Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN
Subject Code: C01

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
C01CHILDREN1
C01aaGrand-children1
C01aa01Having grand-children1
C01aa02Involvement with grand-children0
C01abNon-kin children0
C01acAttitudes to children 1
C01ac01Attitudes to one's own children6
C01ac02Attitudes to children in general2
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and CHILDREN
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=C01
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and CHILDREN
Subject code: C01

StudyDunn et al. (2008): study US 2008
TitleSpending Money on Others Promotes Happiness.
SourceScience, 2008, Vol. 319, 1687 - 1688
DOIDOI:10.1126/science.1150952
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =632

Correlate
Author's labelspending
Page in Source 1
Our classificationCHILDREN, code C01
Operationalization
Selfreport on two questions on how much one spends in a 
typical month on:
A for oneself
  - bills and expenses
  - gifts for themselves
B for others
  - gifts for others
  - donation to charity
Observed distributionpersonal M=$1713.91, SD=1895.65; prosocial M=$145.96, SD=306.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR ONESELF
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.03 ns
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.02 ns
Beta controlled for:
- spending for others
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=-.04 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- income
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-b
SPENDING FOR OTHERS
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-br=+.11 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.11 p < .01
Beta controlled for:
- spending for one-self
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.10 p < .03
Beta additonally controlled for:
- income


Correlational finding on Happiness and Grand-children
Subject code: C01aa

StudyBecchetti et al. (2016): study ZZ Europe 2006
TitleInside the Life Satisfaction Blackbox.
SourceWorld Happiness Report, 2016, Vol.2, 1 - 36
URLhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2198303
Public50+ aged, general public, Europe, 2006,2007
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =30325000

Correlate
Author's labelNumber of grandchildren
Page in Source 18, 14,9
Our classificationGrand-children, code C01aa
Operationalization
Number of grandchildren.
Observed distributionn.a.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eb=+.01 p < .05
b controlled for:
- gender
- years of education
- household size
- number of children
- marital status
- age
- region


Correlational finding on Happiness and Having grand-children
Subject code: C01aa01

StudyLowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelFamilial roles
Page in Source 93
Our classificationHaving grand-children, code C01aa01
Operationalization
The number of the following roles the respondent had at 
the time of the interview: 
- spouse
- parent
- grandparent
- sibling
- child
- grandchild

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=
hs seniors   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
newly weds   males: r=+.37 ns females: r=+.54 01
middle aged  males: r= ns     females: r= ns
preretired   males: r= ns     females: r= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=+.24 p < .05
Youngest (hs seniors + newly weds)       
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar=+.42 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-ar= ns
Oldest   (middle aged + preretired)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= ns
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.16 ns
Women only (no curvilinearity has been found in 
the correlation egocentricity and well-being)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=-.06 ns
men only


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to children
Subject code: C01ac

StudyBohn (1972): study ZZ Various nation sets 1960
TitleThe Effect of Children upon Life Satisfaction. A Thesis in Child Development and Family Relationships.
SourceUnpublished Master Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1972, USA
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bohn_cj_1972.pdf
Public21+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, Panama and Yugoslavia, ± 1960
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =5228

Correlate
Author's labelChild-centered attitude
Page in Source 31
Our classificationAttitudes to children , code C01ac
Operationalization
Children mentioned in response to open-
ended questions on wishes and hopes and/or fears and 
worries for the future.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Computed for married persons only

Negative among lower S.E.S. without children (05)
Positive among lower S.E.S. with children (01)
Slightly negative among high S.E.S. without 
children (ns)
Slightly negative among high S.E.S. with children
(ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyAjrouch (2007): study US Detroit 2001
TitleResources and Well-being among Arab-American elders
SourceJournal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, (2007), 22: 167-182
DOIdoi: 10/1007/10823-006-9033-z
Public56+aged, Arab-Americans, USA, 2001-2002
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =101

Correlate
Author's labelNerves-Child
Page in Source 173, 175, 177
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Self report on the question: 
Child gets on my nerves
1:  not at all
:
10: absolutely

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-grs=+.30 p < .01
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gBeta=+.27 p < .05
Beta controlled for 
-age 
-gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyWozniak et al. (1993): study US 1985
TitleDomains of Subjective Well-Being in Farm Men and Women.
SourceJournal of Family and Economic Issues, 1993, Vol. 14, 97 - 114
Public18-65 aged farm-couples, USA, 1985
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =1110

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with children
Page in Source 105-106
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Considering everything about your life at the present 
time, how would you rate your overall satisfaction with 
your children?
1: very dissatisfied
2: dissatisfied
3: neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4: satisfied
5: very satisfied
Observed distributionM=4.34 SD = 0,815

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mr=+.28 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mBeta=+.14 p < .001
Beta controlled for satisfaction with:
-control of life
-standard of living
-farm plans
-farm income
-household
-retirement plans
-farm tasks


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =222

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with children
Page in Source 112
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Closed question: "How do you feel about your children?" 
          
Rated on a 7-point scale: terrible/ unhappy/ mostly 
dissatisfied/ mixed/ mostly satisfied/ pleased/ 
delighted

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.14


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelMaternal inadequacy
Page in Source 568
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Self report on 3 questions
A I find it difficult to decide what's the right way to 
bring up children.
B I frequently feel that I don't understand my 
child(ren) these days.
C How often do you have doubts about whether you are 
doing the right things in raising your children?

Rating
A, B: 1 = selects 2 = not sure 3 = rejects
C:1= very often 2= often 3= occasionally, 4= never
Observed distributionM=0,00 SD=0,76
Error Estimatesalpha = .63
Remarks
Ratings transformed to z-scores

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.28 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelmaternal discontent
Page in Source 568
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Self report on 2 questions:
A: I don't enjoy the child(ren) as much as I would like 
to.
B: I would like to spend more time with my child(ren).

Rated: 3= selects 2=not sure 1=rejects
Observed distributionM= 1,71; SD 0,76
Error Estimatesalpha =.48

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-ar=-.19 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to one's own children
Subject code: C01ac01

StudyMussen et al. (1980): study US 1928
TitleContinuity and Change in Womens Characteristics over Four Decades.
SourceInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347
PublicMothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =53

Correlate
Author's labelInterested in child; uncritical of child; talkative
Page in Source 342
Our classificationAttitudes to one's own children, code C01ac01
Operationalization
Personality factor that appears in an analysis of 
ratings by two interviewers on 71 personality-social 
characteristics.
This factor only appeared in young adulthood (T1: age 
30).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-ar=+.01 ns
Happiness assessed at T1 (age 30).


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to children in general
Subject code: C01ac02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of children
Page in Source 434
Our classificationAttitudes to children in general, code C01ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How important do you 
think it is on a scale of 0 to 10 for a person to have 
small children in the household?
Observed distributionN= 0:1%, 1:-%, 2:1%, 3:2%, 4:1%, 5:4%, 6:6%, 7:8%, 8:20%, 9:16%, 10:39%,DKNA:1%
Remarks
Only (N = 310)  respondents have small-chlidren in 
household.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.8  M = 8.2             +0.6
top 3:  M = 8.9  M = 7.7             +1.2 
top 5:  M = 8.7  M = 6.8             +1.9
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N=  64, Others: 8-0 N= 246
Top 3: 10-8 N= 168, Others: 7-0 N= 142
Top 5: 10-6 N= 249, Others: 5-0 N=  61


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to children in general
Subject code: C01ac02

Study~CocaCola (2012): study DE 2011
TitleStudie zur Lebensfreude. (Study on Enjoyment of Life).
SourceFORZA, Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische Analysen, 2012 Berlin, Germany
Public14-69 aged, Germany, 2011
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2153

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of children
Page in Source 435
Our classificationAttitudes to children in general, code C01ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: How important do you 
think it is on a scale of 0 to 10 for a person to have 
teenagers in the household?
Observed distributionN= 0:3%, 1:*%, 2:1%, 3:2%, 4:1%, 5:9%, 6:11%, 7:17%, 8:17%, 9:17%, 10:19%,DKNA:1%
Remarks
Only ( N= 197) respondents have teenagers in houshold.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bDM=+
Most happy       Less happy others   Difference
top 2:  M = 8.5  M = 7.0             +1.5
top 3:  M = 8.2  M = 6.5             +1.7 
top 5:  M = 7.9  M = 5.5             +2.4
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-b
Top 2: 10-9 N=  53, Others: 8-0 N= 144
Top 3: 10-8 N= 102, Others: 7-0 N=  95
Top 5: 10-6 N= 153, Others: 5-0 N=  44


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-aSelfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4 usually good-humored air
3
2
1 dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3
M-FH-g-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Do you feel happy in general?
1 no
2 rarely
3 sometimes
4 most of the time
5 yes
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-u-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

To what extent would you describe yourself as cheerful person?
0 not at all
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life at present? Choose one of the following:
5 satisfied
4 quite satisfied
3 cannot decide
2 not so satisfied
1 dissatisfied
- don't know
O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-gSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
7 completely satisfied
6 quite satisfied
5 somewhat satisfied
4 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
3 somewhat dissatisfied
2 quite dissatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-eSelfreport on single question:

Now here are some questions concerning how satisfied - or dissatisfied - you are with various things about your life, such as your standard of living, your education etc. To indicate this, would you use this card. If you are extremely SATISFIED with something you would call of the highest number, ten. If you are extremely DISSATISFIED you would mention the lowest number, zero. If you are neither extremely satisfied nor extremely dissatisfied you would mention some number in between zero and ten - the higher the number, the more satisfied, the lower the number the less satisfied.
How satisfied - or dissatisfied - are you with the following? Just read off the number that comes closest to how you feel.
We have talked about various parts of your life. Now taking everything into account, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
0 dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?"
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1 low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 high


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings