Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM
Subject Code: A09

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
A09AUTHORITARIANISM0
A09aaCareer of authoritarianism0
A09abCurrent authoritarianism4
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and AUTHORITARIANISM
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=A09
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2017, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyOgris (1994): study AT 1994
TitleKorrelate mit Lebenszufriedenheit: Glück und Wohlbefinden in Osterreich und Slowenien. (Correlates of Life-Satisfaction, Happiness and Well-Being in Austria and Slovenia).
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ogris_g_1994.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Austria 1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelAutoritarismus
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
4questions:
1 One of the most important traits somebody can have, 
are discipline and obediance to authority
2 We should be thankful to leaders, who tell us 
exactly, what we must do and how to do it
3 In general it is useful for a child for his later 
life, when it is forced to adapt to the attitudes of 
his parents
4 A society cannot exist in the long run, if her 
members are permitted to have different attitudes

Each rated on a 7 step scale:
totally disagree........totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.06
question 1.....most important..discipline...
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.08
question 2....thankful to leader....
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cr=-.06
question 3...child forced  to adapt
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-c
question 4...different attitudes in society


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelLaw and order attitude
Page in Source 39
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
4-item index: Typical items are:
- children need law and order.     
- one should feel love and respect for one's parents
-there are merely strong and weak people
Remarks
Items taken from a shortened F-scale (Weima 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.21 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyMoser-Peters (1969): study NL Utrecht 1967
TitleAchtergronden van Geluksgevoelens. (Backgrounds of Happiness Feelings).
SourceNederlands Instituut voor Preventieve Geneeskunde (TNO), 1969, Leiden, Netherlands
URLhttp//worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/moser-peters_cm_1969.pdf
Public21-65 aged general public, City of Utrecht,The Netherlands, 1967
Sample
Non-Response14% unattainable etc.
Respondents N =300

Correlate
Author's labelDissatisfaction with present socio- political order
Page in Source 40
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
5-item index indicating anomy and powerlessness: 
Typical items are
- we need less laws and intitutions and  more 
courageous leaders
- most politicians are incapabale. -people should talk 
less and live a  more natural and active way of life.
Remarks
Itemsd taken from a shortened F-scale (Weima 1963)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cG=+.13 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current authoritarianism
Subject code: A09ab

StudyOgris (1994): study SI 1994
TitleKorrelate mit Lebenszufriedenheit: Glück und Wohlbefinden in Osterreich und Slowenien. (Correlates of Life-Satisfaction, Happiness and Well-Being in Austria and Slovenia).
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/ogris_g_1994.pdf
PublicAdults, general public, Slovenia, 1994
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelAutoritarismus
Page in Source 5
Our classificationCurrent authoritarianism, code A09ab
Operationalization
 
 4 questions:
 1 One of the most important traits
 somebody can have, are discipline
 and obediance to authority.
 2 We should be thankful to leaders,
 who tell us exactly, what we do and
 how to do it.
 3 In general it is useful for a child
 for his later life, when it is forced
 to adapt to the attitudes of his
 parents.
 4 A society cannot exist in the long 
 run, if her members are permitted to
 have different attitudes.
 Each rated on a 7 step scale:
 totally disagree......totally agree

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 1….most important….discipline….
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 2…..thankful to leader…
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=ns
question 3…child forced to adapt..
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dr=-.1
question 4…different attitudes in society..


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

How well do you feel these days? Is your current well-being....?
0 very low
1
2
3
4 very high
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days.....?
5 extremely happy
4 very happy
3 happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole now, are you.....?
5 very happy
4 quite happy
3 more happy than unhappy
2 more unhappy than happy
1 quite unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
11627 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6066 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1124 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12236 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8479 in 172 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3757 findings in 2454 regions and cities in nations.
2072 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15337 correlational findings observed in 2016 studies, excerpted from 1541 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)72
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)112
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE661
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES11
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY99
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)306
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN32
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN17
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS40
C09CONSUMPTION113
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)41
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION516
E02EMPLOYMENT 739
E03ETHNICITY169
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)311
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION102
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES189
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP236
G01GENDER622
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP47
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS119
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS18
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER225
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES342
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR32
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE35
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION238
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK41
H15HOUSING261
I01INCOME1042
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY141
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP13
L03LEISURE328
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS457
L05LIFE CHANGE70
L06LIFE EVENTS106
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 39
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT701
L11LOTTERY14
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER108
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS862
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER76
M05MEANING29
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH302
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY97
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE13
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD338
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY20
N01NATION: NATIONALITY68
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)121
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION996
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION190
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION53
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE14
N09NATION: REGION132
N10NUTRITION36
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION222
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION16
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY55
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 814
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR279
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS152
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION414
R02RESOURCES29
R03RETIREMENT151
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL201
S02SELF-IMAGE311
S03SEX-LIFE76
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS98
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS150
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS189
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED115
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS62
S13STIMULANTS79
S14SUICIDE9
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS165
T01TIME 105
T02THERAPY56
T03TOLERANCE37
T04TRUST43
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)158
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 31
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS111
W05WORK: ATTITUDES409
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)37
W07WORRIES51
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
A09abCurrent authoritarianismP04aaAggressive, angry
A09abCurrent authoritarianismP04ajBlaming
A09abCurrent authoritarianismV02aa01fEgalitarianism

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings