Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)
Subject Code: C02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)0
C02aaIntentional career0
C02aa01Earlier want for children2
C02aa02Change in want for children0
C02aa03Later want for children0
C02abCurrent want for children4
C02ab01Childlessness voluntary or not5
C02ab02Ideal number of children1
C02ab03Unwanted pregnancy1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier want for children
Subject code: C02aa01

StudyJames & Hughes (1982): study GB 1977
TitlePsychological Well-Being as an Outcome Variable in the Treatment of Infertility by Clomiphine.
SourceBritish Journal of Medical Psychology, 1982, Vol. 55, 357 -377
PublicFemale fertility patients, Great Britain, 1977-80
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelsuccess of fertility treatment
Page in Source 376
Our classificationEarlier want for children, code C02aa01
Operationalization
Successfull fertility treatment
1: positive: got pregnant
0: negative: did not get pregnant
Observed distributionN= a: 18, b:9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:    M = 5.7
treatment unsuccessfull: M = 4.0
- difference                +1.7
Set Image size:   

A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:   M = 2,11 SD = 0,52
treatment unsuccesfull: M = 1,43 SD = 1,73
- difference               +0,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier want for children
Subject code: C02aa01

StudySears & Barbee (1977): study US 1921
TitleCareer and Life Satisfactions among Terman Gifted Women.
SourceStanley, J.C.;George, W.C.;Eds.:"The Gifted and the Creative", J.Hopkins University Press, 1977, Baltimore, USA, 28 - 72
PublicGifted women (IQ >135), followed 50 years, California, USA, 1921-72
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-ResponseAttrition in 1972: 25%
Respondents N =671

Correlate
Author's labelWanted children
Page in Source 40-62/4
Our classificationEarlier want for children, code C02aa01
Operationalization
Direct questions:in 1940 

a.'Did you want children?'
b. If life lived over how many children?
Remarks
Earlier wants (1940, 1950) by present happiness (1972).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1940 wanted children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
1950 ideal number of children by 1972 happiness
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bChiČ= ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current want for children
Subject code: C02ab

StudyCallan (1986): study AU 1986
TitleSingle Women, Voluntary Childlessness and Perception about Life and Marriage.
SourceJournal of Biosocial Science, 1986, Vol. 18, 479 - 487
DOIdoi:10.1017/S0021932000016497
PublicAbout 20 aged single women Australia, 1986
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =102

Correlate
Author's labelWanting children
Page in Source 482
Our classificationCurrent want for children, code C02ab
Operationalization
1: no child wanted      N = 42
2: one child wanted     N = 18
3: two children wanted  N = 42

All subjects were "very certain" about
their intentions. They were located through screening 
of 1500 students in
university social science classes, through contacts 
with a voluntary sterilisation clinic and newspapers 
announcement articles about the research in university 
and
statewide newspapers.               All subjects 
completed a series of 
commitment indices.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-?-9-aAoV= p < .05
1: M = 5.86       Mt' = 6.5
2: M = 6.72       Mt' = 7.5
3: M = 6.64       Mt' = 7.4
The only significant difference is between
1 and 2.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-5-aAoV= ns
Positive affect (0-20)   Negative affect (0-20)
1: M = 15.4              1: M =  9.9
2: M = 15.4              2: M = 10.0
3: M = 15.5              3: M = 10.0
Full ABS not computed.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current want for children
Subject code: C02ab

StudyMuffels & Kemperman (2011): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes a Better Job Match Make Women Happier? Work Orientations, Work-Care Choices and Subjective Well-Being in Germany.
SourceSOEP Paper No. 361, 2011, DIW, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://ideas.repec.org/p/diw/diwsop/diw_sp361.html
Public20-55 aged, women, Germany, 1984-2007
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =90297

Correlate
Author's labelWork orientations
Page in Source 32-33
Our classificationCurrent want for children, code C02ab
Operationalization
Self report on how important in life the respondent 
thinks it is 
- to have children
- to have success in a job
Ranging from 1 very important to 4 very unimportant

a:home centered: having children important, work 
unimportant 
b:work centered: having children unimportant, work 
important: 
c:adaptive: children as well as succes in work 
important in life:
d:drifters: without strong preferences
Remarks
Questions were only asked in 1990, 1992, 1995 and 2004. 
Missing values on work orientations were imputed for 
the other years.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
WORK CENTERED (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.03 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.13 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.06 p < .01
ADAPTIVE (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.09 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.00 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.07 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
DRIFTERS (vs. home centered)
Beta controlled for: Set A
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.15 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+B
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.09 ns
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+D
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dBeta=-.16 p < .01
Beta controlled for: Set A+C+E
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
CONTROL VARIABLES
Set A:
- number of hours per week working and caring
- fit between preferred and actual working hours
- marital status
- age 
- age squared/100
- number of children 0-15 years
- unemployment rate
- born in east-Germany
- foreigner status
- education
- age youngest child
- objective health

Set B: (N = 70859)
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- extraversion
- openness to experience

Set C:
- birth cohort

Set D: 
- interaction: hours match*work orientation

Set E:
- interaction: hours match*work-care combinations

Interaction effect with fit between preferred and 
actual working hours: only overworked women who 
value work as important score significantly lower 
on happiness than women satisfied with their 
working hours, while being home centered.

Fixed effects analysis yields similar results.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current want for children
Subject code: C02ab

StudyBerger (2009): study DE 1994
TitleMaternal Employment and Happiness: The Effect of Non-Particpation and Part-time Employment on Mothers' Life Satisfaction.
SourceSOEP paper No. 178, 2009, Berlin, Germany
URLhttps://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.98011.de/diw_sp0178.pdf
PublicMothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5706

Correlate
Author's labelHave a child in the coming year
Page in Source 7,8,21
Our classificationCurrent want for children, code C02ab
Operationalization
0 Will not have a child in the coming year
1 Will have a child in the coming year
Observed distributionM = 0,04

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.16 p < .01
B controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age
- Migration background
- Residual Household Income
- Education
- Person in need of care in househild
- Disabled
- Self rated health
- East Germany
- Size of municipality
- Self-employed
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.10 p < .05
Fixed effects.
B same controls as OLS except for age and 
migration background.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current want for children
Subject code: C02ab

StudyWessman (1956): study US 1946
TitleA Psychological Inquiry into Satisfaction and Happiness.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University, 1956, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1946
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =2377

Correlate
Author's labelUnfulfilled aspirations: marriage, children, husband
Page in Source 210
Our classificationCurrent want for children, code C02ab
Operationalization
Open-ended question on unfulfilled aspirations
1: marriage, children or husband mentioned
0: other aspirations mentioned
Remarks
Computed for those having unfulfilled aspirations only 
(N = 1646).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bG=-.27 p < . 05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Childlessness voluntary or not
Subject code: C02ab01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labelchildlesness
Page in Source 312,314
Our classificationChildlessness voluntary or not, code C02ab01
Operationalization
Single question:
"Do you have children ?"
different answercategories converted to:
1. Without children
  a. first pregnant
  b. chosen not to have children
  c. involuntary childless
2. Has children
Observed distributionN women: all: 778, 1(all):237, 1a:9, 1b:12, 1c:20, 2:500 N men: all:759, 1(all):259, 1a:11, 1b:11, 1c:11, 2:467

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
women:       
 1:  Mt=7.71
 1a: Mt=8.61  
 1b: Mt=7.50  
 1c: Mt=7.00  
 2:  Mt=7.71
All  Mt=7.70
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
men:       
 1:  Mt=7.73
 1a: Mt=7.50  
 1b: Mt=8.19  
 1c: Mt=6.36  
 2:  Mt=7.86
All  Mt=7.79
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
women:          
 1:  Mt=7.29  
 1a: Mt=8.89  
 1b: Mt=7.29  
 1c: Mt=7.13  
 2:  Mt=7.50
All  Mt=7.44
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
men:       
 1:  Mt=7.20
 1a: Mt=7.73  
 1b: Mt=7.28  
 1c: Mt=6.59  
 2:  Mt=7.55
All  Mt=7.41
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
women:          
 1:  Mt=7.11  
 1a: Mt=9.45  
 1b: Mt=6.46  
 1c: Mt=7.00  
 2:  Mt=7.50
All  Mt=7.00
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
men:       
 1:  Mt=6.65
 1a: Mt=7.73  
 1b: Mt=6.14  
 1c: Mt=7.05  
 2:  Mt=7.03
All  Mt=6.90


Correlational finding on Happiness and Childlessness voluntary or not
Subject code: C02ab01

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labelchildlessness
Page in Source 330,332
Our classificationChildlessness voluntary or not, code C02ab01
Operationalization
childlesness
1: all with children
2: first pregnancies(for men: Partner's..)
3: all without children
3a: have chosen not to have children
3b: involuntary childless
Observed distributionN WOMEN All:2714; %:1:75,1; 2:1,7; 3:24,7; 3a:2,2; 3b:5,5 N MEN All:

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.73   1: Mt=7.93
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.83
3:  Mt=7.69   3: Mt=7.54
3a: Mt=7.91   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.86   3b:Ms=7.98
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.51   1: Mt=7.54
2:  Mt=8.34   2: Mt=8.64
3:  Mt=7.28   3: Mt=7.15
3a: Mt=7.73   3a:Ms=6.63
3b: Mt=7.69   3b:Ms=7.55
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
WOMEN:        MEN:
1:  Mt=7.18   1: Mt=7.15
2:  Mt=8.58   2: Mt=8.43
3:  Mt=6.81   3: Mt=6.65
3a: Mt=7.14   3a:Ms=6.39
3b: Mt=7.01   3b:Ms=7.16


Correlational finding on Happiness and Childlessness voluntary or not
Subject code: C02ab01

StudyVeenhoven (2000b): study NL 1965
TitleHoe diep zit de Kinderwens? ( Does the Want for Children draw on a Need?)
SourceFreya Magazine, 2000, Vol. 16, 15 - 19.
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/8796
Public25-65 aged, married peole, Tthe Netherlands, 1965
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1376

Correlate
Author's labelChildlessness
Page in Source 7
Our classificationChildlessness voluntary or not, code C02ab01
Operationalization
1 has chlidren
0 no children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Childlessness voluntary or not
Subject code: C02ab01

StudyJames & Hughes (1982): study GB 1977
TitlePsychological Well-Being as an Outcome Variable in the Treatment of Infertility by Clomiphine.
SourceBritish Journal of Medical Psychology, 1982, Vol. 55, 357 -377
PublicFemale fertility patients, Great Britain, 1977-80
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelsuccess of fertility treatment
Page in Source 376
Our classificationChildlessness voluntary or not, code C02ab01
Operationalization
Successfull fertility treatment
1: positive: got pregnant
0: negative: did not get pregnant
Observed distributionN= a: 18, b:9

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:    M = 5.7
treatment unsuccessfull: M = 4.0
- difference                +1.7
Set Image size:   

A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aDM=+
treatment succesfull:   M = 2,11 SD = 0,52
treatment unsuccesfull: M = 1,43 SD = 1,73
- difference               +0,68


Correlational finding on Happiness and Childlessness voluntary or not
Subject code: C02ab01

StudyDeJong et al. (1984): study US 1947
TitleChildless and One Child, but Not by Choice: A Note on Some Long-Term Consequences for Life Satisfaction of Rural-Reared Married Women.
SourceRural Sociology, 1984, Vol. 49, 441 - 451
PublicRural-reared married women, Pennsylvania, USA, followed 1947-1971
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response19,7%
Respondents N =812

Correlate
Author's labelFertility status
Page in Source 443, 446
Our classificationChildlessness voluntary or not, code C02ab01
Operationalization
0: Childless at T3, but had intended to have children 
at T2
1: Only one child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
2: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
fewer children at T2
3: Two or more children at T3 but had intended to have 
more children at T2
4: Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended at 
T2
Observed distributionN:0=33; 1=50; 2=181; 3=151; 4=237
Remarks
T1: 1947 school age, T2: 1957 mid twenty, T3: 1973, 
around age 40

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aMa=+2.5
DEVIATION FROM average happiness: M = 2,45
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.14 ns
Childless at T3 but intended to have children at 
T3
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=+.20 p < .05
One child at T3 but had intended to have two or 
more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.07 ns
Two or more children at T3 but had intended to 
have fewer children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=-.02 ns
Two or more children  at T3 but had intended to 
have more children at T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMa=.00 ns
Planners: two or more children at T3 as intended 
at T2

Ma adjusted for:
- T1 background and family formation factors
- T3 family structure and socioeconomic factors 
including adult perceptions of home-work roles


Correlational finding on Happiness and Ideal number of children
Subject code: C02ab02

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's labelIdeal number of children
Our classificationIdeal number of children, code C02ab02
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T4 and T5:
'All things considered, if you could have exactly the 
number of children you want, what number would that 
be?'. Actual number coded (8 = 8 or more).
Scale: 0 to 8

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau=+
                Ideal number of children
Happiness       T4          T5
T1        tau = +.08 (05)   +.04 (ns)
T2        tau = +.02 (ns)   +.03 (ns)
T3        tau = +.05 (ns)   +.06 (ns)
T4        tau = +.03 (ns)   +.02 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Unwanted pregnancy
Subject code: C02ab03

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelUnwantedness of pregnancy
Our classificationUnwanted pregnancy, code C02ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
Is this pregnancy wanted by you?
1: No   
2: Yes
Observed distribution1: 18,9% 2: 80,1%
Remarks
Observed correlates of unwantedness (1st trim: 45,9%; 
2nd trim: 40,5%; 3rd trim: 10,8%): younger than 30 
(75,7%), in a stable (51,4%) or unestable (43,2%) 
relationship (no relationship: 5,4%), with university 
studies (27,9%), student (35,1%) or employed (29,7%), 
with family monthly income lower than 2000e (81,1%), no 
children (70,3%), healthy pregnancy (94,6%), none to 
moderate complaints (88,9%), good health (M= 7,6, SD= 
1,6; only 1 women among those who did not wanted the 
pregnancy reported to be ill, with a gynecological 
non-severe condition) 
Abortion is legal in Spain

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bDM=+ p < .01
Unwanted   M= 6,84 SD= 1,72
Wanted     M= 7,67 SD= 1,59
difference:  +0,83
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bd=.41
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cDM=+ ns
Unwanted   M= 7,68 SD= 1,29
Wanted     M= 7,73 SD= 1,44
difference:  +0,05
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cd=.03


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cw-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past weeks did you ever feel...?"

A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Response options: yes/no
If yes: "How often during the past week did you feel so?"
5 all the time
4 mostly
3 often
2 rarely
1 never
0 no

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G, I
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, J
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -50 to +50

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BK-cy-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 48 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I an't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A Confident
B Hopeless
C Pleasant
D Insignificant
E Discontented
F Healthy
G Dejected
H Annoyed
I Down
J Glad
K Glowing
L Relaxed
M Comfortable
N Moody
O Understood
P Blue
Q Miserable
R Joyful
S Tense
T Insecure
U Shaky
V Satisfied
W Safe
X Successful
Y Free
Z Sad
AA Good-natured
AB Impatient
AC Rejected
AD Lively
AE Frustrated
AF Fearful
AG Lonely
AH Warm
AI Contented
AJ Good
AK Secure
AL Disappointed
AM Understanding
AN Depressed
AO Low
AP Calm
AQ Unhappy
AR Upset
AS Empty
AT Enthusiastic
AU Happy
AV Vibrant

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last 12 months
C-ASG-h-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A. "How important was each of the following goals in life in the plans you made for yourself in early adulthood?"
- occupational success
- family life
- friendships
- richness of cultural life
- total service to society.
1 less important to me than to most people
2
3
4
5 of prime importance to me

B. "How successful have you been in the pursuit of these goals?"
1 little satisfaction in this area
2
3
4
5 had excellent fortune in this respect

Computation: General Satisfaction 5 is the quotient obtained by multiplying the planned goal (early adulthood) by the reported success in attaining that goal, adding the five of these multiplied areas and dividing them by the sum of the planned goals for each of the areas.

Pa.Sa + Pb.Sb + Pc.Sc + Pd.Sd + Pe.Se
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Pa + Pb + Pc + Pd + Pe
Pa = planned goal a (1-5)
Sa = success goal a (1-5)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-PL-h-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question: following enumeration of lifegoals in six areas, the last of which was 'joy in living'

" How successful have you been in pursuit of that goal.....?"
(joy in living)
5 had excellent fortune in this respect
4
3
2
1 found little satisfaction in this area
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-cy-sq-?-7-aSelfreport on single question

.. overall happiness during last 12 months..(full question not reported)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Scale labels not reported
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy would you say you are..?
4 very happy
3 fairly happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy
- NA/DK
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-?-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"How do you feel about your life as a whole?"
1 not very satisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 very satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
dCohen's COEFFICIENT FOR GROUP DIFFERENCES. Also called EFFECT SIZE
Type: descriptive statistic only
Measurement level: Correlate : dichotomous, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited.

Meaning: effect size indicator for difference of means.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MaMEAN , ADJUSTED
Type: descriptive statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
If one correlate is of the nominal level of measurement (subgroups) and (at least0 one other correlate is of the metric level, the happiness means of all the subgroups can be 'adjusted' by shifting the group mean values along the regression line of that subgroup towards the grand average value of the metric correlate, resulting in 'adjusted' means for that subgroup. In that way, effects of differences between mean values of the metric correlate for the different subgroups are eliminated.
Reference: Neter, J. & Wasserman, W. Applied Linear statistical models, R.D. Erwin Inc., Homewood Ill. USA, 1974, p. 712
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)B01BIRTH CONTROL
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION
C02aaIntentional careerL07LIFE GOALS
C02ab01Childlessness voluntary or notP06ad13bFemale infertility (n97)
C02ab01Childlessness voluntary or notP12ab02baInfertility
C02ab02Ideal number of childrenC03ad02Satisfaction with number of children
C02ab03Unwanted pregnancyB01abCurrent birth control
C02ab03Unwanted pregnancyB03ae02Pregnant

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings