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 p < .01
d: number in age 12-15
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 ns
e: number in age 16-18

B's controled for:
- death of intimitate in previous year
- gender
- age
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- homeownnership
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by observation payslip and house 
prices

a -.06 ns
b -.02 ns
c -.01 01
d -.07 ns
e -.16 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
Additionally controlled using income:
- household income(per household member)

a +.03 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by household income in previous 
year

a +.06 ns
b +.07 p<05
c -.00 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.07 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- log personal income

a +.08 ns
b -.01 ns
c -.08 05
d -.05 ns
e -.06 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- mean income over time and household income

a +.02 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.04 ns
e -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelAge of youngest child
Page in Source 17-22
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
Age group of youngest child:
a aged 0-2
b aged 3-4
c aged 5-11
d aged 12-15
e no child under 16 (reference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
MALES (N=58674/10085)
a: B=+.01 ns
b: B=-.02 ns
c: B=+.00 ns
d: B=-.04 ns
e: reference
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)
a: B=+.02 ns
b: B=-.05 ns
c: B=+.01 ns
d: B=-.02 ns
e: reference

B's controlled for:
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Number of children under 16
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children of different age groups
Page in Source 10, 11, 14, 15
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
a Number of children aged 0-2
b Number of children aged 3-4
c Number of children aged 5-11
d Number of children aged 12-15
Observed distributionMales & Females: a: M=0.12 sd=0.34 b: M=0.12 sd=0.34 c: M=0.42 sd=0.73 d: M=0.23 sd=0.51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=+.03 SE=.02 ns      b=+.05 SE=.03 p<.10
b: b=+.01 SE=.02 ns      b=-.04 SE=.02 ns
c: b=-.02 SE=.01 ns      b=-.05 SE=.02 p<.01
d: b=-.07 SE=.02 p<.01   b=-.08 SE=.02 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Employment status
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 7,23,24,41
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
a. Kids under 18 Years
b. Kids 18+ aged
c. No Kids

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=
% Unhappy      married   unmarried
Kids under 18  8%        27%  
Kids 18+       13%       21% 
No Kids        10%       14%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=
% Very Happy   married   unmarried 
-Kids under 18  44%       19%  
-Kids 18+ aged  41%       26% 
-No Kids        43%       25%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyHanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977
TitleFamily Development and Adjustment to Marital Separation.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1983, Vol. 68, 19 - 40
PublicRecently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79
Sample
Non-ResponseT1: 39 % , T2: 48 %
Respondents N =210

Correlate
Author's labelAge of oldest child
Page in Source 29
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
Age oldest child in the household
-at T1 (0 - 2 years after separation )
-at T2 (0 - 4,5 years after separation)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-/0
Assiociation with level of happiness:
-T1 age oldest by T1 happiness: b = - (ns)
-T2 age oldest by T2 happiness: b = 0 (ns)

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab= +
Association with change in happiness T1 - T2:
-T1 age oldest by change happiness b = + (05)
-T2 age oldest by change happiness b = + (ns)

b's controlled for: age, sexe, education, 
workstatus, income, occupational status, and 
family history.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyFaver (1982): study US 1977
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Life-Cycle: The Effects of Values and Roles on Women's Well-Being.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1982, Vol. 66, 435 - 452
Public22-64 aged women, USA, 1977
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1120

Correlate
Author's labelLife cycle group
Page in Source 438,439,442-444
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
For age cohort 22-34:
a) Single childless women 
b) Married childless women
c) Married mothers of preschool children
d) Married mothers of elementary school children
e) Single mothers

For age cohort 45-64
f) Married mothers of children and adolescents
g) Married mothers of adult children
h) Single mothers of children and adolescents
i) Single mothers of adult children 
j) Childless women
Observed distributionAge group 22-34 :Total N=380 a) N= 91(23,95%) b) N=67(17,89 %), c) N=132 (34,74 %), d) N=56(14,47%), e) N=34 (8,95 %) Age group 45-64: Total N=373 f) =128 (34,32%), g) N=154 (41,28%), h) N= 28 (7,51 %), i) N= 45 (12,06%), j) N=18 (4,83%)
Remarks
N of subgroups is estimated from %.
Age cohort 35-44 is not included in further analysis of 
life cycle groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
Age cohort 22-34:
a Single childless                 M=3,92 N=89
b Married childless                M=4,39 N=66
c Married preschool child          M=3,89 N=131
d Married basic school child       M=4,22 N=54
e Single mothers                   M=4,06 N=33
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=3,20 p < .01
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
Age cohort 45-64
f) Married children/adolescents   M=4,25 N=124
g) Married adult children         M=4,30 N=150
h) Single children/adolescents    M=3,68 N= 28
i) Single adult children          M=3,86 N= 44
j) Childless women                M=3,88 N= 17
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=3,36 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyMcNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971
TitleBlessed are the Downtrodden? An Empirical Test.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1978, Vol. 39, 303 - 320
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelAge of children
Page in Source 310
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1: Youngest child under 6
2: Youngest child over 6 and under 18
3: Youngest child over 18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.06 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children < age 6
Page in Source 1070
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.22 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.22 ns
B's controlled for:
- Age
- N of children
- Size of place
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- respondents present or last job status
- social desirability
- time pressure

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyMcLanahan & Adams (1989): study US 1957
TitleThe Effect of Children on Adults Psychological Well-Being 1957 - 1976.
SourceSocial Forces, 1989, Vol. 68, 124 - 146
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1957-1976
Sample
Non-Response± 30%
Respondents N =4664

Correlate
Author's labelYoung kids
Page in Source 131+133/4
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1 Parents with pre-school children.
0 Non-parents 
  (Including young adults who have
  not yet children and adults who
  have passed children-bearing age).
Remarks
       

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
M is Mean happiness on range 0-1: (1= very happy)
           Parents with  Non parents
           young kids
1957       M=0.42        M=0.33
1976       M=0.34        M=0.32
           
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aalgt=- ns
Logit coefficient controlled for: education, 
gender, age, marital status (whether ever 
married). Logit analysis based on combined 
datasets.

Between 1957 and 1976 living with young children 
reduced the odds of high happiness by 33%.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyMcLanahan & Adams (1989): study US 1957
TitleThe Effect of Children on Adults Psychological Well-Being 1957 - 1976.
SourceSocial Forces, 1989, Vol. 68, 124 - 146
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1957-1976
Sample
Non-Response± 30%
Respondents N =4664

Correlate
Author's labelSchoolkids
Page in Source 131+133/4
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
1 Parents whose youngest child is of
  school age
0 Non-parents 
  (Including young adults who have
  not yet children and adults who
  have passed the childbearing age). 
Remarks
        

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
M is Mean happiness on range 0-1: (1= very happy)
           Parents with  Non parents
           schoolkids
1957       M=0.35        M=0.33
1976       M=0.33        M=0.32
             
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aalgt=- ns
Logit coefficient controlled for: education, 
gender, age, marital status (whether ever 
married). Logit analysis based on combined 
datasets.

Change between 1957 and 1976 not significant.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Age of children
Subject code: C04ab01

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelLife-cycle stage
Page in Source 574
Our classificationAge of children, code C04ab01
Operationalization
0 = no pre-school children
1 = pre-school child in the home (< 6 years)
Observed distribution0 = 30%; 1 = 70 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.10 p < .10
Beta controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband’s occupation (professional or not)
- number of children

Unaffected by:
- number of roles
- Employment
- Interaction between:
  o Roles/employment
  o Roles/husband’s occupation
  o Employment/husband’s occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gender of children
Subject code: C04ab02

StudyZhang & Liu (2007): study CN 2002
TitleChildlessness, Psychlogical Well-being and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly in China
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 2007, 22:185-203
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10823-007-9037-3
Public65+ aged, China, 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13447

Correlate
Author's labelSex composition of children
Page in Source 191, 193
Our classificationGender of children, code C04ab02
Operationalization
Parents were operationalized as:
a: parents with sons
b: parents with daughters 
c: parents with both sons and daughters (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
Parents with sons only (vs sons and daughters)
B controlled for 
- age
- gender 
- education
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 ns
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.01 p < .01
Parents with daughters (vs sons and daughters) 
B controlled for 
- age
- gender 
- education
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 ns
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Gender of children
Subject code: C04ab02

StudyErlandsson et al. (2010): study US 1989
TitleWomen’s Perceived Frequency of Disturbing Interruptions and Its Relationship to Self-Rated Health and Satisfaction with Life as a Whole.
SourceStress and Health, 2010, Vol. 26, 225 - 232
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smi.1287/pdf
PublicSingle black mothers receiving child care, Ohio, United States, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =111

Correlate
Author's labelGender of Child
Page in Source 29.30
Our classificationGender of children, code C04ab02
Operationalization
Responses to rhe queston, "Is your three- or 
four-year-old child a boy or a girl?"
1 boy
0 girl

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-ar=-.27 p < .01
Less hapy with a boy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Behavior of one's children
Subject code: C04ab03

StudyLevitt et al. (1986): study US 1984
TitleSocial Network Relationships as Sources of Maternal Support and Well-Being.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1986, Vol. 22, 310 - 316
PublicMothers of 13-months infants, Florida, U.S.A., 1984
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =43

Correlate
Author's labelInfant difficulty
Page in Source 314
Our classificationBehavior of one's children, code C04ab03
Operationalization
Rating by mother on Lerner e.a. (1982)
Dimension Of Temperament Survey (DOTS).
High scores indicate high activity,
low attention,low adaptability,high
reactivity and low rhythmicity.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=-.36 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Handicap/health of one's children
Subject code: C04ab04

StudyBränholm & Degerman (1992): study SE 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Activity Preferences in Parents of Down's Syndrome Children.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 1992, Vol. 20, 37 - 44
PublicBiological parents of children with Down's syndrome, Norbotton County, Sweden, 1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response0%
Respondents N =74

Correlate
Author's labelParents with or without Down's syndrome child
Page in Source 120
Our classificationHandicap/health of one's children, code C04ab04
Operationalization
1.Parents of normal children
2.Parents of children with Down's syndrome.
Observed distributionN= 1: 89; 2: 74
Remarks
1.is referencegroup reported in BRAEN 1992/2. See also 
FUGL 1992.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aD%=+ ns
% Happy (scores e+f)  
1. parents of normal children 79
2. parents with Down child    81
- difference                  +2
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-atc=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Handicap/health of one's children
Subject code: C04ab04

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelPremature birth
Page in Source 105
Our classificationHandicap/health of one's children, code C04ab04
Operationalization
0 fullterm birth
1 premature

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=-05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Handicap/health of one's children
Subject code: C04ab04

StudyFriedrich & Friedrich (1981): study US 1979
TitlePsychological Assets of Parents of Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Children.
SourceAmerican Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1981, Vol. 85, 551 - 553
PublicMothers withhandicapped child at home and controls, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response32% and 43%(control)
Respondents N =68

Correlate
Author's labelHandicapped child athome
Page in Source 553
Our classificationHandicap/health of one's children, code C04ab04
Operationalization
0 Mothers of a non-handicapped child
1 Mothers of a handicapped child

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-?-?q-?-0-aDM=- p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Happiness of one's children
Subject code: C04ab05

StudyWinkelmann (2004): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleSubjective Well-Being and the Family: Results from an Ordered Probit Model with Miultiple Random Effects.
SourceEmpirical Economics, 2005, Vol. 30, 749 - 761
DOIDOI:10.1007/s00181-005-0255-7
PublicParents and their 16+ aged children, West-Germany, followed from 1984 to 1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1309

Correlate
Author's labelInterdependence long-term subjective well-being parents/children
Page in Source 15
Our classificationHappiness of one's children, code C04ab05
Operationalization
Correspondence in reported life satisfaction of parents 
and children over 14 year period.
Observed distribution25168 person-year observations for 1309 different families
Remarks
Assessed every year during 14 years. Calculated using 
bivariate cross tabulation of responses to the same 
question on life satisfaction at the same time.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=966
father and child correspondence in happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dChi²=1018
Mother and child correspondence in happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and Success of one's children
Subject code: C04ab07

StudyAbrams & Hall (1972): study GB 1971
TitleThe Condition of the British People: Report on a Pilot Survey using Self-Rating Scales.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Social Science Research Council, 1972, London, UK
Public15+ aged, middle class, Britain, 1971
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =213

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with children's education
Page in Source 21
Our classificationSuccess of one's children, code C04ab07
Operationalization
Closed question rated on an 11-point
self-anchoring scale, based on Cantril
(1965)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-br=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ac

StudyHeadey (1981): study AU 1978
TitleThe Quality of Life in Australia.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1981, Vol. 9, 155 - 181
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00286195
PublicAdults, general public, Australia, 1978
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =679

Correlate
Author's labelYour children
Page in Source 166
Our classificationAttitudes to characteristics of one's children, code C04ac
Operationalization
1 single question on satisfaction with: your children, 
scored on a 1-9 rating scale.
Observed distributionM = 7.9 SD = 1.2
Remarks
Item scored on the same rating scale as the question on 
happiness.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.36 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ac

StudyBrinkerhoff et al. (1997): study IN Other place in India 1996 /2
TitleBasic Minimum Needs, Quality of Life and Selected Correlates: Explorations in Villages in Northern India.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 245 - 281
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006834830518
PublicAdult, general public, two poor rural villages, Garhwal area, Northern India, 1996
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response341
Respondents N =0

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with son' s education
Page in Source 273
Our classificationAttitudes to characteristics of one's children, code C04ac
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-ar=+.12 ns
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-ar=+.07 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to characteristics of one's children
Subject code: C04ac

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelFamily satisfaction
Page in Source 51,128,137,140,143
Our classificationAttitudes to characteristics of one's children, code C04ac
Operationalization
All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with 
each of the following:
a your children,
b Your family life
c Your marriage

Rated: 1= not at all satisfied, 2 = not too satisfied, 
3 = somewhat satisfied, 4 = very satisfied, 5 = 
extremely satisfied
Observed distributionMarried Fathers: M=4,1, SD=.68, Married Mothers M = 3,8 SD = .78, Single Mothers M=3,6 SD = .57
Error Estimatesalpha = =.77
Remarks
For single parents the item on marriage was substituted 
for missing values on the marital satisfaction 
question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.39 p < .01
Married Fathers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.48 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.55 p < .01
Married Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.63 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.60 p < .01
Single Mothers
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-ir=+.63 p < .01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-?-?q-?-0-aSelfreport on multiple questions:

Items not reported

Variant Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BW-cy-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 10 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. As I read each item, I ask that you refer to your response card an d tell me to wgat extent you have felt in that way during the past year :
A exited
B enthusiastic
C alert
D inspired
E determined
F distressed
G scared
H upset
I nervous
J ashamed

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 somewhat
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Negative affect score (NAS): F to J
Positive affect score (PAS): A to G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Shortened Watson's PANAS; Kiercher version
C-BW-g-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

… your life in general … (full question not reported)
9 best I could expect to have
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 worst I could expect to have
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-CO-u-mq-n-11-aSelfreport on five questions:

a: My life is going well
b: My life is just right
c: I wish I had a different kind of life
d: I have a good life
e: I have all I want in life

Rated:
1: strongly disagree
2
3
4.
5: strongly agree

Computation: (a+b+c+d+e)/5
M-FH-?-sq-f-7-aSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported
Rated on a 7-step pictorial faces scale, presented on a card
(pictures not shown here)
7 smiling face, very happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 frowning face, very unhappy
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question

Currently, how happy are you feeling?
10 very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very unhappy
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking; how would you say, you are these days.....?
1 very happy
2 pretty happy
3 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"When you take everything into consideration, your child, your adult life, etc, how would you describe your current life situation.....?'
1 things are very bad right now
2
3
4
5 things are very good
(Response options not fully reported)
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How do you rate your life at present?
1 bad or very bad
2 fair
3 good
4 very good
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with the life you currently lead?
5 extraordinary satisfied
4 very satisfied
3 satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
1 not very satisfied
O-SLu-?-sq-l-5-aSelfreport on single question:

"..... satisfaction with life ......"
(full lead item not reported)

Rated on a wooden miniature ladder, handed to the respondent
[ 5 ] very satisfied
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] very dissatisfied
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-l-11-bSelfreport on single question:

"How dissatisfied would you say you are with things in general today?'
Rated on ladder scale
[ 10 ] completely satisfied
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ 0 ] completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-fSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are very unsatisfied, please tick '0'. When you are partly satisfied, tick '5', and when you are very satisfied please tick '10'.
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5 partly satisfied
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole?
1 not at all satisfied
2 not too satisfied
3 very satisfied
4 extremely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rSelf report on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

"How satisfying are these different aspects of your life? Indicate the number which best suits your situation. Life as a whole is....."
1 very dissatisfying
2 dissatisfying
3 rather dissatisfying
4 rather satisfying
5 satisfying
6 very satisfying

This item was followed by eight questions on life domain satisfactions.
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aSelfrepiort on single question:

I think of my life as interesting and satisfying
1 disagree
2 mostly agree
3 neither agree or disagree
4 mostly agree
5 agree


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Chi²CHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
Chi² <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
Chi² >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
lgtLOGIT COEFFICIENT
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: unlimited

Meaning:
lgt = 0 « no association at all;
lgt -> -/+ infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows a perfect prediction of the happiness.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OPRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OPRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered probit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absolute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
SNRStatistic Not Reported
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11848 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6189 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1137 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12252 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8495 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2106 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15522 correlational findings observed in 2051 studies, excerpted from 1565 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)114
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE668
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)314
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN34
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION114
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION527
E02EMPLOYMENT 793
E03ETHNICITY171
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)320
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP238
G01GENDER633
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS120
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER226
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR33
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION243
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING264
I01INCOME1054
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY143
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS462
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS107
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT705
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS874
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER78
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH306
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1005
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION199
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION133
N10NUTRITION37
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 819
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION425
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT152
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL205
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS85
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS166
T01TIME 104
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)163
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS120
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C04ab01Age of childrenF02aaFamily career (family life-cycle)
C04ab03Behavior of one's childrenC06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)
C04ab04Handicap/health of one's childrenH13ac01bHandicapped persons in household
C04ab05Happiness of one's childrenH08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS
C04ab07Success of one's childrenS05SOCIAL MOBILITY
C04acAttitudes to characteristics of one's childrenC03adAttitude to having children
C04acAttitudes to characteristics of one's childrenC06acAttitudes to parenting

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings