Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)
Subject Code: C03

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)1
C03aaParental career4
C03aa01Ever had children (vs not)21
C03aa02Change in parental status4
C03aa02bBirth of children10
C03aa02cLeaving home of children (empty nest)8
C03aa02dDeath of children4
C03aa03Later children1
C03aa03aExpects to get children later0
C03aa03bActually got children later (follow-up)4
C03abCurrent parental status41
C03ab01Number of children113
C03ab02Children in the household81
C03adAttitude to having children4
C03ad01Satisfaction with having children at all2
C03ad02Satisfaction with number of children1
C03ad02aNumber of children as planned1
C03ad02bMore children wanted0
C03ab03Non-biological children2
C03ab03aAdoptive children0
C03ab03bFoster children0
C03ab03cStep children3
C03acTime trend of happiness of parents and childless0
C03aa02aAge at birth of first child1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C03
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)
Subject code: C03

StudyMielke (1997): study DE 1990
TitleWohlbefinden und Fitness. Eine empirische Analyse zur Lebens-, Gesundheits- und Freizeitzufriedenheit ńlterer Menschen. (Welfare and Fitness of Elderly).
SourceDissertation, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, 1997, Germany
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 1990-1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Responseonknown
Respondents N =6000

Correlate
Author's labelhaving children
Page in Source 48
Our classificationCHILDREN: HAVING (parental status), code C03
Operationalization
1 children:yes

0    "     no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aD%=3
%satisfied with life:
having children:50
having not:47


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental career
Subject code: C03aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelwith/without children
Page in Source 152-164
Our classificationParental career, code C03aa
Operationalization
0: no children
1: children
Observed distributionN 0: 1238; 1:2900

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=7,71
1: Mt=7.84
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=7.78   Mt=7.68
1: Mt=7.75   Mt=7.96
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=7.84  Mt=6.86      
1:Mt=7.96  Mt=7.06
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=7.31
1: Mt=7.51
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=7.36   Mt=7.26
1: Mt=7.53   Mt=7.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=7.44  Mt=6.48      
1:Mt=7.68  Mt=6.61
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=6.78
1: Mt=7.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=6.85   Mt=6.73
1: Mt=7.18   Mt=7.15
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=6.88  Mt=6.08      
1:Mt=7.26  Mt=6.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental career
Subject code: C03aa

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelchildlessness
Page in Source 330,332
Our classificationParental career, code C03aa
Operationalization
childlesness
1: all with children
2: first pregnancies(for men: Partner's..)
3: all without children
3a: have chosen not to have children
3b: involuntary childless
Observed distributionN WOMEN All:2714; %:1:75,1; 2:1,7; 3:24,7; 3a:2,2; 3b:5,5 N MEN All:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.73   1: Mt=7.93
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.83
3:  Mt=7.69   3: Mt=7.54
3a: Mt=7.91   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.86   3b:Ms=7.98
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.51   1: Mt=7.54
2:  Mt=8.34   2: Mt=8.64
3:  Mt=7.28   3: Mt=7.15
3a: Mt=7.73   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.69   3b:Ms=7.55
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.18   1: Mt=7.15
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.43
3:  Mt=6.81   3: Mt=6.65
3a: Mt=7.14   3a:Ms=6.39
3b: Mt=7.01   3b:Ms=7.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental career
Subject code: C03aa

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelYears since first child:
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationParental career, code C03aa
Operationalization
Years since first child
Remarks
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
Family situation assessed at:
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.03 p < .05
B controlled for personal characteristics:
- age
- age▓
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
and years since transition
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=-.07
B additionally controled for above transition 
variables squared


Correlational finding on Happiness and Parental career
Subject code: C03aa

StudySander (2011): study US 2000 /1
TitleLocation and Happiness in the United States.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2011, Vol. 112, 277 - 279
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.econlet.2011.05.015
Public25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6563

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 278
Our classificationParental career, code C03aa
Operationalization
Self-reported on two questions:
A) Are you currently--married, widowed, divorced, 
separated, or have you never been married?
B) How many children have you ever had?

a) married 
b) married with kids
c) not married with kids
d) not married and no kids (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+43 p < .01
MARRIED 
(vs not married and no kids)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=+.02 ns
MARRIED WITH KIDS     
(vs not married and no kids)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaOPRC=-.19 p < .01
NOT MARRIED WITH KIDS 
(vs not married and no kids)

OPRC's controlled for:
- health
- living in a metropol
- age and age squared
- income
- gender
- country of birth
- religion
- race
- working full-time
- region in US
- former education


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyChappell & Badger (1989): study CA Winnipeg, Manitoba 1985
TitleSocial Isolation and Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1989, Vol. 44, 169 - 176
Public60+ aged, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 1985
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25%
Respondents N =743

Correlate
Author's labelSocial Isolation
Page in Source 170-172
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Self report of non-instrumental social contacts:
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
b: minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
d: not married (vs married) 
e: no children (vs has children)
f: no companions (vs has companions)
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
h: no children plus not married (vs has children plus 
married)
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children plus 
not live alone)
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live alone 
plus has confidants)
Observed distributiona:40%, b:10%, c:31%, d:40%; e:15%, f:4%, g:16%, h:9%; i:8%, j:7%
Remarks
All respondents named someone in their social network, 
which could include: people in their household, 
parents, siblings, children, other relatives, friends, 
and neighbours. No one was totally isolated. Those 
involved in instrumental relations, such as health care 
worker or a shopkeeper are not included in these 
figures. Size of social network is not included as an 
indicator of social isolation.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-.22 ns
a: no daily contact (vs has daily contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=.52 ns
b:minimal weekly contact (vs less or no contact)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=2.74 p < .01
c: live alone (vs not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.55 p < .001
d: not married (vs married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=-61 ns
e: no children (vs has children)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=4.89 p < .001
f: no companions (vs has companions)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.54 p < .001
g: no confidants (vs has confidants)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.03 ns
h: no children plus not married (vs has children 
plus married)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=1.16 ns
i: no children plus live alone (vs has children 
plus not live alone)
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ot.=3.90 p < .001
j: live alone plus no confidants (vs not live 
alone plus has confidants)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyWang et al. (2013): study CN 2008
TitleHappiness and Job Satisfaction in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Two Generations of Migrants and Urban Locals.
SourceDiscussion Paper No. 08-13, 2013, Monash University, Department of Economics, USA
Public19+ aged, general public, China, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5395

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Please tell me some simple information about yourself, 
your father, mother, spouse, and other people who live 
in this household within this week:

1: when at least one child is reported.
0: when no children are reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.00 ns
FULL SAMPLE               (N=5395)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.00 ns
FIRST-GENERATION MIGRANTS (N=2213)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=-.00 ns
NEW-GENERATION MIGRANTS   (N=444)
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-hb=+.00 ns
URBAN LOCALS              (N=2738)

B's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- gender
- years of education
- marital status
- health status
- hourly income
- region of residence
- surface area of house
- number of friends
- perceived recent change in social class
- job satisfaction

Full sample is additionally controlled for migrant 
status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyZhang & Liu (2007): study CN 2002
TitleChildlessness, Psychlogical Well-being and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly in China
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 2007, 22:185-203
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10823-007-9037-3
Public65+ aged, China, 2002
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13447

Correlate
Author's labelChildless
Page in Source 191, 193
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0: Childless: having no children ever born or having 
children born, of which none is surviving at the time 
of the survey, and no adoption of any children
1: Has living children
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH Team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.19 p < .01
B controlled for 
- age
- gender 
- education
O-QOL-c-sq-v-4-bb=+.12 p < .10
B additionally controlled for 
- residence
- living arrangements
- access to pension 
- access to medical services


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelfirst-born boy
Page in Source 424
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- number of additional children

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.23 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.17 (05)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- first-born girl
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.18 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.05 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield different 
results:
- females, controlled for first-born girl and 
number of additional children Beta = +.11 (01)
- males, controlled for first-born girl and number 
of additional children Beta = +.24 (01)
- females, controlled for first-born girl, number 
of additional children and currently in 
partnership Beta = +.03 (ns)
- males, controlled for first-born girl, number of 
additional children and currently in partnership 
Beta = +.13 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelfirst-born girl
Page in Source 424
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ s
Beta's controlled for:
- number of additional children

females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.20 (01)
males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.10 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership

females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.14 (05)
males aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.02 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regression across all subjects yield similar 
results, except:
- females, controlled for first-born boy and 
number of additional children Beta = +.11 (01)
- males, controlled for first-born boy and number 
of additional children Beta = +.16 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelat least one child
Page in Source 428, 429
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ ns
Betaĺs controlled for:
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership
- interaction between currently in partnership 
- at least one child

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.16 (ns)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.08 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership
- remaining with the same partner as for the first 
child

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.22 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.01 (ns)

Regression analysis with following controlled 
variables yield similar results:
- number of additonal children, currently in 
partnership, remaining with the same partner as 
for the first child, number of stepchildren
- number of additonal children, currently in 
parnership, first birth at or before age 21

also the interaction between partnership and at 
least one child does not matter
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield similar 
results, except:
- females, controlled for number of additional 
children, currently in partnership and interaction 
between currently in partnership and at least one 
child Beta = -.06 (ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional 
children, currently in partnership and remaining 
with the same partner as for the child Beta = +.00 
(ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional 
children, currently in partnership, remaining with 
the same partner as for the child  and number of 
stepchildren Beta = +.00 (ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional 
children, currently in partnership and first birth 
at or before age 21 Beta = +.04 (ns)
- males, controlled for number of additional 
children, currently in partnership and first birth 
at or before age 21 Beta = +.10 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyErlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002
TitleNowhere Better Than Here? The Subjective Well-Being of German Emigrants and Remigrants.
SourceComparative Population Studies-Zeitschrift fŘr Bev÷lkerungswissenschaft, 2011, Vol. 36, 899 -926
URLhttp://www.comparativepopulationstudies.de/index.php/CPoS/article/view/80
Public15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11096

Correlate
Author's labelHas children
Page in Source 911, 916, 918
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Have you ever had any children of your own, 
step-children, adopted children, foster children or a 
partnerĺs children living in your household?
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution1: 32.5%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-ab=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.03 ns
B's controlled for:
- immigration status
- age
- age^2
- education
- employment
- gender
- friends
- partner
- health
- general trustfullness
- satisfaction with democracy
- frequency of praying
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelNever had children
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0: Never had children
1: Ever had children, all still alive (reference)
Observed distribution0: N=23 men and 30 women; 1: N=59 men and 48 women
Remarks
Order changed by WDH-team.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
NEVER HAD CHILDREN (vs ever had children, all 
alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.02 ns
Females

B's controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.03 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.08 ns
Females 

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 183
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0: No children
1: Other
    a: One child
    b: Two children
    c: Three children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.09 ns
ONE CHILD (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.00 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.28 p < .05
TWO CHILDREN (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.49 p < .05
THREE CHILDREN (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.33 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyGaymu & Springer (2010): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleLiving Conditions and Life Satisfaction of Older Europeans Living Alone: A Gender and Cross-country Analysis
SourceAgeing and Society 30, 2010, 1153-1175
DOIdoi: 10.1017/S0144686X10000231
Public60+ aged living alone, 10 European Nations, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3501

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Context
Page in Source 1162, 1164
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1: Childless
2: Daily contact
3: No daily contact

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%=-
MEN                % happy
- childless        27,2
- daily contact    30,2
- no daily contact 33.3
-difference         6.1
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eD%=+
WOMEN              % happy
- childless        30,1
- daily contact    29,4
- no daily contact 24.4
-difference         5.7
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.29 p < .01
NO DAILY CONTACT (vs childless)


OR controlled for: 
-age
-gender
-marital status
-limitations in daily activities
-education
-income
-house ownership
-neighborhood
-infrastructure
-receives help
-provides help
-leisure
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eOR=1.22 ns
OR additionally controlled for country

OR's computed for 'very satisfied or satisfied' 
(vs not satisfied)
Similar results when computed for 'very satisfied' 
(vs satisfied and not satisfied)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelparental history
Page in Source 113, 123
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1: Ever had children, all still alive
0: Never had children (ref.)
Observed distribution1: males 73,8%, females 69,4% 0: males 11,6%, females 15,9%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
EVER HAD CHILDREN, ALL STILL ALIVE (vs never had 
children)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.21 p < .01
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.15 p < .05
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.07 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for: 
- marital history
- early retirement
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelFirst child
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1 first child
0 other
Observed distributionN in this situation: T1= 135, T1-T3=176, T3-T4=167, T3-T5 or T4-T5=165, Total=643
Remarks
Family situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who got 
a first child during this 12 year period and Ss 
who did not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .05
B controlled for:
personal characteristics:
- age
- age▓
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner-
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.30 p < .01
additional controlled for years since transition :
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.35 p < .00
Above control for years since transition squared

Stronger among females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyVeenhoven (2000b): study NL 1965
TitleHoe diep zit de Kinderwens? ( Does the Want for Children draw on a Need?)
SourceFreya Magazine, 2000, Vol. 16, 15 - 19.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8796
Public25-65 aged, married peole, Tthe Netherlands, 1965
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1376

Correlate
Author's labelChildlessness
Page in Source 7
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1 has chlidren
0 no children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Vństra G÷talands lńn 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelHas children
Page in Source 79
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelHas a child
Page in Source 253
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1: has at least one living biological or adopted child
0: other
Observed distribution1: 82%
Error Estimatess.e.=0.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=-.09 ns
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.03
b and Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- self rated physical health
- religious participation

Beta unaffected by additionsl control for
- religious social identity


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyBartram (2011): study US 1995
TitleEconomic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 103, 57 - 76
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9696-2
Public18-94 aged natives and immigrants, USA, 1995
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response203
Respondents N =1339

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 64-65-67-69-71
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Percentage of respondents:
0:   no children (reference)
1a: one child
1b: two or more children
Observed distributiona) Total sample: M=23.6; Natives: M=21.7 Total immigrants: M=30.0; European and Canadian immigrants: M=14.6; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=38.0 b) Total sample: M=13.1; Natives: M=13.1 Total immigrants: M=13.3; European and Canadian immigrants: M=19.6; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=10.1 c) Total sample: M=63.3; Natives: M=65.2 Total immigrants: M=56.7; European and Canadian immigrants: M=65.9; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=51.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.05 p < .096
ONE CHILD (vs no children)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-.31 p < .096
ONE CHILD (vs no children)

B=-.07 (p<.69) when additionally controlled for 
financial satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-.43 p < .152
TWO OR MORE CHILDREN (vs none)

B=-.20 (p<.15) when controlled for financial 
satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.11 p < .152
TWO OR MORE CHILDREN (vs none)

B's and Beta's controlled for: 
- Immigrant status
- Log income
- Interaction income*immigrant status
- Marital status 
- Age
- Unemployed
- Religion
- Health

Similar results are found in an ordered logit 
model.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyPinhey et al. (1997): study US Guam 1991
TitleOverweight and Happiness: The Reflected Self-Appraisal Hypothesis Reconstructed.
SourceSocial Science Quarterly, 1997, Vol. 78, 747 - 755.
DOIDOI:9710113640
Public18+ aged, general public, Guam, USA, 1991
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response29,6
Respondents N =398

Correlate
Author's labelParent
Page in Source 752
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
1: parent
0: others

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab=+.15 ns
B controled for
- BMI
- ethnicity
- age
- sexe
- education
- income
- employed
- marital status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyLevinson (2011): study US 1984
TitleValuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of Air Quality
SourceJorunal of Public Economics, 96, 869-880
Public15+ aged, general public, United States, 1984-1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =6035

Correlate
Author's labelKids
Page in Source 873
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
0 no child
1 has children
Observed distributionHas children 70%, no child 30%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.11 p < .01
b(-.111) controlled for
-Personal characteristics
  - Income
  - Age
  - Gender
  - Marital status
  - Employment status  
  - Education levels
  - Health status
  - Children
  - Religiosity
-Environment
  - Pollution
  - Rain 
  - Temperature


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyGove & Zeiss (1987): study US 1974
TitleMultiple Roles and Happiness.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 125 -137
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1975
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response23,3%
Respondents N =2248

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 126,128
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
a Not a parent
b parent with at least one child at home
c parent with children who all have left home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
WOMEN
Married, has work
- No children       M = 3,56
- Children at home  M = 3,38
- Children away     M = 3,36
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Married, No work
- No children       M = 3,40
- Children at home  M = 3,37
- Children away     M = 3,36
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, has work
- No children       M = 3,23
- Children at home  M = 3,17
- Children away     M = 2,97
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, no work
- No children       M = 3,04
- Children at home  M = 2,93
- Children away     M = 2,87
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
MEN
Married, has work 
- No children       M = 3,37
- Children at home  M = 3,21
- Children away     M = 3,50
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Married, No work
- No children       M = 2,97
- Children at home  M = 3,14
- Children away     M = 3,44
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, has work
- No children       M = 3,03
- Children at home  M = 2,64
- Children away     M = 3,01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, No work
- No children       M = 2,84
- Children at home  M = 2,89
- Children away     M = 2,82


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelFamilial roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: 
- spouse
- parent
- grandparent
- sibling
- child
- grandchild

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r=+.37 ns females: r=+.54 01
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.24 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly weds)       
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.42 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 ns
Women only (no curvilinearity has been found in 
the correlation egocentricity and well-being)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.06 ns
men only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever had children (vs not)
Subject code: C03aa01

StudyVeroff et al. (1962): study US 1957
TitleDimensions of subjective adjustment.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, Vol. 64, 192 - 205
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0043247
Public21+ aged, married, with childeren, USA, 1957
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =797

Correlate
Author's labelNegative orientationto children
Page in Source 196
Our classificationEver had children (vs not), code C03aa01
Operationalization
Coder rating of answers on open-ended question on 
changes in a person's life as a result of having 
chilren: positive / neutral / negative.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-3-atb= -
Males   : _b = -.04 (ns)
Females : _b = -.06 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in parental status
Subject code: C03aa02

StudyKainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
TitleElńmńntapahtumat ja Elńmńńn Tyytyvńisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Responsenot rep
Respondents N =2682

Correlate
Author's labelSingle parenthood
Page in Source 261
Our classificationChange in parental status, code C03aa02
Operationalization
Have you experienced single parenthood
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers:   No(=0)  or  Yes(=1).
Observed distributionNever: N= 2190 Ever in your life: N = 248

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.06
during the last year
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gr=-.07
ever in your life
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-gDM=-
never:                   M = 3.88
ever in your life:       M = 3.66
95% CI for difference:   [0.10 : 0.22]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in parental status
Subject code: C03aa02

StudyJames & Hughes (1982): study GB 1977
TitlePsychological Well-Being as an Outcome Variable in the Treatment of Infertility by Clomiphine.
SourceBritish Journal of Medical Psychology, 1982, Vol. 55, 357 -377
PublicFemale fertility patients, Great Britain, 1977-80
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelsuccess of fertility treatment
Page in Source 376
Our classificationChange in parental status, code C03aa02
Operationalization
Successfull fertility treatment
1: positive: got pregnant
0: negative: did not get pregnant
Observed distributionN= a: 18, b:9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:    M = 5.7
treatment unsuccessfull: M = 4.0
- difference                +1.7
Set Image size:   

A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:   M = 2,11 SD = 0,52
treatment unsuccesfull: M = 1,43 SD = 1,73
- difference               +0,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in parental status
Subject code: C03aa02

StudyKalmuss et al. (1992): study US 1989
TitleShort-Term Consequences of Parenting Versus Adoption among Young Unmarried Woman.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 80 - 90
PublicUnmarried teenage mothers, USA, 1989-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response>10%
Respondents N =527

Correlate
Author's labelparenters versus placers
Page in Source 84-88
Our classificationChange in parental status, code C03aa02
Operationalization
Pregnancy resolution choice:
0: kept baby (parenters)
1: placed baby for adoption (placers)
Observed distributionparenters: 311; placers: 216
Remarks
interviews took place 6 month after giving birth

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-4-ab=+.04 ns
B controlled for:
- age in years
- race (black or withe)
- lived with both parents 
- received public assistance while growing up
- high school graduate
- lived in maternity residence while pregnant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in parental status
Subject code: C03aa02

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelGot a child
Page in Source 263,265
Our classificationChange in parental status, code C03aa02
Operationalization
1 did not get child since T1
2 got child since T1
Assessed at T3
Observed distributionN women=174; N men=174
Remarks
Initialially all respondents were childless.73(42%) of 
the couples, diagnosed as infertile, became parents by 
the final interview. 59 of them though the wife's 
pregnancy, whereas 14 couples adopted an infant.

Control group based on non-probability purposive sample 
of couples who desired a child and had no known 
fertility problems, matched for demographic profile

T1: 1988, T2: 1989, T3: 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+
Got a child since T1 by T3 happiness

- initially infertile
  - females r = +.19 (01)
  - males   r = +.08 (ns)
- presumed fertile controls
  - females r = +.01 (ns)
  - males   r = +.13 (ns)
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+
Got a child since T1 by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change in happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T1 happiness
 
- initially infertile
  - females Beta = +.21 (01)
  - males   Beta = +.02 (ns)
- presumed fertile controls
  - females Beta = -.05 (ns)
  - males   Beta = +.09 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Age at birth of first child
Subject code: C03aa02a

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelFirst birth at or before age 21
Page in Source 428, 429
Our classificationAge at birth of first child, code C03aa02a
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- at least one child
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = -.23 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield similar 
results, except
- females Beta = -.17 (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyBooth & VanOurs (2009): study AU 2001
TitleHours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-time Work Make the Family Happier?
SourceEconomica, 2009, Vol. 76, 176 - 196
DOIDOI:10,1111/1468-0335,2007,00670,x
PublicCouples, Australia, followed 4 years 2001-2004
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8170

Correlate
Author's labelChild born
Page in Source 183,192
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
0: No child born in household
1: New child born in household
Observed distributionscore =.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
ALL (correlation with couple's average happiness)  
                        + 0,22
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .10
WIVES ONLY                          + 0,17
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOLRC=+ p < .05
HUSBANDS ONLY                       + 0,20

OLCR's controlled for:
- family income
- health of spouce
- own health
- own employment
- employment of spouse

OLRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute 
effect size and denotes only relative 
differences
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-a
Fixed effect analysis yields similar results and 
this suggests that no other intervening variables 
are involved. (Fixed effect analysis uses person 
dummies to control for unobserved variables such 
as personality)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelHave a child in the coming year
Page in Source 7,8,21
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
0 Will not have a child in the coming year
1 Will have a child in the coming year
Observed distributionM = 0,04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .05
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelHad a baby in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=▒
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.01  Beta=+.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
West: Beta=+.10  Beta=+.18

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelGot first child
Page in Source 67,68,
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
Change in parental status: got first child
Observed distributionN for who this transition took place between different periods < T1= 135, T1-T3=176, T3-T4=167, T3-T5 or T4-T5=165, Total=643
Remarks
Parental status assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's denote CHANGE in happiness following CHANGE in 
parental status in individuals (fixed effects)
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.09 ns
B controlled for private life course transitions:
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
Set Image size:   

O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.14 ns
B controlled for public life course transitions:
- first paid job
- no job
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.26 p < .01
additional control for years since transition:
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.37 p < .01
B additionally controlled for above years since 
transition squared

Stronger positive for women. Also in the long run.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 450
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
a) number of children aged 0-6
b) number of children aged 7-17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.03
a) number of children 0-6, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.03
a) number of children 0-6, women
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.05
b) number of children 7-17, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.04
b) number of children 7-17, women

All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- health
- age
- employment status
- household income
- income in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelNewborn since last interview
Page in Source 450
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
Newborn since last interview: 1 yes, 0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.08
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.05
Women only


All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- health
- age
- employment status
- household income
- income in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelGot a child
Page in Source 263,265
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
1 did not get child since T1
2 got child since T1
Assessed at T3
Observed distributionN women=174; N men=174
Remarks
Initialially all respondents were childless.73(42%) of 
the couples, diagnosed as infertile, became parents by 
the final interview. 59 of them though the wife's 
pregnancy, whereas 14 couples adopted an infant.

Control group based on non-probability purposive sample 
of couples who desired a child and had no known 
fertility problems, matched for demographic profile

T1: 1988, T2: 1989, T3: 1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-br=+
Got a child since T1 by T3 happiness

- initially infertile
  - females r = +.19 (01)
  - males   r = +.08 (ns)
- presumed fertile controls
  - females r = +.01 (ns)
  - males   r = +.13 (ns)
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bBeta=+
Got a child since T1 by T1-T3 CHANGE in happiness
Change in happiness measured controling T3 
happiness for T1 happiness
 
- initially infertile
  - females Beta = +.21 (01)
  - males   Beta = +.02 (ns)
- presumed fertile controls
  - females Beta = -.05 (ns)
  - males   Beta = +.09 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyAbbey et al. (1994): study US 1988
TitlePsychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How are They Effected by Infertility, Gender and Parenthood?
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 1994, Vol. 15, 253 - 271
PublicInfertile couples and matched controls, followed 3 years, USA 1988-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =496

Correlate
Author's labelbirth of first child + conditions
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
a: T1 happiness
b: Got a child after T1 (vs not)
c: T3 psycho-social status
   - home stress
   - personal control
   - network support
   - spouse conflict
   - escape coping

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
 T3 happiness by a+b
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.25
- initially infertile women        N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.19
- initially infertile men          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.17
- presumed fertile women controls  N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.19
- presumed fertile male controls   N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-b
 T3 happiness by a+b+c
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.50
- initially infertile women        N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.57
- initially infertile men          N = 174
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.59
- presumed fertile women controls  N = 74
O-Sum-?-mq-v-8-bRa▓=.46
- presumed fertile male controls   N = 74


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelBirth of first child
Page in Source 710
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
First birth within last 10 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1: N = 73 ( 7,58 %)
Remarks
At T1 is observed if a family has any children under 
the age of 5. At T2 if a child was born in the last 5 
years.
Since the sample includes individuals formerly married, 
some marriages are begun with children present from 
former marriages. Hence a first birth may represent a 
subsequent birth for a individual who already had 
children. For most families with no child under 5 at 
the beginning of the study a child born during the 
study will be their first. Although this is not true 
for all the families.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.09 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happiness
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.14 ns
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Birth of children
Subject code: C03aa02b

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelBirth of additional child within past 5 years
Page in Source 710
Our classificationBirth of children, code C03aa02b
Operationalization
Additional child in the last 5 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1:N = 109 ( 11,32 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happinesss.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.28 p < .05
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyGorchoff et al. (2008): study US Alameda County, California 1981
TitleContextualizing Change in Marital Satisfaction during Middle Age.
SourcePsychological Science, 2008, Vol. 19, 1194 - 1200.
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02222.x
Public43-61 aged, married women, Berekley, United States, followed 18years from 1981-1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =72

Correlate
Author's labelTransition to an empty nest
Page in Source 1198
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
at T2: if at least one child at home at T1 but not at 
T2
at T3: at least one child at home at T2 but not at T3
Remarks
T1: when most of the women still had children at home 
(early 40s)
T2: when some but not all had empty nests (early 50s)
T3: when virtually all had empty nests (early 60s)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-u-sq-v-3-aAoV= ns
CHANGE to empty nest by CHANGE in happiness

unaffected by age, leaving home of last child was 
followed by a rise in marital satisfaction, but 
not on life satisfaction


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyGove & Zeiss (1987): study US 1974
TitleMultiple Roles and Happiness.
SourceCrosby, F.J.; Ed.: "Spouse, Parent, Worker", Yale University Press, 1987, New Haven, USA, 125 -137
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1975
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response23,3%
Respondents N =2248

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 126,128
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
a Not a parent
b parent with at least one child at home
c parent with children who all have left home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
WOMEN
Married, has work
- No children       M = 3,56
- Children at home  M = 3,38
- Children away     M = 3,36
Set Image size:   

O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Married, No work
- No children       M = 3,40
- Children at home  M = 3,37
- Children away     M = 3,36
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, has work
- No children       M = 3,23
- Children at home  M = 3,17
- Children away     M = 2,97
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, no work
- No children       M = 3,04
- Children at home  M = 2,93
- Children away     M = 2,87
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
MEN
Married, has work 
- No children       M = 3,37
- Children at home  M = 3,21
- Children away     M = 3,50
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Married, No work
- No children       M = 2,97
- Children at home  M = 3,14
- Children away     M = 3,44
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, has work
- No children       M = 3,03
- Children at home  M = 2,64
- Children away     M = 3,01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aaDM=
Not married, No work
- No children       M = 2,84
- Children at home  M = 2,89
- Children away     M = 2,82


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyHarkins (1978): study US 1973
TitleEffects of Empty Nest Transition on Self-report of Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 549 -556
PublicEmpty Nest mothers, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response33%
Respondents N =475

Correlate
Author's label Empty Nest
Page in Source 552, 553, 554
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
A: Objective: schoolstage youngest child 
   1: Pre-empty nest: still in high school
   2: Empty nest in transition: graduated 6-18 months 
ago
   3: Post-empty nest: graduated more than 2 years ago

B: Subjective: mothers definition of empty nest as 
youngest child
   1: graduated from high school
   2: going away to school
   3: having first job
   4: moving out
   5: gets married
   6: gets children
Observed distributionN: A:1+ 3:=203, 2=115; B:1=4, 2=130, 3=3, 4=124, 5=54, 6=0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+.52 ns
A: Objective empty nest stage
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=+1.8 p < .05
B: Subjective empty nest stage
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-2.8 p < .05
A-B difference: empty nest in objective sense, but 
not in subjective definition of mother
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ab=-1.5 p < .05
In transition: A2 (vs A1 and A3)

B's controlled for:
- age
- menopausel phase


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyGlenn (1975): study US 1972
TitlePsychological Well-Being in the Postparental Stage: Some Evidence from National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, Vol. 37, 105 -110
Public40-59 aged mothers, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-73
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelPostparental stage
Page in Source 106
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
0 Children still living with parents   1 'Empty nest'   
 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.12 ns
Age 40-49   : G' = +.10 (ns)
Age 50-59   : G' = +.27 (ns)
G' based on proportion very happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyGlenn (1975): study US 1971
TitlePsychological Well-Being in the Postparental Stage: Some Evidence from National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, Vol. 37, 105 -110
Public35-65 aged mothers, non-institutionalized, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =319

Correlate
Author's labelPostparental stage
Page in Source 106
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
0 Children still living with parents   1 'empty nest'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-g-sq-v-3-bG=+.12 ns
Age 35-49   : G' = +.19 (ns)
Age 50-64   : G' = +.32 (ns)
G' based on proportion very happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyThurnher (1974): study US 1969
TitleGoals, Values, and Life Evaluations at The PreRetirement Stage.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 85 - 96
URLhttps://www.geron.org/
Public55+ aged, people in transition, United States, 196?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelTransition of Retirement
Page in Source 86, 90
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
a: empty nest stage
   e.g. Ss whose youngest child was a high school 
senior and who were facing the imminent completion of 
the family cycle
b: pre-retired stage
   e.g. Ss anticipating retirement or retirement of 
spouse within 3 years
Observed distributionN: Males:a=26, b=28; Women:a=25, b=30

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-W-?-sq-v-3-aDM=
MALES              
a:Empty nest:  M=2,19; SD=0,57    
b:Pre-retired: M=1,57; SD=0,69    
- difference:   -0,62            

WOMEN
a:Empty nest:  M=1,88; SD=0,70
b:Pre-retired: M=2,03, SD=0,81
- difference:   +0,15
C-W-?-sq-v-3-aBMCT=
d


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyGlenn (1975): study US 1963
TitlePsychological Well-Being in the Postparental Stage: Some Evidence from National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, Vol. 37, 105 -110
Public40-59 aged mothers, non-institutionalized, USA, 1963-66
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =902

Correlate
Author's labelPostparental stage
Page in Source 106
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
0 Children still living with parents   1 'Empty nest'

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-cG=+.16 p < . 05
Age 40-49: G' = +.29 (01)
Age 50-59: G' = -.11 (ns)
G' based on proportion very happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Subject code: C03aa02c

StudyMcLanahan & Adams (1989): study US 1957
TitleThe Effect of Children on Adults Psychological Well-Being 1957 - 1976.
SourceSocial Forces, 1989, Vol. 68, 124 - 146
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1957-1976
Sample
Non-Response▒ 30%
Respondents N =4664

Correlate
Author's labelEmpty nest
Page in Source 131+133/4
Our classificationLeaving home of children (empty nest), code C03aa02c
Operationalization
1 Parents of adult children who have
  left home
0 Non-parents 
  (Including young adults who have
  not yet children and adults who have
  passed the childrenbearing age).
Remarks
           

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=-
M is Mean happiness on range 0-1: (1= very happy)
           Empty nest    Non parents
           parents   
1957       M=0.33       M=0.33
1976       M=0.30       M=0.32
      
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aalgt=+ ns
Logit coefficient controlled for: education, 
gender, age, marital status (whether ever 
married). Logit analysis based on combined 
datasets.

Change between 1957 and 1976 not significant.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of children
Subject code: C03aa02d

StudyDykstra & Wagner (2007): study DE 1990
TitlePathway to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes.
SourceJournal of Family Issues, 2007, Vol. 26, 1487 - 1517
DOIDOI:10.1177/0192513X07303879
Public70-100+ aged, West-Berlin, Germany 1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =516

Correlate
Author's labelLoss of children
Page in Source 1496, 1510
Our classificationDeath of children, code C03aa02d
Operationalization
0: Ever had children, all still alive  (reference)
1: Had, and lost, children
   1a: Lost children but not all
   1b: Lost all children
Observed distribution0: 59 men and 48 women; 1a:15 men and 15 women 1b: 3 men and 7 women.
Remarks
respondents who ever had children only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST CHILDREN, BUT NOT ALL (vs. all still alive))
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.09 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.09 ns
Females

B's controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.07 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.14 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history.
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST ALL CHILDREN (vs. all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.24 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.25 ns
Females

B controled for age
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.22 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.27 ns
Females

B's additionally controled for:
- marital history
- occupational history.

Loss of children has a negative impact on 
happiness of older men, but not of happiness of 
older women.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of children
Subject code: C03aa02d

StudyDykstra & Liefbroer (1998): study NL 1992
TitleKinderloos en toch Gelukkig? (Childless but Still Happy?)
SourceMens en Maatschappij, 1998, Vol. 73, 108 - 129
Public55-89 aged, The Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response38,3
Respondents N =3729

Correlate
Author's labelloss of children
Page in Source 123
Our classificationDeath of children, code C03aa02d
Operationalization
1: Had children: lost a child
   a: lost one but not all
   b: lost all children
0: Has children, all still alive (ref.)
Observed distribution1a: males 13,6%, females 13,3% 1b: males 0,9%, females 1,3% 0: males 73,8%, females 69,4%
Remarks
Respondents who never had children excluded (males 
11,6%, females 15,9%)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST A CHILD BUT NOT ALL (vs all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
Males: insufficient data
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Females
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-a
LOST ALL CHILDREN       (vs all still alive)
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=+.01 ns
Males
O-SLu-g-sq-n-5-ab=-.50 p < .01
Females

B's controled for:
- current age
- marital history
- early retirement
- occupational mobility


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of children
Subject code: C03aa02d

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelDeath child
Page in Source 27, 29, 35
Our classificationDeath of children, code C03aa02d
Operationalization
Response to open question: Would you please tell me 
anything that has happened to you (or your family) 
which has stoood out as important?

Death of child
1: mentioned
0: not mentioned
Observed distributionN= 1: 49, 0: 28000

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.40 ns
B controlled for death other intimates in previous 
year

B's controlled for:
- real household income per capita
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.43 ns
B additionally controled for:
- gender
- age
- household income (per household member)
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- children (number, age)
- homeownnership

Alternative measurement of control variable income 
does not make a difference
- household income one year ago
- household income and mean income

Weaker when income is measured using:
- log personal income
- observation of payslip and house prices
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.43 ns
- Controlled by death of peer before 1999, real 
household income per capita and mean income over 
time.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Death of children
Subject code: C03aa02d

StudyLehman et al. (1987): study US 1983 /1
TitleLong-Term Effects of Losing a Spouse or Child in a Motor Vehicle Crash.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, Vol. 52, 218 - 231
PublicBereaved and controls, USA, 1983
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =82

Correlate
Author's labelBereaved parent
Page in Source 223
Our classificationDeath of children, code C03aa02d
Operationalization
1: lost child in a traffic accident 4 to 7 years ago
0: control group matched for sociodemographics at time 
of accident.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-eDM=- p < .10
1: M       = 2,71
0: M       = 2,43
-difference -0,28
O-V-c-oq-n-5-aDM=- ns
1: M       = 1,76
0: M       = 1,63
-difference -0,13
O-V-c-oq-n-5-a
Higher mean scores represent worse psychological 
well-being. Hence bereaved are less happy.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later children
Subject code: C03aa03

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 458
Our classificationLater children, code C03aa03
Operationalization
The average number of children living in the 
respondent's household over the course of the study.(12 
year interval)
Observed distributionM=.68, SD=.56, Range 0-3
Remarks
Number of children at T1(1980), T2(1982), T3(1988), and 
T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T1 Happiness by T1-T4 children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.06 p < .05
T4 Happiness by T1-T4 children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=-.03 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness) by T1-T4 children
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actually got children later (follow-up)
Subject code: C03aa03b

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelchildren
Page in Source 32
Our classificationActually got children later (follow-up), code C03aa03b
Operationalization
Follow-up over 17 years
1: did not get children
2: got children
Remarks
Steadily married Ss only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Ss with children get somewhat less happy in the 
years after marriage and are 10 years after 
marriage about half a point less happy than 
married Ss without children.

Ss with children who share households tasks with 
their spouce are less happy than Ss's in 
traditional task-specialized marriages, especially 
during the first five years after marriage.

Ma controled for:
- education
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship status (migrant or not)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Actually got children later (follow-up)
Subject code: C03aa03b

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Get it all'
Page in Source 19
Our classificationActually got children later (follow-up), code C03aa03b
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)
Remarks
Only SOEP data.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.35 p < .01
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE in.. ONLY
A: made career only                   (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.22 p < .01
Ba: got partnered only                (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+12 p < .05
Bc: started family only               (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.25 p < .05
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE to career + partner

Among women who work half-time, while partner 
works full-time and has a high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.36 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner does 
not and has a relatively low income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.40 p < .01
Among women who work full-time, while partner also 
works full time and has a relatively high income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
b-fix's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actually got children later (follow-up)
Subject code: C03aa03b

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelStepchild
Page in Source 458
Our classificationActually got children later (follow-up), code C03aa03b
Operationalization
1 stepchild in household
0 other
Observed distributionM=.08, SD=.27, Range 0-1
Remarks
Assessed at T4 (1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.08 p < .05
T1 Happiness by T4 stepchildren (12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.07 p < .05
T4 Happiness by T4 stepchildren
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.07 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness (T4 happiness 
controlling T1 happiness) by T4 stepchildren
Controlling for: 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Number of children
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actually got children later (follow-up)
Subject code: C03aa03b

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelLater parental status
Our classificationActually got children later (follow-up), code C03aa03b
Operationalization
Parental status at T5, assesed in two ways:
- being married with children
  0 = single or married with no   children; 
  1 = married with one or more children - being married 
with no children
  0 = single or married with children;
  1 = married with no children
Divorced and separated with or without children 
excluded from analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=
               Married with      Married with
Happiness      children          no children
T1         tau = -.03 (ns)         +.07 (ns)
T2         tau = -.01 (ns)         +.07 (ns)
T3         tau = +.02 (ns)         +.09 (05)
T4         tau = +.02 (ns)         +.11 (01)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualitńt in Ísterreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut fŘr Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultńt der Universitńt Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelHaving a partner and child
Page in Source 75
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Single direct question, rated on a 4-point scale:
1 = no child, no partner
2 = no child, with partner 
3 = with child, no partner 
4 = with child, with partner

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aG=+.22 p < .05
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyRempel (1985): study CA 1979
TitleChildless Elderly: What are They Missing?
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1985, Vol. 47, 343 - 348
PublicElderly persons, noninstitutionalized, Canada, 1979
Sample
Non-Response39
Respondents N =338

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 345
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 Childless
1 Parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dDM=0 ns
unadjusted means
-             childless:     M = 2.4    Mt' = 7
-             parent:        M = 2.4    Mt' = 7
means adjusted for age, gender, marital status and 
social class
-             childless:     M = 2.4    Mt' = 7
-             parent:        M = 2.4    Mt' = 7
O-SL?-g-sq-l-11-aDM=+ ns
unadjusted means
- childless:     M = 8.8    Mt' = 7.8 
- parent:        M = 9.1    Mt' = 8.1
O-SL?-g-sq-l-11-aDMa=+ ns
- childless:     Ma = 8.9    Mat' = 7.9 
- parent:        Ma = 9.1    Mat' = 8.1
Ma adjusted for age, gender, marital status and 
social class


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyQuinta (2011): study CN 2010
TitleLocals' Happiness 'Above Average'.
SourceMacau Daily Times, 20 january 2011
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/quinta_v_2011.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Macau, China, 2010
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response14
Respondents N =996

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1 couples having children
0 other couples

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+
differences from 0.24 to 0.33 points on 11 point 
happiness-scale


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelhaving children
Page in Source 306
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have children ?"
a: no children
b: only biological children
c: only partner's children
d: biological and partner's children
e: only adopted children
Observed distributionN: a:497, b:848, c:33, d:71, e:7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
 a: Mt=7.71
 b: Mt=7.76
 c: Mt=7.80
 d: Mt=7.93
 e: Mt=8.93
All Mt=7.76
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
 a: Mt=7.24
 b: Mt=7.54
 c: Mt=7.05
 d: Mt=7.64
 e: Mt=8.21
All Mt=7.44
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
 a: Mt=6.88
 b: Mt=6.96
 c: Mt=6.44
 d: Mt=7.15
 e: Mt=8.21
All Mt=6.94


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelchildlesness
Page in Source 312,314
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have children ?"
different answercategories converted to:
1. Without children
  a. first pregnant
  b. chosen not to have children
  c. involuntary childless
2. Has children
Observed distributionN women: all: 778, 1(all):237, 1a:9, 1b:12, 1c:20, 2:500 N men: all:759, 1(all):259, 1a:11, 1b:11, 1c:11, 2:467

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women:       
 1:  Mt=7.71
 1a: Mt=8.61  
 1b: Mt=7.50  
 1c: Mt=7.00  
 2:  Mt=7.71
All  Mt=7.70
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
men:       
 1:  Mt=7.73
 1a: Mt=7.50  
 1b: Mt=8.19  
 1c: Mt=6.36  
 2:  Mt=7.86
All  Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women:          
 1:  Mt=7.29  
 1a: Mt=8.89  
 1b: Mt=7.29  
 1c: Mt=7.13  
 2:  Mt=7.50
All  Mt=7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
men:       
 1:  Mt=7.20
 1a: Mt=7.73  
 1b: Mt=7.28  
 1c: Mt=6.59  
 2:  Mt=7.55
All  Mt=7.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women:          
 1:  Mt=7.11  
 1a: Mt=9.45  
 1b: Mt=6.46  
 1c: Mt=7.00  
 2:  Mt=7.50
All  Mt=7.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
men:       
 1:  Mt=6.65
 1a: Mt=7.73  
 1b: Mt=6.14  
 1c: Mt=7.05  
 2:  Mt=7.03
All  Mt=6.90


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelwith/without children
Page in Source 152-164
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0: no children
1: children
Observed distributionN 0: 1238; 1:2900

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=7,71
1: Mt=7.84
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=7.78   Mt=7.68
1: Mt=7.75   Mt=7.96
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=7.84  Mt=6.86      
1:Mt=7.96  Mt=7.06
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=7.31
1: Mt=7.51
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=7.36   Mt=7.26
1: Mt=7.53   Mt=7.55
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=7.44  Mt=6.48      
1:Mt=7.68  Mt=6.61
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
ALL:
0: Mt=6.78
1: Mt=7.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
WOMEN:       MEN:
0: Mt=6.85   Mt=6.73
1: Mt=7.18   Mt=7.15
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
employed   unemployed
0:Mt=6.88  Mt=6.08      
1:Mt=7.26  Mt=6.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelhaving children
Page in Source 324
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have children ?"
1: no children
2: only adopted children
3: only partner's children
4: biological children and partner's children
5: only biological children
Observed distributionN: All:4585; %:1:31,0; 2:0,2; 3:3,3; 4:5,5; 5:60,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1: Mt=7.61
2: Mt=8.34
3: Mt=8.11
4: Mt=7.63
5: Mt=7.80
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1: Mt=7.21
2: Mt=7.78
3: Mt=7.75
4: Mt=7.48
5: Mt=7.51
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Mt=6.71
2: Mt=6.56
3: Mt=7.55
4: Mt=7.26
5: Mt=7.13


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelchildlessness
Page in Source 330,332
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
childlesness
1: all with children
2: first pregnancies(for men: Partner's..)
3: all without children
3a: have chosen not to have children
3b: involuntary childless
Observed distributionN WOMEN All:2714; %:1:75,1; 2:1,7; 3:24,7; 3a:2,2; 3b:5,5 N MEN All:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.73   1: Mt=7.93
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.83
3:  Mt=7.69   3: Mt=7.54
3a: Mt=7.91   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.86   3b:Ms=7.98
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.51   1: Mt=7.54
2:  Mt=8.34   2: Mt=8.64
3:  Mt=7.28   3: Mt=7.15
3a: Mt=7.73   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.69   3b:Ms=7.55
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.18   1: Mt=7.15
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.43
3:  Mt=6.81   3: Mt=6.65
3a: Mt=7.14   3a:Ms=6.39
3b: Mt=7.01   3b:Ms=7.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study EE 2000 /2
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicMarrieds and divorced, Estonia, 2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1556

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 312-316
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No (dependend) child(ren)
1 Having dependend child(ren)
Observed distributionN Men = 507, Women = 657, Men 0 =35%, 1 = 65 % Women 0 = 38%, 2 = 62%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Men
No children M = 6,26  
children    M = 6,28 
Difference   +0,02    

Women
No children M = 6,62
children    M = 6,23 
Difference  -0,39
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Married
Men
No children M = 6,20  
children    M = 6,29  
Difference   +0,09   

Women
No children M = 6,89 
children    M = 6,41  
Difference    -0,48
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced
Men
No children M = 7,14   
children    M = 6,09 
Difference   +1,05   

Women
No children  M = 5,12   
children     M = 5,76   
Difference     +0,55
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Married (adjusted by age and professional status)
Married
Men
No children M = 6,06 
children    M = 6,35  
Difference   +0,29   

Women
No children M = 6,98   
children    M = 6,40   
Difference   -0,58
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
Divorced(adjusted by age and professional status)
Men
No children M = 6,98 
children    M = 6,10 
Difference   +0,88   

Women
No children  M = 5,76 
children     M = 5,47 
Difference    -0,29


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study FI 2000 /1
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
PublicEmployed people, Finland, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1750

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 312-316
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No (dependent) child(ren)
1 Having dependent child(ren)
Observed distributionN females = 943, males = 447 Men 0 = 37%, 1 = 63 %, Women 0 = 37%, 2 = 63 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
MEN
No children M = 6,72
Children    M = 7,04
- difference   +0,32

WOMEN
No children M = 6,94
Children    M = 6,82
- difference   -0,12
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
MARRIED MEN
No children M = 7,60
Children    M = 7,07
- difference   -0,53

MARRIED WOMEN
No children M = 7,19
Children    M = 7,40
- difference   +0,21
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=
DIVORCED MEN
No children M = 5,85
Children    M = 7,01
- difference   -1,16

DIVORCED WOMEN
No children M = 6,70
Children    M = 6,25
- difference   -0,45
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=
MARRIED MEN
No children Ma = 7,59
Children    Ma = 7,06
- difference    -0,53

MARRIED WOMEN
No children  M = 7,19
children     M = 7,40
Difference      +0,21
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=
DIVORCED MEN
No children Ma = 5,85
Children    Ma = 7,01
- difference    -1,16

DIVORCED WOMEN
No children Ma = 6,70
Children    Ma = 6,25
- difference    -0,45

Ma's controlled for
- age
- professional status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelchildren
Page in Source 32
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Follow-up over 17 years
1: did not get children
2: got children
Remarks
Steadily married Ss only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Ss with children get somewhat less happy in the 
years after marriage and are 10 years after 
marriage about half a point less happy than 
married Ss without children.

Ss with children who share households tasks with 
their spouce are less happy than Ss's in 
traditional task-specialized marriages, especially 
during the first five years after marriage.

Ma controled for:
- education
- household income
- household size
- position in household
- employment
- place of residence
- citizenship status (migrant or not)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyWeick (1997): study DE 1995
TitleLebensbedingungen und Bewertungen. (Living Conditions and Evaluations).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt;Ed.: "Datenreport 1997", Verlag Bonn Aktuell, 1997, Germany, 468 - 480
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/weick_s_1997.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1995
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold composition
Page in Source 477
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1. Living alone
   a single
   b divorced
   c widowed
2. Living together
   a children but no partner
   b with partner, no children
   c married, no children
   d married with young children (<6)
   e married with older children (6-16)
Remarks
East-Germany is the former communist German Democratic 
Republic (DDR), which was reunited with West-Germany in 
1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
                            West   East
Living alone
 a single                   6,7     6,0
 b divorced                 6,2     5,6
 c widowed                  6,4     6,6
Living together
 a children, no partner     6,6     6,4
 b partner, no children     7,3     6,5
 c married, no children     7,2     6,4
 d married, young children  7,1     6,7
 e married, older children  6,9     6,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelHad a baby in last year
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=▒
      Males      Females
East: Beta=-.01  Beta=+.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
West: Beta=+.10  Beta=+.18

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Number of children
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

Study~Well-Being Study Unit (2012a): study JP 2012
TitleInitial investigation on the data from the Quality of Life Survey FY2011.
SourceEconomic and Social Research Institute Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2012, Japan
URLhttp://www.esri.go.jp/en/prj/current_research/koufukudo/abstract/tentative_report.pdf
Public15-69 aged, general population, Japan, 2012
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =10469

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with parenting
Page in Source 38
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
A: No parenting experience
B: Experience of parenting
   5: I always enjoy/enjoyed parenting
   4: I rather enjoy/enjoyed parenting
   3: Neither do I enjoy parenting nor find it hard
   2: I rather find/found parenting hard
   1: I always find/found parenting hard

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-eDM=
A : M = 5,6
B5: M = 7,4
B4: M = 6,7
B3: M = 5,6
B2: M = 5,4
B1: M = 3,2


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySafi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002
TitleImmigrants' Life Satisfaction in Europe: Between Assimilation and Discrimination.
SourceEuropean Sociological Review, 2010, Vol. 26, 159 - 176
DOIDOI:10.1093/esr/jcp013
Public15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =60169

Correlate
Author's labelmarried and parental status
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a no partner reference
b no partner with children
c couple
d couple with children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=-.37 p < .01
no partner with children (compared to no partner)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.47 p < .01
couple (compared to no partner)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.60 p < .01
couple with children (compared to no partner

Bs controlled for 
- gender
- age 
- education 

Bs lower after additional control for 
- income
- occupation
- employment
- subjective health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 514
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a exactly one child
b two or more children
c no children (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.01 p < .0,584
exactly one child     (vs no children)

Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 p < .019
two or more children  (vs no children)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 212
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do or did you have any children?" 
0 No children
1 Children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.13 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
Northern Ireland

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=+
EC (stratified sample)   
No children        Mt'=  6.56
Children           Mt'=  6.78
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta= ns
In none of the european countries, ▀ weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in mu;ltiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for: 
happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction 
with health,income and family life; age, income, 
male sex,  education, marital status, work; 
urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, 
religiousness, social participation; uncertainty 
about future, expected negative changes in income; 
satisfaction 5 years in past and future; 
tolerance, loneliness, misantropy, hopeless about 
life and sense of control.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 376
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Did or do you have any children?
0: no   
1: yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
France
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Great-Britain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
West Germany
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Italy
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Netherlands
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Denmark
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Belgium
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Spain
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.11
Nothern Ireland
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=<.10
EC

Beta's controlled for:
- education
- marital status
- work
- income
- age
- type of dwelling
- social participation.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyBortner et al. (1974): study ZZ Various nation sets 1962
TitleA Cross-Cultural Study of the Effects of Children on Parental Assessment of Past, Present and Future.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1974, Vol. 36, 370 - 378
Public21+ aged, married, Dominican Republic, Yugoslavia, Panama, 1962
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4113

Correlate
Author's labelHas children (vs not)
Page in Source 375
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1 has children
0 has not
Observed distributionN = 1:3630, 0:483

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .01
Dominican Republic
- has children   M = 1,71
- has not        M = 1,37
difference         + 0,34
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=- p < .01
Yugoslavia
- has children   M = 5,02
- has not        M = 5,48
difference         - 0,46
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=- p < .01
Panama
- has children   M = 4,62
- has not        M = 6,30
difference         - 1,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyBohn (1972): study ZZ Various nation sets 1960
TitleThe Effect of Children upon Life Satisfaction. A Thesis in Child Development and Family Relationships.
SourceUnpublished Master Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1972, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bohn_cj_1972.pdf
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, Panama and Yugoslavia, ▒ 1960
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5228

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 26-38
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Absence vs presence of living children.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=- ns
Negative among married persons (05)
Married persons with children are less happy (05)
than married Ss without children, singles without 
children and singles with children.

Among married persons:
- positive in Dominican Republic (05), esp. in 
  rural areas.
- negative in Panama (01) in both urban and rural
  areas.
- negative in Yugoslavia (01), esp. in rural   
areas.
- negative among females (01).
- positive among males (05).
- negative among age 40+ (01).
- not among age 21-39 (ns).
- negative among high S.E.S. (01).
- not among lower S.E.S. (ns).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2009): study NL 2006
TitleBedrieglijke Vrouwen. (Fallacious Women).
SourceSchnabel, P.; Ed.: "M/V," Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP), 2009, 124 - 129
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response47%
Respondents N =9607

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 125
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No children
  a Couple with no children
  b Single with no children
1 Children
  a Couple with children
  b Single with children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
ALL
No children
 Couple with no children = 7,9
 Single with no children = 7,2
Children
  Couple with children   = 7,9
  Single with children   = 7,0
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=-
FEMALES
No children
 Couple with no children = 8,0
 Single with no children = 7,3
Children
  Couple with children   = 7,9
  Single with children   = 7,0
O-SLL-c-sq-n-10-aDM=0
MALES
No children
 Couple with no children = 7,8
 Single with no children = 7,1
Children
  Couple with children   = 7,8
  Single with children   = 7,1


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVanSluijs (2004): study NL 1987
TitleEffecten van Levenslooptransities op de Tevredenheid van Jong Volwassenen. (Effects of Lifecourse Transition on Satisfaction of Adolescents).
SourceMaster thesis, University Tilburg, 2004, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/vansluijs_J_2004.pdf
PublicYoung adults, followed from age 18 to 30, The Netherlands, 1987-1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response36,6% (baseline)
Respondents N =836

Correlate
Author's labelFirst child
Page in Source 40,62
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1 first child
0 other
Observed distributionN in this situation: T1= 135, T1-T3=176, T3-T4=167, T3-T5 or T4-T5=165, Total=643
Remarks
Family situation assessed at:
T1: 1987 when aged 18 to 26
T2: 1989 when aged 20 to 28
T3: 1991 when aged 22 to 30
T4: 1995 when aged 26 to 34
T5: 1999 when aged 30 to 34

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=
B's indicate average difference between Ss who got 
a first child during this 12 year period and Ss 
who did not
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.15 p < .05
B controlled for:
personal characteristics:
- age
- age▓
- gender 
- education
- cohort 1965 vs cohort 1961
- cohort 1969 vs cohort 1961
- mental health
- neuroticism
lifecourse transitions:
- first job
- no job
- left parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner-
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.30 p < .01
additional controlled for years since transition :
- first paid job
- no job
- leaving parental home
- living together/marriage first partner
- divorce from first partner
- living together/marriage second partner
- having first child
O-Sum-cy-mq-v-7-ab=+.35 p < .00
Above control for years since transition squared

Stronger among females


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyVeenhoven (1974): study NL 1968
TitleIs There an Innate Need for Children?
SourceEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 1974, Vol. 14, 495 - 501
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16121
Public25 - 65 aged marrieds, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34%, 23% unattainable, 10% non-response
Respondents N =1376

Correlate
Author's labelChildlessness
Page in Source 499
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No children
1 Has children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.12 ns
Age 25 - 29: G = -.09 (ns)
    30 - 34: G = -.26 (ns)
    35 - 39: G = -.60 (05)
    40 - 44: G = -.23 (ns)
    45 - 49: G = -.01 (ns)
    50 - 54: G = -.08 (ns)
    55 - 59: G = -.48 (ns)
    60 - 65: G = -.20 (ns)

Unaffected by sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

Study~Philips Nederland (1966): study NL 1964
TitleDe Nederlandse Huisvrouw. (The Dutch Houswife.)
SourceNIPO assigned by Philips Nederland, 1966, Eindhoven, Netherlands
PublicHousewives, The Netherlands, 1964
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =450

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 66
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0: No children
1: Has children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.09


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Self-report on single question: Do you have children?
0: No
1: Yes
Observed distribution0: 43,9% 1: 56,1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=- p < .01
0: M= 7,45 SD= 1,71
1: M= 6,79 SD= 1,93
Difference:   -0,66
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.36
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.21 p < .05
Beta after accounting for:
-Age
-Sex
-Partner status
-Educational level
-Work status
-Suffering from any highly problematic 
circumstance
-Current illness
-Currently under therapy

when ONLY exercisers are considered
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM= ns
0: M= 7,32 SD= 1,48
1: M= 7,49 SD= 1,33
Difference:   -0,17
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.12


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySchoon et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCombining Work and Family. Life Satisfaction Among Married and Divorced Men and Women in Estonia, Finland, and the UK.
SourceEuropean Psychologist, 2005, Vol. 10, 309 - 319
DOIdoi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.309
Public42 aged, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =10280

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 312-316
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No (dependent) child(ren)
1 Having dependent child(ren)
Observed distributionN: No (dependent) child(ren) = 2014, Having dependent child(ren) = 8366

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Men
No children M = 6,86   N = 1160
children    M = 7,42   N = 3884
Difference     +0,56
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=0
Women
No children M = 7,43   N =  854
children    M = 7,43   N = 4482
Difference      0,00
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married Men
No children M = 7,27  N =  779
children    M = 7,45  N = 3803
Difference     +0,18
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Married Women
No children M = 7,49  N =  708
children    M = 7,58  N = 4015
Difference     +0,09
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
Divorced Men
No children M = 6,30  N = 360
children    M = 6,29  N = 102
Difference     -0,01
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
Divorced Women
No children M = 6,32  N = 141
children    M = 6,15  N = 472
Difference     +0,17
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
Married Men (adjusted by professional status)
No children Ma = 7,27  
children    Ma = 7,43  
Difference      +0,16
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=+
Married Women (adjusted by professional status)
No children Ma = 7,51 
children    Ma = 7,61 
Difference     +0,10
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Divorced Men(adjusted by professional status)
No children Ma = 6,39 
children    Ma = 6,36 
Difference      -0,03
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDMa=-
Divorced Women (adjusted by age and professional 
status)
No children Ma = 6,48  
children    Ma = 6,33  
Difference      -0,15


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 27, 35
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
Number of children:
a age 0-2
b age 3-4
c age 5-11
d age 12-15
e age 16-18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 ns
a: number in age 0-2
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.31
b: number in age 3-4
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 p < .05
c: number in age 5-11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 p < .01
d: number in age 12-15
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 ns
e: number in age 16-18

B's controled for:
- death of intimitate in previous year
- gender
- age
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- homeownnership
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
Additionally controlled using income:
- household income(per household member)

a +.03 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by observation payslip and house 
prices

a -.06 ns
b -.02 ns
c -.01 01
d -.07 ns
e -.16 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by household income in previous 
year

a +.06 ns
b +.07 p<05
c -.00 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.07 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- log personal income

a +.08 ns
b -.01 ns
c -.08 05
d -.05 ns
e -.06 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- mean income over time and household income

a +.02 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.04 ns
e -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyJoshi (1996): study GB 1991
TitleCombining Employment and Child Rearing: The Story of British Women's Lives.
SourceOffer, A.;Ed.: "In Pursuit of the Quality of Life", Oxford University Press, 1996, UK, 88 - 118
Public33 year aged women and husbands, Great Britain,1991
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10622

Correlate
Author's labelParental status
Page in Source 108
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 Childless women
1 Mothers
Observed distributionN 0:1265 1:4196
Remarks
Women only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Not employed women
0 Childless  M = 6,8 SD = 2,0
1 Mothers    M = 7,5 SD = 1,8
Difference     + 0,7
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
Part-time employed women
0 Childless  M = 7,7 SD = 1,3 N =   91
1 Mothers    M = 7,6 SD = 1,6 N = 1677
  Difference    -0,1
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Full-time employed women
0 Childless  M = 7,4 SD = 1,5  N = 1068
1 Mothers    M = 7,5 SD = 1,8  N =  909
  Difference          +0,1
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=+
Single employed women
0 Childless   M = 6,9 SD = 1,7  N = 473
1 Mothers     M = 5,9 SD = 2,3  N = 247
  Difference     +1,0
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bbDM=-
Single unemployed women
0 Childless        M = 6,3 SD = 2,1
1 Mothers          M = 5,6 SD = 2,5
  Difference          -0,7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyTaylor et al. (2006): study US 2005
TitleAre We Happy Yet?
SourcePEW Research Center, A Social Trends Report, 2006, Washington DC, USA
URLHTTP://pewresearch.org/pubs/301/are-we-happy-yet
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 2005
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3014

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 7,23,24,41
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a. Kids under 18 Years
b. Kids 18+ aged
c. No Kids

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=
% Unhappy      married   unmarried
Kids under 18  8%        27%  
Kids 18+       13%       21% 
No Kids        10%       14%
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-caD%=
% Very Happy   married   unmarried 
-Kids under 18  44%       19%  
-Kids 18+ aged  41%       26% 
-No Kids        43%       25%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyWong (1985a): study US 1984
TitleEffects of Individual Sources of Support on Well-Being in Employed Parents.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1985, USA
PublicWorking parents with children <16, USA, 1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response59-79%
Respondents N =651

Correlate
Author's labelWorking Parents
Page in Source 51
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a) Married Fathers
b) Married Mothers
c) Single Mothers
Observed distributionMarried Fathers N=208. Married Mothers N=287, Single Mothers N = 149
Remarks
Single Fathers N =7 were excluded from the analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=
Married Fathers  M = 2,0
Married Mothers  M = 1,8   
Single  Mothers  M = 1,7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBMCT=
a>b>c
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iDM=
Married Fathers  M = 3,6   
Married Mothers  M = 3,3   
Single  Mothers  M = 3,1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-iBMCT=
a>b>c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyFaver (1982): study US 1977
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Life-Cycle: The Effects of Values and Roles on Women's Well-Being.
SourceSociology and Social Research, 1982, Vol. 66, 435 - 452
Public22-64 aged women, USA, 1977
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1120

Correlate
Author's labelLife cycle group
Page in Source 438,439,442-444
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
For age cohort 22-34:
a) Single childless women 
b) Married childless women
c) Married mothers of preschool children
d) Married mothers of elementary school children
e) Single mothers

For age cohort 45-64
f) Married mothers of children and adolescents
g) Married mothers of adult children
h) Single mothers of children and adolescents
i) Single mothers of adult children 
j) Childless women
Observed distributionAge group 22-34 :Total N=380 a) N= 91(23,95%) b) N=67(17,89 %), c) N=132 (34,74 %), d) N=56(14,47%), e) N=34 (8,95 %) Age group 45-64: Total N=373 f) =128 (34,32%), g) N=154 (41,28%), h) N= 28 (7,51 %), i) N= 45 (12,06%), j) N=18 (4,83%)
Remarks
N of subgroups is estimated from %.
Age cohort 35-44 is not included in further analysis of 
life cycle groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
Age cohort 22-34:
a Single childless                 M=3,92 N=89
b Married childless                M=4,39 N=66
c Married preschool child          M=3,89 N=131
d Married basic school child       M=4,22 N=54
e Single mothers                   M=4,06 N=33
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=3,20 p < .01
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aDM=
Age cohort 45-64
f) Married children/adolescents   M=4,25 N=124
g) Married adult children         M=4,30 N=150
h) Single children/adolescents    M=3,68 N= 28
i) Single adult children          M=3,86 N= 44
j) Childless women                M=3,88 N= 17
O-V-c-sq-v-5-aF=3,36 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyWilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352930
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 221
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0. No children
1. Has children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
▀ controlled for 1+2+3+4+5 :                
1: education, occupation, income, level of living
2: live alone, married,  contact with relatives,
   contact with friends, church attendance,
   organizational membership. 
3: health problems, recent move, separated/   
   divorced, unemployed.                       
4: retired,widowed.
5: urban living, rural living, female.

▀ in different age groups:
under 30: -.12 (ns)    30-49   : +.05 (ns)
50-64   : +.00 (ns)    over 64 : -.09 (ns)
                                 
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for 2 only:
interaction with age: ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyGlenn & McLanahan (1981): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Offspring on the Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 409-421
Public50+ aged, with no children under age 18 at home, USA,1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2465

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 413-7
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No children                          
1 One or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-
Males                 ▀= -.05 (ns)
Females               ▀= +.02 (ns)
White         males   ▀= -.05 (ns)
              females ▀= -.01 (ns)
Black         males   ▀= -.06 (ns)
              females ▀= +.10 (ns)
<12yrs.school males   ▀= -.01 (ns)      
              females ▀=  .00 (ns)
>12yrs.school males   ▀= -.10 (05)             
              females ▀= +.02 (ns)
Married       males   ▀= -.04 (ns)
              females ▀= +.05 (ns)
Unmarried     males   ▀= -.09 (ns)
              females ▀= -.03 (ns)
▀ controled for age, family income, years of 
school completed, church attendence and employment 
status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyGlenn & Weaver (1979): study US 1972
TitleA Note on Family Situation and Global Happiness.
SourceSocial Forces, 1979, Vol. 57, 960 - 967
Public18-59 aged whites, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-75
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4049

Correlate
Author's labelPresence of child or children
Page in Source 962
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 No children
1 Children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-
▀ controlled for: marital status, own age, family 
income, occupational prestige (males only), 
frequency of attendance of religious services, 
employment outside home (females only) and years 
of school completed:                             
          1972   1973   1974   1975   All years

Children aged 0-5
males     -.10   -.08   -.02   -.02   -.05  (01)
females   +.05   -.07   -.03   -.12   -.04  (ns)

Children aged 6-12
males     -.03   -.01   -.02   -.02   -.01  (ns)
females   -.03   -.02   -.07   -.05   -.04  (01)

Children aged 13-17
males     -.00   -.09   -.06   -.02   -.04  (01)
females   -.04   -.04   -.00   -.07   -.04  (01)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =1072

Correlate
Author's labelFamily life cycle
Page in Source 331
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a. Unmarried, under forty-five years of age, no 
children at home
b. Married, under forty-five years of age, no children 
at home
c. Married, any age, youngest child under five years of 
age
d. Married, any age, youngest child five-fourteen years 
old
e. Married, any age, youngest child fifteen-seventeen 
years old
f. Married, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
g. Unmarried, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
h. Unmarried, any age, children of any age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=-
a. M=1.1   Mt'=6.1         
b. M=2.0   Mt'=7.0
c. M=1.9   Mt'=6.9
d. M=1.9   Mt'=6.9
e. M=2.1   Mt'=7.1
f. M=1.7   Mt'=6.7
g. M=1.1   Mt'=6.1
h. M=0.1   Mt'=5.1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
a. M=3.1   Mt'=5.2
b. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
c. M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
d. M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
e. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
f. M=3.4   Mt'=6.0
g. M=2.9   Mt'=4.8
h. M=2.8   Mt'=4.5
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-aDM=▒
a.  M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
b.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
c.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
d.  M=3.2   Mt'=5.5
e.  M=3.5   Mt'=6.3
f.  M=3.3   Mt'=5.8
g.  M=3.0   Mt'=5.0
h.  M=2.7   Mt'=4.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=-
a. M=5.1    Mt'=6.8
b. M=5.5    Mt'=7.5
c.  M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
d.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
e.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
f.  M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
g.  M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
h.  M=4.9   Mt'=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-bDM=+
a. M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b. M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
c. M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
d. M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
e. M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
f. M=5.6   Mt'=7.7
g. M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
h. M=5.1   Mt'=6.8


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =1297

Correlate
Author's labelFamily life cycle
Page in Source 139
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
a  Unmarried, under forty-five years of age, no 
children at home
b  Married, under forty-five years of age, no children 
at home
c   Married, any age, youngest child under five years 
of age
d  Married, any age, youngest child five-fourteen years 
old
e  Married, any age, youngest child fifteen-seventeen 
years old
f   Married, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
g  Unmarried, forty-five years of age or older, no 
children at home
h  Unmarried, of any age, children of any age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE▓=+.20
a      M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b      M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
c      M=5.7   Mt'=7.8
d      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
e      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
f      M=5.5   Mt'=7.5

g      M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
h      M=5.1   Mt'=6.8
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.19
▀ controlled for sociodemographic variables:
- family life-cycle
- age
- family income
- eduaction
- race
- sexe
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.13
▀ additionmally controlled for: 
- Efficacy
- Family
- Money
- Amount of fun
- House/apartment
- Spare-time activities
- National government
- Things to do with family
- Consumer index
- Time to do things
- Your health
- Job index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyMcNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971
TitleBlessed are the Downtrodden? An Empirical Test.
SourceSociological Analysis, 1978, Vol. 39, 303 - 320
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971
Sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =2164

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 310
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0. None 
1. One or more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.12 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyMcLanahan & Adams (1989): study US 1957
TitleThe Effect of Children on Adults Psychological Well-Being 1957 - 1976.
SourceSocial Forces, 1989, Vol. 68, 124 - 146
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1957-1976
Sample
Non-Response▒ 30%
Respondents N =4664

Correlate
Author's labelParenthood
Page in Source 131+133/4
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
1 Parents 
  (Excluded parents living with
  children over 17 or not living with
  children under 17
0 Non parents

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+
M is Mean happiness on range 0-1: (1= very happy)
           Parents       Non parents 
1957       M=0.37        M=0.33
1976       M=0.32        M=0.32


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyDeJong et al. (1984): study US 1947
TitleChildless and One Child, but Not by Choice: A Note on Some Long-Term Consequences for Life Satisfaction of Rural-Reared Married Women.
SourceRural Sociology, 1984, Vol. 49, 441 - 451
PublicRural-reared married women, Pennsylvania, USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response19,7%
Respondents N =812

Correlate
Author's labelFertility status
Page in Source 443, 446
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0: Childless at T3, but had intended to have children 
at T2
1: Only one child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
2: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
fewer children at T2
3: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
more children at T2
4: Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended at 
T2
Observed distributionN:0=33; 1=50; 2=181; 3=151; 4=237
Remarks
T1: 1947 school age, T2: 1957 mid twenty, T3: 1973, 
around age 40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aMa=+2.5
DEVIATION FROM average happiness: M = 2,45
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.14 ns
Childless at T3 but intended to have children at 
T3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.20 p < .05
One child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.07 ns
Two or more children at T3 but had intended to 
have fewer children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.02 ns
Two or more children  at T3 but had intended to 
have more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=.00 ns
Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended 
at T2

Ma adjusted for:
- T1 background and family formation factors
- T3 family structure and socioeconomic factors 
including adult perceptions of home-work roles


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelChildlessness
Page in Source 193
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 Has children 
1 No children 
Remarks
Computed for married Ss only.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current parental status
Subject code: C03ab

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationCurrent parental status, code C03ab
Operationalization
0 Married, childless
1 Married, children
Remarks
Happiness assessed in 1972.
The gifted women were about 62 yrs of age at that time. 
Currently marrieds only. Control group of everage US 
women aged 45+ taken from Cambell 1975.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aDM=+
% happy         gifted  control  
- has child       65      69
- childless       54      69
difference       +11       0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
1       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.42      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.28      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
3       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
4       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
5       M=7.26      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How many children in total have you ever had? That is, 
ever (fathered / given birth to) or adopted? This only 
includes natural and adopted children, not step or 
foster children
Observed distributionMales: M=.55 SD=1.02; Females: M=.63 SD=1.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.06 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.05 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyAmbrey et al. (2013): study AU Queensland 2000
TitleEstimating the Cost of Air Pollution in South East Queensland: An Application of the Life Satisfaction Non-Market Valuation Approach.
SourceAARES Paper, 2013, Sydney, Australia
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913003479
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.11.007
Public+45 aged general public, South East Queensland, Australia, 2000-2001
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =923

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 17.20
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of respondentĺs own resident children in 
respondentĺs household at least 50 per cent of the time 
and number of own children who usually live in a 
non-private dwelling but  spend the rest of the time 
mainly with the respondent
Observed distributionMean=0.8407; SD=1.2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.05 ns
OPRC controlled for
- Personal characteristics
 - Age
 - Gender
 - Aboriginal identity
 - Immigrant
 - English ability
 - Marital status
 - Parent status
 - Health condition
 - Education levels
 - Employment status
 - Household income (ln)
 - Importance of religion
 - Living years
 - Others present
 - Personality
 - Major city
 - Local status
-Environment
 - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas
 - PM10 (?g/m3)
 - Humidity (%)
 - Rainfall (mm)
 - Temperature (░C)
 - Wind speed (meters/second)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2925

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.024

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyEvans & Kelley (2002): study AU 1984
TitleFamily and Community Influences on Life Satisfaction.
SourceReport Melbourne Institute, 2002, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1984-2001
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35-40%
Respondents N =26009

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of offspring
Page in Source 50,52,54,55,57
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not specified

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.00 ns
Women
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta= ns
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bb=+.40 p < .05
Men
O-DT-u-sq-v-8-bBeta=+.03 p < .05
B and beta controlled for:
- Migration
- Family of origin:
  - Parent's education
  - Father's status
  - Parents divorced
  - Number of siblings
- Current family situation:
  - Marital status
- Age

B and beta when additionally controlled for gender 
and quality of marriage:
B=    +.87   (05)
beta= +.07   (05)
Women:
B=    +1.01 (05)
beta= +0.08 (05)

B and beta ns when additionally controlled for: 
- church attendance
- religious denomination
- charity work
- education
- family income
- labour force participation
- spouse in LF
- occupational status
- job security
- personal income
- unemployment.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.84      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
4       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.18      Mt=6.2
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
1       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
2       M=6.58      Mt=6.2
3       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
5       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
6       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
3       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
4       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
6       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1186

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.038

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.51      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
5       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.51      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.40      Mt=6.4
6       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.54      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
4       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
5       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
6       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
3       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1385

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.032

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .68      Mt=5.7
6       M= .37      Mt=5.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.28      Mt=6.3  
1       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
3       M= .97      Mt=6.0
4       M= .85      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
6       M= .85      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
5       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
6       M=7.99      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.10 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=5.22      Mt=4.7
1       M=4.78      Mt=4.2
2       M=5.11      Mt=4.6
3       M=4.88      Mt=4.3
4       M=4.10      Mt=3.4
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
1       M=2.27     Mt=4.2
2       M=2.37     Mt=4.6
3       M=2.22     Mt=4.1
4       M=2.08     Mt=3.6
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyGwanfogbe et al. (1970): study CM 1965
TitlePolygyny and Marital Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study from Rural Cameroon.
SourceJournal of Comparative Family Studies, 1970, Vol. 28, 55 - 71
PublicMothers of young child, rural areas, Cameroon, 196?
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response37%
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children living
Page in Source 62,64
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Observed distributionM = 4,19 (SD = 2,22) still alive with a range of one to twelve.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta=+.44 p < .05
Beta controled for:
- wife order
- marital satisfaction
- husband's supportiveness

Using mean substitution for missing data along 
with backwards elimination of varables.
O-HL-u-sq-v-2-aBeta=+.78 p < .01
Using listwise deletion of missing data along with 
backwards elimination of varables.
N = 152.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3358

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.02

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.l0 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
3       M=8.02      Mt=7.8
4       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
5       M=7.90      Mt=7.6
6       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.21      Mt=7.2  
1       M=2.17      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.46      Mt=7.5
3       M=2.39      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.39      Mt=7.4
5       M=2.25      Mt=7.2
6       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
4       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
5       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
6       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBlandford & Chappell (1990): study CA 1985
TitleSubjective Well-being among Native and Non-Native Elderly Persons: Do Differences Exist?
SourceCanadian Journal on Aging, 1990, Vol. 9, 386 - 399
Public50+ aged, Winnipeg,Canada, 1985
Sample
Non-Response15% Natives
Respondents N =390

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 395
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tb=+.20 ns
b  controlled by :
1. Male Sex
2. Married
3. Widowed
4. Age
5. Monthly income
6. Perceived health
7. Days in bed
8. Family size
9. Functional ability
10.Satisfaction with family
   relationships
11.Social contacts 
12.Number of siblings
13.Number of caregivers
14.Interaction of ethnicity with
   ability & marital status & days ill


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
1       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
4       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .97      Mt=6.0  
1       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
2       M= .97      Mt=6.0
3       M= .93      Mt=5.9
4       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
5       M=1.05      Mt=6.1
6       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.43      Mt=7.1
4       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
5       M=7.80      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.91      Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .86      Mt=5.9  
1       M=1.73      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.56      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.17      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.49      Mt=6.5
5       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
6       M=1.64      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
1       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
2       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
3       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
4       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
5       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
6       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.36      Mt=6.0
1       M=6.05      Mt=5.6
2       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
3       M=6.38      Mt=6.0
4       M=6.58      Mt=6.2
5       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
6       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .88      Mt=5.9  
1       M= .65      Mt=5.7
2       M= .71      Mt=5.7
3       M= .89      Mt=5.9
4       M= .67      Mt=5.7
5       M= .86      Mt=5.9
6       M= .44      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
1       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
3       M=2.64     Mt=5.5
4       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
5       M=2.23     Mt=4.1
6       M=2.38     Mt=4.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.09 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1603

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.053

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.14 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of children
Page in Source 424
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ s
  - females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.03 (ns)
  - males aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.05 (05)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=+ ns
Betaĺs controlled for:
- currently in partnership

  - females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.00 (ns)
  - males aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield similar 
results


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyKohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002
TitlePartner + Children = Happiness? The Effects of Partnerships and Fertility on Well-Being.
SourcePopulation and Development Review, 2005, Vol. 31, 407 - 445
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00078.x
Public20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =3226

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of additional children
Page in Source 242
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
number of children - 1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN 
HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-gBeta=-/+ s
Betaĺs controlled for:
- first-born boy
- first-born girl

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = -.07 (05)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = +.02 (ns)

Regression analysis with following controlled 
variables yield similar results:
- first born boy/girl, currently in partnership
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
BETWEEN SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g
Regressions across all subjects yield similar 
results, except:
- females, controlled for first-born boy and 
first-born girl Beta = -.01 (ns)
- females, controlled for first-born boy, 
first-born girl and currently in partnership Beta 
= -.03 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of biological children
Page in Source 316,318
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
1: no children
2: 1 child
3: 2 children
4: 3 children
5: 4 children
6: more than 4 children
Observed distributionN women: all:936, 1:237, 2:112, 3:209, 4:89, 5:24, 6:14, N men: all:852, 1:259, 2:101, 3:175, 4:82, 5:22, 6:7,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 women:       
 1: Mt=7.71   
 2: Mt=7.64  
 3: Mt=7.76  
 4: Mt=7.73  
 5: Mt=7.29  
 6: Mt=8.04
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 men:       
 1: Mt=7.73   
 2: Mt=7.95  
 3: Mt=7.96  
 4: Mt=7.50  
 5: Mt=7.84  
 6: Mt=7.50
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 women:       
 1: Mt=7.29   
 2: Mt=7.25  
 3: Mt=7.55  
 4: Mt=7.61  
 5: Mt=7.40  
 6: Mt=8.04
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 men:       
 1: Mt=7.20   
 2: Mt=7.53  
 3: Mt=7.56  
 4: Mt=7.59  
 5: Mt=7.73  
 6: Mt=7.86
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 women:       
 1: Mt=7.11   
 2: Mt=6.88  
 3: Mt=6.98  
 4: Mt=7.00  
 5: Mt=6.85  
 6: Mt=6.16
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 men:       
 1: Mt=6.65   
 2: Mt=7.14  
 3: Mt=6.98
 4: Mt=6.98  
 5: Mt=7.28  
 6: Mt=7.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelnumber of biological children
Page in Source 334,336
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
number of biological children
1: no children
2: 1 child
3: 2 children
4: 3 children
5: 4 children
6: more than 4 children
a: only girls
b: only boys
Observed distributionN WOMEN All:3367; %:1:27,0; 2:26,7; 3:36,6; 4:8,5; 5:1,1 N MEN All:2650; %:1:42,9; 2:26,4; 3:35,4; 4:4,9 5:0,4 N WOMEN a:531; b:562; N MEN: a:374; b:397

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
WOMEN:        MEN:
1: Mt=7.69   1: Mt=7.54
2: Mt=7.64   2: Mt=7.85
3: Mt=7.78   3: Mt=8.05
4: Mt=7.74   4: Mt=7.64
5: Mt=8.28   5: Mt=8.58
a: Mt=7.70   a: Mt=7.94
b: Mt=7.69   b: Mt=7.84
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
WOMEN:       MEN: 
1: Mt=7.28   1: Mt=7.15
2: Mt=7.38   2: Mt=7.43
3: Mt=7.51   3: Mt=7.70
4: Mt=7.70   4: Mt=7.23
5: Mt=8.36   5: Mt=7.86
a: Mt=7.43   a: Mt=7.45
b: Mt=7.45   b: Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1: Mt=6.81   1: Mt=6.65
2: Mt=7.10   2: Mt=7.10
3: Mt=7.14   3: Mt=7.20
4: Mt=7.25   4: Mt=6.69
5: Mt=8.08   5: Mt=7.50
a: Mt=7.19   a: Mt=7.19
b: Mt=7.06   b: Mt=7.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       Empty category
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
3       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
6       M=3.54     Mt=8.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       Empty category
1       M= 7.97     Mt=7.7
2       M= 8.23     Mt=8.0
3       M= 8.11     Mt=7.9
4       M= 7.97     Mt=7.7
5       M= 8.50     Mt=8.3
6       M= 8.62     Mt=8.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       Empty category  
1       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
2       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.96      Mt=7.0
4       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
5       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =767

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.057

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.00      Mt=5.6
1       M=6.07      Mt=5.6
2       M=5.95      Mt=5.5
3       M=5.97      Mt=5.5
4       M=5.77      Mt=5.3
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .77      Mt=5.8  
1       M= .66      Mt=5.7
2       M= .84      Mt=5.8
3       M= .59      Mt=5.6
4       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.55     Mt=5.2
2       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
3       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
4       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =816

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 14,18,19,36
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported
Error Estimatess.e.=.068

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- life situation
    - income    
    - employment status
    - health
    - education
    - sexe
    - age
    - age squared
    - divorced   
- attitudes
    - attitudes to income-inequality     
    - perceived freedom and control
    - important in life: friends
    - trust in people
    - perceived corruption in nation
    - attitude to environmental protection


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
1       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
4       M=3.24     Mt=7.6
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=7.58      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.79      Mt=7.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.06      Mt=6.1  
1       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.94      Mt=6.9
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       M= .63      Mt=5.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.42      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
5       M= .73      Mt=5.7
6       M=1.30      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.54      Mt=6.2
1       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
3       M=7.04      Mt=6.7
4       M=6.92      Mt=6.6
5       M=6.27      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.67      Mt=6.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
1       M=3.17     Mt=7.2
2       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyKnabe et al. (2009): study DE 2008
TitleDissatisfied with Life, but Having a Good Day: Time-Use and Well-Being of the Unemployed.
SourceCES/IFO Working Paper no. 2604, CES, 2009, Munich, Germany.
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_2604.html
PublicFulltime employed and long-term unemployed, Germany, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response23
Respondents N =737

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 21
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self report on the number of children respondents have

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cbb=-.04 ns
A-AB-yd-mqr-n-11-ab=+.12 ns
B's are controlled for: 
- employment status in week and weekend
- income
- cohabiting
- education
- health satisfaction
- age
- general goodness of previous day 
- goodness of health and work on previous day


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyKopmann & Rehdanz (2014): study DE 2004
TitleUnderestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.
SourceEconstor Working Paper, 2014, No. B14-V1, Kiel, Germany
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/100382
PublicWorking age people, Germany, followed 5 years 2004-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10123

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 16-18,30
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 ns
b controlled for:
- Gender 
- People (household size))
- Income
- Disabled or not
- Health
- Marital status
- Spouse in foreign country
- Years of education
- Working status
- German citizen or not
- Moving within or across municipalities


Additional control for labor market region effects 
did not effect b.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelLog (nr of children in household)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children
Observed distributionM = 0,678 SD = 0,981

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - employment status
  - marital status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- accomodation
- absolute lack of
  - facilities (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables   (car, telephone, etc)
  - health     (bad health, disabled etc)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative (instead of absolute) lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.08 p < .01
B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- absolute lack
- relative lack

All Bs based on Probit adapted OLS. Random effects 
model


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 7,9,21
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children under 14
1: one child
2: two children (reference category)
3: three or more children
Observed distribution1: M=0.33 2: M=0.43 3: M=0.24

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.06 p < .01
ONE CHILD ( vs two children)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.04 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
THREE OR MORE CHILDREN( vs two children)
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=+.07 ns
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyObucina (2013): study DE 1994
TitleThe Patterns of Satisfaction Among Immigrants in Germany
Source Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1105-1127.
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-012-0130-9
Public18-65 aged general public, Germany, followed 16 years, 1994-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =209989

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 1115
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Do you have children? If yes, how many?
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.01 p < .NS
B controlled for:
- Relative deprivation
- Household income
- Number of adults
- Marital Status
- Age
- Gender
- Education
- Foreign-born
- Employment status
- House ownership
- Living in West- vs East-Germany
- Savings
- Health
- Year controls


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyD'Ambrosio & Frick (2012): study DE 1992
TitleIndividual Wellbeing in a Dynamic Perspective.
SourceEconomica, 2012, Vol. 79, 284 - 302
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x/full
DOIdoi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2011.00896.x
Public18+ aged general public, followed 15 years, 1992-2007, Germany
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =184000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children in household
Page in Source 295
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Observed distributionM=0.474; SD=0.841

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
b (+0.002) controlled for:
- age
- dummy east germany
- years of education
- homeownership
- unemployment index
- marital status
- disablity
- unemployment status
- household member in need of care
- community size
- dummy for learning effect
- household income
- past household income
- social reference income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFrijters et al. (2004a): study DE 1991 /1
TitleMoney does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany following Reunification.
SourceThe American Economic Review, 2004, Vol. 94, 730 - 740
DOIDOI:10.1257/0002828041464551
Public21-64 aged general public, East Germany, 1991-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3086

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of childeren
Page in Source 735
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children in the household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.11
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.07
Women only

Beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- disability
- employment status
- household income
- border east/west germany
- year dummies


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
2       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
6       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.72      Mt=6.4
1       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
2       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.54      Mt=6.2
4       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
6       M=7.55      Mt=7.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.27      Mt=6.3  
1       M=1.30      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.25      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .84      Mt=5.8
6       M=2.40      Mt=7.4
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .68      Mt=5.7
6       M= .37      Mt=5.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .68      Mt=5.7
6       M= .37      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFrijters et al. (2004): study DE 1985
TitleInvestigating Patterns and Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Germany following Reunifacation.
SourceThe Journal of Human Resources, 2004, Vol. 39, 649 - 674
Public21-64 aged, general public, Germany, followed 14 years, 1985-1999
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =18350

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 661, 662
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
"Have you had children? If yes, how many?"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=+
      Males      Females
East: Beta=+.06  Beta=+.04
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-
West: Beta=-.03  Beta=-.05

Beta's controlled for:
- Year
- Age
- Foreigner-born
- Marital status
- Death of other family member in last year
- Disabled
- Ln(1+number of days in hospital in last year)
- Had a baby in last year
- Invalid in household
- Years of schooling
- Employed status
- Log household income (post tax)
- Moved home within country in last year
- Moved to West/East Germany following 
reunification
- Live on the border of East and West Germany

Beta of East Germany additionally controlled for :
- Being member of the Communist Party before 
reunification


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyGuven (2009b): study DE 1984
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public18+ aged, households' heads, Germany, 1984-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =21000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 49
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03
B controlled for:
- personal caracteristics
  - labor force satus
  - marital status 
  - health status
  - household size
  - education
  - income
  - gender
  - age
- state
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyPohl (2006): study DE 1984
TitleEmployment Status, Income and the Subjective Well-Being of Immigrants.
SourcePrinceton University, Working Paper, 2006, No. 71087
URLhttp://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/71087
Public25-65 aged immigrants, Germany, followed yearly 1984-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15790

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 16
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children in the household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOLRC=-.00 ns
OPRC controlled for:
- Sexe
- Age
- Marital status
- Education level
- Dummy west-germany
- Immigration background
- Employment status
- Income
- Worries
- Health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyVendrik & Woltjer (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness and Loss Aversion: Is utility concave or convex in relative income?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007, Vol. 91, 1423 - 1448
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 17 years, 1984-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102068

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 1436
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children in the household (log)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.08
b controlled for:
- household income
- reference household income
- unemployment status
- years of education
- age
- weekly hours worked


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
DOIdoi:10.1007/s11205-004-8021-3
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3000

Correlate
Author's labelLiving arrangement
Page in Source 312
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Questions on living arrangement were operationalized 
as:
a: living with offspring
b: living with older adults
c: number of generations in the household
d: number of living children
Dichotomized as:
1: Yes 
0: No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-2.4 ns
Living with offspring    (vs. not)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+5.9 p < .01
Living with older adults (vs. not)
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+2.7 ns
Number of generations in the household
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+4.5 ns
Number of living children

B is controlled for: 
-residence
-marital status
-income
-education
-age
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyLelkes (2002): study HU 1992
TitleTasting Freedom: Happiness, Religion and Economic Transition.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006, Vol. 59, 173 - 194
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.03.016
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1992-1998
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =9167

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 183
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
0: No children
1: Other
    a: One child
    b: Two children
    c: Three children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.09 ns
ONE CHILD (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.02 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.00 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.28 p < .05
TWO CHILDREN (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.10 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.01 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.49 p < .05
THREE CHILDREN (vs none)
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-ab=+.33 ns
1998
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
1992
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
1998

b and Beta control for:
-religious involvement
-employment status
-income
-education level
-age
-gender
-Gypsy ethnicity 
-living in Budapest
-marital status
-number of children

Analysis incorporates sampling weights for the 
correction of sampling design (1992) and sample 
fit (1998).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .83      Mt=5.8  
1       M= .89      Mt=5.9
2       M= .93      Mt=5.9
3       M= .77      Mt=5.8
4       M= .31      Mt=5.3
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M= .13      Mt=5.1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.16      Mt=5.8
1       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
2       M=6.22      Mt=5.8
3       M=5.39      Mt=4.9
4       M=5.64      Mt=5.2
5       M=5.17      Mt=4.6
6       M=5.19      Mt=4.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
2       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
3       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
4       M=2.48     Mt=4.9
5       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
6       M=2.92     Mt=6.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
1       M=8.13      Mt=7.9
2       M=8.00      Mt=7.8
3       M=8.16      Mt=8.0
4       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
5       M=8.20      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.46     Mt=8.2
4       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
5       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.36      Mt=7.4  
1       M=2.55      Mt=7.6
2       M=2.79      Mt=7.8
3       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
4       M=2.63      Mt=7.6
5       M=2.40      Mt=7.4
6       M=2.12      Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.09 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.11      Mt=7.1  
1       M=2.24      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
3       M=2.42      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
5       M=2.49      Mt=7.5
6       M=1.99      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.20      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .33      Mt=5.3  
1       M= .38      Mt=5.4
2       M= .45      Mt=5.4
3       M= .33      Mt=5.3
4       M=-.10      Mt=4.9
5       M= .73      Mt=5.7
6       M= .15      Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.55      Mt=5.1
1       M=6.46      Mt=6.1
2       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
3       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
4       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
5       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
6       M=5.96      Mt=5.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
4       M=2.69     Mt=5.6
5       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
6       M=2.66     Mt=5.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.06 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.09      Mt=7.1  
1       M=1.98      Mt=7.0
2       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
3       M=2.12      Mt=7.1
4       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
5       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
6       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
4       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
6       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
1       M=8.25      Mt=8.1
2       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
5       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.04      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.57     Mt=8.6
2       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
4       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
6       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.09      Mt=7.1  
1       M=1.98      Mt=7.0
2       M=2.14      Mt=7.1
3       M=2.12      Mt=7.1
4       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
5       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
6       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
1       M=8.25      Mt=8.1
2       M=7.93      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
5       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
6       M=8.04      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
3       M= .84      Mt=5.8
4       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
5       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
6       M= .79      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
5       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyZhang (2012a): study JP 2010
TitleHouseholds' Multidimensional Mobilities Over Life Course and QOL: A case Study in Japan
SourceISQOLS: 43, 2012, Japan
URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/junyizhangcho/home/research-topics/citi_qol/d-publications
Public18+ aged, general public, major cities, Japan, 2010
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response5.7%
Respondents N =943

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 17
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Number of children with different age group.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.33 p < .01
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 0-6
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=+.23 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 7-12
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.05 ns
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+.01 ns
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH AGE 13-18
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-rOPRC=-.09 ns
OPRCĺs controlled for:
-Times change in
 -Residential mobility
 -Household structure mobility
 -Employment mobility 
 -Car ownership mobility 
-Residential environment
-Objective living standard
 -House property
 -Household annual income
 -Car number
-Household attributes
 -Household size
 -Single/Couple
 -Number of elders
 -Worker


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children )
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
3       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.21      Mt=5.9
1       M=6.51      Mt=6.1
2       M=6.71      Mt=6.3
3       M=6.53      Mt=6.1
4       M=6.50      Mt=6.1
5       M=6.80      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.20      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.27      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
5       M=7.32      Mt=7.0
6       M=7.15      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
2       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=3.33     Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .35      Mt=5.3  
1       M= .15      Mt=5.1
2       M= .45      Mt=5.5
3       M= .54      Mt=5.5
4       M= .15      Mt=5.2
5       M=-.60      Mt=4.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.06      Mt=6.1
3       M= .84      Mt=5.8
4       M=1.53      Mt=6.5
5       M=1.12      Mt=6.1
6       M= .79      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study KR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1251

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
3       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
5       M=2.83     Mt=6.1
6       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
1       M=7.00      Mt=6.6
2       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
3       M=6.74      Mt=6.4
4       M=6.42      Mt=6.0
5       M=5.78      Mt=5.3
6       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.12 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.14 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .92      Mt=5.9  
1       M= .80      Mt=5.8
2       M= .99      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.14      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
1       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
2       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
3       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
4       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
1       M=5.70      Mt=5.2
2       M=5.73      Mt=5.3
3       M=6.09      Mt=5.7
4       M=5.00      Mt=4.4
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.12 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .62      Mt=5.6  
1       M= .36      Mt=5.4
2       M= .64      Mt=5.6
3       M= .77      Mt=5.8
4       M= .74      Mt=5.7
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
1       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
2       M=2.55     Mt=5.2
3       M=2.49     Mt=5.0
4       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.13      Mt=5.7
1       M=5.87      Mt=5.4
2       M=6.07      Mt=5.6
3       M=5.87      Mt=5.4
4       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
1       M=3.01     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
5       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
6       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.92      Mt=6.9
3       M=1.45      Mt=6.4
4       M=1.17      Mt=6.2
5       M= .52      Mt=5.5
6       M= .90      Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
3       M=7.28      Mt=7.0
4       M=7.50      Mt=7.2
5       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
6       M=7.21      Mt=6.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.11 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 18,14, 17,9
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children.
Observed distributionn.a.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.01 ns
b controlled for:
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of grandchildren
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTreas et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2001
TitleThe Happy Homemaker? Married Women's Well-Being in Cross-National Perpective.
SourceSocial Forces, 2011, Vol. 90, 111 - 132
PublicWomen with partner, aged 18-65, 28 countries, 2001-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7014

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 115-123
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of minor (<18) children in the household.
Observed distributionM=1,03, SD=1,19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Work status
- Age
- Age squared
- Education
- Liberal gender ideology
- Religious services attendance

Positively affected by mediating variables:
- Family Income
- Family income flag
- Housework fairness
- Task sharing
- Family stress
- Housework conflict


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyRodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999
TitleCan Policy make us Happier? Individual Characteristics,Socioeconomic Factors and Life Satisfaction in Central and Eastern Europe.
SourceImedea Working Paper Series 2011.19, 2011, Madrid, Spain
URLhttps://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/16/cjres.rsr038
DOIdoi: 10.1093/cjres/rsr038
Public15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =25000

Correlate
Author's labelNo. of children
Page in Source 8, 9
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.11 ns
1999
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=+.00 ns
2008

Bĺs controlled for:
-Individual characteristics:
  -Health
  -Income
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Married
  -Unemployed
  -Retired
  -Student
  -Self-employed
  -LT unemployment
  -Secondary education
  -Tertiary education
  -Big city
  -Remote area

No significant change when additionally controlled 
for:
-National characteristics:
  -GDP per capita
  -Interpersonal inequality 
  -Inflation
  -Unemployment 
  -Government expenditure
  -Corruption WB
  -Corruption TI
  -Health benefits	
  -Pension benefits
  -Unemployment benefits


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1
TitleCross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants across Groups in Society.
SourceSocial Choice and Welfare, 2008, Vol. 30, 119 - 173
DOIDOI:10,1007/s00355-007-0225-4
Public18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =87748

Correlate
Author's labelhaving children
Page in Source 137
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
0: no children
1: 1 child
2: 2 children
3: 3 children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Individual happiness (not average) by having 
children.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.07 p < .05
1 child (compared to no children)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 p < .10
2 children (compared to no children)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.02 ns
3 children (compared to no children)

Beta's controlled for other individual level 
variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- income
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being

Beta's are very similar if additionally controlled 
for aggregated variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of cathlolics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBall & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1
TitleAbsolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 497 - 529
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9217-0
Public18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20771

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 514
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
a exactly one child
b two or more children
c no children (reference category)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=-.01 p < .0,584
exactly one child     (vs no children)

Beta controlled for:
-Interaction between relative and absolute income
-Individual variables
  -Income
  -Marital status
  -Gender
  -Age
  -Employment status
  -Health
  -Religion
-Country (dummies)

No difference if controlled for country variables 
instead of dummies.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.06 p < .019
two or more children  (vs no children)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyPeiro (2006): study ZZ 1995
TitleHappiness, Satisfaction and Socio- Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 348 - 356
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Public16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =16000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 18
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
0: no children (reference)
1: one child
2: two children
3: three children
4: more than three children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Argentina 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.12 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.14 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.23 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Australia 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.02 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.01 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.02 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.05 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Chile 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.30 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.10 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.15 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.53 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
China 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.22 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.32 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.01 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.24 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.07  (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.90  (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.54  (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -1.72 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Finland 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.29 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.06 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.06 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.10 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Japan 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.17 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.15 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.28 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Nigeria 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.15 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.39 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.66 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.46 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Peru 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.39  (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.43  (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.79  (01)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -1.00 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Russia 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.14 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.21 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.73 (01)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.68 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Spain 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.30 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.02 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.26 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.32 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Sweden 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.14 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.35 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.41 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.73 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Taiwan 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.95 (05)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.58 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.76 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.93 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
USA 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.08 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.28 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.50 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.39 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=
Venezuela 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.17 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.52 (05)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.34 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.38 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Argentina 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.11 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.04 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.10 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Australia 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.18 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.07 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.03 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.31 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Chile 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.10 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.38 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.22 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
China 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.38 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.49 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.29 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.54 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Dominican Republic 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.10 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.25 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.37 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Finland 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.46 (05)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.24 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.19 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.07 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Japan 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.01 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.29 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.27 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.09 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Nigeria 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.32 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.46 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.46 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.51 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Peru 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.31 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.64 (01)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.60 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.65 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Russia 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.01 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.16 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.60 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Spain 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.08 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.06 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.08 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.17 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Sweden 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.31 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.13 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.12 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.52 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Taiwan 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.11 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.39 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.43 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
USA 
1: one child:                OLRC= -.26 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.43 (05)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.43 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.25 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaOLRC=
Venezuela 
1: one child:                OLRC= +.27 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.24 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.09 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.06 (ns)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-marital status
-size of town
-education
-labor market status
-income.

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot 
be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The 
coefficients only denote relative differences in 
correlation and whether the correlations are 
negative or positive. E.g.  in Peru and the USA 
there are negative correlations between happiness 
and having (more) children, in Sweden there are 
positive correlations. In most nations we see 
positive and negative correlations simultaneously, 
dependent on the actual number of children.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994
TitleExploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries.
SourceOECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, 2011
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg0k6zlcm5k-en
Public18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =92338

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 12,14,15
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOPRC=+.02 p < .05
INDIVIDUAL happiness by AVERAGE number of children 
in nation
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aBeta=+.03 p < .05
AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE number of children

Beta's controlled for:
  - individual characteristics
     - income
     - poverty
     - self rated health
     - employment status
     - education
     - trust in people
     - friends
     - sexe
     - age
     - divorce
  - national characteristics
     - national unemployment rate
     - air pollution
     - freedom of choice
     - national corruption


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyHessami (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1990
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourcePaper, 2009, University of Konstanz, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/hessami_z_2009.pdf
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =153268

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 18+15, 2x model 5
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
1: 1 child
2: 2 children
3: => 3 children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.03 p < .01
Having 1 child (vs. no children)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,047
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.02 p < .01
2 children (vs. no children)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,027
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bBeta=-.04 p < .01
=>3 children (vs. no children)
Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: 
OPRC= -0,070

Beta's controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - employment status
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures
  - public health expenditures


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyRadcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990
TitleClass Organization and Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 513 - 530
Public15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =17000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 519-521+526
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children at home
Remarks
1990 World Values Survey (CPSR 6160) v212

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ab=-.02 ns
b (-.02243)controlled for
National characteristics:
-union density
-social democracy
-culture
-GDP per capita
-unemployment

Individual characteristics:
-union membership
-marital status
-gender
-education
-age
-age squared
-home life quality
-income
-unemployed
-church attendance


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuasi-Religious Meaning Systems, Official Religion and Quality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: A Survey from the Back-to-the-Land Movement.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987, Vol. 26, 63 - 80
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1385841
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response33.8%
Respondents N =554

Correlate
Author's labelFamily size
Page in Source table 4
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children
Observed distributionM = 2.3
Remarks
Median number of children at home=1.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 212
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Direct question: "How many children do or did you 
have?"                      1 One                     
.
.
6 Six or more
Ss with children only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .05
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.07 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.09 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.12 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 ns
Northern Ireland

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=-
EC (stratified sample)  
one                Mt'=  6.78
two                Mt'=  6.89
three              Mt'=  6.89
four               Mt'=  6.67
five               Mt'=  6.44
six or more        Mt'=  6.67


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyLuechinger (2010): study ZZ Europe 1979
TitleLife Satisfaction and Transboundary Air Pollution.
SourceEconomics Letters, 2010, Vol.107, 4 - 6
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176509002390
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2009.07.007
Public14+ aged, general public EU nations 1979-1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =223982

Correlate
Author's labelNumbers of children
Page in Source 5
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
1: no children (reference)
2: one child
3: two children
4: three children
5: four or more children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.00 ns
one child (vs no children)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.01 ns
two children (vs no children)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=+.02 ns
three children (vs no children)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-bb=-.03 ns
four and more children (vs no children)
b's controled for
- household income
- personal characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - education
  - rural/urban living
- Country characteristics
  - real GDP
  - unemployment rate
  - % GDP agrarian
  - % GDP industrial
  - % GDP FDI flows
  - urbanization
- Climate
  - % cloudy per month
  - rain
  - temperature
  - vapor pressure
- Country effects
- Year effects

Similar results in analysis using:
- Probit Adjusted OLS (POLS)
- Instrumental Variable (VI)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyGuven (2009b): study NL 1993
TitleWeather and Financial Risk-Taking: Is Happiness the Channel?
SourceSOEP Paper No. 218, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp218.html
Public16+ aged, households' members, Netherlands, 1993-2006
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =4500

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 48
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=-.40
OLRC controlled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - labor force status
  - marital status
  - household size
  - income
  - health status
  - age
  - gender
- province
- year fixed effects


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.75      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.89      Mt=7.6
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
5       M=7.66      Mt=7.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.98      Mt=7.0  
1       M=1.65      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.75      Mt=6.8
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
3       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
4       M=3.47     Mt=8.2
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 27
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Open-ended question.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.09 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyHartog & Oosterbeek (1998): study NL 1952
TitleHealth, Wealth and Happiness. Why Pursue a Higher Education?
SourceEconomics of Education Review, 1998, Vol. 17, 245 - 256
DOIDOI:10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Public41 aged, Brabant, the Netherlands, followed 1952-1993
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response53,6%
Respondents N =1893

Correlate
Author's labelfamily status
Page in Source 253
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
a. Married male (reference)
b. Female
c. Divorced
d. Widow
e. Single
f  Number of children
Observed distributionNot reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.33 p < .05
Female
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.57 p < .05
Divorced
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.68 p < .05
Widow
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.17 ns
Single
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-aOPRC=-.01 ns
Number of children

OPRC's controlled for:
-schooling
-intelligence
-social background
-labour market status
-self-perceived health
-wealth.

OLRC (Ordered Probit Regression Coefficient) 
cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. 
The coefficients only denote relative differences 
in correlation between marital status and 
happiness, e.g. widowed people are unhappier than 
divorced people.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1001

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.59      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.73      Mt=6.7
4       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
5       M=1.72      Mt=6.7
6       M=1.38      Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.35      Mt=5.9
1       M=6.44      Mt=6.0
2       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
3       M=6.49      Mt=6.1
4       M=6.43      Mt=6.0
5       M=6.48      Mt=6.1
6       M=5.78      Mt=5.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.91     Mt=6.4
1       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
4       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
5       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
6       M=2.78     Mt=5.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.10 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NO 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1239

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
1       M=2.37      Mt=7.4
2       M=2.53      Mt=7.5
3       M=2.33      Mt=7.3
4       M=2.47      Mt=7.5
5       M=2.19      Mt=7.2
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
3       M=3.24     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
5       M=3.21     Mt=7.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.74      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
5       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=0 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PL 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =938

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.50      Mt=6.1
2       M=6.80      Mt=6.4
3       M=6.81      Mt=6.5
4       M=6.15      Mt=5.7
5       M=6.50      Mt=6.1
6       M=5.68      Mt=5.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.39      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.35      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
4       M=1.75      Mt=6.8
5       M= .20      Mt=5.2
6       M= .95      Mt=6.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
1       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
2       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
3       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
4       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study PT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1185

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.65      Mt=6.7  
1       M= .96      Mt=6.0
2       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.45      Mt=6.5
4       M= .58      Mt=5.6
5       M= .53      Mt=5.5
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
1       M=6.91      Mt=6.6
2       M=7.06      Mt=6.7
3       M=7.48      Mt=7.2
4       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
5       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
6       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.81     Mt=6.0
2       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
3       M=2.87     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
5       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
6       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.11 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RO 1993
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1103

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .41      Mt=5.4  
1       M= .85      Mt=5.8
2       M= .83      Mt=5.8
3       M= .82      Mt=5.8
4       M= .62      Mt=5.6
5       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
6       M= .50      Mt=5.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
1       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
2       M=5.93      Mt=5.5
3       M=5.76      Mt=5.3
4       M=5.48      Mt=5.0
5       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
6       M=6.30      Mt=5.9
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.72     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.63     Mt=5.4
3       M=2.64     Mt=5.5
4       M=2.36     Mt=4.5
5       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
6       M=2.40     Mt=4.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFrijters et al. (2006): study RU 1994
TitleCan the Large Swings in Russian Life Satisfaction be Explained by Ups and Downs in Real Incomes?
SourceScandinavion Journal of Economics, 2006, Vol. 108, 433 - 458
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2006.00459
Public18-65 aged general public, Russia, followed yearly, 1994-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =38000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 450
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
a) number of children aged 0-6
b) number of children aged 7-17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.03
a) number of children 0-6, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=-.03
a) number of children 0-6, women
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.05
b) number of children 7-17, men
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-nBeta-f=+.04
b) number of children 7-17, women

All beta's controlled for:
- marital status
- health
- age
- employment status
- household income
- income in region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source questions 121-122
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Do you have children younger than 16?
Observed distributionN = 0: 55,8% 1: 23,7% 2: 17,2% 3: 2,3% 4: 0,4% 5: 0,3% >5: 0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=
0: M = 2,52
1: M = 2,54
2: M = 2,52
3: M = 2,43
4: M = 2,22
5: M = 2,83
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hr=-.02 p < .563


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study RU 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1961

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .21      Mt=5.2  
1       M= .30      Mt=5.3
2       M= .40      Mt=5.4
3       M=-.04      Mt=5.0
4       M= .26      Mt=5.3
5       M= .10      Mt=5.1
6       M= .25      Mt=5.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.29      Mt=4.8
1       M=5.27      Mt=4.7
2       M=5.39      Mt=4.9
3       M=5.49      Mt=5.0
4       M=5.72      Mt=5.2
5       M=4.83      Mt=4.3
6       M=4.94      Mt=4.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
1       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
2       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
3       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
4       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
5       M=2.20     Mt=6.0
6       M=2.31     Mt=4.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SI 1992
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1035

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.35     Mt=4.5
1       M=2.27     Mt=4.2
2       M=2.37     Mt=4.6
3       M=2.22     Mt=4.1
4       M=2.08     Mt=3.6
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=5.22      Mt=4.7
1       M=4.78      Mt=4.2
2       M=5.11      Mt=4.6
3       M=4.88      Mt=4.3
4       M=4.10      Mt=3.4
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.44      Mt=6.4  
1       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.46      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
4       M=1.66      Mt=6.7
5       M=2.54      Mt=7.5
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=0 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyPosel & Casale (2011): study ZA 2008
TitleRelative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perception, Expectations and Income Mobility.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 104, 195 - 223
URLhttp://econrsa.org/home/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=295&Itemid=67
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9740-2
Public17+ aged general public, South-Africa., 2008
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =28000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 208
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children < 15 years.
Observed distributionM = 1.48, SE = 0.2

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.03 p < .01
All.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=+.03 p < .01
Africans only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-IOPRC=-.02 ns
Whites only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-I
OPRC's controled for:
- individual characteristics
  - ethnicity
  - head
  - age
  - years of schooling
  - sexe
  - marital status
  - health status
- household characteristics
  - number of pensioners
  - quality dwelling place
  - quality toilet
- social capital variables
  - involved in religious activities
  - neigbours
  - crime in neighbourhood
  - member of a group
  - owns a cellular phone
- income variables
  - per capita household income (Rands)
  - actual rank in SA (richest, middle, poorest)
  - percieved rank in SA (richest, middle, 
poorest)
  - percieved rank in village/suburb (richest, 
middle, poorest)
  - percieved to be better/same/worse than at age 
15
  - expect to be better/same/worse off 2 years 
hence


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ZA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2736

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.39      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
5       M= .26      Mt=5.3
6       M= .00      Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
1       M=6.10      Mt=5.7
2       M=6.42      Mt=6.0
3       M=6.14      Mt=5.7
4       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
5       M=5.56      Mt=5.1
6       M=5.82      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.86     Mt=6.2
1       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
2       M=2.82     Mt=6.1
3       M=2.85     Mt=6.2
4       M=2.79     Mt=6.0
5       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
6       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.05 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self-report on single question "How many children do 
you have?"
Observed distribution0: 60,7% 1: 23% 2: 11,2% 3: 4,1% 4: 1%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cAoV= ns
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cBeta=-.15 p < .05
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bAoV= ns
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.27 p < .01
Beta's after accounting for: 
- family monthly income 
- perceived health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study ES 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =4147

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.10      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
5       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
6       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.78     Mt=6.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .87      Mt=5.9  
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M= .73      Mt=5.7
3       M= .57      Mt=5.6
4       M= .54      Mt=5.5
5       M= .28      Mt=5.3
6       M= .20      Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.05      Mt=6.7
1       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.10      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
5       M=6.87      Mt=6.5
6       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .87      Mt=5.9  
1       M= .74      Mt=5.7
2       M= .73      Mt=5.7
3       M= .57      Mt=5.6
4       M= .54      Mt=5.5
5       M= .28      Mt=5.3
6       M= .20      Mt=5.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
3       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.78     Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.06 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.09 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.07 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study SE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1047

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .68      Mt=5.7
6       M= .37      Mt=5.4
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.43     Mt=8.1
4       M=3.54     Mt=8.5
5       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.68      Mt=7.4
1       M=8.09      Mt=7.9
2       M=8.07      Mt=7.9
3       M=8.44      Mt=8.3
4       M=8.26      Mt=8.1
5       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.56      Mt=7.6  
1       M=3.08      Mt=8.1
2       M=3.12      Mt=8.1
3       M=3.11      Mt=8.1
4       M=2.93      Mt=7.9
5       M=2.93      Mt=7.9
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.09 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CH 1989
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1400

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
1       M= .90      Mt=5.9
2       M= .90      Mt=5.9
3       M= .94      Mt=5.9
4       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.04      Mt=6.0
6       M= .97      Mt=6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.20      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
2       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
4       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
5       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
6       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=8.25      Mt=8.1
1       M=8.39      Mt=8.2
2       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
3       M=8.48      Mt=8.3
4       M=8.82      Mt=8.7
5       M=8.33      Mt=8.1
6       M=9.04      Mt=8.9
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study TR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .57      Mt=5.6  
1       M= .61      Mt=5.6
2       M= .83      Mt=5.8
3       M= .63      Mt=5.6
4       M= .40      Mt=5.4
5       M= .33      Mt=5.3
6       M= .43      Mt=5.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
1       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
3       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
4       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
5       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
6       M=3.11     Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.96      Mt=6.6
1       M=6.90      Mt=6.6
2       M=6.54      Mt=6.2
3       M=6.35      Mt=5.9
4       M=6.39      Mt=6.0
5       M=5.80      Mt=5.3
6       M=6.18      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.06 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.11 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.08 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudySelim (2008): study TR 1990
TitleLife Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 88, 531 - 562
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Public18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =6338

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 546, 552
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children
a 0 (reference)
b 1
c 2
d 3+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.05 ns
1 child (compared to 0 child)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.21 p < .01
2 children (compared to 0 child)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=-.22 p < .01
3 or more than 3 children (compared to 0 child)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.03 p < .01
1 child (compared to 0 child)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.08 p < .01
2 children (compared to 0 child)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aOLRC=-.17 p < .01
3 and more than 3 children (compared to 0 child)

OLRC's are controled for:
- year dummies
- gender
- age
- marital status
- education level
- type of employment
- income scales
- health status 
- importance of life domains
- political orientations and trust

OLRC's cannot be interpreted as absolute effect 
sizes. Coefficients denote relative differences, 
e.g. greater difference in happiness between 0 and 
3 children. Comparison is only possible across 
associations with the same happiness measure.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyKnies (2011): study GB 2008
TitleLife Satisfaction and Material Well-Being of Young People in the UK.
SourceMcFall, S.L.;et al;Eds.; ''Understanding Society'', Institute for Social,and Economic Research, 2011, University of Essex, 2011, UK, 16 - 22
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/271133276_LIFE_SATISFACTION_AND_MATERIAL_WELL-BEING_OF_YOUNG_PEOPLE_IN_THE_UK
PublicYoung people, aged 10-15, UK, 200?
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response158
Respondents N =2163

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of childer in household
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-f-7-ab=-.11 p < .01
B controlled for:
-Basic socio-demographics
 -age
 -gender
 -British/Irish White
 -Lives in England
-Family conposition
 -Number of biological parents in household
 -household income
-Standard of living
 -Household material deprivation index
 -Child material deprivation index


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyOswald & Powdthavee (2007): study GB 1999
TitleDeath, Happiness, and the Calculation of Compensatory Damages.
SourceDiscussion Paper 3159, IZA, 2007, Bonn, Germany
URLhttp://ftp.iza.org/dp3159.pdf
Public16-65 aged, United Kingdom, 1999 -2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsen.a.
Respondents N =28418

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 27, 35
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children:
a age 0-2
b age 3-4
c age 5-11
d age 12-15
e age 16-18

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.03 ns
a: number in age 0-2
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+.31
b: number in age 3-4
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.03 p < .05
c: number in age 5-11
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 p < .01
d: number in age 12-15
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.05 ns
e: number in age 16-18

B's controled for:
- death of intimitate in previous year
- gender
- age
- marital status
- occupation (employed, retired, homemaker, 
student)
- education
- household size
- homeownnership
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
Additionally controlled using income:
- household income(per household member)

a +.03 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.05 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by observation payslip and house 
prices

a -.06 ns
b -.02 ns
c -.01 01
d -.07 ns
e -.16 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- instrumented by household income in previous 
year

a +.06 ns
b +.07 p<05
c -.00 ns
d -.05 p<05
e -.07 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- log personal income

a +.08 ns
b -.01 ns
c -.08 05
d -.05 ns
e -.06 ns
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
- mean income over time and household income

a +.02 ns
b +.03 ns
c -.03 ns
d -.04 ns
e -.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, followed 12 years 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22637

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children under 16
Page in Source 17-22
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-00 ns
MALES (N=58674/10085)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.02 ns
FEMALES (N=70669/11924)

B's controlled for: 
- Age Group
- Live with spouse
- Spouse employed
- Age of youngest child
- Qualifications
- Log(Household Income per capita)
- Normal hours worked
- Extra hours worked
- Care hours (mid point)
- Housework hours
- Health Status
- Socio Economic Class
- Male/Female Time Use Groups


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyDella Giusta et al. (2010a): study GB 1996 /1
TitleTime Packages and Their Effect on Life Satisfaction.
SourcePaper 084, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2010, UK
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/emxxdp/em-dp2010-03.html
PublicAdults, general public, UK, 1996-2007
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =50657

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children of different age groups
Page in Source 10, 11, 14, 15
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
a Number of children aged 0-2
b Number of children aged 3-4
c Number of children aged 5-11
d Number of children aged 12-15
Observed distributionMales & Females: a: M=0.12 sd=0.34 b: M=0.12 sd=0.34 c: M=0.42 sd=0.73 d: M=0.23 sd=0.51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=
   MALES                 FEMALES
a: b=+.03 SE=.02 ns      b=+.05 SE=.03 p<.10
b: b=+.01 SE=.02 ns      b=-.04 SE=.02 ns
c: b=-.02 SE=.01 ns      b=-.05 SE=.02 p<.01
d: b=-.07 SE=.02 p<.01   b=-.08 SE=.02 p<.01

B's controlled for:
- Life satisfaction partner
- Age
- Age squared/10
- Log (annual household income per capita)
- Employment status
- Total hours worked
- Total hours worked spouse/partner
- Percentage share of housework
- Index of time use specialisation
- Cares for spouse/partner
- Cared for by spouse/partner
- Health status
- Attitudes to family life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyAngeles (2008): study GB 1991
TitleAdaptation or Social Comparison? The Effects of Income and Happiness.
SourcePaper University of Glasgow, Department of Economics, 2008, UK
URLhttp://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_110443_en.pdf
Public18+ aged general public, UK, 1991-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source Table 1
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children living in the household

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=-.02 p < .10
b controlled for:
- absolute income
- sex
- age
- marital status
- education
- unemployed
- health
- religious participation
- region

Based upon fixed effects analysis; similar results 
for pooled OLS, Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =304

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
4       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
5       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
6       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
6       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.53      Mt=6.5  
1       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M= .68      Mt=5.7
6       M= .37      Mt=5.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.79      Mt=6.4
6       M=6.66      Mt=6.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.02      Mt=7.0  
1       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.00      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
5       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
6       M=2.05      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
1       M=7.69      Mt=7.4
2       M=8.05      Mt=7.8
3       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
4       M=8.21      Mt=8.0
5       M=7.86      Mt=7.6
6       M=8.52      Mt=8.4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study GB 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1484

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyOkulicz-Kozaryn et al. (2015): study US 2011
TitleLuxury Car Owners are not Happier than Frugal Car Owners
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 121 - 141
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0223-2
Public18+ aged, general public, the US, 2011
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =8907

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children in household
Page in Source Table 1 & 3
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on the number of children in your household
Remarks
This variable represents the actual number of persons 
currently in the family who are neither Head nor 
Wife/"Wife," from newborns through those 17 years of 
age, whether or not they are actually children of the 
Head or Wife/"Wife".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.04 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Car ownership
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.04 p < .001
B specially controlled for
-Number of cars in household
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.04 p < .01
B specially controlled for
-Car price
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-Ib=+.02 ns
B specially controlled for
-Car price
-Year in which acquired first car

Above B's all additionally controlled for
-Total family income
-Rent a dwelling
-Other than own/rent a dwelling
-Number of children in household
-Health status
-Gender
-Marital status
-Age
-State dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyBartram (2011): study US 1995
TitleEconomic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2011, Vol. 103, 57 - 76
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-010-9696-2
Public18-94 aged natives and immigrants, USA, 1995
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response203
Respondents N =1339

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 64-65-67-69-71
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Percentage of respondents:
0:   no children (reference)
1a: one child
1b: two or more children
Observed distributiona) Total sample: M=23.6; Natives: M=21.7 Total immigrants: M=30.0; European and Canadian immigrants: M=14.6; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=38.0 b) Total sample: M=13.1; Natives: M=13.1 Total immigrants: M=13.3; European and Canadian immigrants: M=19.6; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=10.1 c) Total sample: M=63.3; Natives: M=65.2 Total immigrants: M=56.7; European and Canadian immigrants: M=65.9; Asian, African, & Latin-American immigrants: M=51.9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.05 p < .096
ONE CHILD (vs no children)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-.31 p < .096
ONE CHILD (vs no children)

B=-.07 (p<.69) when additionally controlled for 
financial satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ab=-.43 p < .152
TWO OR MORE CHILDREN (vs none)

B=-.20 (p<.15) when controlled for financial 
satisfaction
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aBeta=-.11 p < .152
TWO OR MORE CHILDREN (vs none)

B's and Beta's controlled for: 
- Immigrant status
- Log income
- Interaction income*immigrant status
- Marital status 
- Age
- Unemployed
- Religion
- Health

Similar results are found in an ordered logit 
model.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyTimmermans (1997): study US 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1839

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single question: "Have you had any children?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.11      Mt=7.1  
1       M=2.24      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
3       M=2.42      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
5       M=2.49      Mt=7.5
6       M=1.99      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.20      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.40      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.53      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.39      Mt=7.1
4       M=7.96      Mt=7.7
5       M=7.81      Mt=7.6
6       M=7.30      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.27     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
6       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.76      Mt=6.8  
1       M=1.44      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.67      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       M=1.50      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.81      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
2       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
5       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
6       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.11      Mt=7.1  
1       M=2.24      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.23      Mt=7.2
3       M=2.42      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.08      Mt=7.1
5       M=2.49      Mt=7.5
6       M=1.99      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=7.82      Mt=7.6
5       M=8.20      Mt=8.0
6       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1997): study US 1989
TitleValues, Performance and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: An Elaboration of Multiple Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 171 - 204
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006858618686
Public'Back to the land' mini farmers, USA,1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response43,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelFamily Size
Page in Source 192
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
number of children
Observed distributionranges 0-12; Median 2; N 535

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-?-sq-v-4-ar=+ ns
Ss, who value technical self reliance high, 
irrespectible of their performance (N=▒280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.07 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.05 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=-.00 ns

Ss, who value Homestead Food Production high, 
irrespectable their performance, (N=▒280)
-high Country Asceticism     r=+.08 ns
-high Homestead Production   r=+.06 ns
-high Ecological Sensitivity r=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question on number of household 
children
Precise text not presented
Observed distributionM = 1.03, SD = 1.17

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 833
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self reported number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.25 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyCrnic et al. (1984): study US 1981
TitleMaternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months.
SourceAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1984, Vol. 54, 224 - 235
PublicMother-child pairs, followed 18 months after birth, USA, 1981-82
SampleSampling not reported
Non-ResponseAttrition at T2: 10%, at T3: 14%
Respondents N =105

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 105
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
0 one
1 more

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QLS-c-sq-v-5-ar=-.11 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 458
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
The average number of children living in the 
respondent's household over the course of the study.(12 
year interval)
Observed distributionM=.68, SD=.56, Range 0-3
Remarks
Number of children at T1(1980), T2(1982), T3(1988), and 
T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.02 ns
T1 Happiness by T1-T4 children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.06 p < .05
T4 Happiness by T1-T4 children
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=-.03 ns
T1-T4 change in happiness(T4 happiness controlling 
T1 happiness) by T1-T4 children
Controlling for 
- Continuously married
- Divorced/Unmarried
- Divorced/Remarried
- Age
- Gender
- White
- Years of education
- Family income
- Stepchild
- Religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyLee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response25.1%
Respondents N =403

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 220,221
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
number of children
Observed distributionMean 2.7 SD 1.6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=-.03
males
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.05
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-contact with children
-aid given
-aid received
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-ar=+.05
females
M-ACO-u-mq-n-4-aBeta=+.12
beta controlled for
-education 
-marital status
-self rated health
-age
-contact with children
-aid given
-aid received


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Self report

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=?.04 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.09
Beta controlled for:
- resources only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.06
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- assessments
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.06
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- assessments
- comparisons

Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- house ownership
- marital status
- number of household members
Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- leisure time
- housing
- health
- education
- community
- government
Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
- perceived financial improvement in the past few 
years.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyPalisi & Canning (1986): study US 1974
TitleUrbanism and Psychological Well-Being: A Test of Three Theories.
SourceSociological Spectrum, 1986, Vol. 6, 361 - 378
DOIDOI: 10.1080/02732173.1986.9981797
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =7542

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 370
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Single closed question, rated on a 7-point scale, 
ranging from "none" to "eight or more children".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyNock (1981): study US 1973
TitleFamily Life-Cycle Transitions: Longitudinal Effects on Family Members.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 703 -714
Public16+ aged working force, USA, followed 5 years, 1973-1977
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =963

Correlate
Author's labelBirth of additional child within past 5 years
Page in Source 710
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Additional child in the last 5 years
1 = Yes
0 = No
Observed distribution1:N = 109 ( 11,32 %)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.00 ns
T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness: correlation with T2 
happiness, controlled T1 happinesss.
O-SLu-c-sq-n-7-cb=+.28 p < .05
B's further controlled for:
- education
- sex
- race
- age


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyGlenn & McLanahan (1981): study US 1973
TitleThe Effects of Offspring on the Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1981, Vol. 43, 409-421
Public50+ aged, with no children under age 18 at home, USA,1973-78
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2465

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 413-5
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children ever had

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=▒
Whites         males    ▀= -.05 (ns)
               females  ▀= +.01 (ns)
Black          males    ▀= -.10 (ns)
               females  ▀= +.08 (ns)
< 12yrs.school males    ▀= -.02 (ns)       
               females  ▀= -.00 (ns)
> 12yrs.school males    ▀= -.07 (ns)      
               females  ▀= +.01 (ns)
Married        males    ▀= -.04 (ns)
               females  ▀= -.02 (ns)
Unmarried      males    ▀= -.08 (ns)
               females  ▀= -.02 (ns)
▀ controled for age, family income, years of 
school completed,church attendence and employment 
status.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyFerree (1984): study US 1971
TitleClass, Housework and Happiness: Women's Work and Life Satisfaction.
SourceSex Roles, 1984, Vol. 11, 1057 - 1074
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00288134
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 1070
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=-.01 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=-.02 ns
B's Controlled for:
- Age
- Having child < 6
- Employment
- Education
- Family income
- Husband's job status
- respondents present or last job status
- social desirability
- time pressure

Reversed coding in paper : 1 = completely 
satisfied, 7 = completely dissatisfied
1= very happy, 3 = not too happy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 574
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
number of children
Observed distributionM = 2,67 SD = 1,28

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=-.06 ns
Beta controlled for:
- age
- education
- husbandĺs occupation (professional or not)
- number of children

Unaffected by:
- number of roles
- Employment
- Interaction between:
  o Roles/employment
  o Roles/husbandĺs occupation
  o Employment/husbandĺs occupation


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudyRose (1955): study US 1952
TitleFactors Associated with the Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Persons.
SourceMarriage and Family Living, 1955, Vol. 17, 15 - 19
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/346773.pdf
PublicMarried couples, middle aged, middle-class, USA, 1952-53
Sample
Non-Response50 %
Respondents N =416

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 16
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-5-aD%= 0 ns
Reported for females only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
Number of children born to S and adopted or 
stephchildren.
Remarks
Assessed in 1972

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1972 number of children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi▓= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Number of children
Subject code: C03ab01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationNumber of children, code C03ab01
Operationalization
a. Actual number in 1972 (including
adopted and stephchildren).

b. Same as planned (Assessed in 1950).

c. Number wanted if life lived over
(Assessed in 1950).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1972 number by 1972 happiness.
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi▓= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier congruence (1950) by present happiness 
(1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi▓= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Earlier wish (1950) by present happiness
   (1972).
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChi▓= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AR 1991
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
2       M=3.15     Mt=7.2
3       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
4       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
5       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.27      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.07      Mt=6.1
2       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
3       M=1.24      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
5       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.42      Mt=7.1
2       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
3       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
4       M=7.36      Mt=7.1
5       M=6.85      Mt=6.5
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2004
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response88%
Respondents N =1997

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B78
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a:364, b:696, c:97, d:562, e:149, f:53

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=
a  Mt = 7,51; SD = 2,02
b  Mt = 8,22; SD = 1,46
c  Mt = 7,57; SD = 1,67
d  Mt = 8,02; SD = 1,43
e  Mt = 7,66; SD = 1,67
f  Mt = 7,28; SD = 1,55
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a, p<.000
b>c, p<.004
b>e, p<.003
b>f, p<.001
d>a, p<.000
d>f, p<.021


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source A80+87+B85
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a: 363, b: 611, c: 126, d: 597, e: 155, f: 124

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a Mt = 7,54; SD = 2.04
b Mt = 8,20; SD = 1,42
c Mt = 7,26; SD = 2,00
d Mt = 7,76; SD = 1,51
e Mt = 7,41; SD = 1,64
f Mt = 7,38; SD = 1,82
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
b>a  p<.000
b>c  p<.000
b>d  p<.000
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.000
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
a Mt = 7,19; SD = 2,05
b Mt = 7,86; SD = 1,55
c Mt = 7,26; SD = 2,03
d Mt = 7,55; SD = 1,69
e Mt = 7,10; SD = 1,98
f Mt = 7,06; SD = 2,06
Set Image size:   

M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
b>a   p<.000
b>c  p<.031
b>d  p<.016
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2004e): study AU 2004 /1
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index. Survey 11, Report 11.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response72
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B88
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a  live alone
b  live with partner only
c  sole parent
d  live with partner & children
e  live with parents
f  live with other adults
Observed distributionN = a: 1049, b: 1845, c: 349, d: 1758, e: 457, f:355
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-11

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caDMt=+
a Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,92
b Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,55
c Mt = 7,03; SD = 2,08
d Mt = 7,85; SD = 1,50
e Mt = 7,50; SD = 1,63
f Mt = 7,34; SD = 1,71
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-caAoV=
1a>1   p<.000
1a>1b  p<.000
1a>2a  p<.000
1a>2b  p<.000
1a>2c  p<.000
.000  2a>1
.000  2a>1b
.001  2a>2b
.000  2a>2c
.009  2b>1
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bDMt=+
1  Mt = 7,45; SD = 1,84
1a Mt = 7,96; SD = 1,50
1b Mt = 7,46; SD = 1,79
2  Mt = 7,49; SD = 1,67
2a Mt = 7,69; SD = 1,51
2b Mt = 7,44; SD = 1,73
2c Mt = 7,33; SD = 1,76
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-bAoV=
b>a  p<.000
b>c  p<.000
b>d  p<.000
b>e  p<.000
b>f  p<.000
d>a  p<.042


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyCummins et al. (2004b): study AU 2003
TitleAustralian Unity Wellbeing Index, Survey 12, Report 12.0. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Job Security.
SourceAustralian Center on Quality of Life, October 2004, Melbourne, Australia
URLhttp://www.acqol.com.au/reports/index.php
Public18+ aged, general public, Australia 2003-2004
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold Structure
Page in Source B81
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a live alone
b live with partner only
c sole parent
d live with partner & children
e live with parents
f livewith other adults
Observed distributionN= a:1413, b:2541, c:446, d:1907, e:510, f:917
Remarks
Combined Surveys 9-12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aDMt= p < .000
a Mt = 7,65; SD = 1,88
b Mt = 8,10; SD = 1,59
c Mt = 7,24; SD = 2,01
d Mt = 7,84; SD = 1,52
e Mt = 7,53; SD = 1,62
f Mt = 7,64; SD = 1,66
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-aAoV=
a>c, p<.002
b>a, p<.000
b>c, p<.000
b>d, p<.000
b>e, p<.000
b>f, p<.000
d>a, p<.026
d>c, p<.000
d>e, p<.002
d>f, p<.027
f>c, p<.005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study AT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1460

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
2       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
3       M=2.40      Mt=7.4
4       M=2.25      Mt=7.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=6.06      Mt=5.6
1       M=6.52      Mt=6.1
2       M=7.16      Mt=6.8
3       M=6.36      Mt=6.0
4       M=5.54      Mt=5.0
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=3.10     Mt=7.0
1       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.25     Mt=7.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.11 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.09 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BY 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1015

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=5.32      Mt=4.8
1       M=5.53      Mt=5.0
2       M=5.50      Mt=5.0
3       M=5.69      Mt=5.2
4       M=6.05      Mt=5.6
5       M=5.90      Mt=5.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .41      Mt=5.4
1       M= .68      Mt=5.7
2       M= .85      Mt=5.9
3       M=1.01      Mt=6.0
4       M= .91      Mt=5.9
5       M=1.30      Mt=6.3
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
1       M=2.50     Mt=5.0
2       M=2.42     Mt=4.8
3       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
4       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
5       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.16 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.14 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.13 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2792

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
4       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
4       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
5       M=3.44     Mt=8.1
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
4       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
5       M=8.67      Mt=8.5
6       M=5.33      Mt=4.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.52      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.54      Mt=6.5
3       M=1.86      Mt=6.9
4       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
5       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
6       M= .00      Mt=5.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.61      Mt=7.3
1       M=7.59      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.98      Mt=7.8
4       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.31     Mt=7.7
1       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
2       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
3       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
4       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1782

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.76      Mt=6.8
4       M= .65      Mt=5.6
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
4       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.10      Mt=6.1
1       M=1.30      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
3       M= .92      Mt=5.9
4       M= .70      Mt=5.7
5       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
6       M= .92      Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.47      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.35      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
4       M=6.55      Mt=6.2
5       M=7.29      Mt=7.0
6       M=8.42      Mt=8.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
1       M=2.93     Mt=6.4
2       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
3       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
4       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
6       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.06 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study BG 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1034

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
1       M=4.99      Mt=4.4
2       M=5.08      Mt=4.5
3       M=5.22      Mt=4.7
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.34     Mt=4.5
1       M=2.28     Mt=4.3
2       M=2.39     Mt=4.6
3       M=2.37     Mt=4.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CA 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1730

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.84      Mt=7.6
2       M=7.85      Mt=7.6
3       M=8.24      Mt=8.1
4       M=7.72      Mt=7.5
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.28      Mt=7.3
1       M=2.18      Mt=7.2
2       M=2.48      Mt=7.5
3       M=2.52      Mt=7.5
4       M=2.26      Mt=7.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.07     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
4       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
1       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.04     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.14     Mt=7.1
4       M=3.23     Mt=7.4
5       M=2.97     Mt=6.6
6       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
1       M=1.11      Mt=6.1
2       M= .88      Mt=5.9
3       M= .95      Mt=5.9
4       M=1.34      Mt=6.3
5       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
6       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.89      Mt=7.7
1       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.60      Mt=7.3
3       M=7.44      Mt=7.2
4       M=8.13      Mt=7.9
5       M=7.19      Mt=6.9
6       M=7.37      Mt=7.1
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+aged, general public, China, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .92      Mt=5.9
1       M=1.55      Mt=6.5
2       M=1.62      Mt=6.6
3       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
4       M= .69      Mt=5.7
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.90     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.92     Mt=6.4
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
4       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.12 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.11 p < .001
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study CZ 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1396

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=6.45      Mt=6.1
1       M=6.31      Mt=5.9
2       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
3       M=6.16      Mt=5.7
4       M=5.76      Mt=5.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .74      Mt=5.7
1       M= .78      Mt=5.8
2       M= .68      Mt=5.7
3       M= .75      Mt=5.7
4       M= .71      Mt=6.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
3       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
4       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.08 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelco-habitants
Page in Source 72
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question:
With whom do you live ?
1: living alone
2: living with:
   2a: spouse/partner
   2b: own children
   2c: partner's children
   2d: adopted children
   2e: friends
   2f: biological parents
   2g: others
Observed distributionN: all: 6974, 1:723, 2: 2a:3419, 2b:2370, 2c:248, 2d:11, 2e:57, 2f:63, 2g:83
Remarks
not all categories are mutually exclusive: therefor 
only absolute frequencies are given
Bonferri test only for subcatagories of 2(living with)
in excel codes are 
different:2a=1;2b=2;2c=3;2d=4;2e=5;2f=6;2g=7

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1:  Mt=7.03 
2:  Mt=7.88
2a: Mt=7.98
2b: Mt=7.79
2c: Mt=7.83
2d: Mt=8.41
2e: Mt=6.89
2f: Mt=7.38
2g: Mt=7.26
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aBMCT=
2e<2a 
2e<2b
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1:  Mt=6.51
2:  Mt=7.56
2a: Mt=7.71
2b: Mt=7.55
2c: Mt=7.63
2d: Mt=7.73
2e: Mt=6.45
2f: Mt=6.54
2g: Mt=6.78
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eBMCT=
2e<2a   
2e<2c  
2e<2b
2f<2a
2g<2a
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1:  Mt=5.89
2:  Mt=7.21
2a: Mt=7.38
2b: Mt=7.15
2c: Mt=7.36
2d: Mt=7.05
2e: Mt=5.96
2f: Mt=6.45
2g: Mt=6.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haBMCT=
2e<2a
2e<2c
2e<2b
2f<2a
2g<2a
2g<2c


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelchildren living at home
Page in Source 320
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
children living at home
 1: No children in the home
  1aa:no children(voluntarily childless)
  1ab:no children in the 
       home(involuntarily childless)
  1b: no children in the home but children 
       elsewhere
  1ba: children under 16 living elsewhere
 2: Children in the home
  2a: only biological children
  2b: partner's and biological children
  2c: only partner's children
Observed distributionN: 1:1049, 1aa:24, 1ab:35, 1b:540, 1ba:44 2:434, 2a:379, 2b:8, 2c:8,
Remarks
a given respondent may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=7.68               2:   Mt=7.96
 1aa: Mt=7.91                2a: Mt=7.99
 1ab: Mt=6.79                2b: Mt=8.13 
 1b:  Mt=7.63                2c: Mt=8.13
 1ba: Mt=7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=7.38               2:   Mt=7.58
 1aa: Mt=7.40                2a: Mt=7.61
 1ab: Mt=6.93                2b: Mt=8.13 
 1b:  Mt=7.49                2c: Mt=7.19
 1ba: Mt=6.94
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
no children at home         children at home
1:    Mt=6.90               2:   Mt=6.89
 1aa: Mt=6.46                2a: Mt=7.00
 1ab: Mt=6.93                2b: Mt=8.44 
 1b:  Mt=6.93                2c: Mt=6.88
 1ba: Mt=6.66


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelchildren in home
Page in Source 322
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
1: children in home
0: no children in home
Observed distributionN: 1:701, 2:711, 3:989, 4:423, 5:1049, 5:317
Remarks
breadwinners only

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDM=
            children    no children difference
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=7.19     6.75        +0,44
 men        Mt=7.31     5.00        +2,31
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.86     7.74        -0,12      
 men        Mt=7.93     7.76        -0,17
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDM=
            children    no children difference
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=6.75     6.64        +0,11    
 men        Mt=6.81     5.00        +1,81
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.74     7.66        +0,08
 men        Mt=7.61     7.76        -0,15
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDM=
            children    no children difference
SINGLE      in home     in home
 women      Mt=6.11     6.11        0
 men        Mt=6.06     5.00        +1,06
WITH PARTNER
 women      Mt=7.36     7.20        +0,16
 men        Mt=7.24     7.10        +0,14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelchildren living at home
Page in Source 338
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
children living at home
 1: No children in the home
  1aa:no children(voluntarily childless)
  1ab:no children in the 
       home(involuntarily childless)
  1b: no children in the home but children 
       elsewhere
  1ba: children under 16 living elsewhere
 2: Children in the home
  2a: only biological children
  2b: partner's and biological children
  2c: only partner's children
Observed distributionN: All:8402; 1:2122; 1aa:120; 1ab:251; 1b:693; 1ba:388; 2:2491; 2a:2146; 2b:120; 2c:71

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
1:   Mt=7.65
1aa: Mt=7.66
1ab: Mt=7.86
1b:  Mt=7.75
1ba: Mt=7.38
2:   Mt=7.81
2a:  Mt=7.81
2b:  Mt=7.69
2c:  Mt=8.10
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
1:   Mt=7.25
1aa: Mt=7.21
1ab: Mt=7.59
1b:  Mt=7.38
1ba: Mt=6.89
2:   Mt=7.55
2a:  Mt=7.55
2b:  Mt=7.73
2c:  Mt=7.75
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
1:   Mt=6.84
1aa: Mt=6.80
1ab: Mt=7.05
1b:  Mt=7.09
1ba: Mt=6.65
2:   Mt=7.18
2a:  Mt=7.15
2b:  Mt=7.23
2c:  Mt=7.50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelwith/without children
Page in Source 144,146
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
1: children
0: no children
Remarks
Also p.156,158

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
    partner  no partner    partner  no partner 
employed men(N=462)        unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=8.15    6.18          7.70     5.00 
0:Ms=8.19    7.43          7.11     5.91
employed women(N=428)      unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=8.05    6.95          8.04     6.25           

0:Ms=7.91    7.43          8.00     6.66
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
    partner  no partner    partner  no partner 
employed men(N=462)        unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=7.81    5.44          6.80     5.00  
0:Ms=7.86    6.66          6.73     5.45
employed women(N=428)      unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=7.76    6.80          7.45     5.50
0:Ms=7.76    6.21          7.34     6.34
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
    partner  no partner    partner  no partner 
employed men(N=462)        unemployed men(N=53)
1:Ms=7.25    5.15          7.00     5.00  
0:Ms=7.48    5.65          6.73     5.00
employed women(N=428)      unemployed women(N=86)
1:Ms=7.24    6.10          6.94     5.25
0:Ms=7.76    6.13          7.34     6.00


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DK 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1030

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt= 7.5
1       M=3.40     Mt= 8.0
2       M=3.44     Mt= 8.1
3       M=3.42     Mt= 8.1
4       M=3.45     Mt= 8.2
5       M=4.00     Mt=10.0
6       M=4.00     Mt=10.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M= 7.86     Mt= 7.6
1       M= 8.33     Mt= 8.1
2       M= 8.34     Mt= 8.2
3       M= 8.36     Mt= 8.2
4       M= 8.64     Mt= 8.5
5       M= 8.00     Mt= 7.8
6       M=10.00     Mt=10.00
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
1       M=2.07      Mt=7.1
2       M=2.15      Mt=7.1
3       M=1.87      Mt=6.9
4       M=1.91      Mt=6.9
5       M= .00      Mt=5.0
6       M=3.00      Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.11 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.08 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study EE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1008

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=5.91      Mt=5.5
1       M=5.98      Mt=5.5
2       M=6.01      Mt=5.6
3       M=6.76      Mt=6.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .77      Mt=5.8
1       M= .63      Mt=5.6
2       M= .88      Mt=5.9
3       M= .98      Mt=6.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.56     Mt=5.2
1       M=2.54     Mt=5.1
2       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
3       M=2.68     Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.06 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.09 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FI 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =588

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.09     Mt=7.0
1       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
4       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
1       M=7.52      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.48      Mt=7.2
3       M=7.94      Mt=7.7
4       M=8.40      Mt=8.2
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.47      Mt=6.5
1       M=1.16      Mt=6.2
2       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.26      Mt=6.3
4       M=1.93      Mt=6.9
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M=-.71      Mt=4.3
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.08 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study FR 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, France, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1002

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.22      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.58      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.23      Mt=6.2
3       M=1.63      Mt=6.6
4       M=1.57      Mt=6.6
5       M=2.22      Mt=7.2
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.70      Mt=6.3
1       M=6.82      Mt=6.5
2       M=6.77      Mt=6.4
3       M=7.18      Mt=6.9
4       M=6.95      Mt=6.6
5       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
1       M=3.18     Mt=7.3
2       M=3.19     Mt=7.3
3       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
4       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
5       M=3.22     Mt=7.4
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.04 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft fŘr Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelChildren
Page in Source 1
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
3: small children in household
2: teenage children in household
1: no children in household
Observed distribution1: 310, 2: 197, 3: 1516

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
small children in household:   M = 7.2
teenage children in household: M = 7.1
no children in household:      M = 7.0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyBoyce & Wood (2011): study DE 2005
TitlePersonality and the Marginal Utility of Income: Personality Interacts with Increases in Household Income to Determine Life Satisfaction.
SourceJournal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, Vol. 78, 183 - 191
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167268111000187
DOIdoi:10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.004
Public17-96 aged, general public Germany, followed 4 years 2005-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54460

Correlate
Author's labelChild dummy
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Whether there is at least one child in the household
Observed distributionMean: 0.27; S.D.: 0.45

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta-f=+.06 p < .01
Beta (+0.060), based upon fixed effects, 
controlled for:
- Monthly household income (log)
- Household size (log)
- Marital status
- Employment status
- Disabled

Slightly larger result for pooled OLS


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2004
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =22012

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 508
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are there children in your household?
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.00 ns
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) perceived local safety
  b) neighbourhood status
  c) social contact with neighbours
  d) rate of removal
  e) urbanization
- personal characteristics
  a) conscientiousness
  b) extraversion
  c) agreeableness
  d) neuroticism
  e) external locus of control
  f) internal locus of control
  g) status compared to others in neighbourhood
  h) openness
  i) nationality
  j) age and age squared
  k) household income
  l) education
  m) gender
  n) mental health
  o) physical health
  p) marital status

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyDittmann & Goebel (2010): study DE 2000
TitleYour House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2010, Vol. 96, 497 - 513
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-009-9489-7
Public17+ aged general public, Germany, followed 7 years, 2000-2006
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27249

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children
Page in Source 510
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Are there children in your household?
1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.06 p < .01
IN WEST-GERMANY
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.09 p < .01
IN EAST-GERMANY

B's controlled for:
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a)rate of people moving out the neighbourhood
  b)status of neighbourhood
- status relative to others in neighbourhood
- nationality
- status of neighbourhood
- income
- education
- age and age squared
- marital status
- health
- city size
- survey year

East-Germany is the former communist German 
Democratic Republic, which was reunited in 1990 
with West-Germany.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1336

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
1       M=6.70      Mt=6.3
2       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
3       M=7.00      Mt=6.7
4       M=7.12      Mt=6.8
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
1       M=2.98     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.03     Mt=6.8
3       M=3.12     Mt=7.1
4       M=3.13     Mt=7.1
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .96      Mt=6.0
1       M=1.37      Mt=6.4
2       M=1.48      Mt=6.4
3       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
4       M= .59      Mt=5.6
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.11 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.08 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.09 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-atc=+.08 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.10 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.06 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.10 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2201

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
4       M=6.24      Mt=5.8
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.76      Mt=6.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
1       M=7.22      Mt=6.9
2       M=7.41      Mt=7.1
3       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.36      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.32      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.83      Mt=6.8
3       M=1.76      Mt=6.8
4       M= .65      Mt=5.6
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
2       M=3.08     Mt=6.9
3       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.03 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of children in household
Page in Source 20, 26, 33, 35
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
0 no children in household
1 1 child in household
2 2 children in household
3 3 or more children in household
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.19 sd=0.39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
1: B=+.13 p<.01
2: B=+.17 p<.01
3: B=+.38 p<.01
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=+
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527
1: B=+.13 p<.01
2: B=+.16 p<.01
3: B=+.37 p<.01

Betaĺs controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired
- Doing military or civil service

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVendrik & Woltjer (2007): study DE 1984
TitleHappiness and Loss Aversion: Is utility concave or convex in relative income?
SourceJournal of Public Economics, 2007, Vol. 91, 1423 - 1448
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Public18+ aged general public, Germany, followed 17 years, 1984-2001
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102068

Correlate
Author's labelAge children in household
Page in Source 1436
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a) Couple with children below 17
b) Couple with children above 16
c) Couple with children below 17 and children above 16
1 if yes, 0 if no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.18
a) Couple with children below 17
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=-.11
b) Couple with children above 16
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.15
c) Couple with children below 17 and children 
above 16

b's controlled for:
- Household income
- Reference household income
- Unemployment status
- Years of education
- Age
- Weekly hours worked


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudySchaubert (2015): study DE West Germany 1984
TitleCareer, Private Life, and Well-Being among College educated West German Women.
SourceTheorie und Politik - Session: Men and Women in the Workplace, 2015, No. G18-V3, 1 - 36
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/113042
Public25- 54 aged high educated women, WestGermany, followed 1984-2012
SampleVaried Probability
Non-Response
Respondents N =13713

Correlate
Author's labelCareer-family combination: 'Have it all'
Page in Source 18
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
A Career: monthly earning above 25th percentile of 
college educated males (vs not)
B Family situation
    a cohabiting with a partner (vs not)
    b children; minor child in the household (vs not)
    c family: cohabits with partner and child(ren) (vs 
not)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.42 p < .01
A only: Relative high income     (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.73 p < .01
Ba only: Cohabiting             (vs living alone)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.39 p < .01
Bb only: Children:              (vs childless)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.54 p < .01
Bc only Family                  (vs not living 
with partner and child)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
A+Ba: high income and cohabiting  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.22 p < .05
A+Bb: high income and children  (vs not)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.28 p < .01
A+Bc: high income and family   (vs not)

b's controled for:
- age
- age square
- migration background
- year fixed effects
- indicator variables for birth cohort

b's for  A, Ba, Bb and Bc only differ slightly in 
analyses A-B combinations

Similar results for 40-54 aged women


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study HU 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =999

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .64      Mt=5.6
1       M= .85      Mt=5.9
2       M=1.05      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.03      Mt=6.0
4       M=1.64      Mt=6.7
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.92      Mt=5.5
1       M=6.03      Mt=5.6
2       M=6.18      Mt=5.8
3       M=5.38      Mt=4.9
4       M=5.86      Mt=5.4
5       less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
1       M=2.71     Mt=5.7
2       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
3       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
4       M=2.57     Mt=5.2
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.10 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.07 p < .01
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.10 p < .001
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.09 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IS 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =702

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=7.99      Mt=7.8
1       M=8.02      Mt=7.8
2       M=8.15      Mt=7.9
3       M=8.10      Mt=7.9
4       M=8.27      Mt=8.1
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
1       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.48     Mt=8.3
3       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
4       M=3.42     Mt=8.1
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.38      Mt=7.4
1       M=2.51      Mt=7.5
2       M=2.92      Mt=7.9
3       M=2.57      Mt=7.6
4       M=2.56      Mt=7.6
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex and age 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IN 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, India, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.18      Mt=7.2
1       M=2.26      Mt=7.3
2       M=2.30      Mt=7.3
3       M=2.34      Mt=7.3
4       M=1.98      Mt=7.0
5       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.73      Mt=7.5
1       M=7.64      Mt=7.4
2       M=7.70      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.76      Mt=7.5
4       M=7.23      Mt=6.9
5       M=8.73      Mt=8.6
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .04      Mt=5.0
1       M= .26      Mt=5.3
2       M= .51      Mt=5.5
3       M= .36      Mt=5.4
4       M= .06      Mt=5.1
5       M= .67      Mt=5.7
6       M=-.06      Mt=4.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.63      Mt=5.1
1       M=6.12      Mt=5.7
2       M=6.70      Mt=6.3
3       M=6.01      Mt=5.6
4       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
5       M=6.54      Mt=6.2
6       M=5.68      Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.29     Mt=7.6
1       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
2       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
3       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
4       M=3.16     Mt=7.2
5       M=3.55     Mt=8.5
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
1       M=2.84     Mt=6.1
2       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.77     Mt=5.9
4       M=2.76     Mt=5.9
5       M=2.75     Mt=5.8
6       M=2.65     Mt=5.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M=-.71      Mt=4.3
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M=-.71      Mt=4.3
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IE 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
1       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
3       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
5       M=2.17      Mt=7.2
6       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=8.39      Mt=8.2
5       M=8.09      Mt=7.9
6       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
1       M=3.37     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.36     Mt=7.9
3       M=3.35     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.39     Mt=8.0
5       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
6       M=3.40     Mt=8.0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M=-.71      Mt=4.3
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.49      Mt=7.2
1       M=7.31      Mt=7.0
2       M=7.62      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
4       M=6.89      Mt=6.5
5       M=6.94      Mt=6.6
6       M=6.19      Mt=5.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=2.03      Mt=7.0
1       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
2       M=1.97      Mt=7.0
3       M=2.13      Mt=7.1
4       M=2.27      Mt=7.3
5       M=2.17      Mt=7.2
6       M=1.80      Mt=6.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.83      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.71      Mt=7.5
3       M=7.90      Mt=7.7
4       M=8.39      Mt=8.2
5       M=8.09      Mt=7.9
6       M=8.03      Mt=7.8
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.61      Mt=6.6
1       M=1.77      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.69      Mt=6.7
3       M=1.68      Mt=6.7
4       M= .71      Mt=5.7
5       M=-.71      Mt=4.3
6       M=2.00      Mt=7.0
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=3.26     Mt=7.5
1       M=3.32     Mt=7.7
2       M=3.28     Mt=7.6
3       M=3.34     Mt=7.8
4       M=3.05     Mt=6.8
5       M=2.80     Mt=6.0
6       M=3.49     Mt=8.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.05 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyMorawetz (1977): study IL 1976
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response38%
Respondents N =109

Correlate
Author's labelchildren at home
Page in Source 518
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Number of children living at home
Observed distributionM=2.1 (children)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab= ns
B controlled for:
- years lived in moshav
- religion
- place of birth
- age
- sex
- education
- not married
- rooms per house
- rooms per person
- telephone
- no car
- agricultural work
- income per standard adult
- Moshav
Unaffected by kind of community
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ab=+.06 ns
B controlled for the above variables with income 
left out


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study IT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2010

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
2       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
4       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
3       M= .79      Mt=5.8
4       M=2.09      Mt=7.1
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
3       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
4       M=8.48      Mt=8.3
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Less than 10 Ss
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study JP 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1011

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
1       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
2       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
3       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
4       M=2.94     Mt=6.5
5       M=3.00     Mt=6.7
6       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=6.29      Mt=5.9
1       M=6.57      Mt=6.2
2       M=6.65      Mt=6.3
3       M=6.60      Mt=6.2
4       M=6.73      Mt=6.4
5       M=7.17      Mt=6.9
6       M=6.33      Mt=5.9
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.14      Mt=6.8
1       M=7.57      Mt=7.3
2       M=7.34      Mt=7.0
3       M=6.97      Mt=6.6
4       M=8.48      Mt=8.3
5       M=6.49      Mt=6.1
6       M=6.59      Mt=6.2
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.06     Mt=6.9
2       M=2.99     Mt=6.6
3       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
4       M=3.20     Mt=7.3
5       M=2.85     Mt=6.1
6       M=3.30     Mt=7.7
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
1       M=1.29      Mt=6.3
2       M=1.19      Mt=6.2
3       M= .79      Mt=5.8
4       M=2.09      Mt=7.1
5       M=1.87      Mt=6.9
6       M=2.54      Mt=7.5
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .36      Mt=5.4
1       M= .24      Mt=5.2
2       M= .53      Mt=5.5
3       M= .38      Mt=5.4
4       M= .42      Mt=5.4
5       M= .27      Mt=5.3
6       M= .20      Mt=5.2
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=+.07 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.04 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.06 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=+.03 p < .05
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.02 p < .05
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.05 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.07 p < .01
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LV 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =903

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M= .89      Mt=5.9
1       M= .88      Mt=5.9
2       M= .96      Mt=6.0
3       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
4       M=1.60      Mt=6.6
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=5.67      Mt=5.2
1       M=5.92      Mt=5.5
2       M=5.51      Mt=5.0
3       M=6.02      Mt=5.6
4       M=5.20      Mt=4.7
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.46     Mt=4.9
1       M=2.53     Mt=5.1
2       M=2.55     Mt=5.2
3       M=2.61     Mt=5.4
4       M=2.70     Mt=5.7
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.08 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.04 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.06 p < .05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.09 p < .05
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study LT 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1000

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=6.08      Mt=5.6
1       M=5.81      Mt=5.3
2       M=6.21      Mt=5.8
3       M=5.66      Mt=5.2
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M= .64      Mt=5.6
1       M= .45      Mt=5.5
2       M= .69      Mt=5.7
3       M= .61      Mt=5.6
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=2.52     Mt=5.1
1       M=2.47     Mt=4.9
2       M=2.60     Mt=5.3
3       M=2.62     Mt=5.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Empty category
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.01 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study MX 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1531

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=+
0       M=2.96     Mt=6.5
1       M=3.02     Mt=6.7
2       M=2.95     Mt=6.5
3       M=2.88     Mt=6.3
4       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
5       M=2.89     Mt=6.3
6       M=2.87     Mt=6.2
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=+
0       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
1       M=1.55      Mt=6.6
2       M=1.41      Mt=6.4
3       M=1.20      Mt=6.2
4       M=1.13      Mt=6.1
5       M=1.21      Mt=6.2
6       M= .83      Mt=5.8
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=+
0       M=7.38      Mt=7.1
1       M=7.51      Mt=7.2
2       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
3       M=7.20      Mt=6.9
4       M=7.25      Mt=6.9
5       M=6.78      Mt=6.4
6       M=7.67      Mt=7.4
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.05 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=-.02 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.00 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.01 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.00 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyMutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006
TitleChristmas and Subjective Well-Being: a Research Note.
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2015, Published Online, 1 - 26
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8
Public15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2057

Correlate
Author's labelChildren at home
Page in Source 24,25
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
1 = yes
0 = no
Observed distributionyes = 40,0 % no = 60,0 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdb=+.06 p < .05
b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- employment
- subjective health
- time of interview

Affected by  additional control for
- christian denomination (b = +.05 p<05)
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview (b = +.04 p<05)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-hb=+.04 p < .05
b controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- employment
- subjective health
- time of interview

Unaffected by  additional control for
- christian denomination
- religiousness
- interaction between religiousness and time of 
interview.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004
TitleWhat Makes Workers Happy?
SourceApplied Economics, 2013, Vol. 45, 357 - 368
URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
DOIDOI:10.1080/00036846.2011.602011
PublicWorking people, 20 European countries, 2004.
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-ResponseNot reported
Respondents N =11986

Correlate
Author's labelChild present
Page in Source 364-66
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
The presence of a child aged 12 or younger in the 
household.
1. Yes
2. No

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cdOPRC=+.07
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-aOPRC=+.07
O-Sum---mq-n-11-bOPRC=+.08
OPRC's controled for
- Income
- log workhours
- log income
- Missing income
- Subjective income
- 20 job characterisitcs
- Personal characteristics


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelFamily size
Page in Source 164
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Number of children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.12 p < .005


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyBrinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983
TitleQuality of Life in an Alternative Lifestyle: The Smallholding Movement.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 153 - 173
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00317546
Public'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response44 %
Respondents N =510

Correlate
Author's labelChildren at home
Page in Source 164
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
children at home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.06 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyVanBeuningen & Kloosterman (2011): study NL 2009
TitleSubjectief Welzijn: Welke Factoren spelen een Rol? (Subjective Well-Being, Which Factores are Important?)
SourceBevolkingstrends, 4e kwartaal 2011, Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), Netherlands
URLhttps://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/50FF24EA-D783-40E4-B13C-9D7CAF89E8E7/0/2011k4p85b15art.pdf
Publicaged 18+, Netherlands, 2009
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6878

Correlate
Author's labelHaving children living at home
Page in Source 92,89
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
Do you have children living at home?
0. no
1. yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-dD%=+
0. 87%
1. 91%
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-dD%=+
0. 86%
1. 89%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-db=-.11
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-db=-.25
B's controled for:
- household income per year
- holiday
- financial independancy
- health
- scholing
- socio-economic category
- trust in parliament
- participation in societies
- contact with family
- contact with friends
- social trust
- having partner
- feelings in unsafety
- community feeling
- urbanity
- age
- sex


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyOosterhof (2008): study NL 2005
TitleMaakt Vrije Tijd Gelukkig? De Invloed van Vrije Tijd op Geluksbeleving van Nederlanders. (Does Leisure Time make You Happy? The Influence of Leisure Time on the Happiness Experience of the Dutch).
SourceMaster Thesis, Faculty Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2008, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/oosterhof_sf_2008.pdf
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2005
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response11%
Respondents N =2204

Correlate
Author's labelFamily stage
Page in Source 33
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
a: Living with parents
b: Living alone
c: Living together
d: Living with family (spouce and children) (reference 
category)
Observed distributionN = 1: 278 2: 282 3: 656 4: 748

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
            Parents Alone Together  Family 
Very happy   25,5%   15%   28,5%    24,5%
Happy        67,5%   66%   66,5%    68,5%
Unhappy      7%      19%   5,5%     7%
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aOR=
     UNHAPPY (vs happy)   VERY HAPPY (vs happy)
     observed controlled  observed   controlled
Parents  1,01   1,77       1.06       1,11
Alone    2,75*  2,23*      1,12       1,10
Together 0,72   0,59*      1,09       1,06 
Family   1      1          1          1

Control variables are:
- gender
- education 
- situation 
- urban living environment
- self reported health
- self reported stress
* = p<.05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyCloin & Wennekers (2007): study NL 2004
TitleEen Gelukkige Combinatie. (A Happy Combination).
SourceSchnabel, P. ; Ed.: "Veel Geluk in Nederland", Social Cultural Planning Office, 2007, The Hague, Netherlands, 51 - 56
Public20-65-aged; Netherlands, 2004
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1491

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold type
Page in Source 53
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Household-situations for men:
a: couple, no child, man works part time (substantial), 
woman has a job
b: couple, with child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
c: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
d: couple with child, man works full-time, woman has no 
job
e: couple, with child, man works part-time 
(substantial), woman has a job
f: couple, no child, man works full-time, woman has a 
job
g: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has no job
h: man lives alone, works full-time
i: couple, no child, man has no job, woman has a job, 
man does housekeeping
j: man lives alone, works part-time (substantial or 
small)
k: man lives alone, has no job

Household-situations for women:
a: couple, with child, woman works full-time, man works
b: couple, with child, woman works part-time 
(substantial), man works 
c: couple, no child, woman works full-time, man works
d: couple, no child, woman works part-time, man works
e: couple, with child,woman has no job, man works
f: woman lives alone,works full-time
g: couple, no child, man has no job and keeps the 
house, woman works
h: couple with child,woman works part-time (small), man 
works 
i: couple, no child, woman has no job, man has no job
j: couple, no child, woman has no job, man works
k: woman lives alone, works part-time (small or 
substantial)
l: mother lives alone, has a job
m: woman lives alone, has no job
n: mother lives alone, has no job
Observed distributionN: Men: 696: a: 25; b: 127; c: 48; d: 74; e: 16; f: 129; g: 49; h: 107; i: 29. N: Women: 795: a: 21; b: 119; c: 54; d: 100; e: 57; f: 60; g: 35; h: 27; i: 63; j: 76; k: 64; l: 26; m : 69; n: 24.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aD%=
% (very) happy by their household-situation: MALES
a: 92
b: 91
c: 90
d: 88
e: 88
f: 84
g: 84
h: 76
i: 69
j: 69
k: 45

% (very) happy by their household-situation: 
FEMALES
a: 95
b: 94
c: 93
d: 91
e: 88
f: 87
g: 86
h: 85
i: 83
j: 76
k: 67
l: 62
m: 54
n: 50


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyTimmermans (1997): study NL 1990
TitleCorrelates of Happiness in 42 Nations: Analysis of the World Values Study 1990 - 1991
SourceNo report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness. Based on analysis of World Values Survey 2.
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1017

Correlate
Author's labelChildren in the household
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Single question: "How many of them are still living at 
home?"
0   None
1   1 child
2   2 children
3   3 children
4   4 children
5   5 children
6   6 or more children
    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDM=
0       M=7.87      Mt=7.6
1       M=7.78      Mt=7.5
2       M=7.91      Mt=7.7
3       M=7.63      Mt=7.4
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDM=
0       M=1.79      Mt=6.8
1       M=1.84      Mt=6.8
2       M=1.89      Mt=6.9
3       M=2.06      Mt=7.1
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM=
0       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
1       M=3.38     Mt=7.9
2       M=3.45     Mt=8.2
3       M=3.41     Mt=8.0
4       Less than 10 Ss
5       Less than 10 Ss
6       Empty category
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.03 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+.04 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aatc=-.02 ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-atc=+.03 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atc=+.01 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta=-.04 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aBeta=+.03 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=-.02 ns
▀ controlled for sex, age, and household income 


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

StudyDeggeller et al. (1978): study NL 1978
TitleVrouw '78. (Women '78).
SourceStudy for Ladies Journal Margriet by NOVUM, 1978, Haarlem, Netherlands
URLhttp://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/deggeller_l_1978.pdf
Public18-65 aged women The Netherlands, 1978
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1119

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source Tabel 3b
Our classificationChildren in the household, code C03ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
a: married, youngest child <10 years old
b: married, youngest child >10 years old
c: married no children at home
d: unmarried, living alone
e: divorced, living alone
f: unmarried, divorced, living with partner

Rated on a 5-point verbal scale 5, very satisfied; 4: 
satisfied; 3: not unsatisfied; 4: dissatisfied; 5: very 
dissatisfied
Observed distributionN:a=463; b=259; c=215; d= 76; e=81; f=25

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-jDM=
                              M      SD    
a: married,youngest 
   child <10 years           3.56    0.65
b: married,youngest 
   child >10 years           3.83    0.72  
c: married no children
   at home                   4.08    0.68  
d: unmarried, living alone   3.12    0.68
e: divorced, living alone    3.28    0.68
f: unmarried, divorced
   living with partner       3.77    0.56
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-jBMCT= p < .05
e


Correlational finding on Happiness and Children in the household
Subject code: C03ab02

Study